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Czech Republic
Česká republika  (Czech)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Pravda vítězí" (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
AnthemKde domov můj? (Czech)
"Where is my home?"

Location of  Czech Republic  (green)

– on the European continent  (light green & grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Prague (Praha)
50°05′N 14°28′E / 50.083°N 14.467°E / 50.083; 14.467
Official language(s) Czech
Demonym Czech
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Václav Klaus
 -  Prime Minister Jan Fischer
Formation
 -  Principality of Bohemia c. 870 
 -  Czechoslovakia 28 October 1918 
 -  Czech Republic 1 January 1993 
EU accession 1 May 2004
Area
 -  Total 78,866 km2 (116th)
30,450 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2
Population
 -  20091 estimate 10,506,813 (78th)
 -  2001 census 10,230,060 
 -  Density 132/km2 (77th)
341/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $261.777 billion[1] (39th²)
 -  Per capita $25,118[1] (33rd)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $216.354 billion[1] (36th)
 -  Per capita $20,759[1] (36th)
Gini (1996) 25.4 (low) (5th)
HDI (2007) 0.903 (very high) (36th)
Currency Czech koruna (CZK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .cz³
Calling code +4204
1 15 March 2010 (See Population changes).
2 Rank based on 2005 IMF data.
3 Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.
4 Shared code 42 with Slovakia until 1997.
Karlštejn Castle in the Central Bohemian Region, founded in 1348 by Charles IV.
Tábor, a town in the South Bohemian Region, founded in 1420 by the Hussites.
Charles IV, 1316 – 78, eleventh king of Bohemia. Charles IV was elected the Největší Čech (Greatest Czech) of all time.[2]
The Czech Republic (pronounced /ˈtʃɛk/ ( listen)[3] chek; Czech: Česká republika, pronounced [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka]  ( listen), short form Česko [ˈtʃɛskɔ]) is a country in Central Europe.[4] The country borders Poland to the northeast, Germany to the west and northwest, Austria to the south and Slovakia to the east. The capital and largest city is Prague (Czech: Praha). The country is composed of the historic regions of Bohemia and Moravia, as well as parts of Silesia. The Czech Republic has been a member of NATO since 1999 and of the European Union since 2004. From 1 January 2009 to 1 July 2009, the Czech Republic held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Czech lands fell under Habsburg rule, becoming part of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and of Austria–Hungary in 1867. The independent Republic of Czechoslovakia was formed in 1918, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire after World War I. After the Munich Agreement, German occupation of Czechoslovakia and the consequent disillusion with the Western response and gratitude for the liberation of the major portion of Czechoslovakia by the Red Army, the Communist party won plurality (38%)[5] in the 1946 elections.
In a 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a communist-ruled state. In 1968, the increasing dissatisfaction culminated in attempts to reform the communist regime. The events, known as the Prague Spring of 1968, ended with an invasion by the armies of the Warsaw Pact countries (with the exception of Romania); the troops remained in the country until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved into its constituent states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy. President Václav Klaus is the current head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government (currently Jan Fischer). The Parliament has two chambers: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. It is also a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group.
The Czech Republic made economic reforms such as fast privatizations. Annual gross domestic product growth has been around 6% until the outbreak of the recent global economic crisis. The country is the first former member of the Comecon to achieve the status of a developed country according to the World Bank (2006)[6] and the Human Development Index (2009)[7], which ranks it as a "Very High Human Development" nation.

Contents

Name

The country was for centuries known as Bohemia in English. When the nation regained its independence in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was adopted to reflect the union of the Czech (Bohemian) and Slovak territories that were merged together after the WWI. The word Czech itself came into English later via Polish.[8] The current English spelling is the same as an antiquated Czech spelling, however it is unlike the modern Čechy and Česko. This discrepancy arises from a 15th century reform of Czech orthography.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech half of the former nation found itself without a common single-word name in English. In 1993, the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs suggested the name Czechia as an official alternative in all situations other than formal official documents and the full names of government institutions; however, this has not become widespread in English, despite the fact that most other languages have single-word names for the country (usually their own variants of "Czechia").

History

Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the area, dating back to the Neolithic era. In the classical era, from the 3rd century BC Celtic migrations, the Boii (see Bohemia) and later in the 1st century, Germanic tribes of Marcomanni and Quadi settled there. During the Migration Period around the 5th century, many Germanic tribes moved westwards and southwards out of Central Europe.
In an equally significant migration, Slavic peoples from the Black Sea and Carpathian regions settled in the area (a movement that was also stimulated by the onslaught of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars). Following in the Germans' wake, they moved southwards into Bohemia, Moravia and some of present day Austria. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant, Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe. The Moravian principality arose in the 8th century (see Great Moravia).
The Bohemian or Czech state emerged in the late 9th century, when it was unified by the Přemyslid dynasty. The kingdom of Bohemia was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire during the entire existence of that confederation.[9]
In 1212, King Přemysl Otakar I (1198–1230), bearing the title “king“ already since 1198, extracted a Golden Bull of Sicily (a formal edict) from the emperor, confirming the royal title for Otakar and his descendants. The 13th century was also a period of large-scale German immigration. The Germans populated towns and mining districts on the Bohemian periphery and, in some cases, formed German colonies in the interior of the Czech lands. In 1235, the mighty Mongol army launched an invasion of Europe and after the Battle of Legnica, the Mongols carried their devastating raid into Moravia.[10]
King Přemysl Otakar II (1253–1278) earned the nickname of "the King of Gold and Iron" due to his military power and wealth. He acquired Austria, Styria and Carinthia thus spreading the Bohemian territory to the Adriatic sea. He met his death at the Battle on the Marchfeld in 1278, in a war with his rival, the Roman king Rudolph I of Germany.[11] Ottokar's son Wenceslaus II acquired the Polish crown in 1300 for himself and the Hungarian crown for his son. In 1306, however, the Přemyslid line died out and, after a series of dynastic wars, the House of Luxembourg gained the Bohemian crown.
The 14th century, particularly the reign of Charles IV (1342–1378), is considered the Golden Age of Czech history. Of particular significance was the founding of Charles University in Prague in 1348. The Black Death, which had raged in Europe from 1347 to 1352, decimated the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1380,[12] killing about 10% of the population.[13]
In the 15th century the religious and social reformer Jan Hus formed a movement, later named after him. Although Hus was named a heretic and burnt in Constanz in 1415, his followers seceded from the Catholic Church and in the Hussite Wars (1419–1434) defeated five crusades organized against them by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. Petr Chelčický continued with Czech Hussite Reformation movement.
Habsburg Bohemia as the heart of Europa regina.
During the next two centuries, 90% of the inhabitants converted to the Hussite form of Protestantism. After 1526 Bohemia came increasingly under Habsburg control as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then the hereditary rulers of Bohemia. The Defenestration of Prague and subsequent revolt against the Habsburgs in 1618 marked the start of the Thirty Years' War, which quickly spread throughout Germany. In 1620, the rebellion in Bohemia was crushed at the Battle of White Mountain and the country became a province of the Austrian monarchy. The war had a devastating effect on the local population; the people were given the choice either to convert to Catholicism or leave the country.
Czechs call the following period, from 1620 to the late 18th century, the "Dark Age". The population of the Czech lands declined by a third due to war, disease, famine and the expulsion of the Protestant Czechs.[14] The Habsburgs banned all religions other than Catholicism.[15] Ottoman Turks and Tatars invaded Moravia in 1663, taking 12,000 slaves.[16]
The reigns of Maria Theresa of Austria (1740–80) and her son Joseph II (1780–90), Holy Roman Emperor and co-regent from 1765, were characterized by enlightened absolutism. In 1742, most of Silesia, then the possession of the Bohemian crown, was seized by King Frederick II of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession. The Great Famine, which lasted from 1770 until 1771, killed 12% of the Czech population, up to 500,000 inhabitants, and radicalized countrysides leading to peasant uprisings.
After the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia became part of the Austrian Empire and later of Austria–Hungary. Serfdom was not completely abolished until 1848. After the Revolutions of 1848, Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria attempted to rule as an absolute monarch, keeping all the nationalities in check.

Czechoslovakia

An estimated 150,000 Czech soldiers died in World War I. More than 100,000 Czech volunteers formed the Czechoslovak Legions in Russia, where they fought against the Central Powers and later against Bolshevik troops.[17] Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918. This new country incorporated regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and the Carpathian Ruthenia (known as the Subcarpathian Rus at the time) with significant German, Hungarian, Polish and Ruthenian speaking minorities.[18]
Although Czechoslovakia was a unitary state, it provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities. However, it did not grant its minorities any territorial political autonomy. The failure to do so resulted in discontent and strong support among some of the minorities for a break from Czechoslovakia. Adolf Hitler took advantage of this opportunity and, supported by Konrad Henlein's Sudeten German Party, gained the largely German speaking Sudetenland (and its substantial Maginot Line like border fortifications), through the 1938 Munich Agreement. Poland annexed the Zaolzie area around Český Těšín. Hungary gained parts of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus as a result of the First Vienna Award in November 1938.
The remainders of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus gained greater autonomy, with the state renamed to "Czecho-Slovakia" (The Second Republic; see German occupation of Czechoslovakia). After Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia, allowing the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary and Poland, Slovakia chose to maintain its national and territorial integrity, seceding from Czecho-Slovakia in March 1939 and allying itself, as demanded by Germany, with Hitler's coalition.[19]
The remaining Czech territory was occupied by Germany, which transformed it into the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. The Protectorate was proclaimed part of the Third Reich and the President and Prime Minister were subordinate to the Nazi Reichsprotektor ("imperial protector"). Subcarpathian Rus declared independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine on 15 March 1939, but was invaded by Hungary the same day and formally annexed the next day. Approximately 345,000 Czechoslovak citizens, including 277,000 Jews, were killed or executed, while hundreds of thousands of others were sent to prisons and concentration camps or used as forced labour. A Nazi concentration camp existed at Terezín, to the north of Prague. There was Czech resistance to Nazi occupation, both at home and abroad, most notably with the assassination of Nazi leader Reinhard Heydrich in a Prague suburb on 27 May 1942. The Czechoslovak government-in-exile and its army fighting against the Germans were acknowledged by the Allies; Czechoslovak troops fought in the United Kingdom, North Africa, the Middle East and the Soviet Union. The German occupation ended on 9 May 1945, with the arrival of the Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising. As many as 144,000 Soviet soldiers died in the fighting for the liberation of Czechoslovakia.[20]
In 1945–1946, almost the entire German minority in Czechoslovakia, about 2.7 million people, were expelled to Germany and Austria. During this time, thousands of Germans were held in prisons and detention camps, or used as forced labour. In the summer of 1945, there were several massacres. The only Germans not expelled were some 250,000, who had been active in the resistance against the Nazis or were considered economically important, though many of these emigrated later. Following a Soviet-organised referendum, the Subcarpathian Rus never returned under Czechoslovak rule, but became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Zakarpattia Oblast in 1946.
Czechoslovakia uneasily tried to play the role of a "bridge" between the West and East. However, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia rapidly increased in popularity, with a general disillusionment with the West, due to the pre-war Munich Agreement, and a favourable popular attitude towards the Soviet Union, due to the Soviets' role in liberating Czechoslovakia from German rule. In the 1946 elections, the Communists gained 38% of the votes and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament. They formed a coalition government with other parties of the National Front and moved quickly to consolidate power. The decisive step took place in February 1948, during a series of events characterized by Communists as a "revolution" and by anti-Communists as a "takeover", the Communist People's Militias secured control of key locations in Prague, and a new, all-Communist government was formed.
For the next 41 years, Czechoslovakia was a Communist state within the Eastern Bloc (see History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989)). This period was marked by a variety of social developments. The Communist government completely nationalized the means of production and established a command economy. The economy grew rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, but slowed down in the 1970s, with increasing problems during the 1980s. The political climate was highly repressive during the 1950s, including numerous show trials, but became more open and tolerant in the 1960s, culminating in Alexander Dubček's leadership in the 1968 Prague Spring, which tried to create "socialism with a human face" and perhaps even introduce political pluralism. This was forcibly ended by the 21 August 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion.
The invasion was followed by a harsh program of "Normalization" in the late 1960s and the 1970s. Until 1989, the political establishment relied on censorship of the opposition, though using more "carrot" than "whip" to secure the populace's passivity. Dissidents published Charter 77 in 1977 and the first of a new wave of protests were seen in 1988. Between 1948 and 1989 more than 250,000 Czechs and Slovaks were sent to prison for "anti-state activities", and over 400,000 emigrated.[21]

