Cyclophosphamide: Wikis

  

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Cyclophosphamide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1,3,2-oxazaphosphinan-2-amine 2-oxide
Identifiers
CAS number 50-18-0
ATC code L01AA01
PubChem 2907
DrugBank APRD00408
ChemSpider 2804
Chemical data
Formula C7H15Cl2N2O2P 
Mol. mass 261.086 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Physical data
Melt. point 2 °C (36 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability >75% (oral)
Protein binding >60%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 3-12 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. D(AU) D(US)
Legal status Prescription only
Routes Oral, intravenous
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Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Endoxan, Cytoxan, Neosar, Procytox, Revimmune), also known as cytophosphane, is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent,[1] from the oxazophorines group.

An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number 7 nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring.

It is used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. It is a "prodrug"; it is converted in the liver to active forms that have chemotherapeutic activity.

Contents

Uses

The main use of cyclophosphamide is together with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lymphomas, some forms of leukemia[2] and some solid tumors[3]. It is a chemotherapy drug that works by slowing or stopping cell growth.

Cyclophosphamide also decreases the immune system's response to various diseases and conditions. Therefore, it has been used in various non-neoplastic autoimmune diseases where disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been ineffective. For example, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with severe lupus nephritis[4] may respond to pulsed cyclophosphamide (in 2005, however, standard treatment for lupus nephritis changed to mycophenolic acid (MMF) from cyclophosphamide). Cyclophosphamide is also used to treat minimal change disease[5], severe rheumatoid arthritis[6], Wegener's granulomatosis[7] (with trade name Cytoxan), and multiple sclerosis[8] (with trade name Revimmune).

However, a 2004 study[9] showed that the biological actions of cyclophosphamide are dose-dependent. At high doses, it is immunosuppressant, while at low continuous dosage it shows immunostimulatory and antiangiogenic properties. A 2009 study of 17 patients with docetaxel-resistant metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer showed a Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decrease in 9 of the 17 patients, and concluded that low-dose cyclophosphamide "is an interesting candidate for combination therapies, e.g., immunotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and antiangiogenisis."[10]

Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics

Cyclophosphamide is converted by mixed function oxidase enzymes in the liver to active metabolites[11]. The main active metabolite is 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, which exists in equilibrium with its tautomer, aldophosphamide. Most of the aldophosphamide is oxidised by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to make carboxyphosphamide. A small proportion of aldophosphamide is converted into phosphoramide mustard and acrolein. Acrolein is toxic to the bladder epithelium and can lead to hemorrhagic cystitis. This can be prevented through the use of aggressive hydration and/or Mesna.

Recent clinical studies have shown that cyclophosphamide induce beneficial immunomodulatory effects in the context of adoptive immunotherapy. Although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood, several mechanisms have been suggested based on potential modulation of the host environment, including[citation needed]:

  1. Elimination of T regulatory cells (CD4+CD25+ T cells) in naive and tumor-bearing hosts
  2. Induction of T cell growth factors such as type I IFNs, and/or
  3. Enhanced grafting of adoptively transferred tumor-reactive effector T cells by the creation of an immunologic space niche.

Thus, cyclophosphamide pre-conditioning of recipient hosts (for donor T cells) has been used to enhance immunity in naïve hosts, and to enhance adoptive T cell immunotherapy regimens as well as active vaccination strategies, inducing objective anti-tumor immunity.

Mode of action

The main effect of cyclophosphamide is due to its metabolite phosphoramide mustard. This metabolite is only formed in cells that have low levels of ALDH.

Phosphoramide mustard forms DNA crosslinks between (interstrand crosslinkages) and within (intrastrand crosslinkages) DNA strands at guanine N-7 positions. This leads to cell death.

Cyclophosphamide has relatively little typical chemotherapy toxicity as ALDHs are present in relatively large concentrations in bone marrow stem cells, liver and intestinal epithelium. ALDHs protect these actively proliferating tissues against toxic effects phosphoramide mustard and acrolein by converting aldophosphamide to carboxyphosphamide that does not give rise to the toxic metabolites (phosphoramide mustard and acrolein).

Side-effects

Many people taking cyclophosphamide do not have serious side effects. Side-effects include chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), bone marrow suppression, stomach ache, diarrhea, darkening of the skin/nails, alopecia (hair loss) or thinning of hair, changes in color and texture of the hair, and lethargy. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a frequent complication, but this is prevented by adequate fluid intake and Mesna (sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate). Mesna is a sulfhydryl donor and binds acrolein.

