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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cumbria
EnglandCumbria.png
Geography
County town
(Admin HQ)
Carlisle
Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county
Origin 1974
Local Government Act 1972
Region North West England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 3rd
6,768 km²
Ranked 2nd
Neighbouring
Counties
Lancashire
North Yorkshire
County Durham
Northumberland
Dumfries and Galloway
Scottish Borders
ISO 3166-2 GB-CMA
ONS code 16
NUTS 3 UKD11/12
Demographics
Population
- Total (2008 est.)
- Density
- Admin. Council
Ranked 41st
496,600
73 / km²
Ranked 25th
Ethnicity
96.7% White British
1.7% White Other
0.6% S.Asian
0.5% Mixed Race
0.2% Chinese
0.2% Afro-Carib.
0.1% Other
Politics
CCC.jpg

Cumbria County Council
http://www.cumbria.gov.uk/
Executive Conservative / Liberal Democrat (council NOC)
Members of Parliament
Districts
CumbriaNumbered.png
  1. Barrow-in-Furness
  2. South Lakeland
  3. Copeland
  4. Allerdale
  5. Eden
  6. Carlisle

Cumbria (pronounced /ˈkʌmbriə/, locally [ˈkʊmbriə]) is a non-metropolitan county in the North West of England. Cumbria came into existence as a county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. The county consists of six districts, and has a total population of 498,800 (2007).

Cumbria, the third largest ceremonial county in England, by area, is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland. Scotland lies directly to the north.

A predominantly rural county, Cumbria is home to the Lake District National Park, considered one of the most beautiful areas of England. The area has provided inspiration for generations of British and foreign artists, writers and musicians. Much of the county is mountainous, with the highest point of the county (and of England) being Scafell Pike at 978 m (3210 ft). All the mountains in England that are over 900 metres (3,000 ft) above sea level are in Cumbria.

Parts of Hadrian's Wall can be found in the northernmost reaches of the county, in and around Carlisle.

Contents

Boundaries and divisions

Cumbria is neighboured by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders.

The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland to Northumberland.

It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.

In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government.[1] This was then rejected.

The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness.

History

Wales in Welsh is known as Cymru, which originally meant 'compatriots' in Old Welsh.[2] The name competed in Welsh literature with the older name 'Brythoniaid' (Brythons). Only after ~1100 did the former become as common as the latter.[3] Both terms applied originally not only to the inhabitants of what is now called Wales, but to all speakers of the Brythonic language and its descendants on the island of Britain, many of whom lived in the 'the Old North'. The place names: Cymru, its Latinised version Cambria, Cumbria and Cumberland, all derive their names from this common root.[3] During the dark ages Cumbria formed the core of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged. By the end of the 7th Century most of Cumbria had been incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, which later became part of England. Large parts of Cumbria were part of Scotland at the time of Norman Conquest of England in 1066. In 1092 Cumbria was invaded by William Rufus and reincorporated within England and eventully divided into the traditional counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire (Furness).

The county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the areas of the former administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire, usually referred to as "Lancashire North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh Rural District. The name "Cumbria" has been used for the territory for centuries.

Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county . However other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as being in "Cumbria", as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.

County emblems

The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire (the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire (Sedbergh is from the West Riding). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon (Appleby in Westmorland), with a hint of the Welsh Kingdom of Rheged. They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall (in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms).[4]

The county council motto: "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin, from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills").[4]

There are two unofficial flags for Cumberland and Westmorland. These are the white cross on a blue background for Cumberland and the red cross on a yellow background for Westmorland. There are also two unofficial Cumbrian flags:

1. Consists of a green upper half with three white roses and a lower half consisting of three white and three blue horizontal stripes.

2. Consists of blue upper third, green lower third, and white middle third with the county heraldic crest in the centre.

Sport

Football

Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria and currently play in League One (3rd Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away. Whilst home attendances are usually 7,000 to 10,000, the away support is often 1,000 to 2,000. This is one of the highest proportions of away-home support in England[citation needed].

Barrow and Workington Reds are well supported non-league teams, having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in the UK. Recently Workington Reds have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08.

Rugby league

Rugby league is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow Raiders, Whitehaven RLFC and Workington Town and all compete in the National Leagues. Carlisle RLFC played in the national competitions between 1981 and 1997, Carlisle today has Carlisle Centurions in the Rugby League Conference. There are amateur BARLA teams playing in the National Conference, notablely Wath Brow Hornets and Millom as well as a Cumberland League and Barrow & District League.