Velvet revolution and the Czech Republic

In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the peaceful "Velvet Revolution". However, Slovak national aspirations strengthened and on January 1, 1993, the country peacefully split into the independent Czech Republic and Slovakia. Both countries went through economic reforms and privatisations, with the intention of creating a capitalist economy. This process was largely successful, as in 2006, the Czech Republic was recognised by the World Bank as a "developed country"[6] and in 2009 the Human Development Index ranked it as a nation of "Very High Human Development"[7].
From 1991, the Czech Republic, originally as part of Czechoslovakia and now in its own right, has been a member of the Visegrád Group and from 1995, the OECD. The Czech Republic joined NATO on 12 March 1999 and the European Union on 1 May 2004. It held the Presidency of the European Union for the first half of 2009.

Geography

General map of the Czech Republic
Map of the Czech Republic showing cities and main towns
The Czech landscape is exceedingly varied. Bohemia, to the west, consists of a basin drained by the Elbe (Czech: Labe) and the Vltava (or Moldau) rivers, surrounded by mostly low mountains, such as the Krkonoše range of the Sudetes. The highest point in the country, Sněžka at 1,602 m (5,256 ft), is located here. Moravia, the eastern part of the country, is also quite hilly. It is drained mainly by the Morava River, but it also contains the source of the Oder River (Czech: Odra).
Water from the landlocked Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea. The Czech Republic also leases the Moldauhafen, a 30,000-square-metre (7.4-acre) lot in the middle of the Hamburg Docks, which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the Treaty of Versailles, to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported down river could be transferred to seagoing ships. The territory reverts to Germany in 2028.
Phytogeographically, the Czech Republic belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region, within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of the Czech Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Western European broadleaf forests and Carpathian montane conifer forests.
There are four national parks in the Czech Republic. The oldest is Krkonoše National Park (Biosphere Reserve), Šumava National Park (Biosphere Reserve), National Park Podyjí, České Švýcarsko National Park.

Weather and climate

Rolling hills of Králický Sněžník
The Czech Republic has a temperate continental climate, with relatively hot summers and cold, cloudy and snowy winters. Most rain falls during the summer. The temperature difference between summer and winter is relatively high, due to the landlocked geographical position.
Within the Czech Republic, temperatures vary greatly, depending on the elevation. In general, at higher altitudes, the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases. The wettest area in the Czech Republic is found around Bílý Potok in Jizera Mountains and the driest region is the Louny District to the northwest of Prague. Another important factor is the distribution of the mountains; therefore, the climate is quite varied.
At the highest peak of Sněžka (1,602 m/5,256 ft), the average temperature is only −0.4 °C (31 °F), whereas in the lowlands of the South Moravian Region, the average temperature is as high as 10 °C (50 °F). The country's capital, Prague, has a similar average temperature, although this is influenced by urban factors.
The coldest month is usually January, followed by February and December. During these months, there is usually snow in the mountains and sometimes in the major cities and lowlands. During March, April and May, the temperature usually increases rapidly, especially during April, when the temperature and weather tends to vary widely during the day. Spring is also characterized by high water levels in the rivers, due to melting snow with occasional flooding.
The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June. On average, summer temperatures are about 20 degrees higher than during winter. Especially in the last decade,[citation needed] temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) are not unusual. Summer is also characterized by rain and storms.
Autumn generally begins in September, which is still relatively warm and dry. During October, temperatures usually fall below 15 °C (59 °F) or 10 °C (50 °F) and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves. By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point.

Demographics

Population

Population of the Czech lands[22]
Year Total Change Year Total Change
1857 7,016,531 1930 10,674,386 +6.6%
1869 7,617,230 +8.6% 1950 8,896,133 −16.7%
1880 8,222,013 +7.9% 1961 9,571,531 +7.6%
1890 8,665,421 +5.4% 1970 9,807,697 +2.5%
1900 9,372,214 +8.2% 1980 10,291,927 +4.9%
1910 10,078,637 +7.5% 1991 10,302,215 +0.1%
1921 10,009,587 −0.7% 2001 10,230,060 −0.7%
According to the 2001 census, the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czech (94.24%). The most numerous national minorities are: Slovaks (1.89%); Poles (0.51%); Germans (0.38%); Ukrainians (0.22%); Vietnamese (0.17%); Hungarians (0.14%); Russians (0.12%); Romani (0.11%); Bulgarians (0.04%); and Greeks (0.03%).[23] According to some estimates, there are actually more than 200,000 Romani people in the Czech Republic.[24][25]
There were 436,116 foreigners residing in the country in October 2009, according to the Czech Interior Ministry,[26] with the largest groups being Ukrainian (132,481), Slovak (75,210), Vietnamese (61,102), Russian (29,976), Polish (19,790), German (14,156), Moldovan (10,315), Bulgarian (6,346), Mongolian (5,924), American (5,803), Chinese (5,314), British (4,461), Belarusian (4,441), Serbian (4,098), Romanian (4,021), Kazakh (3,896), Austrian (3,114), Italian (2,580), Dutch (2,553), French (2,356), Croatian (2,351), Bosnian (2,240), Armenian (2,021), Uzbek (1,969), Macedonian (1,787) and Japanese (1,581).[26]
The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia, 118,000 according to the 1930 census, was virtually annihilated by the Nazis during the Holocaust.[27] There were approximately 4,000 Jews in the Czech Republic in 2005.[28] The Czech prime minister, Jan Fischer, is of Jewish origin and faith.[29]
The fertility rate is a low 1.50 children per woman. Immigration increased the population by almost 1% in 2007. About 77,000 new foreigners settle down in the Czech Republic every year.[30] Vietnamese immigrants began settling in the Czech Republic during the Communist period, when they were invited as guest workers by the Czechoslovak government.[31] Today, there are an estimated 70,000 Vietnamese in the Czech Republic.[32] In contrast to Ukrainians, Vietnamese come to the Czech Republic to live permanently.[33]
At the turn of the 20th century, Chicago was the city with the third largest Czech population,[34] after Prague and Vienna.[35] According to the 2006 US census, there are 1,637,218 Americans of full or partial Czech descent.[36]

Cities


Prague
Prague
Brno
Brno
  city population region        city population region

1   Prague 1 285 995 Prague, the Capital City 11   Havířov 83 180 Moravian-Silesian
2   Brno 405 337 South Moravian 12   Zlín 77 288 Zlín
3   Ostrava 314 666 Moravian-Silesian 13   Kladno 71 654 Central Bohemian
4   Plzeň 173 932 Plzeň 14   Most 67 216 Ústí nad Labem
5   Liberec 105 240 Liberec 15   Karviná 63 193 Moravian-Silesian
6   Olomouc 102 112 Olomouc 16   Frýdek-Místek 59 821 Moravian-Silesian
7   Ústí nad Labem 98 862 Ústí nad Labem 17   Opava 59 793 Moravian-Silesian
8   Hradec Králové 95 890 Hradec Králové 18   Karlovy Vary 53 691 Karlovy Vary
9   České Budějovice 95 709 South Bohemian 19   Teplice 53 193 Ústí nad Labem
10   Pardubice 90 765 Pardubice 20   Děčín 52 589 Ústí nad Labem

Religion

Top religious affiliations in the Czech Republic, census 1991–2001[37]
1991 2001 change
number  % number  %
Roman Catholic Church 4,021,385 39.0 2,740,780 26.8 −12.2%
Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren 203,996 2.0 117,212 1.1 −0.8%
Czechoslovak Hussite Church 178,036 1.7 99,103 1.0 −0.8%
no religion 4,112,864 39.9 6,039,991 59.0 +19.1%
not identified 1,665,617 16.2 901,981 8.8 −7.4%
total population 10,302,215 100.0 10,230,060 100.0
The Czech Republic, along with Estonia, has one of the least religious populations in the world. Historically, the Czech people have been characterised as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".[38] According to the 2001 census, 59% of the country is agnostic, atheist or non-believer, 26.8% is Roman Catholic and 2.5% is Protestant.[39] According to the census, the fastest growing religions during the intercensal period between 1991 and 2001 was the non religious by 19.1 percent. Christianity showed negative growth, especially the Roman Catholic Church which lost more than 1 million of its members in 10 years. The largest population increase was No-religion which increased by nearly 2 million people.
According to the most recent—5 year old—Eurobarometer Poll in 2005,[40] 19% of Czech citizens responded that "they believe there is a God" (the second lowest rate among European Union countries after Estonia with 16%),[41] whereas 50% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 30% said that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".

Politics

Political system

Václav Havel, the first President of the Czech Republic.
Václav Klaus, current President of the Czech Republic.
The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy, with the Prime Minister as head of government. The Parliament (Parlament České republiky) is bicameral, with the Chamber of Deputies (Czech: Poslanecká sněmovna) (200 members) and the Senate (Senát)(81 members).
The President of the Czech Republic is elected by a joint session of the parliament for a five-year term, with no more than two consecutive terms. The president is a formal head of state with limited specific powers, most importantly to return bills to the parliament, nominate Constitutional court judges for the Senate's approval and dissolve the parliament under certain special and unusual circumstances. He also appoints the prime minister, as well the other members of the cabinet on a proposal by the prime minister.
The Prime Minister is the head of government and wields considerable powers, including the right to set the agenda for most foreign and domestic policy, mobilize the parliamentary majority and choose government ministers.
The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a four year term by proportional representation, with a 5% election threshold. There are 14 voting districts, identical to the country's administrative regions. The Chamber of Deputies, the successor to the Czech National Council, has the powers and responsibilities of the now defunct federal parliament of the former Czechoslovakia.
The members of the Senate are elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round runoff voting for a six-year term, with one-third elected every even year in the autumn. The first election was in 1996, for differing terms. This arrangement is modelled on the U.S. Senate, but each constituency is roughly the same size and the voting system used is a two-round runoff. The Senate is unpopular among the public and suffers from low election turnout, overall roughly 30% in the first round and 20% in the second.

