Cumbric language: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cumbric
Spoken in Southern Scotland, Cumberland, Westmorland parts of Northumberland, Lancashire and possibly North Yorkshire
Language extinction 11th - 12th century[1]
Language family Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2 cel
ISO 639-3 xcb

Cumbric was a variety of the Celtic British language spoken in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of what is now northern England and southern Lowland Scotland, the area anciently known as Cumbria, during the Early Middle Ages.[2] It was closely related to Old Welsh and the other Brythonic languages. Place name evidence suggests Cumbric speakers may have carried it into other parts of Northern England as migrants from its core area further north.[3] It may also have been spoken as far south as the Yorkshire Dales. Most linguists believe that it became extinct in the 12th century, after the incorporation of the semi-independent Kingdom of Strathclyde into the Kingdom of Scotland.

It is debated whether Cumbric should be considered a separate language or a dialect of Welsh. The land connection between the Brythonic speaking areas of the Old North and those of Wales was severed after the Battle of Chester in 616, which appears to have sealed the Northumbrian conquest of Cheshire, although some maritime links between the areas would have remained. In the 10th Century the Brythonic speaking Kingdom of Strathclyde appears to have maintained hegemony over Cumberland - though possibly not Copeland - and the Eden Valley down to Stainmore[4][5][6]. The original boundaries of the Diocese of Carlisle are said traditionally to mark the extent of the rule of Strathclyde[7]. Cumbric placenames are also common in Lothian.[8][9], Peebleshire, Dumfriesshire, Lanarkshire and Ayrshire[10] They exist in Galloway but are overlain and influenced by Gaelic settlement there.[11][12] Many of these areas were outwith the supposed political control of Strathclyde and so Cumbric is not to be solely identified with that kingdom.

It is impossible for us to know whether language innovations were transmitted between Cumbria and the Welsh of Wales, or how long Brythonic speech persisted in areas under English political control. However, the Celtic place-name cluster around Wigan suggests that there may have been pockets in which the language survived for a considerable time.

Contents

Problems with terminology

Dauvit Broun sets out the problems with the various terms used to describe the Cumbric language and its speakers.[13] The people seem to have called themselves *Cumbri the same way that the Welsh call themselves Cymry (most likely from British *kom-brogi meaning 'fellow countrymen'). It is likely that the Welsh and the Cumbric speaking people of what are now Southern Scotland and Northern England felt they were actually one ethnic group, as the comradeship mentioned in Y Gododdin between Gwynedd nd the north attest. The Gaels usually called them 'Breatnaich' or 'Cuimrich'. The Norse called them 'Brettar'. In Medieval Latin the English term Wales and the term Cumbri were Latinised as 'Wallenses' of Wales or 'Cumbrenses' of Cumbria. The traditional English usage was to call them Welsh. In Scots a Cumbric speaker seems to have been called 'Wallace', from the Scots Wallis/Wellis Welsh.

In Cumbria itaque: : regione quadam inter Angliam et Scotiam sita Cumbria: a region situated between England and Scotland.[14]

The Latinate term Cambria is often used for Wales; nevertheless, the Life of St Kentigern by Jocelin of Furness has the following passage:

When King Rederech (Rhydderch Hael) and his people had heard that Kentigern had arrived from Wallia (i.e. Wales) into Cambria [i.e. Cumbria], from exile into his own country, with great joy and peace both king and people went out to meet him.[15]

Available evidence

Although the language is long extinct it is arguable that traces of its vocabulary persisted into the modern era. In the 19th and 20th centuries sheep counts and children's counting rhymes which are possibly derived from Cumbric were collected throughout northern England and southern Scotland: for example Yan, Tan, Tethera, Methera, Pimp compared with Old Welsh Un, Dou, Tri, Petwar, Pimp. Whether these counting systems bear any relation to the Brythonic dialects spoken in the region is a matter of some debate. It has been argued that these numerals were introduced to England by Welsh shepherds or monks during the medieval period. The fact that some have also been collected outside of the region in which Cumbric was spoken may indicate that they were a later introduction from Wales, or less probably that they are part of a wider Celtic sub-stratum. It is also possible that the counting systems were preserved in the Cumbric speaking region then exported into neighbouring areas.

More concrete evidence of Cumbric exists in the place-names of the extreme northwest of England and the South of Scotland, the personal names of Strathclyde Britons in Scottish, Irish and Anglo-Saxon sources, and a few Cumbric words surviving into the High Middle Ages in South West Scotland as legal terms.