Rugby union

Rugby union is very popular in the east of the county with teams such as Carlisle RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC (who have recently been promoted to the National Leagues) competing in many local and national competitions.

Cricket

Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle, competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. The club also play some home matches in Workington, as well as other locations.

Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire and Cumbria League.

Uppies and Downies

Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies,[5] a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form.[6] Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven and Maryport.[7]

Wrestling

Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold.

In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday.

The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders,[8] while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles[9] indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.[10]

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[11] Agriculture[12] Industry[13] Services[14]
1995 2,679 148 902 1,629
2000 2,843 120 809 1,914
2003 3,388 129 924 2,335

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[11] Agriculture[12] Industry[13] Services[14]
1995 2,246 63 1,294 888
2000 2,415 53 1,212 1,150
2003 2,870 60 1,420 1,390

Education

Although Cumbria has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms though in Barrow-in-Furness district no school except Chetwynde School (Independent) has a sixth form, and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts.

Demography

Cumbria's largest settlement and only city, in the north of the county, is Carlisle, with the largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, being slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it is the second lowest county in England in terms of population density and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria is also one of the country's least ethnically diverse counties, with 96% of the population categorised as indigenous White British (around 480,000 of the 500,000 Cumbrians). However the larger towns have an ethnic makeup that is closer to the national average, and Cumbria's ethnic minority population is increasing twice as fast as England's average. The most popular religion in Cumbria by far is Christianity, followed by Buddhism and Islam.

Population totals for Cumbria
Year Population Year Population Year Population
1801 173,017 1871 365,556 1941 456,833
1811 193,139 1881 410,856 1951 471,897
1821 225,555 1891 434,867 1961 473,706
1831 242,320 1901 437,364 1971 475,669
1841 255,603 1911 440,485 1981 471,693
1851 274,957 1921 441,483 1991 489,191
1861 320,257 1931 442,693 2001 487,607
Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that now comprise Cumbria
Source: Great Britain Historical GIS.[15]

People of interest

See also: List of people from Carlisle
See also: List of people from Barrow-in-Furness
See also: List of people from Kendal

Places of interest

See also: List of castles in Cumbria
See also: List of historic houses in Cumbria
See also: List of Museums in Cumbria

See also

References

  1. ^ "County council votes to pursue a single council for Cumbria". http://www.cumbria.gov.uk/news/2007/january/18_01_2007-131242.asp. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  2. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary Cymric
  3. ^ a b Davies, John (1990/2007). A History of Wales. London: Penguin Books. pp. 68–69. 
  4. ^ a b Cumbria County Council (Civic Heraldry) accessed 24 January 2010
  5. ^ "Uppies and Downies website". http://www.uppiesanddownies.info/Field_text=Uppies+and+Downies&x=165&y=55/. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  6. ^ "Origins of Mass ball Games". http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=91xjXRYPyKYC&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=mass+ball+game&source=bl&ots=Sw7ynAMw8j&sig=Lq6XpojKfzD8WwPUTNtoNhiaqBk&hl=en&ei=B4JESub2DsKgjAe1u-Ri&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  7. ^ "Times and Star". http://timesandstar.co.uk/home/search_results_page_2_1681?Field_text=Uppies+and+Downies&x=165&y=55/. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  8. ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". http://ejmas.com/kronos/NewHist1700-1859.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  9. ^ "Amateur Wrestling". http://sportsvl.com/rest/wrestling/wrestling.htm#Celtic. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  10. ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". http://ejmas.com/kronos/NewHist0500-1349.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  11. ^ a b Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  12. ^ a b includes hunting and forestry
  13. ^ a b includes energy and construction
  14. ^ a b includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  15. ^ A Vision of Britain through time, Cumbria Modern (post 1974) County: Total Population, http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_page.jsp?data_theme=T_POP&data_cube=N_TOT_POP&u_id=10105833&c_id=10001043&add=N, retrieved 2010-01-10 

External links

Coordinates: 54°30′N 3°15′W / 54.5°N 3.25°W / 54.5; -3.25


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Cumbria[1] is a county in the North West of England. Its most famous tourist attraction is the Lake District National Park.

Map of Cumbria
Map of Cumbria
  • Carlisle - The administrative centre and only city.
  • The Lake District National Park - Proposed World Heritage site.
  • Hadrian's Wall - North of Carlisle, on the border with Scotland. An 80-mile long wall built by the Roman Governor Hadrian to keep the Scottish tribes out. A UNESCO World Heritage List site.
  • The Pennines - the northern section of the range of hills that divides Northern England.
  • The Eden Valley - The wide valley between the Lake District and the Pennines.
  • The Yorkshire Dales National Park - The North West corner of this national park lies within the county of Cumbria.