Foreign policy

Membership in the European Union is central in Czech Republic's foreign policy. The Czech Republic held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union for the first half of 2009.
Czech officials have supported dissenters in Burma, Belarus, Moldova and Cuba.[42]

Armed forces

The Czech armed forces consist of the Army, Air Force and of specialized support units. In 2004, the Czech armed forces completely phased out conscription and transformed into a fully volunteer military army and air force. The country has been a member of NATO, since March 12, 1999. Defence spending is around 1.8% of the GDP (2006).

Regions and districts

Since 2000, the Czech Republic is divided into thirteen regions (Czech: kraje, singular kraj) and the capital city of Prague. Each region has its own elected Regional Assembly (krajské zastupitelstvo) and hejtman (usually translated as hetman or "president"). In Prague, their powers are executed by the city council and the mayor.
The older seventy-six districts (okresy, singular okres) including three "statutory cities" (without Prague, which had special status) lost most of their importance in 1999 in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration.[43]
Map of the Czech Republic with regions.
Map with districts.
(Lic. plate) Region Capital Population (2004 est.) Population (2008 est.)
A  Prague, the Capital City (Hlavní město Praha) 1,170,571 1,223,368
S  Central Bohemian Region (Středočeský kraj) offices located in Prague (Praha) 1,144,071 1,214,356
C  South Bohemian Region (Jihočeský kraj) České Budějovice 625,712 634,408
P  Plzeň Region (Plzeňský kraj) Plzeň 549,618 565,029
K  Karlovy Vary Region (Karlovarský kraj) Karlovy Vary 304,588 308,450
U  Ústí nad Labem Region (Ústecký kraj) Ústí nad Labem 822,133 835,260
L  Liberec Region (Liberecký kraj) Liberec 427,563 435,755
H  Hradec Králové Region (Královéhradecký kraj) Hradec Králové 547,296 553,503
E  Pardubice Region (Pardubický kraj) Pardubice 505,285 513,949
M  Olomouc Region (Olomoucký kraj) Olomouc 635,126 641,897
T  Moravian-Silesian Region (Moravskoslezský kraj) Ostrava 1,257,554 1,250,066
B  South Moravian Region (Jihomoravský kraj) Brno 1,123,201 1,143,389
Z  Zlín Region (Zlínský kraj) Zlín 590,706 591,026
J  Vysočina Region (Vysočina) Jihlava 517,153 514,470

Economy

Škoda Auto is one of the largest car manufacturers in Central Europe. In 2009, 684,226 cars were sold worldwide, a record for the company.
The Czech Republic possesses a developed,[44] high-income[45] economy with a GDP per capita of 82% of the European Union average.[46] One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has seen a growth of over 6% annually in the last three years. Recent growth has been led by exports to the European Union, especially Germany and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving.
Most of the economy has been privatised, including the banks and telecommunications. The current centre-right government plans to continue with privatisation, including the energy industry and the Prague airport. It has recently agreed to the sale of a 7% stake in the energy producer, CEZ Group, with the sale of the Budějovický Budvar brewery also mooted.
The country has fully implemented the Schengen Agreement and therefore, has abolished border controls, completely opening its borders with all of its neighbours, Germany, Austria, Poland and Slovakia, on December 21, 2007.[47] The Czech Republic became a member of the World Trade Organisation.
The last Czech government led by social democrats had expressed a desire to adopt the euro in 2010, but the current centre-right government suspended that plan in 2007.[48] An exact date has not been set up, but the Finance Ministry described adoption by 2012 as realistic,[49] if public finance reform passes. However, the most recent draft of the euro adoption plan omits giving any date. Although the country is economically better positioned than other EU Members to adopt the euro, the change is not expected before 2013, due to political reluctance on the matter.[50]
On January 1, 2009, former Czech PM, Mirek Topolánek, declared that on November 1, 2009, the Czech government will announce a fixed date for euro adoption, since the country "currently fulfils all criteria for adoption of the euro", however his subsequent deposition has rendered this deadline moot.[51] There are several challenges, however. The rate of corruption remains one of the highest among the other developed OECD countries and the public budgets remain in deficit despite strong growth of the economy in recent years. However, the 2007 deficit has been 1.58% GDP and the 2008 deficit is expected at 1.2% GDP,[52] according to EU accounting rules, far better than original projections.
The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks the Czech education system as the 15th best in the world, higher than the OECD average.[53]

Infrastructure

New commuter trains called CityElefant made by Škoda Works operate near larger cities
Czech motorway network
Ruzyně International Airport is the main international airport in the country. In 2007, it handled 12.4 million passengers, which makes it one of the busiest airports in Central Europe. In total, Czech Republic has 46 airports with paved runways, six of which provide international air services.
České dráhy is the main railway operator in the Czech Republic, with about 180 million passengers carried yearly. Its cargo division, ČD Cargo, is the fifth largest railway cargo operator in the European Union. With 9,505 km (5,906.13 mi) of tracks, the Czech Republic has one of the densest railway networks in Europe.[54] From that number, 2,926 km (1,818.13 mi) is electrified, 7,617 km (4,732.98 mi) are single-line tracks and 1,866 km (1,159.48 mi) are double and multiple-line tracks.[55]
In 2005, according to the Czech Statistical Office, 65.4% of electricity was produced in steam, combined and combustion power plants (mostly coal); 30% in nuclear plants; and 4.6% from renewable sources, including hydropower. Russia, via pipelines through Ukraine and to a lesser extent, Norway, via pipelines through Germany, supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas.
The Czech Republic is reducing its dependence on highly polluting low-grade brown coal as a source of energy. Nuclear energy presently provides about 30% of the total power needs, its share is projected to increase to 40%. Natural gas is procured from Russian Gazprom, roughly three-fourths of domestic consumption and from Norwegian companies, which make up most of the remaining one-fourth. Russian gas is imported via Ukraine (Druzhba pipeline), Norwegian gas is transported through Germany. Gas consumption (approx. 100 TWh in 2003–2005) is almost two times higher than the electricity consumption. South Moravia has small oil and gas deposits.
The road network in Czech Republic is 55,653 km (34,581.17 mi) long.[56]

Internet

The Czech Republic has the most Wi-Fi subscribers in the European Union.[57][58] By the beginning of 2008, there was over 800 mostly local WISPs,[59][60] with about 350,000 subscribers in 2007. Mobile internet is quite popular. Plans based on either GPRS, EDGE, UMTS or CDMA2000 are being offered by all three mobile phone operators (T-Mobile, Vodafone, Telefonica O2) and U:fon. Government-owned Český Telecom slowed down broadband penetration. At the beginning of 2004, local-loop unbundling began and alternative operators started to offer ADSL and also SDSL. This and later privatisation of Český Telecom helped drive down prices.
On July 1, 2006, Český Telecom was acquired by globalized company (Spain owned) Telefonica group and adopted new name Telefónica O2 Czech Republic. As of January 2006, ADSL2+ is offered in many variants, both with data limit and without with speeds up to 10 Mbit/s. Cable internet is gaining popularity with its higher download speeds beginning at 2 Mbit/s up to 100 Mbit/s. The largest ISP, UPC (which recently acquired another CATV internet provider Karneval in 2007), provides its service in the cities of Prague, Brno and Ostrava.

Tourism

Since the fall of Iron Curtain in 1989, Prague has become one of the most visited cities in Europe.
The Czech economy gets a substantial income from tourism. In 2001, the total earnings from tourism reached 118.13 billion CZK, making up 5.5% of GNP and 9.3% of overall export earnings. The industry employs more than 110,000 people – over 1% of the population.[61] In 2008, however, there was a slump in tourist numbers in Prague, possibly due to the strong Czech koruna (crown) making the country too expensive for visitors, compared to the level of services that were available.[62]
The country's reputation has also suffered with guidebooks and tourists reporting overcharging by taxi drivers and pickpocketing problems.[62][63] Since 2005, Prague's mayor, Pavel Bém, has worked to improve this reputation by cracking down on petty crime[63] and, aside from these problems, Prague is a relatively safe city; most areas are safe to walk around even after dark.[64] Also, the Czech Republic as a whole generally has a low crime rate.[65]
There are several centres of tourist activity. The historic city of Prague is the primary tourist attraction, as the city is also the most common point of entry for tourists visiting other parts of the country.[66] Most other cities in the country attract significant numbers of tourists, but the spa towns, such as Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně and Františkovy Lázně, are particularly popular holiday destinations. Other popular tourist sites are the many castles and chateaux, such as those at Karlštejn Castle, Český Krumlov and the Lednice–Valtice area. Away from the towns, areas such as Český ráj, Šumava and the Krkonoše Mountains attract visitors seeking outdoor pursuits.
The country is also famous for its love of puppetry and marionettes with a number of puppet festivals throughout the country. The Pilsener style beer originated in western Bohemian city of Plzeň, and further south the town of Budweis lent its name to its beer, eventually known as Budweiser Bier Bürgerbräu thus Budweiser.

Culture

Cuisine

Vepřo-knedlo-zelo (Roast pork with dumplings and sauerkraut).
Budweiser Budvar, Czech beer is a very important part of the country's culture.
Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common; beef and chicken are also popular. Goose, duck, rabbit and wild game are served. Fish is rare, with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carp, which is served at Christmas.
Aside from Slivovitz, Czech beer and wine, Czechs also produce two uniquely Czech liquors, Fernet Stock and Becherovka. Kofola is a non-alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca Cola and Pepsi in popularity.

Sport

Sport plays a part in the life of many Czechs, who are generally loyal supporters of their favourite teams or individuals. The two leading sports in the Czech Republic are football (soccer) and ice hockey, both drawing the largest attention of both the media and supporters. Tennis is also a very big sport in the Czech Republic. The many other sports with professional leagues and structures include basketball, volleyball, team handball, track and field athletics and floorball.
Sport is a source of strong waves of patriotism, usually rising several days or weeks before an event and sinking several days after. The events considered the most important by Czech fans are: the Ice Hockey World Championships, Olympic Ice hockey tournament, UEFA European Football Championship, FIFA World Cup and qualification matches for such events. In general, any international match of the Czech ice hockey or football national team draws attention, especially when played against a traditional rival: Germany and Netherlands in football; Russia, Sweden and Canada in ice hockey; and Slovakia in both.