Cyclophosphamide is itself carcinogenic, potentially causing transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder as a long-term complication. It can lower the body's ability to fight an infection. It can cause temporary or (rarely) permanent sterility. Although it is used to treat cancer, it may increase the risk of developing another form of cancer, sometimes months to years after treatment.

Other (serious) side effects include:

  • pink/bloody urine,
  • unusual decrease in the amount of urine,
  • mouth sores,
  • unusual tiredness or weakness,
  • joint pain,
  • easy bruising/bleeding,
  • existing wounds that are slow healing.

History

Cyclophosphamide and the related nitrogen mustard-derived alkylating agent ifosfamide were developed by Norbert Brock and ASTA (now Baxter Oncology). Brock and his team synthesised and screened more than 1,000 candidate oxazaphosphorine compounds.[12] They converted the base nitrogen mustard into a non-toxic "transport form". This transport form was a pro-drug, subsequently actively transported into the cancer cells. Once in the cells, the pro-drug was enzymatically converted into the active, toxic form. The first clinical trials were published at the end of the 1950s.[13][14][15]

References

  1. ^ Takimoto CH, Calvo E. "Principles of Oncologic Pharmacotherapy" in Pazdur R, Wagman LD, Camphausen KA, Hoskins WJ (Eds) Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 11 ed. 2008.
  2. ^ Shanafelt TD, Lin T, Geyer SM, et al. (June 2007). "Pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab regimen in older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia". Cancer 109 (11): 2291–8. doi:10.1002/cncr.22662. PMID 17514743. 
  3. ^ Young SD, Whissell M, Noble JC, et al. (2006). "Phase II clinical trial results involving treatment with low-dose daily oral cyclophosphamide, weekly vinblastine, and rofecoxib in patients with advanced solid tumors". Clinical Cancer Research 12 (10): 3092-8. PMID 16707607. 
  4. ^ Steinberg AD, Kaltreider HB, Staples PJ, et al. (August 1971). "Cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis: a controlled trial". Annals of Internal Medicine 75 (2): 165-71. PMID 4104337. 
  5. ^ Brenner and Rector's The Kidney: Volume 8
  6. ^ Townes AS, Sowa JM, Shulman LE (May-June 1976). "Controlled trial of cyclophosphamide in rheumatoid arthritis". Arthritis & Rheumatism 19 (3): 563-73. PMID 779796. 
  7. ^ Novack SN, Pearson CM. (April 1971). "Cyclophosphamide therapy in Wegener's granulomatosis". New England Journal of Medicine 284 (17): 938-42. PMID 5551803. 
  8. ^ Makhani N, Gorman MP, Branson HM, et al. (June 2009). "Cyclophosphamide therapy in pediatric multiple sclerosis". Neurology volume=72 (24): 2076-82. PMID 19439723. 
  9. ^ Nicolini A, Mancini P, Ferrari P, et al (2004). "Oral dose cyclophosphamide in metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer (MHRPC).". Biomed Parmacother. 58: 447-50. 
  10. ^ Nelius T, Klatte T, et al (April 2009). "Clinical outcome of patients with docetaxel-resistant hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with second-line cyclophosphamide-based metronomic chemotherapy". Medical Oncology (Humana Press Inc.). doi:10.1007/s12032-009-9218-8. ISSN (Print) 1559-131X (Online) 1357-0560 (Print) 1559-131X (Online).  [1]
  11. ^ Cohen JL, Jao JY (1970). "Enzymatic basis of cyclophosphamide activation by hepatic microsomes of the rat.". Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics 174 (2): 206-10. PMID 4393764. 
  12. ^ Brock N (1996). "The history of the oxazaphosphorine cytostatics". Cancer 78 (3): 542–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960801)78:3<542::AID-CNCR23>3.0.CO;2-Y. PMID 8697402. 
  13. ^ Wilmanns, H. (1958). Asta-Forschung und Therapie. 
  14. ^ Gross, R., and Wulf, G. (1959). "Klinische und experimentelle Erfahrungen mit zyk lischen und nichtzyklischen Phosphamidestern des N-Losl in der Chemotherapie von Tumoren". Strahlentherapie 41 (Sonderband III): 361–367. 
  15. ^ Brock N (1989). "Oxazaphosphorine cytostatics: past-present-future. Seventh Cain Memorial Award lecture" (PDF). Cancer Res. 49 (1): 1–7. PMID 2491747. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/49/1/1. 

External links


Simple English

Cyclophosphamide is a drug used in the treatment of lymphoma, some types of leukemia, and some solid cancers, as well as for some forms of Nephritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.








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