From this scanty evidence, little can be deduced about the singular characteristics of Cumbric, not even the name by which its speakers referred to it. What is known is that the language was Brythonic Insular Celtic, descended from Old North Welsh, related to the presumed Brythonic Pictish language, and to Cornish and Breton. Due to its location, it is likely that Goidelic and Scandinavian loan-words were incorporated into the language before its demise.

Equivalence with Old Welsh

Some linguists argue that the differences between Cumbric and Old Welsh are not enough to classify Cumbric as a separate language or, if it is so classified, at what point it can be considered to have become sufficiently separate. No definitive answer to such questions can really be given, partly because data on Cumbric is very sparse (or comes to us through Welsh sources), but chiefly because no principled distinction can be made in any case between languages and dialects.

Differences that apparently existed between Cumbric and Welsh include the final sound of such forms as *lanerc (grove), which are invariably found without the [x] sound of Welsh llannerch. Examples are Lanark and Lanercost. Jackson[16] thought that the development of [rk] to [rx] which happened in Welsh may have happened later in Cumbric or not at all. This feature is also found in Pictish or Pritennic placenames further north and it may be that in this Cumbric was closer to Pictish than to Welsh.[3] It should be noted that Koch[17] sees Cumbric going with Welsh rather than Pictish, although place name evidence suggests that the three languages were quite similar.[18] It may well be that during the period all three survived their speakers could understand each other. Certainly the Cumbric speakers and the Welsh both called themselves "Cymry" and Welsh tradition shows that they felt themselves to be close kin or even one people - 'Remnants of the True and Ancient Britons'.

Another possible difference between Welsh and Cumbric was noted by Jackson[16] in the legal term "galnys", equivalent to Welsh "galanas", which he felt might show syncope. Similar syncope seems also to be found in the (presumably Pictish) name of the Mounth (?= Cumbric *monidh).

Noted above was the apparent lack of aspiration found in Lanercost and Lanark, but the Cumbric word *monidh (Welsh 'mynydd') is regularly found apparently exhibiting both syncope and lack of aspiration in many place names e.g. Kinmont (as in Kinmont Willie) and Trimont (now a caravan site north of Carlisle). James mentions the lack of voicing also found in many Cumbric place-names[3]. One example (not James's) is Rutter Falls — a farm by a waterfall in Westmorland, which seems to contain a word cognate with Rhayader in Powys, namely 'rhaeadr' — a cataract, but with an unvoiced [t] instead of the voiced sound [d], but there are many other examples of this phenomenon e.g. Tinnis Castle, Drumelzier from the word dinas - a fort. As Watson points out this devoicing is also found in the Cornish name Tintagel from din - a fort [10].

Another feature is the loss of the semivowel [w]. Watson[10] cites the Galloway dialect word "gossock" which is presumably the Cumbric equivalent of the Welsh "gwas" a servant or a knave with the diminutive -og ending (note again lack of voice). This lacks the [w] of the Welsh word. The same feature is apparently found in the personal name Gospatrick - in Welsh this would be 'Gwaspadrig'. The place-name Niddrie apparently represents a Cumbric equivalent of Newydd-dre, 'New Settlement' but again lacking aspiration and the semivowel [w]. We should also note the pronunciation of Carlisle as [karlail]. The Welsh for Carlisle is Caerliwelydd. In Bede it is Luel from a Latinised British Luguvalium. Caer was prefixed by Cumbric speakers after Bede's time. The point to note is that again the [w] sound has disappeared. Loss of [w] is not uniform however and Gospatrick in his charter refers to his wassenas or his retainers which seems to be a Cumbric wassen (Welsh gweision) with an Anglo-Saxon plural appended [19].

These observations based on surviving Cumbric forms thus hint at ways in which Cumbric might have differed from Welsh, although they do nothing to answer the question of whether or not Cumbric should be considered a separate language. It is further worth noting that modern spelling does not necessarily accurately reflect historical pronunciation; moreover, the phonology of the place names has been affected by transmission through English.

Date of extinction

It is impossible to give an exact date of the extinction of Cumbric. However, there are some pointers which may give a reasonably accurate estimate. In the mid 11th century some landowners still bore what appear to be Cumbric names. Examples of such landowners are Dunegal (Dyfnwal), lord of Strathnith or Nithsdale;[20] Moryn (Morien), lord of Cardew and Cumdivock near Carlisle and Eilifr (Eliffer), lord of Penrith.[21]

There is a village near Carlisle called Cumwhitton (earlier Cumquinton). This appears to contain the Norman name Quinton[19] There were no Normans in this area until 1069 at the earliest.