Sciences

A diagram illustrating Mendelian inheritance.
The Czech Republic has a rich scientific tradition. From the invention of the modern contact lens and separation of modern blood types, to the production of the Semtex plastic explosive, the world owes much of its scientific insight to prominent Czech scientists, including:
A number of other scientists are also connected in some way with the Czech Lands, including astronomers Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe, the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry Sigmund Freud, physicists Ernst Mach, Albert Einstein and logician Kurt Gödel.

Music

Okoř castle ruin during Okoř Festival in 2004
Music in the Czech Republic has its roots both in high-culture opera and symphony and in the traditional music of Bohemia and Moravia. Cross-pollination and diversity are important aspects of Czech music. Composers were often influenced by traditional music; jazz and bluegrass music have become popular; pop music partially consisted of English language hits sung in Czech (mostly in years 1960–1989). Notable Czech composers include Leoš Janáček, Antonín Dvořák, Bohuslav Martinů, and Bedřich Smetana. Great classical composers such as Ludwig van Beethoven and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are also linked closely to the Czech Republic throughout the period of the Habsburg Empire.

Literature

Czech literature is the literature written by Czechs or other inhabitants of the Czech state, mostly in the Czech language, although other languages like Old Church Slavonic, Latin or German have been also used, especially in the past. Modern authors from the Czech territory who wrote in other languages (e.g. German) are however sometimes considered separately, thus Franz Kafka, for example, who wrote in German (though he was also fluent in Czech), is often considered part of Austrian or German literature.
Czech literature is divided into several main time periods: the Middle Ages; the Hussite period; the years of re-Catholicization and the baroque; the Enlightenment and Czech reawakening in the 19th century; the avantgarde of the interwar period; the years under Communism and the Prague Spring; and the literature of the post-Communist Czech Republic. Czech literature and culture played a major role on at least two occasions, when Czech society lived under oppression and no political activity was possible. On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the 1960s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to create political freedom, establishing a confident, politically aware nation.

Theatre

Theatre of the Czech Republic has rich tradition with roots in the Middle Ages. In the 19th century, the theatre played an important role in the national awakening movement and later, in the 20th century it became a part of the modern European theatre art.

International rankings

See also

Lists:

References

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  • Some of the material comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.

External links

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Travel

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Central Europe : Czech Republic
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:ez-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Prague
Government parliamentary democracy
Currency Czech crown (CZK) - "koruna"
Area total: 78,866 sq km
Population 10,235,455 (July 2006 est.)
Language Czech, Slovak
Religion agnostic and atheist 59%, Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code 420
Internet TLD .cz
Time Zone UTC + 1 (winter time) UTC+2 (summer time)
.The Czech Republic [1], [2] is a small landlocked country in Central Europe, situated south-east of Germany and bordering Austria to the south, Poland to the north and Slovakia (with which it used to form one country of Czechoslovakia) to the south-east.^ The republic is bounded by Poland on the north, Germany on the northwest and southwest, Austria on the south, and the Slovak Republic on the east.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Czech Republic is essentially a country of small cities and towns.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Understand

.After the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged together to form the new nation of Czechoslovakia.^ Social welfare programs in the former Czechoslovakia dated back to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 12 September 2009 7:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, death to German and Hungarian Fascism so that Slav Fascism may flourishEurope is making a major mistake: It believes that Czechoslovakia is still number one and actually it is the Czech and the Slovak who drew a sharp dividing line between the first and the second republic.

.During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Hungarians.^ The new countries are the Czeck Republic and Slovakia.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Other ethnic minorities are numerically insignificant.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 12 September 2009 7:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A poor relationship with the German minority (20% of the overall population) was a particular problem that was capitalized on by Hitler and used as "rationale" for the dismemberment of the nation before the outbreak of WWII. The country was annexed and occupied by Germany during the war.^ After 20 years of little public participation, the population gradually started to take interest in the government, and Dubcek became a truly popular national figure.
  • Czech Republic (07/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 12 September 2009 7:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It then became a key British naval base in the Mediterranean, and was annexed by Britain in World War I. In 1950, 80% of the islands population was Greek and 20% was Turkish.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After World War II, Czechoslovakia expelled most of its Germans by force and many of the ethnic Hungarians under direction of the Potsdam Conference.^ It is undeniable that what happened to the Sudeten Germans at the end of World War II in Czechoslovakia was genocide.

^ After World War II, the ethnic makeup of Czechoslovakia changed profoundly.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II, nearly 2.5 million ethnic Germans were expelled from the Sudeten region, which was part of Czechoslovakia and Poland.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the nation was very blessed in the fact that it emerged from the war more or less intact as it avoided the fate of the massive air bombardments that leveled most of the historic neighboring cities in Germany, Austria, Poland and Belarus.^ As a landlocked nation, the Czech Republic relies on coastal outlets in Poland, Croatia, Slovenia, and Germany for international commerce by sea.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, most of these began to appear in 1980 and after, and they had a very small circulation.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The republic is bounded by Poland on the north, Germany on the northwest and southwest, Austria on the south, and the Slovak Republic on the east.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The country fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and remained so by force until 1989.
.In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face". Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression and conservatism within the party ranks.^ Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression.
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 12 September 2009 7:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize party rule and create "socialism with a human face."
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face."
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 12 September 2009 7:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In November 1989, the Communist government was deposed in a peaceful "Velvet Revolution".
.On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.^ January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 12 September 2009 7:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 1, 1993, the two republics split to form two separate states.
  • Czech Republic (07/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new countries are the Czeck Republic and Slovakia.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Now a member of NATO (since 1999) and EU (since 2004), the Czech Republic has moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities and risks.^ Czech Republic (since 1993) .

^ The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Czech Republic 12 September 2009 7:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Czech Republic became a European Union member on May 1, 2004.
  • Czech Republic (07/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Czech Republic is not a large country but has a rich and eventful history.^ The area of the Czech Republic is 30,450 square miles (78,866 square kilometers), with Bohemia being twice as large as Moravia.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Czech Republic has bilateral tax treaties (BITs) with about 65 countries.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Czech Republic has sent experts on the management and planning of water resources to the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.From time immemorial Czechs, Germans, Jews and Slovaks, as well as Italian stonemasons and stucco workers, French tradesmen and deserters from Napoleon’s army have all lived and worked here, all influencing one another.^ One prototype was presented to the Czech and German army in 1938 - 39.
  • Czechoslovakia 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One prototype was produced for the Czechs in 1938 and another in 1939 for the Germans.
  • Czechoslovakia 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not accepted for the Czech or German army.
  • Czechoslovakia 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For centuries they jointly cultivated their land, creating works, which still command our respect and admiration today.^ In 1975 they created the performance work "Media Burn," in which Michels drove a Cadillac through a pyramid of burning television sets.
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is thanks to their inventiveness and skill that this small country is graced with hundreds of ancient castles, monasteries and stately mansions, and even entire towns that give the impression of being comprehensive artifacts.^ This is certainly the impression which Herr von Weizscker gives; but I am not certain that the declarations of the State Secretary are still in accordance with the actual facts.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Czech Republic is essentially a country of small cities and towns.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases their castles or mansions were found to be in such a state of neglect that restoration and maintenance have been beyond their means.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Czech Republic contains a vast of amount of architectural treasure and has beautiful forests and mountains to match.^ Estimated recoverable coal reserves in the Czech Republic amounted to 6,259 million short tons in 2001.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Czech flag (see above) is the same one formerly used by Czechoslovakia, having been readopted in 1993.
  • Easter (Velikonoce): On Easter Monday it is customary for guys to (slightly) spank girls and women with a wicker stick with colorful ribbons at the end (pomlázka), in the hope that the girls and women will in turn give them colored eggs, candy or drinks. After noon, girls defend themselves by pouring water on the guys. .Obvious tourists are often (but not always) exempt.
  • Witch Burning (Pálení čarodějnic) or Night of Witches (Čarodějnice): On the last April evening, bonfires are lit around the country.^ Last night on CNN they talked about the fact that he can't use the internet or even send an email!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!?????????
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    "Witch" figurines, as a symbol of evil, are made and burned in the fire. This is the reinterpretation of the old pagan festival (Beltane) influenced by Christian inquisition. .Because probably most Czechs would prefer the witches over the inquisitors, in many fires no witches are burnt, and the feast is celebrated in a more original pagan way - witches are those who should celebrate the night, not be burnt.^ It is timely because Victor Orbán , the Hungarian Prime Minister, has answered a question in a way that caused a major uproar in Czech and Slovak circles.

    ^ Only those can be citizens who are members of the nation, non-citizens have no civil rights, etc.

    ^ In many places it was expected that after the Czechs took over the police and administrative powers, the situation would return to normal after the horroros and violence of war.

    .It doesn't stop jokes like "Honey, hide or you will be burnt tonight!".
  • Last Ringing (Poslední zvonění) is a traditional celebration of the end of the last year at a high school.^ There is a general primary school program that lasts for nine years.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the end of the eighth year, they take a final school-leaving examination ( maturita ).
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is celebrated usually in late April or early May, a week or more before the final exams (maturita in Czech) take place (the time may be different in different schools).^ Czech was one of the Slavic languages at least as early as the ninth century, the time of the Great Moravian Czech Republic Empire.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Middle-class men usually did not marry until they were launched in their careers, typically in their late twenties or early thirties; women usually married in their early or middle twenties.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Czech forces have been successfully downsized from 200,000 to approximately 30,000, and at the same time reoriented into a more mobile, deployable force.
    • Czech Republic (07/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Students get a free day and usually do silly things in silly costumes. .They go to the streets and collect money from people passing by, sometimes threatening them with water, writing on their faces with a lipstick or spraying them with perfume.^ Maria Schmidt writes, Mrai writes that in this century more than 100 million people were the victims of collective punishment..

    The collected money is used at a party after the exams.
  • Feast of St. Mikuláš (St. Nicolaus, Santa Claus), Dec. 5: On this day, St. Mikuláš roams about with his consorts, an angel and a devil. He gives small presents and candy to children to reward them for their good behaviour throughout the year, while the devil chastises children for their wrongdoings over the course of the year and gives them potatoes, coal (or sometimes spankings) as a punishment. .Old Town Square in Prague is a great place to watch the festivities.
  • Christmas (Vánoce): Czechs begin celebrating this holiday on Christmas Eve and continue to celebrate until the 26th (the Feast of Stephen).^ Celebration 2003 at St. Michael's Church In Old Town 1633 N. Cleveland @ Eugenie St. Michael's Church in Old Town 312-266-1445 .
    • Chicago seasonal Events Guide: Chicago neighborhood events sorted by month 17 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.chicagoneighborhoods.cc [Source type: General]

    ^ A monument in Prague's Old Town Square ( Staroměstskénáměstí ) commemorates Jan Hus (John Huss), a religious reformer who was burned as a heretic in Constance (Konstanz) in southern Germany in 1415.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On 15 March 1939, Hitler took the remainder of the Czech lands, beginning an occupation that lasted until 9 May 1945.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Presents are placed under a Christmas tree (by Ježíšek (The Baby Jesus) as little children believe) and taken after dinner on Christmas Eve.^ All this has taken place within a few hours and events have thus outrun the limits which your instructions had set to the conversation I am due presently to have.
    • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    Potato salad and carp is a traditional Christmas meal, and for this reason one can see live carp being sold out of huge tanks throughout the streets of Czech cities and towns just before Christmas.

