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Cynodon dactylon
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Cynodon
Species: C. dactylon
Binomial name
Cynodon dactylon
(L.) Pers.

Cynodon dactylon (syn. Panicum dactylon, Capriola dactylon), also known as dūrvā grass, Bermuda Grass, Dubo, Dog's Tooth Grass, Bahama Grass, Devil's Grass, Couch Grass, Indian Doab, Arugampul, Grama, and Scutch Grass, is a grass native to north Africa, Asia and Australia and southern Europe. The name "Bermuda Grass" derives from its abundance as an invasive species on Bermuda; it does not occur naturally there.[citation needed]

The blades are a grey-green colour and are short, usually 4–15 cm long with rough edges. The erect stems can grow 1–30 cm (rarely to 90 cm) tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in color. The seed heads are produced in a cluster of 3–7 spikes (rarely two) together at the top of the stem, each spike 3–6 cm long. It has a deep root system; in drought situations with penetrable soil, the root system can grow to over 2 m deep, though most of the root mass is less than 60 cm under the surface. The grass creeps along the ground and root wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces through seeds, through runners and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F) with optimum growth between 24 to 37 °C (75 to 99 °F); in winter the grass becomes dormant and turns brown. Growth is promoted by full sun and retarded by full shade, e.g., close to tree trunks.

Contents

Cultivation and uses

C. dactylon is widely cultivated in warm climates all over the world between about 30° south and 30° north latitude, and that get between 625–1,750 mm (24.6–68.9 in) of rainfall a year (or less, if irrigation is available). It is also found in the U.S. mostly in the southern half of the country and in warm climates. It is fast growing and tough, making it popular and useful for sports fields, as when damaged it will recover quickly. It is a highly desirable turf grass in warm temperate climates, particularly for those regions where its heat and drought tolerance enable it to survive where few other grasses do. It has a relatively coarse-bladed form with numerous cultivars selected for different turf requirements. It is also highly aggressive, crowding out most other grasses and invading other habitats, and has become an invasive species in some areas. This invasive nature leads some gardeners to give it the name of "devil grass".

the range of C. dactylon in the United States.

Bermuda grass has been cultivated on saline soils in California's Central Valley which are too salt-damaged to support agricultural crops; it was successfully irrigated with saline water and used to graze cattle.[1][2]

Medicinal values

Cynodon dactylon has been studied at the University of Allahabad in India, and is said to have many medicinal properties including antimicrobial and antiviral properties, as well as treatment of urinary tract infections, prostatitis, syphilis, and dysentery.[3] Primarily the research being conducted on C. dactylon involves its glycemic potential, which is involved in the treatment of diabetes. The majority of research has only been performed on lab rats, but the results are interesting. In laboratory rats treated with the ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon, hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic results were observed on the blood glucose levels of the tested population.[3] Test populations showed nearly a 50% drop in blood glucose levels when the proper dosage was administered.[3] There is potential for Cynodon dactylon to become an alternative to current diabetes medications in the future.

References

  1. ^ Kaffka, S. (2009). Can feedstock production for biofuels be sustainable in California? California Agriculture 63:4.
  2. ^ Kaffka, S., et al. Bermuda Grass Yield and Quality in Response to Different Salinity and N, Se, Mo, and B Rates in West San Joaquin Valley UC Center for Water Resources.
  3. ^ a b c Santosh Kumar Singh, Prashant Kumar Rai, Dolly Jaiswal, and Geeta Watal. "Evidence-based Critical Evaluation of Glycemic Potential of Cynodon dactylon". Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, May 17, 2007. Online ISSN 1741-4288, print ISSN 1741-427X. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem044.

External links

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Cynodon dactylon

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales
Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Chloridoideae
Tribus: Cynodonteae
Genus: Cynodon
Species: Cynodon dactylon
Varieties: C. d. var. afghanicus - C. d. var. aridus - C. d. var. dactylon - C. d. var. elegans

Name

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

References

  • Syn. pl. 1:85. 1805
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Data from 07-Oct-06]. [1]
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Cynodon dactylon on Wikimedia Commons.

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