Understand

This modern county was formed in local government reforms in the 1970s, and comprises the traditional counties of Cumberland (to the North and West), Westmorland (to the East), and parts of Lancashire (to the South). Geographically it is dominated by the Lake District at its centre, which is England's only true mountain range and which presents a natural barrier to travel across the county.

To the West of the county the towns of Workington and Whitehaven lie on a disused coalfield, which in the last twenty years has led to relatively high unemployment and low property values. Further South along the coast are the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant, and the shipbuilding town of Barrow-in-Furness.

To the East lies the Eden Valley and the western slopes of the Pennine Hills.

To the North is a low-lying plain containing the border city of Carlisle before the Solway Firth forms the natural border with Scotland.

Talk

Isolated by its geography, the inhabitants developed a strong regional accent and language commonly called 'Westmerian' after the former county name of Westmorland. The region's main language was Cumbric (Cwmbraích in Cumbric) until about 1100 AD, a Brythonic Celtic language very similar to Welsh, and to an extent to Lowland Scots Gaelic (Gàidhealig). Today Cumbric doesn't exist as a Spoken Language, but has been reconstructed in various forms in the past, with limited success at taking off. Norse also became a main language after Cumbric, to be eventually replaced by English, although Cumbrian English still preserves a large number of Scandanavian words, as well as a few celtic ones.

Get in

By Road

Motorway M6 from the North and South.

For the Lake District: Kendal is the main town to the South East (convenient for Windermere, Coniston etc.), Penrith is to the East, and Carlisle is to the North.

For Barrow and the West coast: Take A590 from junction 36 of the M6.

The motorway also provides access to the West side of the Pennines, and, from Carlisle, to Hadrian's Wall and to the North East corner of England.

By Rail

Railway runs to Lancaster (with branch to Grange-Over-Sands and Barrow), Oxenholme (branch to Kendal and Windermere), Shap (very high, very cold, no houses) and Carlisle.

Eat

Cumberland Sausages:One of the most famous traditional Cumbrian foods has to be the coiled Cumberland Sausage [2]. The uniqueness of the Cumberland Sausage is that it is sold in a coils rather than by links. The sausage is also more heavily spiced than regular sausages.

Kendal Mint Cake

Sticky Toffee Pudding

Grasmere Gingerbread

Drink

Cumbria is home to 23 breweries and brew-pubs including The Bitter End Pub & Brewery [3] in Cockermouth

Damson Gin The Lyth Valley is famous in Cumbria for damsons. Many pubs offer a locally made 'damson gin', which is particularly popular as a pre-dinner drink around Christmas.

Sleep

There is a huge range of accommodation available in Cumbria. See the individual city/town articles for listings.

Stay safe

A relatively quiet and rural county. As usual in England, it's best to avoid the centre of larger towns at night (such as Barrow, Workington and Carlisle) as they're prone to the regular assortment of drunks and fights.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Cumbria

Plural
-

Cumbria

  1. A modern county of England made up of the former counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and part of Lancashire.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

This article requires significantly more historical detail on the particular phases of this location's historical development. The ideal article for a place will give the reader a feel for what it was like to live at that location at the time their relatives were alive there..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..
Cumbria
File:EnglandCumbria.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county
Origin 1974
Local Government Act 1972
Region North West England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 3rd
6,768 km²
Ranked 2nd
Admin HQ Carlisle
ISO 3166-2 GB-CMA
ONS code 16
NUTS 3 UKD11/12
Demographics
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. Council
Ranked 41st Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
496,200


73

/ km²
Ranked 28th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Ethnicity
96.7% White British
1.7% White Other
0.6% S.Asian
0.5% Mixed Race
0.2% Chinese
0.2% Afro-Carib.
0.1% Other
Politics
File:Arms-cumbria.jpg
Cumbria County Council
http://www.cumbria.gov.uk/
Executive Conservative / Liberal Democrats
Members of Parliament
Districts
  1. Barrow-in-Furness
  2. South Lakeland
  3. Copeland
  4. Allerdale
  5. Eden
  6. Carlisle

Cumbria (IPA: /ˈkʊmbriə/), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. Cumbria came into existence as a county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. The county consists of six districts, and has a total population of 498,800.

Cumbria, the third largest county in England, is bound to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland. Scotland lies directly to the north.