Regions

The Czech Republic can be divided in 2 historical regions:
Regions of Czech Republic
Regions of Czech Republic
.Bohemia
The western part of the Czech Republic with the capital Prague.^ The capital city of the Czech Republic, Prague, is located in the north central part of the country.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jewish community numbers a few thousand today; a synagogue in Prague memorializes the names of more than 80,000 Czechoslovak Jews who perished in World War II. HISTORY The Czech Republic was the western part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.
  • Czech Republic (07/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The area of the Czech Republic is 30,450 square miles (78,866 square kilometers), with Bohemia being twice as large as Moravia.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moravia-Silesia
The eastern part of the country, with Brno as it's largest city.^ The next three largest cities are the capital of Moravia, Brno, with approximately 400,000 people; Ostrava in northern Moravia, with about 350,000; and Plzeň (Pilsen), with approximately 180,000.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moravia was under imperial administration, Brno (Brünn) being an imperial city.

^ The capital city of the Czech Republic, Prague, is located in the north central part of the country.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are 14 political regions which are subdivided into districts.^ Since 1989, because of the political and economic changes, there has been a slow rise in regional differences in economic efficiency and economic attractiveness.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Cities

.These are just nine interesting cities selected to represent variety of Czech urban areas.^ On 11 March 1848, a demonstration in Prague demanded freedom of the press, equality of language, a parliament to represent Czech interests, and an end to serfdom.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tendency of Czechs to move from rural areas to cities predates the founding of the nation in 1918.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STATUS REPORT: Waters represent 2% of the total land area of the Czech Republic.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

For more exciting destinations, see the individual regions.
.
  • Prague (Praha) - the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic.^ The capital city of the Czech Republic, Prague, is located in the north central part of the country.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The next three largest cities are the capital of Moravia, Brno, with approximately 400,000 people; Ostrava in northern Moravia, with about 350,000; and Plzeň (Pilsen), with approximately 180,000.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Czech Republic is essentially a country of small cities and towns.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Its large and beautiful historic center is on the UNESCO World Heritage list.
  • Brno: Largest city in Moravia with several excellent museums.^ The next three largest cities are the capital of Moravia, Brno, with approximately 400,000 people; Ostrava in northern Moravia, with about 350,000; and Plzeň (Pilsen), with approximately 180,000.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Moto GP Grand Prix takes place here every year.
  • Ostrava - Third-largest city in the Czech Republic with a vibrant local subculture and long history of coal mining and heavy industry.^ The Czech Republic has long been highly developed industrially.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Confederation of Industry of the Czech Republic (est.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The next three largest cities are the capital of Moravia, Brno, with approximately 400,000 people; Ostrava in northern Moravia, with about 350,000; and Plzeň (Pilsen), with approximately 180,000.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The old steelworks and coal mines are not everybody’s idea of a tourist destination but it is a fascinating and unique landscape which is accessible on guided tours. Hard hats supplied.
Olomouc Square at dusk
.
Olomouc Square at dusk
  • Olomouc - A vibrant riverside university town with a 1000 year history and the 2nd largest historical centre in the Czech Republic.^ The area of the Czech Republic is 30,450 square miles (78,866 square kilometers), with Bohemia being twice as large as Moravia.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After Germany, the Czech Republic is Europe's largest producer of hops; production in 2004 was 6,311 tons.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More than fifteen years ago, Czechoslovakia officially split into two nations – the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    .Olomouc’s rich collection of historical architecture includes the UNESCO-listed column of the Holy Trinity, six stone baroque fountains, several churches and the renaissance town hall with a 15metre high astronomical clock.^ Astronomical clock on Old Town Hall.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The historical and geographic term "Bohemian" is misleading, as it not only excludes Czech-speaking Moravians but includes members of several ethnic minorities that live in Bohemia but do not speak Czech.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Prague, which survived World War II relatively intact, has numerous palaces and churches from the Renaissance and Baroque periods.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Bouzov and Helfštýn castles are nearby.
  • Český Krumlov - Beautiful old town in South Bohemia with the country's second biggest chateau.
  • Kutná Hora - Historical town with famous St. Barbora cathedral, old silver mines and the Chapel of All Saints, which is decorated with thousands of human bones
Karlovy Vary
.
Karlovy Vary
  • Karlovy Vary aka "Carlsbad", historic (and biggest Czech) spa resort, especially popular with German and Russian tourist groups
  • Pilsen (Plzeň) - Home of the original Pilsner Urquell beer, and the largest city in West Bohemia
  • Telč - A small South Moravian town with a perfectly preserved Renaissance town centre which is surrounded by shallow man made lakes.^ The Czech Republic is essentially a country of small cities and towns.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The next three largest cities are the capital of Moravia, Brno, with approximately 400,000 people; Ostrava in northern Moravia, with about 350,000; and Plzeň (Pilsen), with approximately 180,000.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since the fall of the communist regime the Czech Republic has placed high priority on renovating historical sites and preserving their rich collection of art treasures.

    The town square is surrounded by an arched walkway and colourful two-storey renaissance houses. The chateau and Church of St James are open to the public and its possible to hire rowboats from the lakeside in the warmer months.
Trosky Castle
.
Trosky Castle
  • Český Ráj: (Czech Paradise) A region of towering rock formations and isolated castles located north-east of Prague.^ The capital city of the Czech Republic, Prague, is located in the north central part of the country.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The gateway city of Jičín is an interesting destination in its own right, but Turnov is closer to most of the castles and rock formations. The twin towers of the ruined castle Trosky are a symbol of the area and can be climbed for the views
  • Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou: A small town circa 50 km from Jihlava (towards Znojmo) with the Baroque Castle and Church of St. Margaret
  • Karlštejn Castle and the holy cave monastery: Hiking trip to the famous castle as well as an off the beaten track monastery
  • Krkonoše: (Giant Mountains) The highest mountains in the Czech Republic along the Polish border
Litomyšl monastery gardens
Litomyšl monastery gardens
  • Litomyšl: A beautiful small town in East Bohemia. .The renaissance main square and chateau are among the Czech Republic’s prettiest and the town has been home to many important and influential artists, including composer Bedřich Smetana, sculptor Olbram Zoubek and painter Josef Váchal.^ Renaissance vocal polyphonic music was composed and performed during the sixteenth century, Italian operas were presented not only in Prague but in smaller towns in the eighteenth century, and at the time when the Baroque was giving way to classicism, numerous musicians from the Czech lands were active in many European countries.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The area of the Czech Republic is 30,450 square miles (78,866 square kilometers), with Bohemia being twice as large as Moravia.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The topography of the Czech Republic consists of two main regions.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .There are two international opera festivals at the chateau each year.
  • Moravský Kras: Extensive karst area between Brno and Olomouc with the deepest abyss in the country and, in the Punkevní Caves, the opportunity to take a boat ride along an underground river.
  • Mutěnice Wine Region: Some of the best vineyards in the Czech Republic and totally off the well beaten tourist path
  • Nové Město na Moravě : Cross country skiing resort.^ The topography of the Czech Republic consists of two main regions.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are many sports associations in the country, some of which are affiliated with international organizations as well.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A small but flourishing country in the middle of Europe, the Czech Republic has always presented a diverse selection of culture and offers something for every type of visitor .

    The race of Tour de Ski takes place here.
Main Square of Telč
.
Main Square of Telč
  • Terezín: A red-brick baroque fortress 70km north of Prague beside the Ohře river.^ The chief rivers are the Labe (Elbe) and its main tributaries, the Vltava (Moldau) and the Ohře (Eger); the Elbe flows into the North Sea.
    • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Also, about 120,000 people came to the main square in Prague and some barricades went up .
    • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It was used during WWII as a Jewish ghetto and concentration camp.

Get in

.Czech Republic is a member of the Schengen Agreement.^ Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: The Czech Republic is a member of OECD and an associate member of EU. .
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the near future, the Czech Republic's eco-labeling programme will be harmonized with that of the Member States of the European Union.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Czech Republic also had a 5,600 member paramilitary force made up of 4,000 border guards and 1,600 internal security personnel.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. .In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length.^ No wonder he likes Romney speaking for him saying we need to make sure America stays American.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The Reich seems to have mentioned that they would be prepared to give their guarantee to a neutral State, taking for granted that such a State would have no need for a strong army.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

Others will generally need a passport for entry.
.There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.^ There is no doubt that the relaxation of controls on the Intelligentsia, which really began with Kadar's speech of Dec.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is an observer in the OAS and an affiliate member of the Western European Union.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 2002, the government had negotiated bilateral investment treaties (BITs) with 66 countries, the BIT with the United States in force since 1992.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty.^ This task is in our conditions a very slow and not at all a simple process similarly as in most other countries of the CEEC region.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction In June 1992, the former Czechoslovakia, as many other countries participating at the Rio Conference, signed the relevant documents, especially Agenda 21.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They also demanded respect for international treaties and urged the government to sign the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights that had been signed by other most countries.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.^ In the near future, the Czech Republic's eco-labeling programme will be harmonized with that of the Member States of the European Union.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the European Union were to accept it, it would lose all credibility.

.Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere.^ Hachas life can be divided into five sections.

.If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks.^ July 15th, 2008 3:33 pm ET Another blunder McPuppet…..I guess you didn’t have Liebermann behind you so that he can pull your strings.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ (NH, 5/96, p.61) 1968 The Rogue River in southern Oregon was named as one the country's first national wild and Scenic rivers.
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Faced with further prison time after a shootout with police in April 1968, Cleaver jumped bail and fled the country, first to Cuba, then to Algeria.
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. .Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.^ And here is the best part: If you lose your boss phone card PIN number email us and we will find your PIN for you absolutely free.

^ Our store never closes; you can buy cards online from the comfort of your own home 24 hours a day 7 days a week.

^ All you need to start calling with our cards is your unique card number and PIN. You can use your card as soon as you get an e-mail from us with your PIN and toll-free access number.

Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
.As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.^ New Zealand visa .
  • Czech Republic Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Czech Visas Online. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ Czech Republic entry visa is not required for citizens of United States.
  • Czech Republic Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Czech Visas Online. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ Antigua Barbuda visa .
  • Czech Republic Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Czech Visas Online. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.com [Source type: General]

Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
.However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.^ All inhabitants of the Czechoslovak Republic, regardless of birth, citizenship, race or religion enjoy the complete and absolute protection of their life and freedom, exactly like the citizens of the country and in every area of the country.

