The Full Wiki

Curitiba: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...

  • the Suite Vollard in Curitiba, Brazil, is the only building in the world in which floors can independently rotate 360° in either direction?

More interesting facts on Curitiba

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Curitiba
—  Municipality  —
The Municipality of Curitiba
From upper left: Araucária forest; Federal University of Paraná; Integrated Transportation Network; Botanical Garden of Curitiba; Curitiba Skyline; Tourist Bus.

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): A cidade sorriso ("The smiling city"), CWB
Motto: 'A Cidade da Gente' (Our City)
Curitiba is located in Brazil
Curitiba
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 25°25′S 49°15′W / 25.417°S 49.25°W / -25.417; -49.25
Country  Brazil
Region South
State Bandeira do Paraná.svg Paraná
Founded March 29, 1693
Incorporated 1842
Government
 - Mayor Beto Richa (PSDB)
Area
 - Municipality 430.9 km2 (166.4 sq mi)
 - Metro 15,416.9 km2 (5,952.5 sq mi)
Elevation 934.6 m (3,066.3 ft)
Population (2009)
 - Municipality 1,851,215 (7th)
 Density 4,159.4/km2 (10,748.5/sq mi)
 Metro 3,261,168
 - Metro Density 210.9/km2 (546.2/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 - Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
CEP 80000-000 to 82999-999
Area code(s) +55 41
HDI (2000) 0.856 – high
Website Curitiba, Paraná

Curitiba (Tupi-Guarani: "Pinion Land"[1], Portuguese pronunciation: [kuɾiˈtibɐ] or [kuɾiˈtʃibɐ]) is the capital city of the Brazilian state of Paraná. The city has the largest population, the largest economy in the State and also in southern Brazil. According to the American magazine Reader's Digest, Curitiba is the best place to live in Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.8 million people (7th largest nationwide) and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$17 billion (ranking 4th nationwide) according to IBGE.[2]

Its metropolitan area comprises 26 municipalities [3] with a total population of over 3.5 million (IBGE estimate in 2006).[4] Curitiba is an important cultural, political and economic center in the country. The city sits on a plateau at 932 metres (3,058 ft) above sea level. It is located 105 kilometres (65 mi) west of the sea port of Paranaguá is served by the Afonso Pena International Airport.

Growth was based on the cattle trade, being half way between cattle breeding country to the South and markets to the North. Waves of European immigrants started arriving after 1850, mainly Germans, Italians, Poles and Ukrainians, contributing to the economic and cultural development of the city.[5]

Currently, only small numbers of foreigners migrate to Curitiba, and these are mainly immigrants from Middle Eastern[6] and South American countries, but there is a substantial inward flow of Brazilians from other States of the country (it is estimated that nowadays about half the population of Curitiba was not born in the city).[7]

Curitiba hosts the Federal University of Paraná, the first in Brazil, established in Curitiba in 1913, the same year in which electric streetcars were first deployed.

Contents

Name

One theory about the name "Curitiba" comes from the Tupi words kurí tyba, "many pine seeds" due to the large number of seeds of Paraná pines in the region prior to its foundation.[8] The other version, also from the Tupi language, comes from the combination of kurit (pine tree) and yba (large amount).[9]

The Portuguese who founded a village in 1693 gave it the name of "Vila da Nossa Senhora da Luz dos Pinhais" (Village of "Our Lady of the Light" of the Pines). The name was changed to "Curitiba" in 1721. Curitiba officially became a town in 1812, spelling its name as Curityba. An alternative spelling also came up: Coritiba. This spelling looked to become dominant for it was used in press and state documents, but a state decree in 1919 settled the dispute by spelling the city name Curitiba.[8]

Geography

Climate

Winter skyline in Curitiba.

Curitiba has a Maritime Temperate climate or Subtropical highland climate (Cfb), according to the Köppen classification. Located in Southern Brazil, the humid city lies in a temperate zone.[10] It is located in a plateau and the flat terrain with flooded areas contribute to its mild and damp winter, with average temperature of 13 °C (55 °F) in the coldest month, sometimes falling below 0 °C (32 °F) on the coldest days. During summertime, the average temperature is around 21 °C (70 °F), but it can get above 32 °C (90 °F) on hot days. Snowfall was experienced in 1928,1942, 1955, 1962 and 1975. Among Brazil's twenty-six state capitals, Curitiba is the coldest due its altitude, despite being 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Porto Alegre, which is the southernmost state capital in Brazil, but located at sea level.[11] Heat waves during winter and cold waves during summer are not uncommon, and even within a single day there can be great variation, a typical feature of subtropical climates. Several factors contribute to the climate's variable nature: The flat terrain surrounded by mountains in a rough circle with radius 40 kilometres (25 mi) helps block the winds, allowing the morning mist to cover the city on cold mornings.

The flatness of the terrain hinders quick water drainage after rain, therefore providing a good source of water vapor for the atmosphere. Cold fronts come often from Antarctica and Argentina all year round, bringing tropical storms in summer and cold winds in winter. They can move very quickly, with no more than one day between the start of the southern winds and the start of rain.[12] Curitiba's weather is also influenced by the dry air masses that dominate Brazil's midwest most of the year, bringing cold and dry weather, sometimes even in winter.[13]

Climate data for Curitiba
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34
(93)
34
(93)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
30
(86)
32
(90)
31
(88)
32
(90)
33
(91)
34
(93)
35
(95)
35
(95)
Average high °C (°F) 26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
22
(72)
20
(68)
18
(64)
18
(64)
20
(68)
20
(68)
22
(72)
23
(73)
25
(77)
22
(72)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21
(70)
22
(72)
21
(70)
18
(64)
15
(59)
13
(55)
13
(55)
15
(59)
15
(59)
17
(63)
19
(66)
20
(68)
17
(63)
Average low °C (°F) 17
(63)
17
(63)
16
(61)
14
(57)
11
(52)
8
(46)
8
(46)
9
(48)
10
(50)
12
(54)
14
(57)
16
(61)
13
(55)
Record low °C (°F) 5
(41)
7
(45)
5
(41)
1
(34)
-2
(28)
-3
(27)
-5
(23)
-2
(28)
-1
(30)
3
(37)
6
(43)
8
(46)
-5
(23)
Precipitation cm (inches) 15
(5.9)
12
(4.7)
13
(5.1)
11
(4.3)
10
(3.9)
8
(3.1)
9
(3.5)
9
(3.5)
12
(4.7)
12
(4.7)
12
(4.7)
14
(5.5)
137
(53.9)
Source: Weatherbase[14]

Vegetation

Frost in the city.

Curitiba is located in the area of the Ombrophilous Mixed Forest (also known as Araucaria moist forests), a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest. In Curitiba it is possible to find steppes, Araucaria forest and other formations. In the local vegetation still appear remnants of the Parana (or Brazilian) pine (Araucaria angustifolia), which resisted the effects of modern civilization. The Parana pines are in private and public areas, now protected by environmental legislation which prevents them from being logged. The Municipal Secretariat of the Environment maintains a botanical garden and three green houses for the annual production of 150,000 seedlings of native and exotic tree species, 16,000 seedlings of fruit trees, 260,000 seedlings of flowers, foliage and underbrush, as well as the maintenance of 350,000 seedlings.[15]

The total green area of Curitiba is one of the largest in cities in Brazil. The vegetation of Curitiba is also characterized by the existence of a large quantity of purple and yellow ipês (tabebuias), making a beautiful sight during the flowering at the end of winter. Currently, the yellow ipê is the most common tree in the city.[16]

Hydrography and Pluviometry

Iguaçu River, running by the south region of the city.

The catchment area of Curitiba consists of several rivers and streams that cross the city in different directions, grouped in six river basins. The main rivers that form the watershed of the city are: Atuba River, Belém River, Barigüi River, Passaúna River, Ribeirão dos Padilhas and the Iguaçu River, all with characteristics of dendritic drainage. Since the 1970s, Curitiba has been working on alternatives to minimize the negative impacts of urbanization on rivers. An example of this was the construction of parks along the rivers with artificial lakes, which retain the water for longer periods of time, minimizing floods.[15]

Currently, after many studies of the local water flows, almost all the rivers are subject to a canalization process. Other alternatives developed to minimize the effects of urbanization are the implementation of the programs for environmental education, inspection and monitoring, elaboration and application of legislation and infrastructure works.[15] The index reaches 1,500 millimetres (59 in) rainfall on average per year, because the rains are constant in the climate of the city. This happens, among other reasons, because of the deforestation of the Mountain Range of the Sea (Serra do Mar), a natural barrier to moisture.

Relief

The Mountain Range of the Sea, "Serra do Mar."

The city has surface of 432.17 km² in the First Plateau of Paraná. Curitiba has a topography of smooth rounded hills, giving a relatively regular shape. The municipality of Curitiba has an average altitude of 934.6 metres (3,066 ft) above sea level, where the highest point is to the north 1,021 metres (3,350 ft), and with lower altitude 864 metres (2,835 ft) to the south.

There are mountain ranges and sets of rocky hills practically all around the city, the most remarkable and impressive being the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Mountain Range of the Sea"), located in the east that separates the plateau from the coast of Paraná.

History

Old mansion in Batel neighbourhood.

The first ten years of the 16th century marked the beginning of a war of conquest of Europeans (Portuguese colonists) against the indigenous peoples who inhabited the area of the city. Waves of European immigrants started arriving after 1850, mainly Germans, Italians, Poles and Ukrainians. In 1853, the south and southwest of the province of São Paulo were separated, forming the new province of Paraná, and Curitiba became its capital.

During the 20th century, especially after 1950, the city rapidly increased in population and consolidated its position as regional hub for trade and services, becoming one of the richest cities in Brazil and a pioneer in urban solutions. In the 1940s and 1950s, Alfred Agache, co-founder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce the first city plan.

It emphasised a "star" of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. It was followed when possible, but was too expensive to complete.[17]

Government

The Curitiba City Hall.

The executive is currently exercised by the mayor Beto Richa (elected in 2004 with a mandate until 2008, and reelected in 2009 to period 2009/2012), by the deputy mayor (vice mayor) Luciano Ducci and the municipal secretaries appointed by the mayor. The City Council of Curitiba was created in 1693, and has a total of 38 councillors elected since 2004.

Curitiba is divided into nine regional governments (equivalent to subprefecture), who manage the 75 districts of the municipality. The Rua da Cidadania ("Street of Citizenship") is the symbol of administrative decentralization; it is a reference point and meeting place for the user of municipal utilities, in a regional context, taking into account the needs and rights of the citizen in trade, leisure and services, facilitating the access of the population for different services in the areas of health, justice, policing, education, sport, house, environment, urban planning, social service and supply, etc. Several units work annexed to the terminals of public transport in Curitiba. Their nuclei offer services in the local, state and federal areas.

Demographics

Old Polish house, in a park in Curitiba.
Brazilians of Ukrainian descent celebrating Easter in Curitiba.
Arabian Memorial.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 3,225,000 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba. The population density was 4,159.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (10,773 /sq mi) (in the urban area). The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following percentage: 2,459,000 White people (76.27%), 640,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (19.84%), 92,000 Black people (2.86%), 26,000 Asian people (0.80%), 6,000 Amerindian people (0.18%).[18]

As most of Southern Brazil's population, Curitiba is mostly inhabited by Brazilians of European descent. The first Europeans to arrive in the region were of Portuguese origin, during the 17th century. They intermarried with the native people and with the African slaves.[19]

In the 19th century, the influx of immigrants from Europe increased. In 1828, the first German immigrants settled in Paraná. However, large numbers of immigrants from Germany only arrived in Curitiba during the 1870s, most of them coming from Santa Catarina or Volga Germans from Russia.[20]

Immigrants from Poland first arrived in 1871, settling in rural areas close to Curitiba. They largely influenced the agriculture of the region. Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world, second only to Chicago.[19] The Memorial of Polish Immigration was inaugurated on December 13, 1980, after the visit of the Pope John Paul II to the city of Curitiba, in June, in the same year. Its area is 46 thousand square meters and was part of the former Candles plant. The seven wooden log houses are parts of this memorial area, as a souvenir of the Polish immigrants, and their struggles and faith. Objects like the old wagon, the pipe of cabbage and the print of the black virgin of Czestochowa, who is the patron saint of Polish people, form parts of the memorial.[21]

Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875 and in Curitiba in 1878. They came mostly from the Veneto and Trento regions, in Northern Italy and settled mostly in the Santa Felicidade neighborhood, still today the center of the large Italian community of Curitiba.[22]

Large numbers of Ukrainian immigrants settled in Curitiba, mostly between 1895 and 1897, when some 20,000 arrived. They were peasants from Galicia, who emigrated to Brazil to become farmers. Nowadays there are around 300,000 Ukrainian-Brazilians living in Paraná.[23][24] The State of Paraná has the largest Ukrainian community and Slavic community of the country.[25]

Curitiba has a well established Jewish community[26] originally established in the 1870s.[27] Much of the early Jewish congregation has been assimilated.[28] In 1937 with the conquest of power by the Nazis in Germany, several notable German Jewish academics were allowed into Brazil, some of them settling in Curitiba.[29]

Physicist César Lattes and former mayors Jaime Lerner,[30] and Saul Raiz were Jewish. A monument in memory of the Holocaust has been erected in the city. There is also a community center, a Habad house (Beit Chabad) in Curitiba[31] as well as at least two synagogues[32] and two Jewish cemeteries,[33] one of which was defiled by antisemites in 2004.[34]

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the region in 1915. Most Japanese settled in the State of São Paulo, but many settled in Northern Paraná, cities such as Maringá and Londrina. Curitiba also received significant numbers of immigrants from Japan. Nowadays, there are about 40,000 Japanese-Brazilians living in the city.[35]

Other immigrants, such as Lebanese, Syrians, Palestinians, Russians and other Eastern Europeans also settled in Curitiba.

Economy

Curitiba Trade Center, popularly called "O Prédio do Relógio" (The Clock Building).

The city of Curitiba is one of the finest examples of a bulky economic and industrial development carried out with responsibility and organisation. Since it was declared the capital of the State of Paraná in 1853, the city has gone through several major urban planning projects to avoid uncontrolled growth and thus has become an international role model in dealing with such sensitive issues as transportation and the environment.[36] The city is the second largest car manufacturer in the country, and it's economy is based on industry, commerce and services. For that reason, Curitiba is considered by many specialists of the financial sector to be the best location for investors in Brazil. At the moment, the city receives more than two million tourists every year. Most arrive via Afonso Pena International Airport, where almost sixty thousand airplanes land annually.[37]

According to IPEA data, the GDP in 2006 at real 32 billion, without recording activities in the agriculture and livestock farming (0.03%) sectors. Industry represented 34.13% and the commerce and service sectors 65.84%.[38] Cidade Industrial de Curitiba, the industrial district of Curitiba, is home to many multinational industries, such as Nissan, Renault, Volkswagen, Audi, Volvo, HSBC, Siemens, ExxonMobil, Electrolux and Kraft Foods, as well as many national industries, such as Sadia, O Boticário, Positivo Informática. Curitiba's infrastructure makes bus travel fast and convenient, effectively creating demand for bus use in the same way that the infrastructure of traditional cities creates demand for private motor vehicles. In July 2001, Curitiba has become the first city in the country to receive the prize "Pole of Information Technology", granted by InfoExame magazine, because the performance of their companies of technology. According to the magazine, the number of companies of "Technology and Information Technology" based in Curitiba submitted in 2001 a turnover of US$ 1.2 billion, representing a growth of 21% over the previous year.[39]

Estação Mall.