A predominantly rural county, Cumbria is home to the Lake District National Park, considered one of the most beautiful areas of the United Kingdom. The area has provided inspiration for generations of British and foreign artists, writers and musicians. Much of the county is mountainous, with the highest point of the county (and of England) being Scafell Pike at 978 m (3210 ft). All the territory in England that is over 3,000 feet above sea level is in Cumbria.

Parts of Hadrian's Wall can be found in the northernmost reaches of the county, in and around Carlisle.

Contents

Boundaries and divisions

Cumbria is neighboured by Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Lieutenancy areas of Dumfries and Roxburgh in Scotland.

The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth along the border with Scotland to Northumberland.

It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into 3 areas - East, West and South. East being the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West - Allerdale and Copeland and South Lakeland and Barrow making up South Cumbria.

In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government.[1]

The county returns 6 Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness.

History

Main article: History of Cumbria

The county of Cumbria was created in 1974. It was a combination of the area of the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland county borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness), and from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh Rural District. The name "Cumbria" has been used for the territory for centuries.

Following the creation of Cumbria as a non-metropolitan county, some people, particularly those born or brought up in the area, continue to refer to some parts of Cumbria as part of the ancient county boundaries; this includes the Furness area as a part of Lancashire, and the Kendal and surrounding area as a part of Westmorland.

Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald are continue to be named on this pre-1974 county basis. Others, including local government, promotional material for the area, the Lake District National Park Authority, and most visitors describe the area as being in "Cumbria". A MORI poll in the county found 79% of those polled identified "very strongly" or "strongly" to Cumbria throughout the county, but dropping to 55% and 71% in Barrow and South Lakeland districts, which incorporate part of historic Lancashire.[2]

Culture

Cumbria as an English county on the border with Scotland has faced repeated invasion. Resisting such attacks and many attepts by the Kingdom of Scotland to annex it has given Cumbria a strong sense of pride and a very strong Northern English culture, shared with its neighboring counties, particularly Lancashire and Northumberland.

The culture of the area was predominantly Celtic until fairly late after the annexation by the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria (see Rheged), and the name for the area derives from its name in the Cumbric language. It is etymologically connected to the Welsh term Cymru, meaning "Land of brothers", which is now used as the Welsh name for Wales itself. The Cumbric language has been extinct since about the 11th century.

Cumbria also had very strong links with Norse culture due to Viking invasions. Leaving behind evidence particularly in the genetics of the local population. Studies have shown that the county of Cumbria has one of the most striking signs of Scandinavian genetics in England.

Dialect

The Cumbrian dialect is spoken throughout the region. There is quite a large variation in accent and words, especially between north and south and west coast.

Many of the traditional dialect words are remnants of Norse settlement, with Norwegian settlers probably arriving in Cumbria in the 10th century via Ireland and the Isle of Man.

Sport

Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria. They attract support from across Cumbria. However, Barrow A.F.C., has been one of the best supported non-league football teams in the UK since their relegation in the 1970s. Recently Workington Reds have also made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and now compete with Barrow in the Conference North.

Rugby league is a very popular sport in West Cumbria. Whitehaven RLFC, Workington Town and Barrow Raiders all compete in the National Leagues. Carlisle RLFC played in the national competitions between 1981 and 1997, Carlisle today has Carlisle Centurions in the Rugby League Conference. There are amateur BARLA teams playing in the National Conference, notablely Wath Brow Hornets and Millom as well as a Cumberland League and Barrow & District League.

Rugby union is very popular in the east of the county with teams such as Carlisle RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC (who have recently been promoted to the National Leagues) competing in many local and national competitions.

'Wrestling

Main article: Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling

Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold.

In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practiced at the Grassmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday.

The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders,[3][4] while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles[5] indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.[6]

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of East Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[7] Agriculture[8] Industry[9] Services[10]
1995 2,679 148 902 1,629
2000 2,843 120 809 1,914
2003 3,388 129 924 2,335

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[7] Agriculture[8] Industry[9] Services[10]
1995 2,246 63 1,294 888
2000 2,415 53 1,212 1,150
2003 2,870 60 1,420 1,390