^ Applicable to all Danish territories except Greenland and to all territories over which the United States has jurisdiction or international responsibility except the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
  • Consular Notification and Access, Part 5: Legal Material 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

.Ruzyně Airport – located about 10 km west of the centre of Prague, (Praha in Czech), is a hub of Czech national carrier – Czech Airlines (ČSA), a SkyTeam member.^ Aug 10, In West Virginia 35 people were killed in the crash of a Piedmont Airlines Fairchild FH-227 at Kanawha County Airport.
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overwhelming majority of Americans can't locate the Czech Republic or Slovakia on a map let alone know anything about either country.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Other international airports are in Brno (with flights to London, Moscow, Barcelona and Prague), Ostrava (flights to Vienna and Prague), Pardubice, Karlovy Vary (flights to Moscow and Uherské Hradiště).^ Other than a visit to Moscow in November-December 1943, he stayed in London until March 1945.

There are dozens of low-cost airlines going to/from Prague. Ryanair flies to Brno from London and Girona and to Prague from Dublin. .Other nearby airports are Nuremberg (200 km) and Munich (320 km) in Germany, Vienna having a bus shuttle to Brno city (260 km to Prague, 110 km to Brno) in Austria, Wroclaw (200 km) in Poland (might be a good idea if you want to go to the Giant Mountains) and Bratislava – hub for SkyEurope Airlines but without shuttle (280 km to Prague, only 120 km to Brno) in Slovakia.^ Tiso to go to the Fhrer without delay was received at Bratislava at about ten o'clock yesterday morning.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Step 2: Select the city you are going to call to .
  • International Dialing/Area codes calculator 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ M. ARDIET-Nuremberg, March 16 Gauleiter Streicher proclaims publicly that the Prague affair is only a beginning and that the Democracies are doomed ....................................................
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

The easiest way to get to your hotel from the airport is praguetransfer.net [3], a minibus company that provides a cheap door to door service. Book your shuttle in advance at their website. .If you need to get to another city from the airport, you can book at the same company's website specialized in long distance transfers to all cities in the Czech Republic.^ The Czech Republic is essentially a country of small cities and towns.
  • Culture of Czech Republic - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both short-term and medium-term goals following from the contemporary state of the environment in the Czech Republic are subordinate to this long-term goal.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Czech Republic, wastes are classified as special and other waste.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

It is easy and quick to book at airportshuttle.cz [4]

By bus

.International bus service runs from many cities in Europe with direct connections from Germany, Netherlands, Slovakia, Switzerland, Austria etc.^ Bilateral agreements have been signed with Poland, Austria, Germany and Slovakia.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The main destination points were Germany (where 36.1% of total exports went), Slovakia (8.4%), Austria (6%), Poland (5.3%), the United Kingdom (4.7%), France (4.7%), Italy (4.3%), and the Netherlands (4.3%).
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It shares boundaries with Poland (on the ne), Slovakia (on the se), Austria (on the s), and Germany (on the w and nw) and has a total boundary length of 1,881 km (1,169 mi).
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Good service is offered by Eurolines [5] and Student Agency [6].

By train

.International train service runs from most points in Europe with direct connections from Slovakia, Poland, Germany, Nederland, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine.^ As a landlocked nation, the Czech Republic relies on coastal outlets in Poland, Croatia, Slovenia, and Germany for international commerce by sea.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In both categories, W. Germany lent the most to E. Europe.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2000, direct investment outflow from the Czech Republic totaled $726 million, 37.7% to Slovenia, 25.6% to Poland, and 15.9% to Russia.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you are in Bavaria, Saxony or Thuringia, the cheapest way to get to the Czech Republic is to take a "Bayernticket", "Sachsen-Ticket" or "Thuringen-Ticket" (up to 5 people per ticket, which costs 25 EUR; only regional trains) to the border and then buy a Czech ticket on the board (with 30 Kč surcharge).^ Czech Republic Scarf - Buy it now for only $21.99 .
  • Czech Republic - Soccer forums - BigSoccer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bigsoccer.com [Source type: General]

^ As of 2001, foreign direct investment (FDI) stock per capita in the Czech Republic was $2,432, the highest among the Eastern European transitional economies.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Czech Republic produced 465,268 automobiles in 2001, up 2% from 2000.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Bayernticket is valid in fast trains from Nuremberg and Munich to Prague.

Get around

.IDOS [7] offers an exceptionally useful website with integrated timetables for all trains and buses in the Czech Republic, including all intra-city and inter-city transports.^ At least he new it used to be the Czech Republic.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The Czech Republic had numerous protests from it's citizens against the stupid missile defense system, which will only make them a target and not provide any protection at all!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The Czech Republic has 13 universities offering degrees in medicine, natural sciences, mathematics, engineering, and agriculture.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The German and English version is also available here.

By plane

.There are domestic flights from Prague to Brno and Ostrava, operated by CSA Czech Airlines [8].^ There is co-operation between Czech and foreign associations of organic agriculture (e.g.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are technology museums in Brno, Mlad á Boleslav, and Prague, and the latter also has a natural history museum.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 150,000 people demonstrated in Prague, and there was some damage to the Aeroflot (Soviet airlines) office.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There were also flights operated by Discovery Link, from Prague to Uherské Hradiště, but this airline stopped its flights in 2005.

By bus

A cheap and excellent means of travelling between Prague, Brno, Plzeň and Liberec are the buses from Student Agency. A line to Ostrava via Olomouc was introduced recently. .Apart from this operator there are many other bus companies that link Prague and many other cities regularly.^ Supporters of the ODS are, in general, highly educated business people who come from Prague or other major cities.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The buses leave Prague from Florenc Bus Station or Černý Most Bus Station (both are also Metro stations). Except for the Praha-Ostrava line, the buses are bit faster and cost less than the Czech trains (not considering discounts). .Usually, you do not have to book a seat but if you travel on Fridays or before holidays from Prague, it is recommended.^ We recommend that you have at least two free pages in Visas section of your passport before any international travel.
  • Czech Republic Visa, Canada: Application for Czech Visa for Canadians. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Timetables are available on the IDOS website.

By car

.Driving in the Czech Republic is not as expensive as it is in other countries, but there are specific things that must be kept in mind.^ The Czech Republic has sent experts on the management and planning of water resources to the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Czech and Slovak dissidents laid the groundwork for a "civil society" in Czechoslovakia, just as KOR and other Polish dissident organizations, then Solidarity, also Hungarian dissidents, did in their countries.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With respect to the development launched by the UNCSD, it must be stated that the Czech Republic fully acknowledges this activity and in the frame of its possibilities takes part in the relevant activity of this UN body.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The first thing is that the Czech Republic is a zero tolerance country.^ The Czech Republic has sent experts on the management and planning of water resources to the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ July 15th, 2008 3:32 pm ET Now I've been to the CZECH REPUBLIC and the SLOVAK REPUBLIC and one of the things I noticed is that they were TWO SEPARATE COUNTRIES!!!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Czech Republic specifically, the first governmental institutions dealing with environmental problems as a whole were founded only after 1989.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

It is illegal to operate a motor vehicle under the influence of any amount of alcohol, and violations are very heavily punished.
.The people in the Czech Republic drive sometimes aggressively, but it is not same "madness" like in southern Europe countries for instance.^ July 15th, 2008 3:32 pm ET Now I've been to the CZECH REPUBLIC and the SLOVAK REPUBLIC and one of the things I noticed is that they were TWO SEPARATE COUNTRIES!!!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The Czech Republic was originally a source country but it has been changed to a transit and target country for victims of trafficking in people.
  • Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regional/International Cooperation: The Czech Republic cooperates closely with its neighbouring countries in the field of utilization of frontier river courses.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

In order to drive on the well-kept motorways, however, you need to purchase a toll sticker. .These stickers cost about CZK 220 for seven days (for vehicles lighter than 3.5 tonnes), but can be purchased for longer periods of time (1 month or a year).^ The Environmental Remediation Programme was launched in 1993, and in the period 1993 to 1996, 473 projects were supported in a total amount of 372.4 million CZK (about 10.5 million USD).
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During these years, he spent some time in prison and also worked in a beer barrel factory.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION: Some CZK 55 billion (about 11% of the total budget) was allocated from the State Budget for education in 1996.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

If you do not have a toll sticker on your car when you drive on the motorways, the fines can be very steep (CZK 5000 minimum).
Make certain that you purchase the correct toll sticker: there are those for vehicles under 3.5 tonnes in weight and those for vehicles between 3.5 and 12 tonnes. Vehicles larger than 12 tonnes in weight must use an on-board unit ("premid" unit) to pay tolls based on distance.
.The condition of many roads is improving, but to be safe, drive on the motorways as much as possible, although if you want to get the remote parts of the country you will be forced to take bumpy side-roads sometimes.^ On August 15, 1997 the Slovakian Head of State told the Slovak Radio that he had told Horn, To have the two countries make it possible that a population exchange take place.

^ How many of you can name every country that borders Iraq?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ How many of you can name the countries that border afghanistan without looking at google earth?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Speed limits in the Czech Republic are usually 130 km/h on motorways, 90 km/h off of motorways, and 50 km/h in towns. .Petrol is inexpensive compared to the rest of Europe (CZK 31 / 1,35€), but it is expensive compared to the United States.^ The principal strategic goals of the State Environment Policy are (1) to reach by the year 2005 the level of environmental quality reached by Western Europe in 1990, and (2) to reach a level comparable to Western Europe by the year 2015.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Traffic fines can usually be paid on the spot.

By train

It is now possible to purchase Czech Rail tickets online. To do so, visit the Czech Rail EShop [9]. .Tickets purchased in advance online are often much cheaper (sometimes over 50% cheaper) than tickets purchased at a train station.^ Ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.For a ticket that travels internationally, you must purchase at least 3 days in advance.^ We recommend that you have at least two free pages in Visas section of your passport before any international travel.
  • Czech Republic Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Czech Visas Online. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ All travelers will need a passport valid for at least 90 days following your departure date from Czech Republic.
  • Czech Republic Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Czech Visas Online. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.com [Source type: General]

.For domestic tickets, you should be able to purchase the same day if tickets are still available so long as its at least 30 minutes before departure.^ There is also a mandatory 30-minute rest period during the eight-hour day.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We recommend that you have at least two free pages in Visas section of your passport before any international travel.
  • Czech Republic Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Czech Visas Online. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ At least 30 Indians died from a measles epidemic that hit Yanomani villages at least one year before researchers administered the Edmonston B vaccine [see 1967].
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trains go even to the most remote locations of the Czech Republic and unlike buses, they also operate regularly during off-peak hours.^ They are called the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The State Environmental Policy will be updated regularly on the basis of the National Performance Review, published annually in the Czech Republic.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most forests were privately owned, and during the world wars, they were excessively exploited.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, outside the modernized main corridors, the standard of travelling is often the same as it was in the 1970's, and therefore it is quite time consuming to get to the provincial towns or villages. .The trains tend to meander around the countryside and while this may sound like a nice afternoon ride, it's usually more hassle than it's worth.^ Ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He may or may not have more energy than McCain, but he has no seasoning and VERY little experience of any kind.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

However, things are changing constantly and we can expect some further modernization in the near future.
.Due to the complicated discount policy of the Czech Railways [10] (especially for foreign travellers), the standard one-way tickets are twice as expensive as the bus.^ The state had one state financial bank, 21 Czech joint-stock companies, 6 partly owned foreign banks, and 7 foreign banks.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "In foreign policy, our aim is twofold: (1) To fight Bolshevism by every means, and especially through the operation of the anti-Comintern pact.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ STATUS REPORT: In the Czech Republic, implementation of environmental policies is funded from the State budget, the State Environment Fund, the National Property Fund, Private and Semiprivate funds, and Foreign Aid.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, you can get a discount for a return ticket, for group tickets (two travellers are considered as a "group") or with a special "customer" card.^ We recommend that you have at least two free pages in Visas section of your passport before any international travel.
  • Czech Republic Visa, Canada: Application for Czech Visa for Canadians. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Especially the group discount is very useful, because you get the same fare as using the customer card (75% of standard ticket price) even for two people and from the third traveller on you pay half of the standard price.^ The same year, there were approximately 965 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The customer card (In-karta) costs 990 Kč and is valid for three years. .This makes the trains much more useful, sometimes even cheaper than buses.^ Obama has slipped up much more than McCain, and Obama is still a young kid.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ In all fairness, however, it must be stated that the Czechs treated the Germans much more brutally than the Slovaks the Hungarians.