In the early 1970s, when Brazil was welcoming industry with open arms, Curitiba accepted only non-polluters and constructed an industrial district with so much green space that it was derided as a "golf course" until it filled up with major businesses while its counterparts in other Latin American cities flagged. The city's 30-year economic growth rate is 7.1%, higher than the national average of 4.2%, and per capita income is 66% higher than the Brazilian average. Between 1975 and 1995, Curitiba's domestic product grew by some 75% more than the entire State of Paraná, and 48% more than Brazil as a whole. In 1994, tourism generated US$ 280 million, 4% of the city's net income. Curitiba has municipal health, education and day care networks, neighbourhood libraries shared by schools and citizens, and Citizenship Streets, where buildings provide essential public services, sports and cultural facilities near mass transportation terminals. At the Open University, residents can take courses in subjects such as mechanics, hair styling and environmental protection for a small fee. Policies for job creation and income generation also became part of the city's strategic planning in the '90s, for the metropolitan area as well as the city.[40]

The "Paço Municipal" built in 1916.

Since 1990, the Municipal Housing Fund has been providing financial support to housing for lower income populations. After national housing finance collapsed in 1985, just as people from the countryside poured into Curitiba, the city's public housing program bought one of the few remaining large plots of land, "Novo Bairro" (New Neighborhood), as home for 50,000 families. While landowners built the houses themselves, each received a pair of trees and an hour's consultation with an architect to help them develop their plan. COHAB also built Technology Street, an avenue of 24 homes in the centre of Novo Bairro, each built using different construction techniques.[41]

There are also five massive shopping malls in Curitiba shopping: Mueller, Estação, Curitiba, Crystal and Park Barigüi. There is also a sixth mall in Curitiba Brazil opened in 2008 called the Shopping Palladium. The Mueller is one of the best shopping malls. The Rua das Flores (Flower's Street) is the home of the majority of stores in Curitiba, and this is so for a very good reason. The area is pedestrianized, meaning that there are no cars around the centre. An essential element of Curitiba shopping is the Feira do Largo da Ordem, or Largo da Ordem Street Fair, including Paraná fashion, Curitiba gemstones, Brazil furniture Curitiba-made, Curitiba Brazil leather equipment, crafts, arts and much more.[42]

The GDP for the city is R$ 32,153,307,000 (2006).[43]

The per capita income for the city was R$ 17,977 (2006).[44]

Tourism and recreation

German church in Curitiba.
Japan Square in Curitiba.

Botanic Gardens

Curitiba's trademark, created to resemble French gardens, rolls out its flower carpet to the visitors right at the entrance. The greenhouse, with a metallic structure, has botanic species that are national symbols, and also a water fountain.

The native forest is filled with paths for walking. The Botanic Museum attracts researchers from all over the world. There is a space for exhibitions, library and a theatre.

German Woods

The wood has various features to celebrate and promote the German traditions. There are 38 thousand square meters of native forest, which was part of the old farm from the Schaffer family. The replica of an old wooden church, built in 1933 at the Seminário neighbourhood, with neo-gothic decorative elements, shelters a concert hall called Bach's Oratorium.

Other attractions are the John and Mary path, which tells the Grimm brothers tale, a children's library, the Philosophers Tower, a wooden observatory allowing a panoramic view of the city and the Ocean Ridge, and the German Poetry Square, with a reproduction of the Casa Mila façade, a German building from the beginning of the last century, originally located in the city centre. It's closed for remodeling at the present time.

Italian Woods

A place for the typical parties of the Italian community in the district, such as the Grape Party, the Wine Party and the 4 Giorni in Italy. It has structure for food and drinkstalls, space for shows and folkloric presentations and a polenta pot.

Japan Square

Homage to Japanese immigrants who settled there dedicating themselves to agriculture. Scattered around the square are 30 cherry trees sent from Japan and artificial lakes. In 1993 the Japanese Portal, the Culture House and the Tea House were built.

Tingüi Park

Part of the biggest linear environmental park in the Country, established at the Barigüi river margins, it reminds us of the Indians who used to live there, with the statue of Tindiqüera Chieftain. The Ukrainian Memorial is also there, homage to the immigrants, in a replica of an orthodox church, originally built in inland Paraná State, hosting a pêssankas and icons exhibition.

Wire Opera House

It is one of the emblematic symbols of Curitiba, with tubular structure and transparent ceiling, of great beauty. Inaugurated in 1992, it caters for all types of shows, between lakes, typical vegetation and cascades, on a unique landscape. The Wire Opera House is part of the Pedreiras Park, together with the Paulo Leminski Cultural Space, where the Passion of Christ was enacted, and hosted many other big events since 1989, and can hold, in the open air, 10 thousand people seated or 50 thousand standing.

Tanguá Park

This park was inaugurated in 1996, the Tanguá Park surprises with its beauty as an example of urban space being re-utilized, on one old complex of disactivated quarries, and it is part of the Barigüi river preservation project joining Tingüi and Barigüi parks. This park with an area of 450 thousand square meters has two quarries connected by a 45 meter tunnel that may be crossed on foot by a path over the water. It can be visited on boat or on foot (hiking). The park has a cooper and bicycle track, snack bar, belvedere and Poty Lazzaroto garden.

Portugal Wood

Homage to the Portuguese-Brazilian bonds, this space is highlighted by a track following a small brook, where one can see drawn on tiles excerpts from famous Portuguese language poets, as well as a tribute to the great Portuguese navigators and their discoveries.

Curitiba International Ecological Marathon

In November, happens the Maratona Ecológica Internacional de Curitiba ("Curitiba International Ecological Marathon"). This marathon is known as the hardest in Brazil,[45] because happens in the end of the year, when usually is warm weather in the city (because is summer in Southern Hemisphere), and the hilly course, with many of the inclines being in the last 10 km. To compensate the hard course, runners count with good structure[46] and enthusiastic fans cheering along the course.[47]

Tourism Line

Every year, tourism grows in Curitiba. To attend this demand, the Linha Turismo ("Tourism Line") started in 1994. Its a special city tour that visits the principal tourist attractions in Curitiba, featuring comfortable white buses with big windows and a shape similar to that of streetcars. The vehicles are equipped with a sound system that plays recorded messages describing sites in three different languages: Portuguese, English and Spanish. It is possible to visit the parks, squares and the rest of the city's tourist attractions. Considered one of the best in the country, the Linha Turismo is available every thirty minutes and has a two and a half-hour tour, which travels around forty-four kilometers. To go on the tour you must buy a ticket with five tickets that give you the right to get on and off bus four times. Users can therefore choose the touristic point where they want to stay longer. Then, they can embark again to complete the remaining part of the itinerary. Today the line goes to 25 key reference points in Curitiba, completing 44 km (27 mi) in 2 and ½ hours.

Panoramic view of Curitiba.

Education

Federal University of Paraná was the first university opened in Brazil.[48]
Bus and the Federal University.

Educational institutions

Educational system

In the 1990s, the city started a project called Faróis de Saber ("Lighthouses of Knowledge"). These Lighthouses are free educational centers which include libraries, Internet access, and other cultural resources. This community libraries works with municipal schools, have a collection of approximately 5000 books, and be cultural reference and leisure for the community, and are designed to diversify the opportunities of access to knowledge, expanding the area of formal education.[49] In each quarter of the city these "Lighthouses of Knowledge" have been implanted containing library and room of computer science, to public use, mainly by students; job training, social welfare and educational programs are coordinated, and often supply labor to improve the city's amenities or services, as well as education and income. Among the Brazilian capitals, Curitiba has the lowest rate of illiteracy,[50] and also number 1 in education between the Brazilian capitals.[51]

Urban planning

Public Transport in Curitiba.
Bus in the city.
Largo da Ordem, Sunday Market in Curitiba.
November 15 Street, one of the major streets of Curitiba, is a pedestrian-only street since 1972.
November 15 Street.
The Curitiba Botanical Garden.
Modern Curitiba.

Curitiba has a planned transportation system, which includes lanes on major streets devoted to a bus rapid transit system. The buses are long, split into three sections (bi-articulated), and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with disabled access. There is only one price no matter how far you travel and you pay at the bus stop.[52]

The system, used by 85% of Curitiba's population, is the source of inspiration for the TransMilenio in Bogotá, Colombia; Metrovia in Guayaquil, Ecuador; Transmetro in Guatemala City, Guatemala; as well as the Orange Line of Los Angeles, U.S. State of California, and for a future transportation system in Panama City, Panama as well as Cebu City, Philippines.

The city has also paid careful attention to preserving and caring for its green areas, boasting 54 square metres (580 sq ft) of green space per inhabitant.[53]

In the 1940s and 1950s, Alfred Agache, cofounder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce the first city plan. It emphasised a star of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. It was followed when possible, but was too expensive to complete.[54]

By the 1960s, Curitiba's population had ballooned to 430,000, and some residents feared that the growth in population threatened to drastically change the character of the city. In 1964, Mayor Ivo Arzua solicited proposals for urban design. Architect Jaime Lerner, who later became mayor, led a team from the Universidade Federal do Paraná that suggested strict controls on urban sprawl, a reduction of traffic in the downtown area, preservation of Curitiba's Historic Sector, and a convenient and affordable public transit system.[55]

This plan, known as the Curitiba Master Plan, was adopted in 1968. Lerner closed XV de Novembro St. to vehicles, because it had very high pedestrian traffic. The plan had a new road design to minimise traffic: the Trinary Road System. This uses two one-way streets moving in opposite directions which surround a smaller, two-lane street where the express buses have their exclusive lane. Five of these roads form a star that converges on the city centre. Land farther from these roads is zoned for lower density developments, to reduce traffic away from the main roads. In a number of areas subject to floods, buildings were condemned and the land became parks.[56]

Today, Curitiba is considered one of the best examples of urban planning worldwide.[57] In June 1996, the chairman of the Habitat II summit of mayors and urban planners in Istanbul praised Curitiba as "the most innovative city in the country."[58]

Curitiba was recently recommended by UNESCO as one of the city-model for the reconstruction of the cities of Afghanistan,[59] after the U.S invaded in 2001.

In the 1980s, the RIT (Rede Integrada de Transporte, Integrated Transport Network) was created, allowing transit between any point in the city by paying just one fare.[60] At the same time, the city began a project called the "Faróis de Saber" (Lighthouses of Knowledge). These Lighthouses are free educational centers which include libraries, Internet access, and other cultural resources. Job training, social welfare and educational programs are coordinated, and often supply labor to improve the city's amenities or services, as well as education and income.[61]

Curitiba is referred to as the ecological capital of Brazil, with a network of 28 parks and wooded areas. In 1970, there was less than 1 square meter of green space per person; now there are 52 square meters for each person. Residents planted 1.5 million trees along city streets. Builders get tax breaks if their projects include green space. Flood waters diverted into new lakes in parks solved the problem of dangerous flooding, while also protecting valley floors and riverbanks, acting as a barrier to illegal occupation, and providing aesthetic and recreational value to the thousands of people who use city parks.

In 2007, the city was the third place in a list of "15 Green Cities" in the world, according the U.S. magazine "Grist." After only of Reykjavik in Iceland and Portland in the United States. As a result, according to one survey, 99% of Curitibans are happy with their hometown.[62] The "green exchange" employment program focuses on social inclusion, benefiting both those in need and the environment. Low-income families living in shantytowns unreachable by truck bring their trash bags to neighborhood centers, where they exchange them for bus tickets and food. This means less city litter and less disease, less garbage dumped in sensitive areas such as rivers and a better life for the undernourished poor. There's also a program for children where they can exchange recyclable garbage for school supplies, chocolate, toys and tickets for shows.

Under the "garbage that's not garbage" program, 70% of the city's trash is recycled by its residents. Once a week, a truck collects paper, cardboard, metal, plastic and glass that has been sorted in the city's homes. The city's paper recycling alone saves the equivalent of 1,200 trees a day. As well as the environmental benefits, money raised from selling materials goes into social programs, and the city employs the homeless and recovering alcoholics in its garbage separation plant. Open University, created by the city, lets residents take courses in many subjects such as mechanics, hair styling and environmental protection for a small fee. Retired city buses are often used as mobile schools or offices. Downtown areas were transformed into pedestrian streets, including a 24-hour mall with shops, restaurants and cafes, and a street of flowers with gardens tended by street kids.

The "capacity building job line" was created to generate a better quality of life for people in the region surrounding a new economic development axis of Curitiba. Key initiatives include the South-Circular bus line, which links the southern and eastern regions of town; Entrepreneurial Sheds, business incubators designed to help small companies get established and prosper; and the Crafts Lycée, which trains people for professions such as marketing and finance so that they can find employment in new companies that emerge from the business incubator. Specifically, the goal is to provide jobs and income for the unemployed among 400,000 people living in 15 peripheral towns, and to structure and develop the region according to integrated planning principles. About 15,000 new jobs have been generated so far, and 15,000 more are expected.[63]

There's a model, inexpensive, speedy transit service used by more than 2 million people a day. There are more car owners per capita than anywhere in Brazil, and the population has doubled since 1974, yet auto traffic has declined by 30%, and atmospheric pollution is the lowest in Brazil.[64]

Culture

Musicians on a street.
Paiol Theatre.
Paranaense Museum.
Museum of Expeditionary.

Arts and entertainment

Curitiba is the first city in Brazil to have an IMAX movie theatre. It is in the Palladium Shopping Center which is the biggest mall in Southern Brazil.[65] Curitiba also has many theaters. The biggest and most important one is the Guaíra Theater.[66] Every year, in April, it hosts the Curitiba Theater Festival, with various artists playing in Curitiba Theaters and even on the squares.

Museums

For the famous Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer Curitiba became the home to his extravagantly designed museum, the state museum of Curitiba. Its design includes a gravity defying construction that was intended to look like a Parana Pine, one of the city's symbols, but is widely interpreted by locals as an eye which gave the Museum its nickname - Museu do Olho, or Museum of the Eye. In keeping with the Curitiba history and culture of science, the museum offers many science exhibitions, including Curitiba biennal/Curitiba biennial, twice-yearly exhibitions. The Curitiba museum also includes the Oscar Niemeyer Curitiba auditorium.[67]

  • Museu Paranaense ("Paranaense Museum") - dedicated to the arts and history;
  • Oscar Niemeyer Museum - the largest museum of Latin America,[68] dedicated to plastic arts;
  • Museu de Arte Sacra ("Religious Art Museum") - the focus are religious and sacred Christian art in general;
  • Museu do Expedicionário ("Museum of Expeditionary") - dedicated to the history of Brazilian participation in World War II;
  • Museu de Arte Contemporânea ("Museum of Contemporary Art");
  • Museu da Imagem e do Som ("Image and Sound Museum") - about cinema and photography;
  • Museu Metropolitano de Arte de Curitiba ("Metropolitan Museum of Art in Curitiba") - modern art;
  • Museu de História Natural ("Natural History Museum") - dedicated to the biology and botany.