In the Battle of the Standard in 1138, the Cumbrians are noted as a separate ethnic group. Given that their material culture was very similar to their Gaelic and Anglian neighbours, it is arguable that what set them apart was still their language [22]. Also the castle at Castle Carrock – Castell Caerog dates from around 1160-1170. Barmulloch earlier Badermonoc (Cumbric *bod-ir-monoc – Monk’s Dwelling) was given to the church by King Mael Choluim IV between 1153-1165.

A more controversial point is the surname Wallace. It means “Welshman”. It is possible that all the Wallaces in the Clyde area were medieval immigrants from Wales, but given that the term was also used for local Cumbric speaking Strathclyde Welsh it seems equally if not more likely that the surname refers to people who were seen as being “Welsh” due to their Cumbric language. Surnames in Scotland were not inherited before 1200 and not regularly until 1400. William Wallace (known in Gaelic as Uilleam Breatnach – namely William the Briton (or Welshman) came from the Renfrew area – itself a Cumbric name. Wallace slew the sheriff of Lanark (also a Cumbric name) in 1297. Even if he had inherited the surname from his father it is possible that the family spoke Cumbric within memory in order to be thus named.

There are also some historical pointers to a continuing separate ethnic identity. David I, before he was crowned king of Scotland was invested with the title Prince of the Cumbrians in 1124. William I of Scotland between 1173-1180 made an address to his subjects, identifying the Cumbrians as a separate ethnic group[13]. This does not prove that any of them still spoke Cumbric at this time.

The legal documents in the Lanercost Cartulary dating from the late 12th Century show witnesses with Norman French or English names, and no obvious Cumbric names. Though these people represent the upper classes, it seems significant by the late 1100s in the Lanercost area Cumbric is not obvious in these personal names[23] .

Given that the Anglicisation of the upper classes in general has happened before the Anglicisation of the peasantry in other areas which have given up speaking Celtic languages it is not implausible that the peasantry, "y werin" in Welsh terminology, continued to speak Cumbric for at least a little while after. Around 1200 there is a list of the names of men living in the area of Peebles[10]. Amongst them are Cumbric names such as Gospatrick: servant or follower of St Patrick, Gosmungo: servant of St Mungo, Guososwald: servant of St Oswald and Goscubrycht: servant of St Cuthbert. This practice of putting 'gwas' meaning 'servant' in front of a saint's name is not found in Wales though it is found in Gaelic — where either 'maol' or 'gille' is put in front. Also, two of the saints — Oswald and Cuthbert —are from Northumbria showing influence on Cumbric not found in Welsh.

By 1262 in Peebles jurymen in a legal dispute over peat cutting have names which mostly appear Norman French or English [24]. Possible exceptions are Gauri Pluchan, Cokin Smith and Richard Gladhoc, where Gladhoc has the look of an adjective similar to Welsh "gwladog" = "countryman". In the charters of Wetherall Priory near Carlisle there is a monk called Robert Minnoc who appears as a witness to 8 charters dating from around 1260 [25]. His name is variously spelled Minnoc/Minot/Mynoc and it is tempting to see an equivalent of the Welsh "mynach" - "Robert the Monk" here. However his name is the only one that can remotely be interpreted as Cumbric from among the witnesses.

The royal seal of Alexander III (who reigned 4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286) bore the title "Rex Scotorum et Britanniarum", or "King of Scots and Britons".

In 1305 Edward I of England prohibited the laws of the Scots and the Brets [26] The term Brets or Britons refers to the native, traditionally Cumbric speaking people of southern Scotland.

It seems that Cumbric could well have survived into the middle of the 12th Century as a community language and even lasted into the 13th on the tongues of the last remaining speakers. Certain areas seem to be particularly dense in Cumbric place-names even down to very minor features. The two most striking of these are around Lanercost east of Carlisle and around Torquhan south of Edinburgh. If the 1262 names from Peebles do contain traces of Cumbric personal names then we can imagine Cumbric dying out between 1250 and 1300 at the very latest.