^ THE language used by the wireless station in Vienna on the Czechoslovak crisis, being more forceful than yesterday's broadcast, is creating intense anxiety here.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its price can be recovered quickly but it takes some time (about one month) to issue the card and you need a photograph.^ At about this time, a few intellectuals, including the playwright Vaclav Have l (b.1936) and the novelist Ludvik Vaculik, issued a 10-point manifesto , signed by ten dissidents.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is exactly what other nations dislike about Americans – that we think we are better than others and do not need to know about global issues.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

You have to fill in a form and add a passport photo. You will get a paper card. After one month you will get a chip card. With this card you can use the "electronic wallet". This "wallet" may be very useful. For the complete list of discounts in English visit Czech Railways' website [11]. If you are under 26 years, you can have a "junior-card". The card costs 330 Kč for three years. With this card you will get a discount of 25%.
Categories of trains:
  • Osobní - slow "local" trains, stops everywhere (abbrev. Os)
  • Spěšný - faster than "osobní", usually skips little villages (Sp)
  • Rychlík - fast trains, stops in major towns, relatively safe and commonly used trains for longer distances(R)
  • Expres - faster and usually a bit cleaner kind of "Rychlík" (Ex)
  • Intercity, Eurocity - pretty modern, clean and fast trains, stopping in major cities only (IC, EC)
  • Supercity (Pendolino) - fastest new trains bought recently by Czech Railways, operates just between biggest cities, have special ticket rates (SC) (Time schedule [12]).
If you take Supercity (SC) Pendolino, you have to tell at the counter when you buy tickets because they do not know what kind of train you will travel with. There are extra charges for these trains mentioned above. .If you are not sure, try to ask for help some younger people waiting in the queue as they should speak some English.^ If you need to make a phone call to someone in another country and you are not quite sure how to dial the number, then this service should hopefully help you.
  • International Dialing/Area codes calculator 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ Many older Czechs speak German; many younger people speak Russian and English.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They, like me, f…king hate it when people see your lens and come up and ask what and who your shooting.

Travel tip

.Between two regional capitals you can use your customer card even more efficiently.^ I leave it to your discretion to make whatever use of this information you may consider desirable.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

With a chip card you have the "electronic wallet". At several stations you can find a special blue dispenser. Unfortunately, it is in Czech only. Touch your card to the image of card. The dispenser will show you some options. One of them is "Tickets eLiška" (Jízdenky eLiška). Click and you will see the regional capitals. If you buy the ticket in advance, you will have a discount. See the link with the list of prices: [13].
.In order to pay these tickets with your "electronic wallet", you have to deposit money on your card first, which you may do conveniently at any counter at the station.^ I leave it to your discretion to make whatever use of this information you may consider desirable.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Another possibility is to buy the ticket online and pay with a credit card, after which you can print the ticket from the PDF or possibly pick up your ticket at any station.^ John838 said: August 14th, 2009 at 10:17 am If you have to do it, you might as well do it right buy , online , online , , , .

^ John838 said: August 13th, 2009 at 9:53 pm If you have to do it, you might as well do it right online , , buy , , cheap , .

If you travel in a group to longer distance, the cheapest variant can be ČDNet - daily ticket for the whole Czech rail network. It is valid for one person and costs 600 Kč (or 450 Kč for ISIC holders and also for the holders of In-karta. There is similar daily ticket SONE+ for travelling on Saturdays and Sundays. It is valid for groups to 2 adult members and costs 450 Kč. For travelling by Supercity trains you need to pay a surcharge.
.Although many train stations were repaired and modernized, the rest is still like a trip back in time to the communist era.^ Although the Communists were beaten back, the offensive was seen as a major setback for the US and its allies.
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is no need to be afraid but try to avoid them in the late night hours.^ We don't know how these proposals would have worked in practice because there was no time to try them out.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trains are generally safe (there are regular police guards assigned for fast trains) and very popular mean of transport and they are widely used both by students and commuters.^ They are generally low (CZK 2/m3; US$ 0.077), and there are many exemptions.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Prague has a pretty good network of local trains connecting it with suburbs and surrounding cities and the tickets bought for these trains are valid for municipal transport. .The new and developing Esko Prague system is efficient to use.^ NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: The current system of economic instruments is based on the use of charges.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Check Prague integrated transport (PID) [14] (in Czech only).^ M. DE LACROIX-Prague, March 14 It appears to be confirmed that Germany is insisting on the dismissal of several Czech Ministers, and perhaps of the entire Cabinet ............................................
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

Pet in train

Smaller pets in cages or bags may travel for free. Bigger dogs must have a muzzle and must be on a leash. Price is very low, only 15 Kč one way or 30 Kč for the whole day (until midnight).

By bicycle

.The Czech Republic is an excellent place for cycling.^ The population of Czech Republic in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 10,212,000, which placed it at number 78 in population among the 193 nations of the world.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are lots of pleasant country lanes, cycling marked paths and picturesque villages along these paths (always with a pub...^ Twice There was a Country, 2nd ed., Cambridge, 2000; see also bibliography at the end of these Lecture Notes].
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), it's easy to find the way, and the trains have bicycle racks in the baggage section for when you get tired. Try cycling in South Moravia region (close to Austrian borders) where you can find dozens of well-marked paths that will lead you through beautiful countryside full of vineyards, vine cellars and colourful villages.
Also border mountains (Krkonoše, Šumava, Jeseníky etc.) are more and more popular among mountain-bikers. There are usually no fences along the trails but always keep to the marked paths here as these mountains are "CHKO" (i.e. protected as national natural heritage) and you can be fined if you cycle "off the beaten track".
CzechCycling.info [15] is a non-profit website with cycling information for Prague and surrounding areas.

On foot

.In addition to walking in the cities, there are a great number of hiking paths and scenery-rich trails going through the Czech Republic's forests and natural areas, and the Czech Tourist Club (Klub českých turistů) [16] has mapped and marked these trails so that walkers can easily locate and navigate thousands of kilometres of scenic paths, in fact it is probably the best maintained system of marking in Europe.^ The Czech Republic is a strategically located landlocked country in Eastern Europe.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will be so rich by approving this system that they will be able to afford to move out of the Czech Republic, should any dangerous situation arise from this agreement, while the citizens of the Czech Republic are left to deal with any crisis which may occur.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Welcome to Czech republic Czech Republic The Heart Of Europe (PAL) Find thousands of answers for hundreds of subjects at Smart QandA .
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You can buy maps of their paths on their website [17], or in the Czech Republic in most bookstores, tobacco shops or museums (green maps, marked with the organization's symbol and the words EDICE TURISTICKÝCH MAP KČT 1:50000 [18] at the top).^ Czech Republic visa Top 5 requested .
  • Czech Republic Visa, Canada: Application for Czech Visa for Canadians. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multilateral cooperation is closely connected with the membership of the Czech Republic in international organizations and with implementation of international conventions.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Please refer to Czech Republic Consulate website for more information.
  • Czech Republic Visa, Canada: Application for Czech Visa for Canadians. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC czech-republic.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These maps are based on military maps and very precise. .It's also possible to go by train to a small village at the edge of a forest and find the on-site map of the surrounding area, and four possible paths will be visible, marked in red, yellow, green, and blue nice tourist maps [19].^ Forest in large-scale and small-scale protected areas covers approximately 27% of the forest area.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ John629 said: April 13th, 2009 at 9:19 pm Nice site!

^ John1429 said: April 11th, 2009 at 6:19 am Nice site!

Nearby such a map will be a set of directing signs, usually posted to a tree, pointing the initial direction on any of the coloured paths. The path's colour will be marked on trees throughout the path: three short horizontal bars, the outer two white and the innermost the colour of the path you're on. This symbol at times will appear as an arrow, indicating a turn. Bus and train stops will also be indicated on signs. .You can also register to become a member [20] of the Czech Tourist Club, where you can camp for 30–50 Kč a night in cottages [21] around the Czech Republic.^ Progress in the implementation of sustainable development at governmental level Up to now the Czech Republic did not officially prepare a national Agenda 21 sensu stricto .
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: The Czech Republic is a member of OECD and an associate member of EU. .
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Islam community has about 20,000 – 30,000 members while the Jewish community has only a few thousand people.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By thumb

Hitchhiking is very common and some drivers stop even on places where they shouldn't.
Take care to use very a clear gesture with the thumb pointing upwards. A gesture looking like you are pointing to the ground may be mistaken for prostitution solicitation.
.As a word of advice, if you are hitch-hiking through the Czech Republic from the south to the German town of Dresden, never go to or past Prague unless you are in a ride going all the way to Dresden.^ In 1993, the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic was founded to ensure equal access by all researchers to funding sources, regardless of their status in the organization.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All imports into the Czech Republic, except those from the Slovak Republic, are subject to an ad valorem rate of up to 80%, but with an average of 4.6%.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between Czech and German Ministers there are no negotiations in the true meaning of the word.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.Prague itself has no major and continuous beltway, so residents of the area must maneuver a ring of major and local roads to get around the city from south to north.^ On the other hand, on March 12 no preparations could be noticed in Austria north of Vienna, or in Vienna itself.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Supporters of the ODS are, in general, highly educated business people who come from Prague or other major cities.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capital city of the Czech Republic, Prague, is located in the north central part of the country.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore the great majority of traffic you will encounter is going into the city.^ Im going to go ahead and say that the majority of you Obama supporters didn't even know that.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ By 1997, proposals to switch the country's pay-as-you-go pension system into one incorporating mandatory private savings and voluntary pension insurance were developed.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Past Prague, the previously major highway turns into a two-lane mountain road through local villages, in which again, the great majority of traffic is local and international travelers are hesitant to stop.^ This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21: Bilateral cooperation is based on agreements that were concluded in the past.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Try a letter-sized (A4) piece of paper with the destination written on it so it is clearly visible where you would like to go.^ Check the e-newsletter(s) you would like to receive.
  • Recycling plant opens in Nevada - New state law forbids burying tires in landfills. - Motor Age - Automotive training, certification & parts info 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC motorage.search-autoparts.com [Source type: General]
  • Cummins receives EPA 2010 certification for Heavy-Duty and MidRange Engines - - Motor Age - Automotive training, certification & parts info 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC motorage.search-autoparts.com [Source type: General]

See some other Tips for hitchhiking.