Carnival/Carnaval

Carnival Curitiba is unique and, as a result, extremely different from the carnivals held elsewhere in the country, and especially the ones that are so prevalent on any TV coverage of the carnival that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Recife every single year. Carnival Curitiba is in fact non-existent in terms of the way that it is done elsewhere. The carnival in Curitiba that does occur every year, in March to be precise to coincide with the Rio de Janeiro carnival, consists of a small celebration on the coast. The beaches that are an hour away via car in Paranaguá host the miniature carnival Curitiba celebrations. There is usually traditional Brazilian food like "Feijoada", their special hotdogs and a variety of salads on offer from stalls. The revellers will usually dance the "samba" and mingle before heading home after the party in the early hours of the morning. The carnival Curitiba offers is therefore out of the town and gives those that do not wish to attend a break. Three clubs are renowned for their carnival Curitiba celebrations: Santa Mônica, Paraná and Curitibanos. They are all located within easy distance of the Central area. The costumes are readily available from most of the cheaper clothes stores and can be hired out from a variety of shops within the Mueller mall, as well as smaller independent ones in the weeks leading up to the celebrations for less than $20 for the night.[69]

Cuisine

Curitiba is influenced by European, Arab and Japanese immigrants. The better restaurants are all located in central area, that is to say not too far away from the heart of Curitiba. As a result, the majority of them are near metro stops and the bus terminus and can easily be reached via walking. Although offering traditional Brazilian drink. The Caruso restaurant is a traditional form of Brazilian cuisine that is made up of rice, black beans, and sausages with borecole and orange slices on the side. It may sound like a basic dish but the flavour is immense. Italian Pizzaria Geppetto and Pizzaria O forno are the better Italian restaurants in the city.[70]

UN Convention on Biodiversity

United Nations Convention in Curitiba.

On March 20-31st 2006 an important world gathering of the United Nations on biodiversity has taken place in Curitiba, addressing items of the 1993 Convention on Biological Diversity adopted by 188 countries. This convention seeks to discuss strategies to safeguard life from the threats directed against it. Starting with the Summit of the Earth or Rio de Janeiro Eco-92 the topic has been gaining centrality and has been the subject of numerous official documents, especially the 2000 and 2003 Cartagena Protocols on biosecurity. The Curitiba preparatory document, developed by specialists of the UN and of the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment for issues from Brazil, defines biodiversity as follows: including all the different species of plants, animals and microorganisms (estimated in more than 10 million species), all the genetic variability within the species (10 to 100 genes per specie) and all the diverse ecosystems formed by different combinations of species. Biodiversity includes the environmental services responsible for maintenance of life on Earth, for the interaction between living beings and for the offer of goods and services that sustain human societies and their economies.[71]

Transportation

Bus route plan for RIT (Rede Integrada de Transporte).
A bus stop in the city.
How the tube-station works.
Biodiversity publicity in the bus stop.

Public transport

Curitiba has a unique transportation system, developed locally and causing much interest worldwide.[72] This Bus Rapid Transit system is very simple and practical. Public transportation consists entirely of buses. There are several different types of bus, each with a different function. All stations are easily accessed and enclosed. The buses have been changed to make for easier entry and exit.[73] Together with other low-cost changes, this bus system aims at becoming a comfortable and preferred transportation choice for the public.

The popularity of Curitiba's BRT has effected a modal shift from automobile travel to bus travel. Based on 1991 traveller survey results, it was estimated that the introduction of the BRT had caused a reduction of about 27 million auto trips per year, saving about 27 million liters of fuel annually. In particular, 28 percent of BRT riders previously traveled by car. Compared to eight other Brazilian cities of its size, Curitiba uses about 30 percent less fuel per capita, resulting in one of the lowest rates of ambient air pollution in the country. Today about 1,100 buses make 12,500 trips every day, serving more than 1.3 million passengers, 50 times the number from 20 years ago. Eighty percent of travelers use the express or direct bus services. Best of all, Curitibanos spend only about 10 percent of their income on travel, much below the national average.[74]

Curitiba's Master Plan integrated transportation with land use planning, calling for a cultural, social, and economic transformation of the city. It limited central area growth, while encouraging commercial growth along the transport arteries radiating out from the city center. The city center was partly closed to vehicular traffic, and pedestrian streets were created. Linear development along the arteries reduced the traditional importance of the downtown area as the primary focus of day-to-day transport activity, thereby minimizing congestion and the typical morning and afternoon flows of traffic. Instead, rush hour in Curitiba has heavy commuter movements in both directions along the public transportation arteries.

Other policies have also contributed to the success of the transit system. Land within two blocks of the transit arteries is zoned for high density, since it generates more transit ridership per square foot. Beyond the two blocks, zoned residential densities taper in proportion to distance from transitways. Planners discourage auto-oriented centers and channel new retail growth to transit corridors. Very limited public parking is available in the downtown area, and most employers offer transportation subsidies, especially to low-skilled and low-paid employees.

Roads

Orange Taxis in the city.

Moving around in a car can be difficult in and around the city centre because of the many one-way streets and frequent traffic jams. This makes the public transportation system more attractive if one wants to go there. The Trinary Road System allows quick access to the city centre for car drivers. Some avenues are spacious and laid out in a grid and apart from some points around the city centre, Munhoz da Rocha Street and Batel Avenue, traffic jams are not thus severe. Coming from São Paulo use BR-116 South. From Florianópolis use BR-101. From Porto Alegre use BR-116 North. [75] Recently, the city installed around 140 traffic radars, causing much discontent among drivers in general.[76]

International Airport

Afonso Pena International Airport is Curitiba's main airport. It is located in the nearby city of São José dos Pinhais and all commercial flights operate from this airport. With a constructed area of 45 thousand square meters, Afonso Pena/Curitiba International Airport serves some 3.5 million passengers a year. The apron has 19 boxes for aircraft parking, six of them served by boarding bridges from the terminal. The airport also has auxiliary buildings, a waste treatment station, a large parking lot, and is encircled by expansive grassy areas and gardens.[77] (Small aircraft may also use the Bacacheri airport.) It is integrated into Curitiba's transportation system, with rapid buses and shuttle service connecting the airport to the city.

Others

The city has approximately 62 miles of bike routes, used by around 30 thousand bikers daily. On the city streets, there are almost one million vehicles, of which 2,253 are Taxis. They are all painted orange. To service all these vehicles, there are more than 355 gas stations throughout the city. With so many cars, nearly 500,000 tickets are issued yearly, even though there are more than 40,000 existing traffic signs in all the city.[78]

Sports

Several football teams play in Curitiba. Coritiba play at Estádio Major Antônio Couto Pereira, Clube Atlético Paranaense at Estádio Joaquim Américo Guimarães and Paraná Clube at Estádio Durival Britto e Silva. Both Coritiba and Atlético Paranaense have won Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, in 1985 and 2001, respectively. Estádio Joaquim Américo Guimarãeswill be one of the 12 stadia to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup to be held in Brazil.[79]

The Autódromo Internacional de Curitiba (Curitiba International Autodrome) is located in nearby Pinhais.

Neighborhoods

Map of Curitiba, with the neighbourhoods and boroughs.
Satellite view.

Bairros (neighbourhoods) of Curitiba are geographical divisions of the city. There is no delegation of administrative powers to neighborhoods, although there are several neighborhood associations devoted to improve their own standards of living. Curitiba is divided into 9 regional governments (boroughs) covering the 75 neighbourhoods of the city. All districts are served by the system of integrated urban transport.

Most districts of Curitiba was born of colonial groups formed by families of European immigrants in the second half of the nineteenth century.

The centro ("Downtown" in American English or "CBD" - central business district - in other English use), place of foundation of the city, is the most bustling area, which concentrates most of the financial institutions of Curitiba.

List of neighborhoods by regional:

  • Matriz: Centro, Centro Cívico, Batel, Bigorrilho, Mercês, São Francisco, Bom Retiro, Ahu, Juvevê, Cabral, Hugo Lange, Jardim Social, Alto da XV, Alto da Glória, Cristo Rei, Jardim Botânico, Prado Velho and Rebouças;
  • Santa Felicidade: Santa Felicidade, Lamenha Pequena, Butiatuvinha, São João, Vista Alegre, Cascatinha, São Brás, Santo Inácio, Orleans, Mossunguê, Campina do Siqueira, Seminário, CIC (north region) and part of Campo Comprido;
  • Boa Vista: Boa Vista, Bacacheri, Bairro Alto, Tarumã, Tingüi, Atuba, Santa Cândida, Cachoeira, Barreirinha, Abranches, Taboão, Pilarzinho and São Lourenço;
  • Cajuru: Cajuru, Uberaba, Jardim das Américas, Guabirotuba and Capão da Imbuia;
  • Fazendinha/Portão: Portão, Fazendinha, Santa Quitéria, Vila Isabel, Água Verde, Parolin, Guaíra, Lindóia, Fanny, Novo Mundo and part of Campo Comprido;
  • Boqueirão: Boqueirão, Xaxim, Hauer and Alto Boqueirão;
  • Pinheirinho: Pinheirinho, Capão Raso, Tatuquara, Campo de Santana and Caximba;
  • Bairro Novo: Sítio Cercado, Ganchinho and Umbará;
  • Cidade Industrial de Curitiba: CIC (center and south region), Riviera, Augusta and São Miguel.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Curitiba is twinned with:

Famous places

Museu Oscar Niemeyer (Oscar Niemeyer Museum).

Curitiba is mostly known for some of its famous places:

Notable people

Skyline at night.
Curitiba in the morning.
Passeio Público.

Arts

Aviation

Science

Politics

  • Beto Richa (Mayor of Curitiba)
  • Roberto Requião (Governor of the State of Paraná)

Sports

Football
Mixed martial arts
Motorsports
Basketball
Beach Volleyball

In popular culture

Oilman

Born as Nelson Rebelo in 1960, eldest of three sons, "Oilman" is a famous persona of Curitiba assumed by a former college professor on the streets. According to local legend, Nelson was retired from his career for mysterious reasons, although his physics seminars maintained an excellent reputation where he taught at UFPr Sciences.

Nelson's street performing began where he attended college, at the Leontius Cooper school in Curitiba, when with the encouragement of other colleagues he publicly impersonated Elvis Presley, including dress, speech habits, and full musical performance. This happened in honor of the birthday of the college director, at the time of Elvis's death. This was a tremendous local success leading to local TV broadcasts.

However, according to residents of Curitiba, sometime thereafter, Nelson suffered a psychotic breakdown in class. In the midst of a lecture, the romantic interest he expressed for a student was not returned. According to the official version from the college, he retired for health reasons.

Following his retirement, he reemerged on the streets as the "man who smeared oil on himself and rode his bicycle wearing only a tiny speedo". But according to Nelson, his character was inspired by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Sylvester Stallone, and Steven Seagal. Over the years, Nelson has attracted more than 300 different names for his outlandish street character, such as "Herman Munster", "Underwear Man," and "Hero of Curitiba", the best known being the Oilman.

Rebelo Nelson plans to release a book about his character soon in the future.

Source: Wikipedia Portuguese

INRI Cristo

Curitiba is also the home of Brazilian media personality, INRI Cristo, an ethnic German born Iuri Thais who claims to be a reincarnation of Jesus Christ. He has traveled the world seeking donations until returning to his homeland and establishing a school for his disciples seated on plastic lawn chairs. He is a frequent guest on Brazilian comedy talk shows and boasts of numerous arrests by Brazilian police.