The most probable end of the Cumbric language was in the late 13th century, and the effects of the black death may have eradicated the last of the possible Cumbric speakers. There is nothing to substantiate the curious statement by Joseph Lucas, who first collected the counting system (below) that Cumbric was reported to have continued being spoken in Swaledale (Yorkshire) as late as the 19th Century.[27]

Advertisements

Counting systems of possible Cumbric origin

Counting systems of possible Cumbric origin, modern Welsh included for comparison.
* Keswick Westmorland Eskdale Millom High Furness Wasdale Teesdale Swaledale Wensleydale Ayrshire Modern Welsh
1 yan yan yaena aina yan yan yan yahn yan yinty un
2 tyan tyan taena peina taen taen tean tayhn tean tinty dau
3 tethera tetherie teddera para tedderte tudder tetherma tether tither tetheri tri
4 methera peddera meddera pedera medderte anudder metherma mether mither metheri pedwar
5 pimp gip pimp pimp pimp nimph pip mimp(h) pip bamf pump
6 sethera teezie hofa ithy haata - lezar hith-her teaser leetera chwech
7 lethera mithy lofa mithy slaata - azar lith-her leaser seetera saith
8 hovera katra seckera owera lowera - catrah anver catra over wyth
9 dovera hornie leckera lowera dowa - horna danver horna dover naw
10 dick dick dec dig dick - dick dic dick dik deg
15 bumfit bumfit bumfit bumfit mimph - bumfit mimphit bumper - pymtheg
20 giggot - - - - - - - Jiggit - ugain

The numbers show some similarity to one another; some forms have clearly been altered by folk etymology (e.g. bumper) or to follow rhyming patterns (e.g. yan, tan; leetera, seetera). In some cases, there is semantic shift (for example, in Ayrshire, seetera means seven, but in Keswick, sethera is six).

The Cumbric origin of these counting systems is debatable, but there is a clear Celtic component in their origin, (compare e.g. pethera/methera with Welsh pedwar). Similar Yan Tan Tethera counts have been collected throughout upland England. This may show some support for James's theory of the diaspora of Cumbric speakers moving out from the Clyde basin and settling widely across northern England.[3]

Cumbric placenames

Cumbric placenames are found in Scotland south of the firths of Forth and Clyde. Brythonic names north of this line are arguably Pictish. They are also found commonly in the historic county of Cumberland and bordering areas of Northumberland. They are less common in Westmorland with some in Lancashire and the adjoining areas of North Yorkshire. As we approach Cheshire, late Brythonic placenames are probably better described as being Welsh rather than Cumbric. As noted above, however, any clear distinction between Cumbric and Welsh is difficult to prove. For references see Armstrong et al. [19], Watson [10] and Jackson [16]. It should be noted that there remain many Brythonic place-names in Northern England which should not be described as Cumbric because they originate from a period before Brythonic split into its daughter dialects e.g. Welsh, Cornish, Breton and — arguably — Cumbric.

Here is a list of some of these names and their translations.

  • Blencathra, Cumbria. This is apparently equivalent to blaen cadair, or Blaín Catharach = "seat shaped summit" or potentially blaen cythraul = "devil's peak". The mountain actually looks like a huge seat from the south.
  • Bryn, Lancs. bryn, meaning hill.
  • Cardonald, Glasgow. As in the Welsh "Caer Ddynfwal" meaning Donald's Fort. In Cumbric, *cair can mean a fortified farm and does not necessarily signify such a grand place as a Welsh caer, being more similar in usage to Breton "ker" [3][16]
  • Culcheth, Cheshire. "Cul coed" = "Narrow Wood" [16]
  • Culgaith, Cumbria. "Cul coed" = "Narrow Wood"
  • Cumdivock, Cumbria. "Cwm Dyfog" - the second element possibly a personal name or a nickname referring to the dark coloured tarn (now drained)[28]
  • Dunragit, Wigtownshire. "Din Rheged" = "the fort of Rheged". Though it could also be "Din rhag coed" a fort built against a wood.
  • Glasgow, Scotland. From words equivalent to Welsh Glas gau [10](green hollow — possibly that below Glasgow Cathedral)[29]
  • Hailes, Lothian. From a word similar to Cornish hal — a moor. Also found at Haile near Egremont Cumbria.
  • Helvellyn, Cumbria. Whaley cites Coates view that this represents "hal velyn" = "yellow moor"[30].
  • Ince, three places Lancashire/Cheshire. Meaning 'island', equivalent to Welsh ynys.[31]
  • Lanark, Lanarkshire. A grove similar to Welsh llannerch [10].
  • Lindow, Cheshire. llyn du giving the translation 'black lake' (possibly meaning a bog)
  • Niddrie, Edinburgh. Newydd-dre meaning 'new town'[10]
  • Pendle, Lancashire. 'pen' is 'hill', mixed with the Old English word hyll, also meaning hill [28].
  • Penketh, Cheshire. Welsh: pen coed meaning 'wooded hill'[28].
  • Penrith, Cumbria. From "Pen rhudd" or "pen rhyd" , meaning 'red hill' or "red ford" - Red Pike is the modern name of the hill above the town, but there is no ford at the town [28].
  • Penruddock, Cumbria. Nearby to Penrith, it comes from the words pen and ruth with the suffix oc, meaning 'little red hill'. An area exists between Penrith and Penruddock still called 'Redhills'.
  • Pen-y-Ghent, Yorks. From *pen meaning 'head' or 'hill' and ghent, possibly equivalent to Welsh caint [28] or to Welsh gwynt, thus either 'Hill on the Border' or 'Hill of The Winds'
  • Renfrew, Renfrewshire. As in the Welsh rhyn-ffrwd — a torrent by narrows [10].
  • Rochdale, Greater Manchester. This comes from the name of the river 'Roch', which it has been said also comes from the name of the kingdom Rheged, or possibly the words rhag coed meaning "by the forest". Dalr is Old Norse for valley, meaning 'valley of the Roch'.
  • Treales, Lancs. This comes from tre (settlement) and llys (court).
  • Tranent, Lothian. Tre means settlement. The word nant (plural nentydd) in Welsh means a stream. In Brittonic it meant a steep sided valley and it keeps this meaning in Cornish and Breton. However other place name evidence suggests that Cumbric used the word nant like Welsh and so Tranent means 'farm by the streams' [10].
  • Tulketh, Lancs. This probably comes from the words twll coed (wood), meaning 'wood with a hole'[28].