Education

Although Carlisle has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. Sixth-form provision is good (mainly as schools in the county's rural areas are far apart, so education has to be less geographically spread out). The exception is Barrow-in-Furness district where no schools have sixth forms, and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts. Carlisle, Allerdale and South Lakeland all have the largest school population by year of about 1250, with Eden the smallest. In general, year sizes are low, with six schools having year sizes under 50. In England, 45.8% of pupils gain 5 good GCSEs including Englsh and Maths; for Cumbria LEA's 6100 pupils taking GCSE at 16, it is 45.3% - slightly under the average. This is misleading as in the rural areas, the schools generally get good results. The best comprehensive school at GCSE is the Cockermouth School with 68%, followed by the Queen Elizabeth School in Kirkby Lonsdale with 64% and the William Howard School in Brampton with 61%. The worst is the Alfred Barrow School in Barrow in Furness with 17%. The catholic schools in Whitehaven and Barrow-in-Furness are the best schools by far in the towns, as most are underperforming in these two towns. The school system in Carlisle has five underperforming schools, with the rest doing much better; not unlike a selective system. The same could be said for Allerdale district. At A-level, like at GCSE, Cumbria performs exactly at the England average. The best state school (in 2006), understandably is the Queen Elizabeth Grammar School. The better comprehensive schools do very well at A-level, with the Queen Katherine School in Kendal being the best, followed by Keswick School. The best overall at A level is Casterton School, a girls school in Casterton.

GCSE results by district council (%)

2006 results for % of state school pupils gaining grades A-C at GCSE including English and Maths; compare to average house price.

  • South Lakeland 54.9
  • Eden 54.8
  • Allerdale 47.4
  • Carlisle 39.8
  • Barrow-in-Furness 38.4
  • Copeland 38.0

Demographics

Main article: List of places in Cumbria

Towns and Villages

Carlisle is the largest and only city in the county, whilst Barrow-in-Furness (the largest town) is between 2 and 3 times larger than the second largest town (Kendal).

The twelve most populated settlements in Cumbria are listed below:

Rank Town Population District Percentage of Cumbria's population
1 Carlisle 105,200 Carlisle 21.1%
2 Barrow-in-Furness 71,980 Barrow-in-Furness 14.4%
3 Workington 32,849 Allerdale 5.5%
4 Kendal 27,521 South Lakeland 5.1%
5 Whitehaven 25,500 Copeland 5.0%
6 Penrith 14,756 Eden 3.0%
7 Maryport 11,275 Allerdale 2.3%
8 Ulverston 11,210 South Lakeland 2.2%
9 Dalton-in-Furness 11,000 Barrow-in-Furness 2.2%
10 Cockermouth 7,787 Allerdale 1.6%
11 Cleator Moor 6,963 Copeland 1.4%
12 Harrington 5,000 Copeland 1.0%
13 Brampton 4,001 Carlisle 0.8%
14 Grange-over-Sands 4,000 South Lakeland 0.8%
15 Bowness-on-Windermere 3,814 South Lakeland 0.8%
16 Egremont 3,707 Copeland 0.7%
17 Sedbergh 3,691 South Lakeland 0.7%
18 Silloth 3,305 Allerdale 0.7%
19 Aspatria 3,266 Allerdale 0.7%
20 Longtown 3,000 Carlisle 0.6%

Density

Cumbria as a whole is the second least densely populated county in England with only 73 people per square kilometre. Despite it being the third largest in area (6,768 km²), about a third of the county is taken up by the Lake District National Park. Below is a table listing each district by population density.

District Population Density Population Area
Barrow-in-Furness 924 / km² 71,980 77.87 km²
Carlisle 101 / km² 105,200 1,039.97 km²
Copeland 97 / km² 71,500 737.59 km²
Allerdale 77 / km² 96,300 1,553.39 km²
South Lakeland 66 / km² 102,900 1,257.79 km²
Eden 24 / km² 52,800 2,156.45 km²

Ethnicity

The data below is based on recent available 2005 estimates.

District White British White Other Mixed Race S. Asian Chinese Afro-Caribbean Other
Allerdale [1] 97.3% 1.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
Barrow-in-Furness [2] 96.7% 1.8% 0.5% 0.6% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2%
Carlisle [3] 96.5% 1.7% 0.4% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1%
Copeland [4] 97.1% 1.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%
Eden [5] 97.1% 1.6% 0.4% 0.5% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
South Lakeland [6] 95.6% 2.3% 0.6% 0.6% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2%
Cumbria Average 96.7% 1.7% 0.5% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%

Increase
Cumbria has previosuly been considered an almost all white county, however since the millenium, the county has experienced one of the UK's largest increases in the population of non-indigenous communities. Below is a table noting the percentage change for each respective ethnic group between 2004 and 2005 compared to England as a whole. Altough please note that this table does not reflect how many people of each race recide in each district, large percentage increases in such places as Copeland and Eden often mean that a community could have just increased from 30 to 37 [7].