References

Notes
  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ IBGE, Produto Interno Bruto dos Municípios 2005. Retrieved in 07/April/2008.
  3. ^ "Mapa da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba - Paraná". Curitiba-parana.com. http://www.curitiba-parana.com/geografia-mapas/mapa-regiao-curitiba.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  4. ^ "Região Metropolitana" (in Portuguese). Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20070811015523/http://www.curitiba.pr.gov.br/Cidade/cidade_regmetro.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-08. 
  5. ^ European Immigration to Curitiba
  6. ^ "A imigração árabe muçulmana em Curitiba" (in Portuguese). Etni-cidade. http://www.etni-cidade.net/2008/a_imigracao_arabe.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  7. ^ "Quase metade de Curitiba é dos "estrangeiros"" (in Portuguese). Bem Paraná. http://www.bemparana.com.br/index.php?n=23799&t=quase-metade-de-curitiba-e-dosestrangeiros. Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  8. ^ a b Fenianos, E. (2003) Almanaque Kur'yt'yba, Curitiba: Univer Cidade, p.6
  9. ^ Curitiba name origin
  10. ^ Climate of Curitiba
  11. ^ Curitiba is the coldest capital of Brazil
  12. ^ Cold fronts and rain in Curitiba
  13. ^ Winter of Curitiba is dry and cold
  14. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Curitiba". http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=4838&refer=&units=metric. 
  15. ^ a b c "City of Curitiba, Brazil". Convention on Biological Diversity. http://www.cbd.int/authorities/casestudy/curitiba.shtml. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  16. ^ "Livro mostra roteiros das árvores de Curitiba/Pr" (in Portuguese). Ambiente Brasil. http://www.ambientebrasil.com.br/noticias/index.php3?action=ler&id=18883. Retrieved 2005-05-25. 
  17. ^ "The Agache Plan". Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba. http://www.curitiba.pr.gov.br/Paginas/ENG/Default.aspx?idf=532&servico=40. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  18. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2008. Curitiba, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/tabela/listabl.z=pnad&o=3&i=P&c=262. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  19. ^ a b http://web.archive.org/web/20070703141121/http://www.curitiba.pr.gov.br/pmc/curitiba/index.asp?noframe=sim&conteudo=imigra/index.html
  20. ^ German immigration to Curitiba
  21. ^ Polish Memorial of Curitiba
  22. ^ Italian immigration in Curitiba
  23. ^ Ukrainian memorial in the city of Curitiba
  24. ^ Paraná Governament (Ukrainian community in the State)
  25. ^ Slavic community in Curitiba
  26. ^ Jews of Brazil site Source listing Curitiba as one of the important Jewish communities. A Habad article gives the number of 844 religious participating families there in the year 2007
  27. ^ Brazil's Jews during the Vargas Era and After by Robert M. Levine 1968. This is a book about early Jewish settlers in Brazil
  28. ^ Digital edition of Levine's book
  29. ^ A research paper about the Jewish immigration to Brazil during the second world war.
  30. ^ Jewish in Curitiba
  31. ^ "Beit Chabad"
  32. ^ Israel Synagogue in addition to the Hevra Kadisha Synagogue and the Habad Synagogue mentioned in the Chabad reference
  33. ^ Jewish Genealogy site lists cemeteries.
  34. ^ Stephen Roth Institute: Antisemitism And Racism
  35. ^ Japan Square in Curitiba
  36. ^ Curitiba Economy - FIFA report
  37. ^ Curitiba - Economic ranks
  38. ^ GDP - Curitiba
  39. ^ "A capital do Paraná se destaca na área de TI e oferece oportunidades para profissionais do setor." (in Portuguese). Revista TI. http://www.timaster.com.br/revista/materias%5Cmain_materia.asp?codigo=648. Retrieved 2003-10-11. 
  40. ^ Economy - City of Curitiba
  41. ^ Housing Program Curitiba
  42. ^ Shopping in Curitiba, Brazil
  43. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) GDP. Curitiba, Brazil: IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_impressao.php?id_noticia=1288. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  44. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) per capita income. Curitiba, Brazil: IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_impressao.php?id_noticia=1288. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  45. ^ "Maratona Ecológica de Curitiba - Ladeiras e incentivos do povo curitibano" (in Portuguese). Copacabana Runners. http://www.copacabanarunners.net/maracur.html. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  46. ^ "RUN THE CURITIBA MARATHON". Charity Giving. http://www.charitygiving.co.uk/assets/mini%20sites/voice%20for%20change/uk%20curitiba%20marathon%20brochure.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  47. ^ "MARATONA ECOLÓGICA INTERNACIONAL DE CURITIBA" (in Portuguese). Faculdade de Desporto da Universidade do Porto. Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20070707004450/http://www.fcdef.up.pt/neb/artigos/eros/maratona_ecologica.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  48. ^ UFPR - History
  49. ^ "CURITIBA, UNA CITTÀ DA FANTASCIENZA" (in Italian). Eco Fantascienza. http://www.ecofantascienza.it/articoli/curitiba.html. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  50. ^ "Só 1% das cidades está livre de analfabetismo" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. http://www.estado.com.br/editorias/2007/06/20/ger-1.93.7.20070620.3.1.xml. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  51. ^ "Índice da Educação Básica" (in Portuguese). Jornal da Globo. http://jg.globo.com/JGlobo/0,19125,VTJ0-2742-20070426-278406,00.html. Retrieved 2007-04-28. 
  52. ^ Jonas Rabinovitch and Josef Leitman, "Urban Planning in Curitiba," Scientific American, vol. 274, no. 3 (March 1996), pp. 46-53
  53. ^ "Curitiba busca recuperação de biodiversidade local Terra - Ambiente". Noticias.terra.com.br. http://noticias.terra.com.br/ciencia/interna/0,,OI1926962-EI299,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  54. ^ "Prefeitura ENG". Curitiba.pr.gov.br. http://www.curitiba.pr.gov.br/Paginas/ENG/Default.aspx?idf=532&servico=40. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  55. ^ About Curitiba
  56. ^ Parks of Curitiba and floods
  57. ^ Irazábal, Clara Elena (2002) Curitiba and Portland: Architecture, City Making, and Urban Governance in the Era of Globalization, Ph.D. Dissertation in Architecture, University of California, Berkeley, p.112
  58. ^ Curitiba - urban plannig
  59. ^ "クリチバもモデルに=カブール復興計画に参加" (in Japanese). Nikkey Shimbun. Archived from the original on 2004-11-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20041103064150/http://www.nikkeyshimbun.com.br/020615-24brasil.html. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  60. ^ RIT Curitiba - Trajetory
  61. ^ Social programs in the city
  62. ^ "15 Green Cities". Grist. http://www.grist.org/article/cities3. Retrieved 2007-07-10. 
  63. ^ Curitiba a green city
  64. ^ Curitiba - low pollution
  65. ^ Palladium Shopping Center
  66. ^ Teatro Guaíra
  67. ^ Museums in the city
  68. ^ "Museu Oscar Niemeyer" (in Portuguese). Descubra Curitiba. http://www.descubracuritiba.com.br/?s=exposicao&ss=museu&id=584. Retrieved 2008-01-17. 
  69. ^ Carnival in Curitiba
  70. ^ Cuisine in Curitiba
  71. ^ UN Convention on Biodiversity and Biosecurity
  72. ^ "CNN Transcript - Special Event: The People's Planet - December 24, 2000". Transcripts.cnn.com. 2000-12-24. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0012/24/se.01.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  73. ^ EPA-International Best Practices & Innovations-Urban Management, Sustainable Transport and Mobility Management
  74. ^ Urban transport of Curitiba
  75. ^ Roads in Curitiba
  76. ^ Traffic radars in Curitiba
  77. ^ Afonso Pena International Airport
  78. ^ Bike and Taxi in Curitiba
  79. ^ "Curitiba | FIFA World Cup 2014". Curitiba2014.com. http://www.curitiba2014.com. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  80. ^ a b c d e f g "Cidades-irmãs" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Curitiba. http://www.cmc.pr.gov.br/ass_det.php?not=7417. Retrieved 2007-05-22. 
  81. ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Coimbra. Archived from the original on 2008-01-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20080123100358/http://www.cm-coimbra.pt/170.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  82. ^ a b "Asuntos Federales y Electorales - Ciudades y Provincias argentinas hermanadas con contrapartes extranjeras" (in Spanish). Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. http://www.cancilleria.gov.ar/portal/seree/dirfe/hermanamientos2.html. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  83. ^ "Honorowe Miasta Bliźniacze - Kurytyba (Brazylia)" (in Polish). Krakow.pl. Archived from the original on 2007-12-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20071221041332/http://www.krakow.pl/miasto/miasta_partnerskie/?id=honorowe_miasta_blizniacze_01.html. Retrieved 2006-01-13. 
  84. ^ "Kraków otwarty na świat". www.krakow.pl. http://www.krakow.pl/otwarty_na_swiat/?LANG=UK&MENU=l&TYPE=ART&ART_ID=16. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  85. ^ "Curitiba, une ville modèle du développement durable" (in French). Veille Technologique. http://www.zecite.org/t050901.htm. Retrieved 2005-11-30. 
  86. ^ "Online Directory: Florida, USA". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20071218233241/http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/USA/FL. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  87. ^ "Cenni storici ed informazioni generali su Treviso" (in Italian). BelPaese.it. http://www.belpaese.it/treviso/comune.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 

External links

Official

News

Tourism


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Parana : Curitiba
The botanical garden in Curitiba, Brazil
The botanical garden in Curitiba, Brazil

Curitiba is the capital of Paraná, Brazil. If you're heading for Iguaçu Falls from Rio de Janeiro or São Paulo, it's worth stopping by for a day or two.

Understand

Curitiba is the largest city in the prosperous Southern region, and its population is largely descended from German, Ukranian, Russian, Italian and Polish immigrants. The city is known to urban planners worldwide for its innovative public transit system.

There is a great cidade velha (old city) in the center which is restored very well for its 314 years. There is a huge arts and crafts fair every Sunday in the old city that is well worth visiting.

Get in

By bus

Curitiba's Bus & Train Station (Estaçao Rodoferroviária) is a large station with 3 terminals (train terminal, interstate bus terminal and intrastate bus terminal) provides scheduled bus service from Curitiba to all over Brazil, as well as locations in Argentina, Chile and Paraguay.

By plane

Curitiba is one of the major cities of Brazil and is served by a international airport, named Aeroporto Afonso Pena, which is located in the nearby city of Sao José dos Pinhais and about 17 km (10.6 miles) from Curitiba city center. There are daily scheduled departures to São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Brasília and other major cities. It also serves flights to other Paraná State cities, such as Foz do Iguaçu, Londrina and Maringá. International destinations with scheduled flights from Curitiba are Buenos Aires (Ezeiza), Montevideo and Asunción, although other destinations may be eventually served on a non-scheduled basis.

Major airlines such as Gol, Varig, Pluna and TAM provide scheduled services to other cities, including those in Paraná State, as well as international destinations. Other minor airlines, such as OceanAir, Webjet, Passaredo and TRIP, also serve Curitiba in scheduled and non-scheduled basis.

There are different options of ground transportation between Afonso Pena Airport and Curitiba city center. Regular city buses depart every 20-30 minutes on business days and cost only R$ 2.20, R$1.00 on Sundays. The Airport Shuttle departs every 20 minutes on business days and is quicker than the city buses and much more comfortable, but its fare is R$ 8.00. Taxi cabs are available 24 hours per day, but the fare varies on the final destination. You can plan on roughly R$ 50 to go downtown. There are more than 4 rental companies in site.

By train

Due to the Brazilian government decision on not providing passenger train services anymore, Curitiba is no longer serviced by scheduled passenger train sevice. However, there is a touristic train route that goes to Paraná State's ocean coast, reaching its end in Paranaguá. It is definitely a worth ride for those willing to see natural and Atlantic Forrest scened, with lots of waterfalls, cliffs, peaks and historic sites. For more information see the Get out section

By car

Coming from São Paulo use BR-116 South. From Florianópolis use BR-101. From Porto Alegre use BR-116 North.

Get around

Curitiba has a very simple and practical transportation system. Public transportation consists entirely of buses. There are several different types of bus, each with a different function.

Driving can be difficult for those who are not used to the traffic in Curitiba, especially for first comers. In the central area, there are many one-way streets, parking restrictions as well as pedestrian-only and bus-only streets. Bus lanes are very common in Curitiba, as the city has over 60 km (38 miles) of them. Most avenues are wide and have spacious sidewalks and they are mostly laid out in a grid system in the city center area.

Public transportation is probably the best option for those visiting the city. The fare is R$ 2.20 (€ 0.75 / U$ 1.15) and you can connect for free between the bus routes if you connect inside the bus depots or the tube stations. There are also special services, like the City Center Circulator, which costs only R$ 1.00 (€ 0.40 / U$ 0.60), the Touristic Route, which serves more than 20 attractions and allows each rider visit 3 of them paying only one fare, although expensive (R$ 15.00 - € 6.00 / U$ 9.00) and the Airport Shuttle, operated with mini-buses between Curitiba downtown and Afonso Pena Airport.

Actually the best way to come from the airport to downtown is a city bus lane called "aeroporto", which final stop is located on the tube just next to the airport's main entrance. The fare is R$ 2.20, cheaper than the Airport Shuttle (R$ 8.00) and way far from taxis (R$ 50.00).

Like many cities in the world, the public bus system is overcrowded in rush hours.

See

Many tourist attractions are closed on Monday. The tourist bus is not running on that day either.

Image:Curitiba Botanical Garden.jpg
Botanical Garden of Curitiba.
  • Botanic Gardens, Eng. Ostoja Roguski Street, s/n°. Opens from 6AM-9PM during summertime; and from 6AM-8PM during the rest of the year. Curitiba's trademark, created to resemble French gardens, rolls out its flower carpet to the visitors right at the entrance. The greenhouse, with a metallic structure, has botanic species that are national reference, and also a water fountain. The native forest is filled with paths for hiking. The Botanic Museum attracts researchers from all over the world. There is a space for exhibitions, library and a theater.
  • German Wood, Niccolo Paganini Street, corner with Franz Schubert – Vista Alegre (Jardim Schaffer). The Wood opens daily 6AM-8PM; the Library from 9AM-5PM; Story Time Sa,Su 2PM. Has various features to celebrate and promote the German traditions. There are 38 thousand square meters of native forest, which was part of the old farm from the Schaffer family. The replica of an old wooden church, built in 1933 at the Seminário neighborhood, with neo-gothich decorative elements, shelters a concert hall called Bach's Oratorium. Other attractions are the John and Mary path, which tells the Grimm brothers tale, a children's library, the Philosophers Tower, a wooden observatory allowing a panoramic view of the city and the Ocean Ridge, and the German Poetry Square, with a reproduction of the Casa Mila façade, a German building from the beginning of the last century, originally located in the city center.
  • Barigüi Park,BR-277 – Rodovia do Café, Km 0 – Bigorrilho. With an area of 1.4 million square meters, it is one of the biggest parks of the city and definitely the most visited. Not only the city residents and the tourists seek rest in the park. Guinea pigs, night herons, white herons, skunks, crown sparrows, song-thrushes and dozens of other native animals make Barigüi their home. Among the features available in the Park there are: barbeques, kiosks, cycle and model airplanes tracks, multi-sports courts, gym equipment, car park, restaurant, playground, Automobile Museum, Exhibition and Convention Center, Steam Train Station and the Environment Municipal Council headquarters.
  • Barreirinha Park, 6010 Anita Garibaldi Avenue – Barreirinha. Opens daily, from 6AM-6PM. The most beautiful park of the city, one can appreciate araucarias, cinnamon, bracatingas, Paraguay tea plants and other native species. The green area, serving as an important regulator of the air quality in the region, is used by students and university teachers in practical Botanic lessons. The Municipal Forest, next to the park, has a scientific and educational role – it is responsible for the research and production of vegetable species. Among its features there are woods with over 200 thousand square meters of typical vegetation, children's library, playground, rustic cabin, snack bar, barbeques and car park.
  • Gutierrez Wood / Chico Mendes Memorial / Dolls Theater, Albino Raschendorfer Street, s/n°. – Vista Alegre. Opens daily, from 6AM-6PM. implemented in the wood on the 22nd of March, 1989, the Chico Mendes Memorial pays homage to the amazonian rubber extraction leader, who was killed in Xapuri, Acre. It comprises 18 thousand square meters of green area, with paths and a natural spring, supplying 1,350 liters of mineral water hourly. It is home to the Amazônica School and the Dadá Dolls Theater.
  • Pope's Wood, Wellington Oliveira Vianna Street, s/n°.- Centro Cívico. Opens daily from 6AM-8PM; Memorial Tu-Su 9AM-6:30PM. Polish immigration memorial, inaugurated on 13th of December, 1980, following the visit from Pop John Paul II to Curitiba, on the previous July. The area of 46,337 square meters was part of the dispossession involving the old Estearina candle factory. The seven log houses composing the memorial are a live rememberance of the faith and battle of the Polish immigrants, with objects such as the old cart, the sour cabbage pipe and the image of the patron saint, the Black Virgin of Czestochowa. In Curitiba, the Polish immigration started in 1871.
  • Portugal Wood, Ozório Duque Estrada Street, s/n°. – Jardim Social. Opens daily. homage to the Portuguese-Brazilian bonds, this space is highlighted by a track following a small brook, where one can see drawn on tiles excerpts from famous Portuguese language poets, as well as a tribute to the great Portuguese navigators and their discoveries.

Municipal libraries, located at schools or public places, with a reference collection of five thousand books inspired by two ancient landmarks: the library and the lighthouse from Alexandria. The modular building, with a metallic structure, has a height of 17 meters and 98 square meters of built area. The internal division is simple: the ground floor – where the books are, a hall and a spiral staircase, leading to the top of the tower, where there is a lair, covered with a metallic vault and above it a rooster. The Farol das Cidades, João Gava Street, s/n° - Abranches. M-F 9AM-9PM, and on Sa 9AM-1PM. The only one of its kind, is different from the others because of its collection, made of videos and CD-ROMs, equipped with computers and connected to the Internet and to the City Hall geoprocessing, with free access to the population.