Scots and English words of possible Cumbric origin

A number of words occurring in Scottish and Northern England dialects of English have been proposed as being of possible Brythonic origin[32]. Ascertaining the real derivation of these words is far from simple, due in part to the similarities between some cognates in the Brythonic and Goidelic languages (see Linn below, for instance) and the fact that borrowing took place in both directions between these languages. Another difficulty lies with some words which were taken into Old English as in many cases it is impossible to tell whether the borrowing is directly from Brythonic or not (see Brogat, Crag). The following are possibilities:

  • Bach - cowpat (cf Welsh baw "dung", Gaelic buadhar)
  • Baivenjar - mean fellow (Welsh bawyn "scoundrel")
  • Brat - apron; often cited as a relic of Brythonic, the word is found in the Welsh language ("apron", originally "cloak"), Scots and northern English dialects but originates in Old Irish brat "cloak". Possibly spread into English by Hiberno-Norse settlers.
  • Brogat - a type of mead (Welsh bragod "bragget" - also found in Chaucer)
  • Coble - small flat bottomed boat (also North East England), akin to Welsh ceubal "a hollow" and Latin caupulus
  • Crag - rocks (either from Brythonic craig or Goidelic creag)
  • Croot - a small boy (Welsh crwt, Gaelic cruit "someone small and humpbacked")
  • Croude - type of small harp, as opposed to clarsach (Welsh crwth, Gaelic croit)
  • Lum - Well known Scottish word for chimney (Middle Welsh llumon "chimney")
  • Peat - probably from Brythonic for "piece" (Welsh peth "thing")
  • Vendace - fish of Lochmaben, Derwent Water and Bassenthwaite Lake, possibly cognate with Welsh Gwyniad

Attempt at revival

In 2009 a small group of enthusiasts working on the text of the Hen Ogledd proposed a Cumbric revival. Their term for the language is Cwmbraic.[33]