Ethnic Group  % Change for Cumbria  % Change for England District with smallest increase District with largest increase
White British -0.1% 0.0% Allerdale -0.4% Eden 0.1%
White Irish 1.7% -1.7% Barrow-in-Furness -0.4% Eden 6.5%
Other White 12.3% 7.2% Copeland 9.1% Barrow-in-Furness 15.9%
White and Black Caribbean 11.5% 3.2% Barrow-in-Furness 9.1% Eden 16.0%
White and Black African 11.1% 6.4% South Lakeland 6.7% Eden 20.4%
White and Asian 11.0% 6.0% Allerdale 9.1% Copeland 14.9%
Other Mixed 9.3% 5.6% South Lakeland 7.7% Copeland 14.0%
Indian 22.3% 5.1% Allerdale 18.7% Copeland 27.0%
Pakistani 21.2% 3.8% Allerdale 16.4% Copeland 23.6%
Bangladeshi 11.9% 3.6% Copeland 6.0% Eden 23.7%
Other Asian 17.1% 6.4% Barrow-in-Furness 8.4% Copeland 28.4%
Black Caribbean 18.9% 0.7% South Lakeland 15.1% Allerdale 27.1%
Black African 27.4% 6.1% Barrow-in-Furness 21.8% Copeland 32.0%
Other Black 15.4% 3.2% Barrow-in-Furness 10.5% Allerdale 24.5%
Chinese 14.8% 10.2% Allerdale 8.2% South Lakeland 17.8%
Other Ethnic Group 17.8% 8.2% Copeland 14.7% Eden 21.9%

Notable Non-Indigenous Ethnic Communities

People of interest

Places of interest

Key
Image:AP_Icon.PNG Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Amusement/Theme Park
Image:CL_icon.PNG Castle
Country Park Country Park
Image:EH icon.png English Heritage
Image:FC icon.png Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum
Museums (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Zoo

See also: List of castles in Cumbria

See also

References

  1. ^ County council votes to pursue a single council for Cumbria. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  2. ^ [http://www.boundarycommittee.org.uk/files/dms/REPCUMB_12840-9355__E__.pdf Local Government Review in the Cumbria County Council Area]. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  3. ^ Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  4. ^ Cinaet Scothack. Wrestling in Gaelic Culture. Retrieved on 2--7-02-24.
  5. ^ Amateur Wrestling. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  6. ^ Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  7. ^ a b Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  8. ^ a b includes hunting and forestry
  9. ^ a b includes energy and construction
  10. ^ a b includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  11. ^ Polish immigrants in Carlisle
  12. ^ Chinese immigrants in Carlisle
  13. ^ Filipino immigrants in Barrow
  14. ^ Kosovan immigrants in Barrow

External links

Template:County



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Simple English

Cumbria
[[File:]]
Geography
Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county

Origin1974
Region North West England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 3rd

Ranked 2nd

Admin HQCarlisle
ISO 3166-2GB-CMA
ONS code 16
NUTS 3 UKD11/12
Demography
Population
- Total (2005 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 41st
498,800

Ranked 27th
Ethnicity 99.3% White
Politics
Cumbria County Council
http://www.cumbria.gov.uk/

ExecutiveConservative / Liberal Democrats
Members of Parliament
  • Tony Cunningham
  • Tim Farron
  • David Maclean
  • Eric Martlew
  • Jamie Reed
Districts
[[File:]]
  1. Barrow-in-Furness
  2. South Lakeland
  3. Copeland
  4. Allerdale
  5. Eden
  6. Carlisle

Cumbria is a county in England. It is in the very north-western part of England on the border with Scotland. The most important and biggest town is Carlisle, in the north of the county. This is the county town and there is an ancient (very old) castle in the centre of the town.

In 1974, Cumberland, Westmorland and bits of Yorkshire and Lancashire were put into the new county of Cumbria. The world famous Lake District national park is in Cumbria. Millions of tourists visit the Lake District to enjoy sailing on the lakes and the impressive mountains that are here. The highest mountain in England is in the Lake District, it is called Sca Fell.

Cumbria is very popular with people who enjoy walking although the weather is very poor here. It often rains and is cold. Many tourists from Japan visit Cumbria. Popular places for them and other tourists to see are the poet William Wordsworth's two houses, the home of the famous children's writer Beatrix Potter and the island and lake where the writer Arthur Ransome based his books about the 'Swallows And Amazons'.

Other websites

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