  • Jerusalem Fountain, Sete de Setembro Avenue, corner with Arthur Bernardes Avenue – Seminário. Pays homage to the 3,000 years of Jerusalem. The construction in concrete and masonry has a height of 14.5 meters and was designed bythe architect Fernando Canalli. At the top there are three bronze angels, of approximately 600 kilos each, sculpted by the artist Lys Áurea Buzzi, representing the three main monotheistic religions in the world, who believe in the existence of angels and for which Jerusalem is a sacred city: Christianism, Judaism and Islamism.
  • Memory Fountain, at Garibaldi Square – São Francisco. authored by Ricardo Tod, the horse head in bronze characterizing the fountain pays homage to the old immigrant colonists, who with their carts would come from their small farms at the city's outskirts to sell their agricultural products at the center.
  • Maria Lata D'Água Fountain,Generoso Marques Square - Center, at the vicinity of the Paranaense Museum. Together with the historic houses, it was inaugurated on May 15th, 1996. Structured in concrete, it occupies an area of approximately 36 square meters and has a 60 centimeters deep water mirror. The highlight from the fountain is a reproduction of the sculpture "Água pro Morro", from the beginning of the 1940's, from Erbo Stenzel, one of the most important artists from Paraná.
  • Arab Memorial, at Claudino dos Santos Street – São Francisco. Opens from Monday to Friday, from 9AM to 6PM, and on Saturdays, 9AM to 1PM. paying homage to the Middle-Eastern culture, it works as a specialized library. The building reminds of the architectural style of the Moorish buildings, with elements such as the vault, the columns, the arches and the stained glass windows. With just over 140 square meters of built area, the Memorial has a cube shape and is placed over a water mirror. Inside the building, over a marble base is a sculpture representing the writer Gibran Kalil Gibran. It is located at Gibran Khalil Gibran Square - Center.
  • Curitiba Memorial - a space for art and folklore, information and memory, the past and the future. Built on an irregular land, the architectural project allows the creation of spaces and functional and creative installations. The dome, resembling a painting, makes evident the work's role of cultural origin.
  • Mocinhas da Cidade Fountain, at the crossing of Cruz Machado and Alameda Cabral. pays homage to the couple and country music duo Nhô Belarmino e Nhá Gabriela. With drawings from Fernando Canalli, it has colums with rods, which frame tiled pictures showing the verses of the song "Mocinhas da Cidade", immortalized by the duo and recorded for the first time at the beginning of the 1950's.
  • Capão da Imbuia Wood / Natural History Museum,Benedito Conceição Street, 407 / Prof. Nivaldo Braga Street, 1225 – Capão da Imbuia. Opens Tuesday to Sunday, from 9AM to 5:30PM. With an internal exhibition of dioramas, stuffed animals and dehydrated vegetables. At the external area is the "Araucarias Path", a wood remanent from the Araucaria Forest, where an elevated pathway goes trough a 400 meters long path, with 12 windows and panels showing the inter-relations of the natural elements found at the Araucaria Forest and also the different products from this vegetable formation, obtained and used by Man.
  • Ópera de Arame / Pedreiras Park, João Gava Street, s/n°. – Abranches. Tu-Su from 8AM to 10PM. one of the emblematic symbols of Curitiba, with tubular structure and transparent ceiling, of great beauty. Inaugurated in 1992, it caters for all types of shows, between lakes, typical vegetation and cascades, on an unique landscape. The Opera is part of the Pedreiras Park, together with the Paulo Leminski Cultural Space, where the Passion of Christ was enacted, and hosted many other big events since 1989, and can receive, in open air, 10 thousand people seating or 50 thousand standing.
  • Rosicrucian Order, 2641 Nicarágua Street – Bacacheri. M-F 8:30AM to 12 noon, Sa 2:30PM-5PM. the Grand Lodge for Brazil of the Rosicrucian Order implemented in 1956 in Rio de Janeiro was transferred to Curitiba in 1960. The temple is part of an architectural complex of six buildings in Egyptian style, a homage to the first members who would get together in the secret chambers of the great pyramid. In the other buildings are the general administration, the Auditorium H. Spencer Lewis, a memorial with a pyramid and the Curitiba Lodge, where the library and museum are located, with reproductions of Egyptian pieces from various dynasties, including papyrus and mommies.
  • Iguaçu Park/ Zoo, Mal. Floriano Avenue, s/n°. – Alto Boqueirão. Opens from Tu-F from 8:30AM-4PM; Sa, Su and public holidays, from 8:30AM to 5PM. The largest urban park in Brazil, with 8 million square meters. Equipped with car parks, kiosks, bar and snack bar, the park offers many attractions, divided in seven different areas: sports, nautics, fishing, natural wood, public orchards, ecologic sanctuaries and zoo. Here, over one thousand animals from 80 species can be seen: birds from all over South America, reptiles and mammals from many different origins, kept in an environment as close as possible to their natural habitat.
  • Passaúna Park, Eduardo Sprada Street, s/n° – Augusta. Opens daily. almost 6.5 million square meters are within the Passaúna Basin, West of Curitiba. Almost 3.5 million square meters belong to the lake created by the reservoir of the Water Supply Station. A lot of Nature can be seen from above, from the observatory, where a panoramic view surprises with its beauty and grandiosity. Ecologic trails and the Biological Station, an old brickyard, are worth visiting.
  • Tanguá Park, Dr. Bemben Street, s/n° - Pilarzinho. inaugurated in November 1996, it has a total area of 450 thousand square feet. Highlights of the park are two quarries linked by a 45 meters long tunnel, which could be crossed by walk, on a pathway over the water. The park also features a jogging track, cycle track, observatory, snack bar and Poty Lazzarotto Garden.
  • Tingüi Park, Fredolin Wolf Avenue, s/n° / José Casagrande Street, s/n° - São João. Opens – Park – daily; Memorial – Tuesday to Sunday, 9am to 6pm/ Crafts Shop – Tuesday to Sunday, 2:30pm to 6pm. part of the biggest linear environmental park in the Country, established at the Barigüi river margins, it reminds us of the indians who used to live there, with the statue of Tindiqüera Chieftain. The Ukrainian Memorial is also there, homage to the immigrants, in a replica of an orthodox church, originally built in inland Paraná State, hosting a pêssankas and icons exhibition.
  • Public Promenade, Luiz Leão Street, s/n – Center. Tu-Su, from 6AM-8PM; the aquarium works from 9AM-5PM, also from Tuesday to Sunday. used to be called Botanic Garden. The first public park in Curitiba, it was inaugurated by the president of the Paraná province, Alfredo d'Escragnolle Taunay, on the 2nd of May, 1886. It was the first big sanitation work in the city, transforming a marsh in a leisure area, with lakes, bridges and islands within the green area. Pioneer zoo in Curitiba, even today it shelters small animals. The gate is a copy of what existed at the Paris Dog Cemetery.
  • Japan Square, Sete de Setembro Avenue, junction with Rep. Argentina Avenue – Água Verde. Opens – Culture House – Tu-Su 9AM to 6PM; Tea Ceremony – Thursdays from 9AM to 4PM. homage to the sons of the "Rising Sun", who settled there dedicating themselves to agriculture. Scattered around the square are 30 cherry trees sent from Japan by the Nipponese empire and artificial lakes Japanese style. In 1993 the Japanese Portal, the Culture House and the Tea House were built.
  • Tiradentes Square, the main square in Curitiba and also its birthplace. On the north end of this square, lies Basilica Cathedral Minor of Our Lady of Light, centennial in 1993. Anciently known as Largo da Matriz, the square is the city's initial landmark. In 1880, because of the emperor D. Pedro II visit to Paraná, the Square became known as D. Pedro II. Nine years later, at the Republic, it has received the current name of Tiradentes Square. It is an important public transport terminal. It is a permanent meeting point, bringing fond memories to the common curitibano memory.
  • Reinhard Maack Wood,70 André Ferreira Camargo Street, Vl Hauer. Opens on weekends and public holidays from 8AM to 5PM. inaugurated in 1989, the wood is a homage from the city to the German geologist and researcher based in Paraná, whose work has contributed to the preservation of the environment in the State. The Wood has an area of remanent araucaria forest, with unique species in the whole region; an adventure trail with educational and ecologic toys for children; recreational equipment; and an evironmental education house.
  • 24 Horas Street, between Visconde de Nácar and Visconde do Rio Branco Streets – Center. The Street that never sleeps is the synthesis of a city which also never sleeps. It is 120 meters long and 12 meters wide. It is composed by 32 arches in metallic tubular structure, trademark of the modern curitibana architecture. There are 34 shops that are open eternally, from the daybreak sandwich to the bank withdrawal; from the pharmacy to the florist; from books to milk for the children. Great meeting point for tourists and curitibanos seeking leisure, pastimes, night life and good eating options. At 24 Horas street it also possible to have free Internet access, day and night. The user just has to schedule a time.
  • São Francisco Ruins - a space surrounded by fables, at João Cândido Square. The ruins are made of stone, of what should have been the São Francisco de Paula church, never finished. In 1811 the chapel and the sacristy were finished, but in 1860 the stones that would finish the construction were used to finish the old Matriz tower, currently the Basilica Cathedral Minor of Our Lady of Light. Stories of tunnels and pirates live in the place, today filled with leisure and business spaces, stage and grandstand, forming the "Ruins' Arcades".
  • Santa Felicidade, Along Manoel Ribas Avenue. The neighborhood where some of the first Italian immigrants arriving in Paraná settled, where they dedicated themselves to the agricultural production, planting herbs, wine and cheese making and willow tress. Almost in front of the church is the cemetery, with the unique pantheon made of 18 chapels in neo-classic style, which became heritage through the Historic and Artistic Heritage. Standing out for their architecture, the Geraniums House, the Panels House, the Arcades House and the Culpi House. The greatest attraction in Santa Felicidade is to be the gastronomic district of Curitiba, with a large number of restaurants offering typical food and wine from the colony. There are also wineries and wine bars, craft stores and willow furniture.
  • São Cristóvão / Italian Wood, Margarida Ângela Zardo Miranda Street, s/n°. M-F 8AM to 5PM. A place for the typical parties of the Italian community in the district, such as the Grape Party, the Wine Party and the 4 Giorni in Italy. It has structure for food and drink stalls, space for shows and folkloric presentations and a polenta pot.
  • Historic Area, Largo da Ordem / Praça Coronel Enéas, Praça Garibaldi – São Francisco. Complex with the oldest buildings in the city. Among these buildings are the Romário Martins House, from the XVIII century and the Church of the Third Order of Saint Francis, from 1737, as well as the architectural examples inspired by the Germans, from the second half of the XIX century. On Sunday mornings, the old stones at the Largo da Ordem and the pavement giving access to Garibaldi Square, with the Rosário Church, the Flowers Clock, the Memory Fountain and the Società Giuseppe Garibaldi make the setting for the Crafts Fair, an exciting meeting point with live music.
  • Guaíra Theater, XV de Novembro Street, s/n, Santos Andrade Square – Centro. Live memory from the multi-faceted culture of the curitibanos, it is one of the biggest theaters in Latin America. It used to be called Theatro São Theodoro, inaugurated in 1884 at Dr. Muricy Street and rebaptized in 1900 as Guaíra Theater. It was demolished in 1930 and the rebuilding, in 1952, already at the current location, was linked to the celebrations of the Centenary of Political Emancipation of Paraná (19th of December, 1953). It only got finished in the 70's. There are three auditoriums, the biggest of them with 2173 seats.
  • Paiol Theater, Chile Street, corner with Reynaldo Machado Street – Prado Velho. Opens daily, from 8:30AM–noon and 1PM-9PM. Symbol of the cultural change in Curitiba in the 1970's, it inaugurated the process of recycling the use of buildings which are valuable for the city's collective memory. Built in 1906, the old gunpowder barn was restored and recycled in the 1970's, becoming an arena theater. Its inauguration on December 27th 1971, was baptized by the poet Vinícius de Moraes, with whisky and a song specially composed for the occasion, "Paiol de Pólvora". In the inauguration show, besides the "poetinha", Toquinho and Marília Medalha also took part.
  • Mercês Tower, Prof. Lycio Grein de Castro Vellozo Street, corner with Jacarezinho Street – Mercês. Tu-Su 10AM-7PM. The highest point in Curitiba, allowing a 360 degree vision of the city, from a height of 95 meters. It is managed by Telepar and Curitiba City Hall, which promote video sessions and tourism guidance. Also there is the Telephone Museum.
  • Tropeiros Park, Maria Lúcia Locher de Athayde Street, 10.000 – Cidade Industrial. It is open on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays, from 8AM to 7PM. Here the gaucho culture is preserved, brought by the cattle drivers who would pass near Curitiba, conducting the troops towards the Sorocaba Fair, which gave origin to various cities in the State. The park is equipped with installations suitable for rodeos and typical dances.
  • Feira do Largo da Ordem [1] (Largo da Ordem's Street Fair) it is an open market , happens on all sunday mornings , there you can find craftmanship , paintings , sculptures , typical foods , street artists , ecological pencils (Natural de Curitiba), old car exhibition and a lot more.
  • Feira da praça da Espanha (Spain Square's Fair) it is a trade of antiquities, placed at the Spain square.

Best places to go shopping in Curitiba, just like any place else in Brazil, are the Shoppping Malls. As of may 2007, there are 5 main Shopping Malls in Curitiba: Mueller (www.shoppingmueller.com.br), Estação (www.shoppingestacao.com.br), Curitiba (www.shoppingcuritiba.com.br), Crystal (www.shoppingcrystal.com.br) e Park Barigüi (www.parkshoppingbarigui.com.br). In 2008, the new Shopping Palladium will be opened (www.shoppingpalladium.com.br).

If you like to walk outside, there are some nice places in Batel. Walk along Carlos de Carvalho street and its crossing streets. If you are looking for something from well-known international brands like Prada, Dior, Armani, D&G and Diesel, you might like "Maison Capoani" a boutique located at end of Comendador Araújo Street on Batel, near to Crystal Shopping Center.

Eat

Curitiba has a good variety of restaurants, ranging from modest to upscale restaurants.

