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Cyperaceae
Cyperus polystachyos flower head
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Cyperaceae
Genera

About 70, see text.

Cyperaceae is a family of monocot flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses or rushes. The family is large, with some 4,000 species described in about 70 genera. These species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia and tropical South America. While sedges may be found growing in all kinds of situations, many are associated with wetlands, or with poor soils.

Some well-known sedges include the water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) and the papyrus sedge (Cyperus papyrus), from which the Ancient Egyptian writing material was made. This family also includes cotton-grass (Eriophorum), spike-rush (Eleocharis), sawgrass (Cladium), nutsedge or nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus, a common lawn weed), the large genus of Carex, and white star sedge (Rhynchospora colorata).

Features distinguishing members of the sedge family from grasses or rushes are that members of the sedge family have triangular stems (with occasional exceptions), and their leaves are spirally arranged in three ranks (grasses have alternate leaves forming two ranks).[1][2][3]

Selected genera

Broad-leaved Cotton-grass (Eriophorum latifolium)

References

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CYPERACEAE, in botany, a natural order of the monocotyledonous group of seed-bearing plants. They are grass-like herbs, sometimes annual, but more often persist by means of an underground stem from which spring erect solitary or clustered, generally three-sided aerial stems, with leaves in three rows. The minute flowers are arranged in spikelets somewhat as in grasses, and these again in larger spike-like or panicled inflorescences. The flower has in rare cases a perianth of six scale-like leaves arranged in two whorls, and thus conforming to the common monocotyledonous type of flower. Generally the perianth is represented by hairs, bristles or similar developments, often indefinite in number; in the two largest genera, Cyperus, (fig. I) and Carex (fig. 2), the flowers are naked. In a few cases two whorls of stamens are present, with three members in each, but generally only three are present; the pistil consists of three or two carpels, united to form an ovary bearing a corresponding number of styles and containing one ovule. The flowers, which are often unisexual, are wind-pollinated. The fruit is one-seeded, with a tough, leathery or hard wall. There are nearly 70 genera containing about 3000 species and widely distributed throughout the earth, chiefly as marsh-plants. In the arctic zone they form to% of the flora; they will flourish in soils rich in humus which are too acid to support grasses. The large genus Cyperus contains about 400 species, chiefly in the warmer parts of the earth; C. Papyrus is the Egyptian Papyrus. Carex, FIG. 1. - Partial inflorescence of Cyperus longus (Galingale), slightly reduced. I, Spikelet of same; 2, flower.

the largest genus of the order, the sedges, is widely distributed in the temperate, alpine and arctic regions of both hemispheres, and is represented by 60 species in Britain. Carex arenaria, the sea-bent, grows on sand-dunes and helps to bind the sand FIG. 3. - Inflorescence of Cotton-grass (Eriophorum polystachion), about a nat. size. I, Flower of true bulrush (Scirpus lacustris). is represented in Britain by several species in boggy land; they are small tufted herbs with cottony heads due to the numerous hair-like bristles which take the place of the perianth and become much elongated in the fruiting stage.

CY-Pres (A.-Fr. for "so near"), in English law, a principle adopted by the court of chancery in dealing with trusts for charitable purposes. When the charitable purpose intended by a testator cannot be carried into effect, the court will apply the funds to some other purpose, as near the original as possible (whence the name). For instance, a testator having left a fund to be divided into four parts - one-fourth to be used for "the redemption of British slaves in Turkey and 2 Barbary," and the other three-fourths for various local charities - it was found that there were no British slaves in Turkey or Barbary, and as to that part of the gift therefore the testator's purpose failed. Instead of allowing the portion of the fund devoted to this impossible purpose to lapse to the next of kin, the court devoted it to the purposes specified for the rest of the estate. This doctrine is only applied where "a general intention of charity is manifest" in the will, and not where one particular object only was present to the mind of the testator. Thus, a testator having left money to be applied in building a church in a particular parish, and that having been found to be impossible, the fund will not be applied cy-pres, but will go to the next of kin.

In the United States, charitable trusts have become more frequent as the wealth of the country has progressed, and are regarded with increasing favour by the courts. The cy-pres doctrine has been either expressly or virtually applied to uphold them in several of the states, and in some there has been legislation in the same direction. In others the doctrine has been repudiated, e.g. in Michigan, Tennessee, Indiana and Virginia. For many years the New York courts held that this doctrine was not in force there, but in 1893 the legislature repealed the provisions of the revised statutes on which these decisions rested and restored the ancient law. Statutes passed in Pennsylvania have established the doctrine there, and dissolved any doubt as to its being in force in that state.


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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Schoenoplectus lacustris

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales
Familia: Cyperaceae
Genera: Abildgaardia - Acriulus - Actinoschoenus - Afrotrilepis - Alinula - Androtrichum - Anosporum - Arthrostylis - Ascolepis - Ascopholis - Baeothryon - Baumea - Becquerelia - Bisboeckelera - Blysmopsis - Blysmus - Bolboschoenus - Bulbostylis - Calyptrocarya - Capitularina - Carex - Carpha - Caustis - Cephalocarpus - Chorizandra - Chrysitrix - Cladium - Coleochloa - Costularia - Courtoisina - Crosslandia - Cyathochaeta - Cyathocoma - Cymophyllus - Cyperus - Desmoschoenus - Didymiandrum - Diplacrum - Diplasia - Dulichium - Egleria - Eleocharis - Eleogiton - Epischoenus - Eriophoropsis - Eriophorum - Erioscirpus - Evandra - Everardia - Exocarya - Exochogyne - Ficinia - Fimbristylis - Fuirena - Gahnia - Gymnoschoenus - Hellmuthia - Hemicarpha - Hymenochaeta - Hypolytrum - Isolepis - Kobresia - Kyllinga - Kyllingiella - Lagenocarpus - Lepidosperma - Lepironia - Lipocarpha - Lophoschoenus - Machaerina - Mapania - Mapaniopsis - Mariscus - Mesomelaena - Microdracoides - Micropapyrus - Monandrus - Morelotia - Neesenbeckia - Nemum - Nelmesia - Oreobolopsis - Oreobolus - Oxycaryum - Paramapania - Phylloscirpus - Pleurostachys - Principina - Pseudoschoenus - Ptilanthelium - Pycreus - Queenslandiella - Reedia - Remirea - Rhynchocladium - Rhynchospora - Rikliella - Schoenoplectus - Schoenoxiphium - Schoenoides - Schoenus - Scirpodendron - Scirpoides - Scirpus - Scleria - Sphaerocyperus - Sumatroscirpus - Syntrinema - Tetraria - Tetrariopsis - Thoracostachyum - Torulinium - Trachystylis - Trianoptiles - Trichoschoenus - Tricostularia - Trilepis - Tylocarya - Uncinia - Vesicarex - Volkiella - Websteria

Name

Cyperaceae Juss.

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Riedgrasgewächse, Sauergräser
English: Sedges
Nederlands: Cypergrassen
日本語: カヤツリグサ科
Русский: Осоковые
Türkçe: Papirüsgiller

References

  • Friedrich A. Lohmueller: The Botanical System of the Plants[1]
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Cyperaceae on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Sedges
File:Cyperus
Cyperus papyrus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Cyperaceae
Genera

About 70, see text.

The family Cyperaceae, or the sedges, is a taxon of flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. The family is large, with some 4,000 species described in about 70 genera.








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