In May 2009 the group launched a website "Cumbric Revival Community Network" and has been working on reconstructing and adapting the "forgotten" Brythonic language of Cumberland to a modern setting.[33]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nicolaisen, W.F.H Scottish Place Names pp 131
  2. ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 515–516. http://books.google.com/books?id=f899xH_quaMC&pg=PA515&lpg=PP1&vq=515&output=html.  
  3. ^ a b c d e James, A. G. (2008): 'A Cumbric Diaspora?' in Padel and Parsons (eds.) A Commodity of Good Names: essays in honour of Margaret Gelling, Shaun Tyas: Stamford, pp 187-203
  4. ^ Barrow, G. W. S. (1994) ‘The Scots and the North of England’ in E. King (ed.) The Anarchy of King Stephen’s Reign. Oxford. p 236
  5. ^ Kirby, D. P. (1962) ‘Strathclyde and Cumbria: A Survey of Historical Development Until 1092’ in Trans. CWAAS. 62, pp. 77-94
  6. ^ Wilson, P. A. (1966) ‘On the Use of the Terms “Strathclyde” and “Cumbria” in Trans. CWAAS. 66. pp. 67-92
  7. ^ http://www.stevebulman.f9.co.uk/cumbria/diocese_ferguson5_f.html
  8. ^ Wilkinson, J. G. (1992) West Lothian Place Names
  9. ^ http://www.spns.org.uk/CtEastL.htm Scottish Place-Name Society — East Lothian
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Watson, W. J. (1926): History of the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
  11. ^ Breeze, A. (2005) ‘Brittonic Place-names from South-West Scotland Part 6: Cummertrees, Beltrees, Trevercarcou’ in Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, (3) 79: 91-3
  12. ^ Brooke. D. (1991) ‘The Northumbrian Settlements in Galloway and Carrick: an historical assessment’ in Proc Soc Antiq Scot, 121:295-327
  13. ^ a b Broun, Dauvit (2004): ‘The Welsh identity of the kingdom of Strathclyde, ca 900-ca 1200’, Innes Review 55, pp 111-80.
  14. ^ Innes, Cosmo Nelson, (ed). (1843), Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis; Munimenta Ecclesie Metropolitane Glasguensis a Sede Restaurata Seculo Incunte Xii Ad Reformatam Religionem, i, Edinburgh: The Bannatyne Club
  15. ^ (1989) Two Celtic Saints: the lives of Ninian and Kentigern Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, p. 91
  16. ^ a b c d e Jackson, K. H. (1956): Language and History in Early Britain, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
  17. ^ Koch, J. T. (1983) 'The Loss of Final Syllables and Loss of Declension in Brittonic' in [Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 30: 214-220]
  18. ^ Taylor, S. and Markus, G. (2006) The Place-names of Fife: West Fife between Leven and Forth: v.1
  19. ^ a b c Armstrong, A. M., Mawer, A., Stenton, F. M. and Dickens, B. (1952) The Place-Names of Cumberland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  20. ^ Oram, R.(2000): The Lordship of Galloway, Edinburgh: John Donald
  21. ^ Phythian-Adams, Charles (1996): Land of the Cumbrians, Aldershot: Scolar Press
  22. ^ Oram, Richard (2004), David: The King Who Made Scotland
  23. ^ Todd, J. M. (ed.) (1991) The Lanercost Cartulary, Carlisle: CWAAS
  24. ^ Chambers, W. (1864) A History of Peebleshire, Edinburgh: W & M Chambers
  25. ^ Prescott, J. E. (ed.) (1897) Register of Wetheral Priory, Carlisle: CWAAS
  26. ^ Barrow, G. W. S. (2005) Robert Bruce & the Community of the Realm of Scotland, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
  27. ^ Lucas, Joseph Studies in Nidderdale: Upon Notes and Observations Other Than Geological T. Thorpe, Pateley Bridge (1882)
  28. ^ a b c d e f Ekwall, E. (1960) ‘The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names' 4th edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press
  29. ^ The Glasgow Story
  30. ^ Whaley, D. (2006) ‘A Dictionary of Lake District Place-Names'. English Place-names Society: Nottingham
  31. ^ Coates, R., Breeze, A., Horovitz, D. (2001) Celtic Voices, English Places: Studies of the Celtic Impact on Place-Names in England, Stamford: Shaun Tyas
  32. ^ Dictionary of the Scots Language
  33. ^ a b ap Anthony o Rheged on Ning, Anthony (2009). "Cumbric Revival Community Network". http://www.cumbricrevival.com/. Retrieved 2009-06-01.  

References

  • Jackson, Kenneth H. (1953). Language and History in Early Britain. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.  
  • James, Alan G. (2008). "A Cumbric Diaspora?". in O. J. Padel and D. Parsons (eds.). A Commodity of Good Names:essays in honour of Margaret Gelling. Stamford: Shaun Tyas. pp. 187–203. ISBN 978-1900289-900.  

Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.   Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.  

  • Oram, Richard (2000). The Lordship of Galloway. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-541-5.  
  • Phythian-Adams, Charles (1996). Land of the Cumbrians. Aldershot: Scolar Press. ISBN 1-85928-327-6.  
  • Russell, Paul (1995). An Introduction to the Celtic Languages. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-10082-8.  
  • Schmidt, Karl Horst (1993). "Insular Celtic: P and Q Celtic". in M. J. Ball and J. Fife (ed.). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 64–98. ISBN 0-415-01035-7.  

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message