  • Montesquieu Bar, Corner of Westphalen and Silva Jardim St. (downtown). There are probabily the biggest sandwiches in Brazil - "x-montanha" (cheese mountain) is a sandwich with may layers of bread and meat, and it's very inexpensive (around US$2).
  • Spich Restaurant, in front of Osorio Square (downtown). Inexpensive downtown restaurant, very simple but will supply the daily needs of calories. A variety of food complements combined with two options of meat - R$ 4,00 (US$2).
  • Buffet Julia Cristina, Voluntarios da Patria St.(downtown). An "all-you-can eat" located next to Osorio Square, good home-made food for just R$ 5,00 (US$2.50).
  • Santa Felicidade is a neighborhood where you can find Italian food restaurants.
  • Taco El Pancho, Rua Bispo Dom José ,2295 Bairro: Batel [2]. Good Mexican restaurant.
  • Piola Pizzeria, Rua Dom Pedro II, 105 +55 (41) 3225-7725, [3]. Very nice pizza, pasta and drinks.
  • Churrascaria Curitibana, Avenida Iguaçu, 1315, Rebouças, +554132335287. Good meat!
  • Famiglia Originale, Avenida Munhoz da Rocha, 665, Cabral, +554130190909. Excelent Italian Food, the best Strognoff Pizza!
  • Tropilha Grill, Rua Emiliano Perneta, 700, Centro, +554130855444, Great Meat and service! [4]
  • Durski, [5]. Slavic cuisine (Ukranian, Polish and Russian) in the Old Town.
  • Grimpa Steakhouse, [6].
  • Le Rechaud, [7]. Very good swiss restaurant good for couples, with a very reserved atmosphere.
  • Saanga Grill, [8].
  • Ippon Japanese The best Japanese restaurant in the town. An all-you-can-eat option is offered for R$ 43.90, very worthy though.
  • Flor da Favela Rua Buenos Aires, 80 - Batel, Curitiba. Phone: +55(41) 3232-5380. A local bar inspired on the brazilian slums. Colorful decoration with graffiti, the bar attracts couples and students who get together for a glass of beer and nice food. Try the "Bolinho de Aipim", a cassava mini cake with cheese.
  • Cat's Club[9]Al. Dr. Muricy, 949 - Downtown. Phone +55(41) 3224 5912 .One of the most traditional clubs in Curitiba, if not the most, the customers are a mix and it is the best place if you want to have fun, Paola Full Drag queen and Security will be in the door warning the people for what is coming inside, the public is of all styles gays, lesbians, bisexuals and a large number of straights.
  • James Bar[10] Av. Vicente Machado, 894 - Downtown. Phone: +55(41) 3222-1426. If you wanna a more "alternative" club, James is a good option. Wednesday night rock parties and Saturdays (Indie/Electronica) are highly recommended. Gay friendly.
  • Wonka Bar Rua Trajano Reis , 326 - São Francisco. Phone:+55(41) 3026 6272. Classic club in old downtown. Some of the best local bands play here. A plenty of good looking girls (boys) in the weekends :)
  • Sheridan's Irish Pub [11] Rua Bispo Dom José , 2315 - Batel. Phone:+55(41)3343-7779. Good place to get a pint. Don´t miss the local artesanal beers.
  • Soviet Vodka Bar [12] Rua Bispo Dom José , 2277 - Batel. Phone:+55(41)3022-2042. Vodkas from all over world.
  • 5th Ave Manhattan Lounge [13] Rua Angelo Sampaio 1785 - Batel. Phone: +55(41)3082-2464. New York style Lounge / Bar
  • YHI Hostel Roma, Rua Barão do Rio Branco 805 (In walking distance from the Rodoferroviaria, next to the old railway station.), 41 224-2117, [14]. A simple, clean and quiet hostel near the city centre. The breakfast is a great buffet. dorm R$22 for YHI members incl. breakfast.  edit
  • Formule 1 Curitiba, Rua Mariano Torres, 927 - Centro (walking distance from the central bus/train station), +55 41 3218-3838 (, fax: +55 41 3218-3839), [15]. checkin: 12.00; checkout: 12.00. Formule 1 is the McDonald's or Ryanair of hotels, with spotless professionalism and good quality, although without charm. The rooms can accomodate 3 people but the price is the same regardless of how many are staying there. Breakfast costs extra. Triple R$ 65.  edit
  • Hotel Promenade, (near the central bus station), [16]. Modern hotel.  edit
  • Four Points by Sheraton Curitiba, Av. Sete de Setembro 4211, Agua Verde, [17]. US$130 - US$800.00.  edit

Stay safe

Curitiba has been known for many years as a safe city thanks to its low crime rate compared to Brazilian cities of a similar size, although it's been on the rise recently. However, it has yet to reach the epidemic proportions of cities like Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

As any big city, both residents and tourists are advised to avoid certain areas after dusk. In spite of the fact that Curitibans are more reserved people compared to the average Brazilian, the lack of people in the streets at night reflects a general fear of thefts and assaults, as most people prefer to get around by car.

Crime involving tourists is generally non-violent and related to thefts and pickpocketing. In general, neigborhoods are relatively safe, however caution should be excerted in the following (particularly at night):

  • Surroundings of the Bus Terminal; if you arrive late, take a taxi even if your hotel is close
  • Tiradentes Square in downtown
  • Historical Center
  • Downtown and surroundings
  • Rebouças and Prado Velho neighborhoods

At night it is best to get around by taxi.

In general, a common-sense approach to personal safety is advised. Curitiba is a big city, and with it come the usual problems (poverty, homelessness, drugs, prostitution, etc...). Be cautious with your personal belongings, and avoid walking around unknown neighbourhoods at night.

  • The Serra Verde Express[20], a train to the coastal town of Morretes, makes an excellent day trip. The ride departs daily at 08:15 in the morning, descends through some of last remaining Atlantic rainforest and offers some spectacular views (not to mention it is one of the few train rides in Brazil). On Sundays the train continues to Paranaguá, although the last bit between Morretes and Paranaguá is not very scenic. There are three price levels of the tickets claiming to offer different levels of luxury: one-way tickets are R$28 for econômico class (hard to come by), R$53 for turistico and R$84 for executivo class. Buy the cheapest ticket you can get since there really is not much difference between the cars. The return ticket is about 30% cheaper. In addition to the regular train, there's a special tourist train, the litorina, which only runs on weekends. One-way fare for the litorina is R$126.
Routes through Curitiba
Resumes near Santos ← END ←  N noframe S  JoinvilleFlorianópolis
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Map of Brazil with the location of Curitiba in red

Proper noun

Singular
Curitiba

Plural
-

Curitiba

  1. State capital of Paraná (Brazil) and the largest city in southern Brazil.

Translations


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordines: Unassigned Eurosids I
Cladus: Unassigned Rosids
Ordo: Myrtales
Familia: Myrtaceae
Subfamilia: Myrtoideae
Tribus: Myrteae
Genus: Curitiba
Species C. prismatica

Name

Curitiba Salywon & Landrum, Brittonia 59(4): 302. 2007.

Type species: C. prismatica (D. Legrand) Salywon & Landrum

References

  • The International Plant Names Index (2009). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org [accessed Oct 02 2009]

Simple English

Curitiba
—  Capital  —
View of the Botanic Garden of Curitiba
File:CURITIBA Brasã
Seal
Nickname(s): Ctba; CWB
Motto: A cidade sorriso ("The smiling city")
Map of Paraná with the location of Curitiba
Map of Brazil with the location of Curitiba in red
Coordinates: 25°25′S 49°15′W / 25.417°S 49.25°W / -25.417; -49.25
Country Brazil
State Paraná
Region South
Boroughs Matriz, Santa Felicidade, Boa Vista, Cajuru, Fazendinha/Portão, Boqueirão, Pinheirinho, Bairro Novo and Cidade Industrial de Curitiba
Founded 29 March 1693
Incorporated 1842
Government
 - Mayor Luciano Ducci (PSB)
Area
 - Capital 430.9 km2 (166.4 sq mi)
 - Metro 15,416.9 km2 (5,952.5 sq mi)
Elevation 934.6 m (3,066.3 ft)
Population (2008)[1]
 - Capital 1,828,092
 Density 4.202,83/km2 (10,748.5/sq mi)
 Metro 3,261,168
 - Metro Density 210.9/km2 (546.2/sq mi)
 - Demonym Curitibano
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 - Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
Postal Code 80000-XXX to 80240-XXX
Area code(s) +55 (41)
HDI (2000) 0.856 – high
Gini 0,5[2]
Patron saint Our Lady of Light of Pine Forests
Website Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba

Curitiba (pron. IPA: [kuɾi'tibɐ] or IPA: [kuɾi'tʃibɐ]) is one of the most important cities in the southern part of Brazil.[3][4] Curitiba is the capital of the state of Paraná. The city has more than 1,800,000 people living in it[1] and covers an area of 430.9 km². It is the 7th largest Brazilian city and 4th largest in the Southern Cone (the south part of South America). The city has the largest population and the largest economy in Southern Brazil.[5] The urban area of Curitiba is looked after by 26 local governments and has 3,335,588 people living there.

Curitiba started in 1693 as a small village. It becmme an important trading stop because a road was opened. The road joined the southeast area to Southern Brazil. In 1853, it became the capital of the newly made province of Paraná. Since then, the city has seen a lot of urban growth. During the 19th century, many European people arrived, including Germans, Poles, Ukrainians and Italians. They added to the cultural mix that still is there. The city made plans and laws to slow the growth of the city and that have led to the city being famous[6] for its new ideas and connection to the environment.[7][8] Most of the new ideas were in the public transport system[9]. Today, the city has a sense of cosmopolitan life and is said to be the safest city in Brazil.[10] It is the Brazilian capital with the best quality of living and is a diversified industrial center that gives Curitiba the rank of 4th largest economy in Brazil[11]; the largest in the southern region. The city is said to be one of the five best cities to invest in in Latin America[12]

Large companies have moved their headquarters to the city because of Curitiba's structure, its international airport which serves the whole southern region (the Afonso Pena International Airport),[13], it is close to the Port of Paranaguá and the junction of highways and railroads linking the south region directly to the southeast of the country. Many multinational automotive (car) companies are located in Greater Curitiba, which makes Curitiba the second largest automotive center in the country. Curitiba is an important cultural, political and economic center in the country.

Curitiba has high rates of education and is home to the oldest Brazilian university, the Federal University of Paraná.[5] People from Curitiba are called curitibanos in Portuguese language, and Curitibans in English language.[14]

Contents

The name

The name Curitiba comes from the large number of Brazilian "Pines", commonly called "Parana Pine" (Araucaria angustifolia) which grew in the region before the city was built.[15] There are two reasons for the name: the indians of the Tupi nation, namely the Jê and the Guarani, used the word corae ("pine seed") atuba ("a lot"). The other reason, also from the Tupi language, comes from the joining of kurit ("pine tree") and yba ("large amount"). So, "Curitiba" means something as "Land of Abundant Pines".[15]

Transport

Curitiba is known for the urban differentiated solutions,[16] notably for the integrated system of transport of people, together with the regular transit routes, has served, especially from the 1970s, to encourage urban development.[17]

The public transport system in Curitiba features large passenger terminals[18] connected by roads used only by the buses Vermelhos ("Red Buses"), the Expressos ("Express Buses"), Articulados ("Articulated buses") and Biarticulados ("Biarticulated buses"). The biarticulated bus travels on long trips, stopping only on the tube-station stops to pick up or set down people. Each biarticulated bus can carry 270 people - and complemented with the speedy silver Ligeirinho (literally, "speedy"), with an modern design, has fewer stops, therefore shortening distances – when compared to the Linha Direta ("Direct Line") – due to saved time, and feeders differentiated by color.


This model has inspired similar experiments in cities of other countries,[19] such as Los Angeles and New York City,[20] where, in the 1990s, the installation of an experimental line of "ligeirinho" in the city, connecting the city to the World Trade Center. The system is the source of inspiration for the TransMilenio in Bogotá, Colombia, Metrovia in Guayaquil, Ecuador,as well as the Orange Line of Los Angeles, California, and for a future transportation system in Panama City, Panama.[20][21]

City planning

Around the city and commonly integrated with the terminals of buses, are the Ruas da Cidadania ("Streets of Citizenship"), municipal centers bringing together municipal departments and public agencies, state and federal, points of trade, services, free Internet access and equipment, leisure, as playgrounds, and space of all kind sports. s), one of the first major pedestrian streets in Brazil.]] Recent measurements indicate that the green area of Curitiba is of 51.5 metres per capita[22] - about three times the minimum area recommended by the UN - one of the highest in Brazil and higher than cities like London or Paris.[23] These areas are composed primarily by municipal parks and forests to protect the forests gallery of local rivers. There are also in a variety of city squares and public grounds, usually associated with public roads and wooded.[24]

The urban zoning of the city, the integrated transport system, has allowed a development architectural and urban taken by some analysts as cohesive and harmony without the main problems of large modern cities.[25][26] Curitiba, including, recently recommended by UNESCO as one of the city-model for the reconstruction of the cities of Afghanistan,[27] after the military intervention occurred in that country in 2001.

Curitiba was the inspiration for Francis Ford Coppola,[28] when looking for the "perfect city" in order to create the Megalopolis (a huge city "which is good for its citizens"[29] for his movie).[30] The director lived in Curitiba for a few weeks and praised the city in several of his lectures around the world,[31] as the only Brazilian city praised[32] by this famous producer of films.

In the 1990s, the city won the United Nations Environment Program prize - UNEP, from the UN, said to be the top prize of the environment in the world. In June 1996, the chairman of the Habitat II summit of mayors and urban planners in Istanbul said Curitiba was "the most innovative city in the world." In 2003, the city received the title of Capital of Culture of the Americas by the entity CAC-ACC. In 2006, Curitiba hosted the event COP8/COP-MOP3 the UN. Today, Curitiba is considered one of the best examples of urban planning worldwide.[33] , where nowadays is a deep wood of 37.000 m² with native forest, many species of birds and with a lake of 8 meters deep, with carp.]] In 1991 the city asked the French oceanographer Jacques Cousteau to open the Free University of the Environment, being an place for learning about the environment and ecology for the population. Since was created, the UNILIVRE is a reference about studies in economically sustainable preservation of ecosystems,[34] serving as a model for other similar institutions in various parts of the world, as in Cordoba (Argentina), Río Grande (Patagonia), Seoul (Korea) and Guadalajara (Mexico),[35] and in many other Brazilian cities.

The capital of the state of Paraná was the only Brazilian city to enter the 21st century as a reference for national and international urban planning and quality of life; a search by the American magazine Reader's Digest, it was the Brazilian municipality better placed in the ranking of the best cities in the world to live.[36] In March 2001, a poll sponsored by the UN pointed Curitiba as the best capital of Brazil by the Index of Living Conditions (ILC)[37] and second best among the HDI of Brazilian capitals.[37] The city is the gateway to entering the Mercosur (the southern zone common market of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay).

The city recently was identified as the Brazilian capital with the lowest rate of illiteracy,[38] and also indicated as number 1 in the national education between the Brazilian capitals,[39] and one of the five best cities for investment in Latin America.

According study of the América Economia magazine, published in the Special Edition Cities 2006, which has the title "The City Innovative", Curitiba is ahead of important capitals as Mexico City, Buenos Aires and Brasilia, occupying the fifth placing. The magazine considered the main Latin American economies or those that have relevance to the business conducted on the continent. In the front of the Paraná state capital are just São Paulo, Brazil, first in the ranking; Santiago, Chile; Monterrey, Mexico; and Miami, USA. In 2009, was one of the three most "smartest" cities in the world according to Forbes magazine.[40] The criteria were cared about the environment, quality of life, urban planning, good infrastructure and an strong economy.

The city was the first in Brazil to introduce the separation of domestic garbage on a wide-scale basis.[41] The acclaimed program Lixo que não é Lixo (literally, "Garbage that isn’t Garbage"; a successful recycling program) created in 1989 has become a paradigm of care for the environment. Actually, Curitiba is the Brazilian city that more recycles the garbage: currently, 22% of all the waste produced[42] - about 450 tons per day - are recycled.[43]

In 2007 the city was the third place in a list of "15 Green Cities" in the world, according the American site "Grist".[44] In the same year, the city was featured in the american newspaper "The New York Times"; the reportage, with 8 pages, features many innovations of the city, saying that Curitiba remains a destination for urban planners from various parts of the world, fascinated with the public transport system, program for recycling of garbage and the group of parks in the city.[45]

The MasterCard Emerging Markets Index 2008, created to evaluate and compare the performance of cities in different functions that connect markets and commerce worldwide, show Curitiba as the safest city in Brazil - considering indicators such as freedom of expression, risk of natural disasters and personnal security - in addition to being in 49th position among the cities with the greatest influence in the world.[10]

Curitiba won the Globe Award Sustainable City 2010 and was chosen unanimously by the committee[46]. At the same year, was elected by América Economía Magazine as one of the best cities for doing business in Latin America[47].

History

Curitiba used to be a forest where the tribe Tingüi used to live. During the 16th century, Europeans began to go to war with this tribe.

Geography

Localization

Curitiba is located on the first plateau of Paraná, in the most flat area, also called plateau curitibano. Occupy an geographical area of 432.17 km², in the latitude 25º25'40"S and longitude 49º16'23"W. The coastline of the state is a distance of 70 km from the city (Atlantic Ocean). The capital has a north-south length of 35 km, and 20 km east-west.

Distance from Curitiba to some cities of Brazil and Mercosur:

  • São Paulo: 335 km/ 208 miles
  • Foz do Iguaçu: 523 km/ 288 miles
  • Brasília: 1077 km/ 669 miles
  • Florianópolis: 300 km
  • La Paz (Bolivia): 2194 km/ 1363 miles
  • Manaus: 2722 km/ 1691 miles

Terrain

of the Sea (Serra do Mar), view of the Center of Curitiba]]

The city has surface of 432.17 km² in the First Plateau of Paraná. The terrain of Curitiba is just a little wavy. The average altitude of the city is 934.6m above sea level, ranging between minimum and maximum values of 900 and 1,000 meters, approximately.

Curitiba has a wavy topography of smooth rounded hills, an terrain a little wavy, giving a relatively regular physiognomy.

The municipality of Curitiba has an average altitude of 934.6 m above sea level, where the highest point is to the north (1.021,00m). To the south is the situation of lower altitude (864,9m).

There are mountain ranges and sets of rocky elevations in practically all around the city, being the most remarkable and impressive of the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Mountain Range of the Sea"), located in the east that separates the plateau from the coast of Paraná.

Climate

Curitiba's climate is usually mild all year round though locals complain that the weather can change at anytime. It can be hot in winter and cold in summer. Even in one day there can be great differences.

The flat terrain, lakes and marshland help its mild damp winters, with an average temperature of 13°C (57°F), but it can fall a bit below 0°C (32°F) on the coldest days. During summer, the average temperature is around 21°C (70°F), but sometimes gets around 32°C (90°F) on hot days.

Located in Southern Brazil, Curitiba is a humid city in the subtropical zone. It is the coldest of Brazil's twenty-six state capitals, because of the altitude. The city is on a plateau 932 m (3107 ft) above sea level. The city is in the Atlantic Rainforest region with the higher peaks of a mountain range making a barrier that separate it from the Atlantic Ocean just 105 km (65 miles) away.

Hydrography and Pluviometry

The catchment area of Curitiba consists of several rivers and streams that cross the city in different directions, grouped in six river basins. The main rivers that form the watershed of the city are: Atuba River, Belém River, Barigüi River, Passaúna River, Ribeirão dos Padilhas and the Iguaçu River, all with characteristics of dendritic drainage. Since the 1970s, Curitiba has working on alternatives to minimize the negative impacts of urbanization on rivers. An example of this was the construction of parks along the rivers with artificial lakes, which retain the water for longer periods of time, minimizing floods.[48] Currently, after many studies about the local water passages, almost all the rivers are in canalization process. Other alternatives developed to minimize the effects of urbanization are the implementation of the programs for environmental education, inspection and monitoring, elaboration and application of legislation and infrastructure works.[48]

The index reaches 1,500 mm rainfall on average per year, because the rains are constant in the climate of the city. It happens, among other reasons, because of the large deforestation of the Mountain Range of the Sea (Serra do Mar), natural barrier to moisture.

Vegetation

Curitiba is located in the area of vegetation called Araucaria moist forests, composed of steppes, Araucaria forest and other formations.

In the local vegetation still appear remnants of the parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia), which resisted the action of modern civilization. The parana pines are in private and public areas, now protected by environmental legislation which prevents it from being overturned. The Municipal Secretariat of the Environment maintains a botanical garden and three green houses for the annual production of 150,000 seedlings of native and exotic tree species, 16,000 seedlings of fruit trees, 260,000 seedlings of flowers, foliage and underbrush, on top of the total maintenance of 350,000 seedlings.[48] The green area of the city is one of largest in Brazil.

The vegetation of Curitiba is also characterized by the existence of a large quantity of purple and yellow ipês (tabebuias), making a spectacle of beauty to the landscape of the city during the flowering in the end of winter. Currently, the yellow ipê is the most common tree in the city.[49]

Neighborhoods

Bairros (neighbourhoods) of Curitiba are geographical divisions of the city. There is no delegation of administrative powers to neighborhoods, although there are several neighborhoods associations devoted to improve their own standards of living.

Curitiba is divided into 9 regional governments (boroughs), covering the 75 neighbourhoods of the city. All districts are served by the system of integrated urban transport.

In the second half of the 19th century many European immigrants formed colonial settlements. These settlemenrs developed into the modern-day districts and neighbourhoods of Curitiba.

The centre ("Downtown" in American English or "CBD" - central business district - in other English use), is the place where the city was founded. It is the busiest area, most of the financial institutions of Curitiba are located there.

Social issues

The growth of urban population of Curitiba, that turned the city in an modern metropolis, has generated some social problems. Like other major Brazilian cities, Curitiba has seen the emergence of slums in some neighborhoods and around the city, and the growth of street inhabitants, that many times had been sent of other cities and States, and are dropped in the streets of the city.[50][51] This fact has made a small growth of crime level, but is not comparable to other major Brazilian cities.

Moreover, many rivers contains levels of pollution; the landfill (deposit of garbage) is almost full; the public transport sometimes is not enough for the quantity of people (in the rush hour), and the Brazilian government does not yield funds for the construction of a subway in the city.[52]

Architecture

.]] A variety of architectural styles, ancient and modern, make the urban landscape of Curitiba be very interesting and represent an enormous cultural heritage.

The architecture that is in Curitiba has a strong influence of the culture of immigrants, from various countries, mainly Europe.

Buildings in eclectic architecture, neoclassical, colonial, Byzantine, oriental, and styles inspired by the land of immigrants confirm the diversity and cultural richness of Curitiba. Its possible find places that still keeps lambrequins (short ornaments, typical of some European places in the past, to the top of roofs or windows), palaces in the urban area, buildings made between the nature, and even the first rotating building in the world,[53][54][55] who are harmoniously distributed in the city.

Also, buildings that are integrate with nature is a tendency to 21st century and reflect an important style of Curitiba, as can see in some famous places of the city.

Because it is a planned city, the administration uses a rigid plan for growth, aiming to facilitate the use of public transport. The idea was to organize the city along transport corridors.[9] The buildings are close to major bus lines. The rule is simple: buildings with more than eight floors can only be built in the first block, near the corridor. Buildings with less than eight floors, in the second block, and in other, smaller buildings and houses.[56] This encourages the system bus, that is widely used, reducing the number of cars.[57]

The people

In 2007 there were 1,797,408 people living in the city of Curitiba. In 2000, Curitiba was the seventh biggest city in Brazil. It is the biggest city in the southern part of the country, as big as second and third largest cities in the south together. In the same year, the city was the leader in longevity, with life expectancy at birth of 71.6 years of age.[58] In 2007, there were 3,230,000 people living in the urban areas around Curitiba. The population density was 4.159,4 inh./km². The census showed the numbers: 2,503,250 White people (77.4%), 584,000 Pardo people (18.2%), 93,000 Black people (2.9%), 45,000 Asian or Amerindian people (1.4%).[59]

descent celebrating Easter in Curitiba.]]
  • Municipal Population: 1,797,408 inhabitants (100% urban; 52.07% men and 47.93% women)
  • Total metropolitan population: 3,335,588 inhabitants
  • Population density: 4.111,9 inhabitants/km²
  • Fertility rate: 1,74 children per woman
  • Literacy rate: 96.63%
  • Human Development Index (HDI-M): 0856
    • HDI-M Income: 0.846
    • HDI-M Longevity: 0.776
    • HDI-M Education: 0.946

Population growth

1780 1858 1872 1890 1900
2.949
11.313
12.651
24.553
49.755
1920 1940 1950 1960 1970
78.986
140.656
180.575
356.830
624.362
1980 1991 1996 2000 2007
1.025.979
1.290.142
1.476.253
1.586.848
1.797.408

Economy

Curitiba is the economic center of the southern Brazil and is among the four largest GDP of the country. The city concentrates the largest portion of the structure of government and public services of the Paraná state and hosts major companies in the sectors of trade, services and financial things. The city has the strongest economy of the south of the country, because the work of export of more than 900 factories located just in the Cidade Industrial neighborhood and major automobile industries which are located in the Greater Curitiba.

The city was elected several times as "The Best Brazilian City for Business",[60] according to rankings done by the Exame magazine, in partnership with the consultancy Simonsen & Associates.[61] In July 2001, Curitiba has become the first city in the country to receive the prize "Pole of Information Technology", granted by InfoExame magazine, because the performance of their companies of technology. According to the magazine, the number of companies of "Technology and Information Technology" based in Curitiba submitted in 2001 a turnover of US$1.2 billion, representing a growth of 21% over the previous year.[62] According to a study done by the International Congress & Convention Association (ICCA), Curitiba is the sixth Brazilian city with the largest number of international events.[63]

In 2007, the respected Veja magazine indicates Curitiba as the best destination for business in Brazil.[64] Ninety-four experts, chosen by the magazine, show the capital as the best Brazilian city for investment. The city is becoming one of the largest and most important centers of technology, attracting giants of the sector of information technology in the areas of software and hardware, becoming the national pole.

Gross domestic product

s Street") - "the street that doesn’t sleep" - Have 34 stores that never close and freely access to the Internet any time of the day or night.]] Analyzing the GDP of Curitiba, it appears that in the period 1995 to 2000 the economy grew about 3% a year.

About the GDP per capita, in 2000, the city had an income of 37% higher than Brazil. In the same year, the economic sector that compose most of GDP in Curitiba was the service sector with 38.8%, followed by the industrial sector with 36%.

Approximately 40% of GDP comes from the industry and the rest of activities related to the tertiary sector.[65]

Participation in GDP
Gross Domestic Product
$5.573.796.668,02%
GDP per capita
$ 4.038,92%

Education

In the 1990s, the city started a project called Faróis de Saber ("Lighthouses of Knowledge"). These Lighthouses are free educational centers which include libraries, Internet access, and other cultural resources. This community libraries works with municipal schools, have a collection of approximately 5000 books, and be cultural reference and leisure for the community, and are designed to diversify the opportunities of access to knowledge, expanding the area of formal education.[7] In each quarter of the city these "Lighthouses of Knowledge" have been implanted containing library and room of computer science, to public use, mainly by students; job training, social welfare and educational programs are coordinated, and often supply labor to improve the city's amenities or services, as well as education and income.

Among the Brazilian capitals, Curitiba has the lowest rate of illiteracy,[38] and also number 1 in education between the Brazilian capitals.[39]

Curitiba has many universities, being Universidade Federal do Paraná ("Federal University of Paraná") the most important of the region, and the oldest of Brazil.

Portuguese is the official national language, and is the primary language used in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Tourism

Every year, tourism grows in Curitiba. To attend this demand, the Linha Turismo ("Tourism Line") started in 1994. Its a special city tour that visits the principal tourist attractions in Curitiba, featuring comfortable white buses with big windows and a shape similar to that of streetcars. The vehicles are equipped with a sound system that plays recorded messages describing sites in three different languages: Portuguese, English and Spanish. It is possible to visit the parks, squares and the rest of the city's tourist attractions. Considered one of the best in the country, the Linha Turismo is available every thirty minutes and has a two and a half-hour tour, which travels around forty-four kilometers. To go on the tour you must buy a ticket with five tickets that give you the right to get on and off bus four times. Users can therefore choose the touristic point where they want to stay longer. Then, they can embark again to complete the remaining part of the itinerary. Today the line goes to 25 key reference points in Curitiba, completing 44 km in 2 and ½ hours.

According to a study done by the International Congress & Convention Association (ICCA), Curitiba is the sixth Brazilian city with the largest number of international events and,[61] according to the FIPE, is the third city to receive foreign tourists for business.[66] In 2006 the city was the 6th position among the best Brazilian cities to hold events and tourism business; in the same year, the flow of tourists exceeded the number of inhabitants. About the 2 million visitors, approximately half landed the business.[64] To attend the growing demand, the number of hotels in the city has developed and is now considered the fourth largest in the country. Curitiba and its Metropolitan Area have a modern hotel infrastructure, with 150 hotels and service flats totaling 18 thousand beds (as per May, 2005). The good restaurants and customized services are approved by 92.4% of those who leave the city, according the Secretariat of State for Tourism of Paraná. In 2007 was elected as one of the 4 best Brazilian cities for travel and tourism, according to a major Brazilian magazine about tourism.[67] In 2008 another important magazine said that Curitiba is the best cultural destination and better cost-benefit to tourism in the South region of Brazil.[68]

Gallery

Culture

Gastronomy

The pine nuts (seeds of Parana Pine) is probably the most characteristic element in the gastronomy of Paraná and Curitiba; its used not only as aperitif, but with traditional recipes that pass from generation to generation. Among the ingredients used, the pine nuts is a major, not only in Midwinter party (Festa Junina, the annual Brazilian celebration which take place in the beginning of the Brazilian winter), but also in the diet of day-to-day. Pancakes, breads, cakes, soups and appetizers are just some of the recipes prepared with this seed. The colonization and migration contributed to the mixture of flavors and dishes found in the state. Indigenous and even Brazilians from other states added its revenue in local cuisine.

In Curitiba is possible find great restaurants, of all kind. There are options for all tastes and palates, the regional to international cuisine. The city have food establishments specializing in German, Polish, Chinese, Arabic, Japanese, Italian, Portuguese, Indian, Mexican, etc., and, of course, regional cuisines of Brazil. For those who like a good Italian food, Santa Felicidade neighborhood is considered the gastronomic district of the city; the place where some of the first Italian immigrants arriving in Paraná settled, where they dedicated themselves to the agricultural production, planting herbs, wine and cheese making and willow tress, the greatest attraction in Santa Felicidade is to be the gastronomic district of Curitiba, with a large number of restaurants offering typical food and wine from the colony. There are also wineries and wine bars, craft stores and willow furniture. According to the Guinness Book, the largest restaurant of Americas is located in this Curitiba neighborhood.[1]

Events

Every Sunday mornings, in the Historic Area, in the old stoned streets at the Largo da Ordem and the pavement giving access to Garibaldi Square, with the Rosário Church, the Flowers Clock, the Memory Fountain and the Società Giuseppe Garibaldi make the space for the Crafts Fair, an exciting meeting point with live music. The Feira do Largo da Ordem ("Largo da Ordem's Street Fair") it is an open market, where you can find handicrafts, paintings, sculptures, typical foods, street artists, old car exhibition and a lot more. It is also possible to watch live small musical shows from local musicians or see some clowns doing humorous performances. It is quite pleasant and interesting to go there for a walk and buy a few souvenirs of Curitiba.

The Oficina de Música de Curitiba ("Music Workshop of Curitiba") was established in 1983, with the proposal to discover and train new talent. Nowadays its one of the biggest Brazilian events for training, retraining and improvement of musicians. Join the Workshop of Music, held every year in January, students and teachers from all over Brazil (about 2,000 students and more than 100 teachers); among students and teachers, the Office of Music had, over editions, with representatives from throughout Latin America (mainly from Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay), United States, France, Switzerland, Holland, England, Germany, Norway, Spain, Italy, Portugal, China and Israel. The best instrumentalists, conductors and singers of Brazil, by classical music and popular, within the framework of teachers and directors of the workshop. Grand masters of other countries are special guests and, apart from giving lessons, make unprecedented concerts for the public of the city.

Curitiba has a strong relationship with the performing arts and theatre. The city hosts since 1992 a major festival of theatre, the Festival de Teatro de Curitiba, composed of international attractions, large national attractions, local presentations, and alternative exhibitions, which each year attracts a large number of tourists and made an expressive cultural movement. Until 2007, were presented officially 1607 spectacles, to an audience estimated at 1.2 million people. The city has theatres with excellent techno-acoustic feedback, as the Teatro Guaíra, one of the largest rooms in number of spectators by South America.

In November, happens the Maratona Ecológica Internacional de Curitiba ("Curitiba International Ecological Marathon"). This marathon is known as the hardest in Brazil,[2] because happens in the end of the year, when usually is warm weather in the city (because is summer in Southern Hemisphere), and the hilly course, with many of the inclines being in the last 10 km. To compensate the hard course, runners count with good structure[3] and enthusiastic fans cheering along the course.[4]


In December, the city becomes the "Capital of Christmas", and be one of the most tourist place at this time of year, because the mild climate, and has many free cultural attractions. The most traditional is the choir of the Palácio Avenida: 160 poor children of charities institutes sing Christmas songs in windows of a historic building adorned with 90 thousand lamps, attracting thousands of spectators. It is probably the best known Christmas event in Brazil. Moreover, the entire city be decorated in two official events, the "Christmas of Light" and "Enchanted Christmas", where several tourist attractions are decorated for Christmas, as well as free theatre shows on public places and parks, bands and orchestras in public places showing traditional musics, many giant Christmas trees around the city, special fairs with Christmas things, prizes for the most lighted houses, etc.

Every year, the Crystal Fashion Week occurs in the city, together with the Fashion's Forum. It is the biggest event about fashion in the southern Brazil,[5] and generally the launching party occurs in the Castelo do Batel ("Batel Castle") (an old mansion from the beginning of last century, becamed in space for events), and the parades and presentations happens in the Shopping Crystal Plaza. Participate of the fashion week national and international celebrities, fashion designers, fashion professionals and people interested in style, which has famous marks of clothes[6] - and footwear stores and jewelry shops, as occurred in the XVIII edition of the event in 2008.

Every year, happens in Curitiba the largest Gay Pride Parade in Southern Brazil,[7] called Parada da Diversidade ("Parade of Diversity"), covering not only the discussion of gender but also other social minorities historically discriminated. With a mix of celebration and political claim, it happens since 1995.[8]

The city hosts the Casa Cor Paraná - an exhibition of decoration, architecture and ambience; in 2008, the 15th edition of the event in the state of Paraná had the participation of 116 exhibitors, featuring new trends on architecture, decoration and design. In 2007, had the visitation of 30.000 people in five weeks.[9]

Cultural spaces:

Museums

Curitiba has several museums. Some of the most important are:

  • Museu Paranaense ("Paranaense Museum") - dedicated to the arts and history;
  • Oscar Niemeyer Museum - the largest museum of Latin America,[10] dedicated to plastic arts;
  • Museu de Arte Sacra ("Religious Art Museum") - the focus are religious and sacred Christian art in general;
  • Museu do Expedicionário ("Museum of Expeditionary") - dedicated to the history of Brazilian participation in World War II;
  • Museu de Arte Contemporânea ("Museum of Contemporary Art");
  • Museu da Imagem e do Som ("Image and Sound Museum") - about cinema and photography;
  • Museu Metropolitano de Arte de Curitiba ("Metropolitan Museum of Art in Curitiba") - modern art;
  • Museu de História Natural ("Natural History Museum") - dedicated to the biology and botany.

Presentation spaces

ammunition.]]

Many space for presentations in Curitiba are tourist attractions in themselves. The Parque das Pedreiras ("Quarries Park"), for example, which includes the area that was once a stone quarry and has now been named the Pedreira Paulo Leminski, as well as a theater called the Ópera de Arame ("Wire Opera House"), has already become a tourist point. The Pedreira Paulo Leminski is an open area where events can be held for large audiences, for it has a capacity of up to 30,000 people. The Wire Opera House was built in a record-breaking period of 75 days to host the first edition of the Festival de Teatro de Curitiba. Its metallic structures, which look like wire, have become an architectural mark in the city and nationwide.

In 1971, was inaugurated the Teatro Paiol - a construction of 1874, which was used by the Brazilian Army as arsenal of gunpowder and ammunition, turned into a cultural and scenic area. The Guaíra Theater is one of the largest theaters in all of Latin America and a point in the itinerary of many large nationwide touring plays and performances. In the city’s historical sector, the Memorial of Curitiba is a new and modern site, which found its inspiration in the Parana Pine.

In all the parks of the city, have places for folklore and cultural presentations by various ethnic groups of Curitiba.

Cinema theatres

The first movie designed in Curitiba was in 1897, shortly after the invention of cinematograph by Lumière Brothers. Currently, the Cultural Foundation of Curitiba runs two movie theaters in the downtown area: the Cine Luz and the Cinemateca (for special movies), which offer many art movie programs at affordable prices. The Cinema a Um Real project ("Watch a movie for one Real") is available every Sunday, featuring movies targeted to a more popular taste with cheap prices (R$1,00 - around US$0,40), allowing citizens from low-income classes to go to the movies. Furthermore, the city runs the Cinema nos Bairros project ("A Movie Theater in Your Neighborhood"), which was designed to allow a larger portion of the population to get to know video productions. The project offers movie sessions for free and schedules weekly sessions at schools, Ruas da Cidadania ("Citizenship Streets"), parish halls, neighborhood associations as well as other institutions that take part in this partnership project. At these places children get a chance to see how movie projectors work and also have a better grasp of each movie, so that they become increasingly interested in the art of moviemaking.

Today, Curitiba has, approximately, 70 cinema theatres,[11] with daily programming, and is the first city in Brazil to have an IMAX cinema. It is in the Palladium Shopping Center, which is the biggest mall in Southern Brazil.[12]

Media

Sports

owned by Clube Atlético Paranaense, is the most modern stadium in Brazil.[13][14]]]

The city has many areas and buildings for sport. Even sports not very popular in Brazil (like American football or baseball, for example) are played in the city. Golf was introduced around 1904 by English immigrants.[15] Famous golfers in Curitiba include Walt Disney, who played a game in 1939.[15]

Curitiba also houses the Training Center of the Brazil national gymnastics team.

Soccer is the most popular sport, with several clubs based in Curitiba, such as:

  • Coritiba Foot Ball Club;
  • Clube Atlético Paranaense;
  • Paraná Clube;

Curitiba is also one of the 18 cities to hold games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup to be held in Brazil.[16]

Government

The executive is currently exercised by the mayor Beto Richa (elected in 2004, reelected in 2008 and with a mandate until 2012), by the deputy mayor (vice mayor) Luciano Ducci and the municipal secretaries appointed by the mayor. The City Council of Curitiba was created in 1693, and has a total of 38 councillors elected since 2004.

Curitiba is divided into nine regional governments (equivalent to subprefecture), who manage the 75 districts of the municipality. The Rua da Cidadania ("Street of Citizenship") is the symbol of administrative decentralization; it is a reference point and meeting place for the user of municipal utilities. In a regional context, taking into account the needs and rights of the citizen in trade, leisure and services, facilitating the access of the population for different services in the areas of health, justice, policing, education, sport, housing, environment, urban planning, social service and supply, etc. Several units work annexed to the terminals of public transport in Curitiba. Their nuclei offer services in the local, state and federal areas.

Official symbols

.]] The official symbols of the city are the flag, the seal, and the hymn - composed by Ciro Silva and Bento Mossurunga. In addition, through the municipal Law 10,236, was introduced as "place symbol of the city of Curitiba" the historic building of the Federal University of Paraná.

Official calendar - holidays

Greater Curitiba

.]] The Greater Curitiba is the 118th largest metropolitan area in the world.[17] Estimates from the 2007 Census show that the Metropolitan Area of Curitiba have 3,172,357 inhabitants, the second most populated in the south of Brazil. Have an area of 15.418,543 km².

Created in 1973, the Metropolitan Area of Curitiba is currently composed of 26 municipalities, including the capital.

With an industrial park of 43 million square meters,[18] the Metropolitan Area of Curitiba has attracted large companies such as Audi, VW, Nissan, Renault, New Holland, Volvo, Fiat, ExxonMobil, Sadia, Kraft Foods, Esso, HSBC and Siemens.

The Greater Curitiba is home to the Afonso Pena International Airport (located in the city of São José dos Pinhais) and the motorsports circuit Autódromo Internacional de Curitiba (located in the city of Pinhais).

Twin towns (sister cities)

The twin towns of Curitiba are:

References

  1. "Restaurante Madalosso" (in Portuguese and English). Guia Full Time Curitiba. http://www.conhecercuritiba.com.br/madalosso_padrao.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  2. "Maratona Ecológica de Curitiba - Ladeiras e incentivos do povo curitibano" (in Portuguese). Copacabana Runners. http://www.copacabanarunners.net/maracur.html. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  3. "RUN THE CURITIBA MARATHON" (in English). Charity Giving. http://www.charitygiving.co.uk/assets/mini%20sites/voice%20for%20change/uk%20curitiba%20marathon%20brochure.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  4. "MARATONA ECOLÓGICA INTERNACIONAL DE CURITIBA" (in Portuguese). Faculdade de Desporto da Universidade do Porto. http://www.fcdef.up.pt/neb/artigos/eros/maratona_ecologica.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  5. "Fórum da Moda" (in Portuguese). Rêve de Mode. http://revedemode.blogspot.com/2007/04/frum-de-moda-xvi-crystal-fashion.html. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  6. "Crystal Fashion será este mês" (in Portuguese). Revista Lado A. http://www.revistaladoa.com.br/website/artigo.asp?cod=1592&idi=1&moe=84&id=3809. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  7. "Uma parada de respeito" (in Portuguese). Capital da Notícia. http://jornal.unibrasil.com.br/textos_pdf/ed12.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  8. "APPAD - Associação Paranaense da Parada da Diversidade" (in Portuguese). ParadaDaDiversidade.Org. http://www.paradadadiversidade.org.br/index.php?page_id=2. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  9. "CASA COR PARANÁ 2008" (in Portuguese). Festa da Semana. http://festadasemana.pop.com.br/sao_paulo/noticia_view.php?id=476. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  10. "Museu Oscar Niemeyer" (in Portuguese). Descubra Curitiba. http://www.descubracuritiba.com.br/?s=exposicao&ss=museu&id=584. Retrieved 2008-01-17. 
  11. "Internautas buscam qualidade nas salas de cinema" (in Portuguese). Portal RPC. http://portal.rpc.com.br/gazetadopovo/cadernog/conteudo.phtml?id=559921. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  12. "IMAX Learns Portuguese" (in English). High-Growth Investing. http://www.fool.com/investing/high-growth/2005/10/21/imax-learns-portuguese.aspx. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  13. "Estádio Mais Moderno do Brasil" (in Portuguese). RankBrasil - Livro dos Records Brasileiros. http://www.rankbrasil.com.br/Recordes/Materias/?Est%C3%A1dio_Mais_Moderno_do_Brasil+1011&Grupo=3. Retrieved 2006-12-19. 
  14. "O mais moderno" (in Portuguese). Revista Veja. http://veja.abril.com.br/230699/p_080.html. Retrieved 1999-06-27. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Centenário" (in Portuguese). Federação Paranaense de Golfe. http://www.fprgolfe.com.br/federacao/centenario.asp. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  16. "Curitiba 2014" (in English). Curitiba - FIFA World Cup 2014. http://www.curitiba2014.com/. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  17. "Welt: Ballungsräume" (in German). World Gazetteer. http://bevoelkerungsstatistik.de/wg.php?x=1132419689&men=gcis&lng=de&gln=xx&dat=32&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&pt=a&va=x. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  18. "Cidades - Curitiba - PR" (in Portuguese). Veja On-line Edição Especial: O Melhor do Brasil. http://veja.abril.com.br/especiais/brasil_2006/p_052.html. Retrieved 2007-05-22. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 "Cidades-irmãs" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Curitiba. http://www.cmc.pr.gov.br/ass_det.php?not=7417. Retrieved 2007-05-22. 
  20. "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Coimbra. http://www.cm-coimbra.pt/170.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Asuntos Federales y Electorales - Ciudades y Provincias argentinas hermanadas con contrapartes extranjeras" (in Spanish). Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. http://www.cancilleria.gov.ar/portal/seree/dirfe/hermanamientos2.html. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  22. "Honorowe Miasta Bliźniacze - Kurytyba (Brazylia)" (in Polish). Krakow.pl. http://www.krakow.pl/miasto/miasta_partnerskie/?id=honorowe_miasta_blizniacze_01.html. Retrieved 2006-01-13. 
  23. "Curitiba, une ville modèle du développement durable" (in French). Veille Technologique. http://www.zecite.org/t050901.htm. Retrieved 2005-11-30. 
  24. "Online Directory: Florida, USA" (in English). Sister Cities International. http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/USA/FL. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  25. "Cenni storici ed informazioni generali su Treviso" (in Italian). BelPaese.it. http://www.belpaese.it/treviso/comune.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 

Other websites

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:
Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message