By thumb with pet

It is possible to hitch-hike with smaller dog, although "waiting time" will be longer. Expect another dog in the car.

Talk

The main language spoken is, not surprisingly, Czech. .The Slovak language can also be often heard, as there is a sizable Slovak minority and both languages are mutually intelligible (at first, you might think they are dialects of each other).^ The Czechs are once more accused of using violence not only against the Slovaks but also against others, and especially against members of the German minority and citizens of the Reich.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.Czech people are very proud of their language, and thus, even in Prague you will not find many signs written in English (outside of the main tourist areas).^ Many older Czechs speak German; many younger people speak Russian and English.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 15th, 2008 2:57 pm ET LOL. How can you judge him if Obama doesnt even know how many states we have here.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ They went on thinking this way even though the proposed Czech reforms were condemned in Prague and Moscow for allegedly aiming at a return to capitalism.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many older people, especially outside the large cities, are also unable to converse in English, so it's good to learn some Czech or Slovak before your arrival.^ Many older Czechs speak German; many younger people speak Russian and English.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Good Some good data but many gaps .
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A large number of people in Slovakia cannot get back their formerly expropriated goods and real estate because the Bene Decrees make it impossible.

However, most young people speak at least some English, as it has been taught in most schools since 1990.
.Most Czechs speak a second and often a third language.^ Under Empress Maria-Theresa (1740 – 1780) Bohemia became part of Austria, and the most industrialized part of the Austrian Empire, but Czech culture and language were suppressed.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English is the most widely known, especially among younger people.^ Many older Czechs speak German; many younger people speak Russian and English.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.German is probably the most widely spoken second language among older people.^ Many older Czechs speak German; many younger people speak Russian and English.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To judge from the German papers, which used not only the same language but exactly the same expressions as in September last, the lives of the 500,000 Germans in Czechoslovakia were in the most serious danger.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.Russian was taught very extensively under communist rule, so most people born before c.^ Under Communist rule, Czechoslovakia's government was so centralized that little to no local government existed.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, successive Soviet leaders, beginning with Stalin , always aimed at a united Germany either under communist rule or, at least, as a neutral state.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ J.F. Brown, Bulgaria under Communist Rule, London, 1970.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1975 speak at least some Russian (and often pretty well). .However the connection with the communist era and the Soviet led invasion in 1968 (as well as today's Russian-speaking criminal gangs) has given this language some negative connotations.^ Alexander Dub č ek (1921 – 92) was secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party and principal leader of the 1968 reform movement that ended with Soviet intervention.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania had condemned the August Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the liberalization of the Polish October was curtailed by Gomulka in 1957, while the Prague Spring was crushed by the Warsaw Pact invasion in late August 1968.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also not very useful with younger people, as it is not, despite the common misconception, mutually intelligible with Czech (beyond some similar words and simple sentences).^ Many older Czechs speak German; many younger people speak Russian and English.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other languages, like French or Spanish, are also taught in some schools, but you should not count on it. People may also understand some basic words or simple sentences in other Slavic languages (Polish, Serbo-Croatian, etc).
.The Czech and Slovak languages are very difficult for English-speakers to grasp, as they, like their sisters, can be tongue-twisting languages to learn (especially Czech) and take time and practice to master, especially if you're not really familiar with the other Slavic languages, including Russian.^ It is timely because Victor Orbán , the Hungarian Prime Minister, has answered a question in a way that caused a major uproar in Czech and Slovak circles.

^ July 15th, 2008 3:32 pm ET Now I've been to the CZECH REPUBLIC and the SLOVAK REPUBLIC and one of the things I noticed is that they were TWO SEPARATE COUNTRIES!!!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The Czechs are once more accused of using violence not only against the Slovaks but also against others, and especially against members of the German minority and citizens of the Reich.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, if you can learn the alphabet (and the corresponding letters with accents), then pronunciation is easy as it is always the same - Czechs and Slovaks pronounce every letter of a word, with the stress falling on the first syllable.^ There hasnt been one word, or doubt from the lips of a single Czech or Slovak intellectual.

^ The Constitution of the Slovak Fascist State discriminated against the Jews in exactly the same words as Decrees 33 and 108, which deprive Hungarians of their citizenship and expropriates their properties.

^ In all fairness, however, it must be stated that the Czechs treated the Germans much more brutally than the Slovaks the Hungarians.

The combination of consonants in some words may seem mind-bogglingly hard, but it is worth the effort!
The Czech language has many local dialects, especially in Moravia. .Some dialects are so different that they can be sometimes misunderstood even by a native Czech speaker from a different region.^ While the local Czechs or those who settled earlier in the Sudeten region returned, they generally assumed a reasonable attitude.

^ They went on thinking this way even though the proposed Czech reforms were condemned in Prague and Moscow for allegedly aiming at a return to capitalism.
  • Anna M 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have even gone to the length of asserting that the Czech Government is mobilizing.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.However all Czech people understand the standard Czech (as spoken in TV, written in newspapers and taught in schools) and should be able to speak it (but some are too proud to stop using their local dialect).^ Many older Czechs speak German; many younger people speak Russian and English.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Buy

.The currency of the Czech republic is the koruna (crown), plural koruny or korun. The currency code CZK is often used internationally, but the local symbol is (for Koruna česká).^ At least he new it used to be the Czech Republic.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ For many of us those old names die hard when they are not used with great frequency, and let's admit it, how often do we hear about the Czech Republic?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The Czech Republic has a total of about 13 cu km of freshwater resources, of which 2% is used for farming and 57% is used for industry.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1 koruna is made up of 100 haléř (haléřů), abbreviated to hal., but coins are only issued in whole koruna values as of October 2008.
The exchange rate is approximately 25Kč = €1, 30Kč = £1 GBP, 20Kč = $1 (US), or 16Kč = $1 (Canadian). As of 23 Jul 2009, €1 = 25.56Kč (Google)
.Coins are issued in 1Kč, 2Kč, 5Kč (all stainless steel), 10Kč (copper-colored), 20Kč (brass-colored) and 50 Kč (copper-colored ring, brass-colored center).^ All the raw materials consumed by the country's steel industry were imported, including iron ore and concentrate, manganese ore, copper, and unwrought lead and zinc.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Notes are issued in 50Kč (pink), 100Kč (aqua), 200Kč (orange), 500Kč (red), 1000Kč (purple), 2000Kč (olive green) and 5000Kč (green-purple). See some banknote samples [22]. Be aware that all 20Kč banknotes, haléř coins, and older-style 1000Kč and 5000Kč banknotes from 1993 are NOT legal tender.
Some major stores (mainly bigger chains) will accept Euros, and it's also fairly common for accommodation providers to quote the price in Euros.
Never exchange money on the street. .Also, if you're in Prague, don't exchange it in the banks.^ The Prague Stock Exchange has been trading debt securities (mostly government and bank issues) since April 1993.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The "real" exchange rate you should be looking for can be found here[23]. .There is no "black market" with better rates, but there is a good chance you'll end up with a roll of worthless paper.^ The laws did not contain testing requirements for the environmental toxicity of chemicals, and there were no laws on good laboratory practices.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Be very careful when you are exchanging money at a small exchange kiosk. They try to use tricks in order to give you a bad exchange rate. Ask for the total amount you will get and recompute it by yourself. Do not trust "0% commission" in big letters signs (usually there is "only on CZK buy" amendment in small letters). On this [24] website you can get good overview of reliable exchange places and rates. In any case, ones gets the best rates by using ATMs instead of changing cash.
Major stores throughout the country accept Visa and EC/MC, as do all the tourist stores in Prague.
.
  • Prague, the capital with its incredible historic center (and famous monuments such as the Astronomical Clock, Charles Bridge, and Prague Castle).^ The mineral spas in Prague are popular as well as the historic monuments.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Member of the UNESCO World Heritage list.
  • Olomouc, a vibrant university town with the second largest historic center after Prague.^ Universities in the current Czech Republic include the world-famous Charles University at Prague (founded 1348); Palacky University at Olomouc (1576; reestablished 1946); and J. E. Purkyne University at Brno (1919; reestablished 1945).
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Dn (especially sustainable energy sources), d'r nad Szavou (waste management), esk Krumlov (environmental management in a town proclaimed by UNESCO as a site with world wide importance as a cultural and historical heritage), Mikulov (in cooperation with environmentally oriented NGO's - development of ecotourism in a transboundary area).
    • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The largest museum in the country is the world-famous National Museum in Prague.
    • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Member of the UNESCO World Heritage list.
  • Český Krumlov - beautiful city with castle. Member of UNESCO.
  • CzechTek, the yearly freetekno party somewhere in Czech Republic.
  • Giant Mountains

Do

Hiking

.Czech Republic has an excellent and sophisticated system of trail blazing, marked trails are about everywhere.^ The Czech Republic had numerous protests from it's citizens against the stupid missile defense system, which will only make them a target and not provide any protection at all!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: The Czech Republic is a member of OECD and an associate member of EU. .
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Czech Republic has bilateral tax treaties (BITs) with about 65 countries.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Choose an area, buy a hiking map for the area (best brand is "Klub českých turistů", 1:50000 military based maps covering the whole country, available in most large bookstores) and go.^ STATUS REPORT: Forests cover 33% of the country's territory (2,631,000 ha) and these areas are increasing (see other data).
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1938 Adolph Hitler demanded that the Sudeten German area, which was the most heavily industrialized part of the country, be ceded to Germany.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I hate to point out his age, which he frequently does, but this is not a good characteristic of someone who is going to be leader of the most powerful country in the world.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

See: Hiking_in_Czech_Republic.

Swimming

.Many places in the Czech Republic are great for swimming, and there are many designated public swimming areas (called koupaliště).^ They are called the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ For many of us those old names die hard when they are not used with great frequency, and let's admit it, how often do we hear about the Czech Republic?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ In 2000 there were 236,000 migrants living in the Czech Republic.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A list of places suitable for swimming is available here: [25]. However, be aware that in hot weather the quality of the water in some places can fall below EU standard regulations.

Nudism/Naturism

.Although the Czech Republic is a land-locked country, it does have a lot of nudist/naturist beaches near lakes.^ As part of the EU, the Czech Republic can tap into a large market, and its maturing economy allows it to compete with countries from Western Europe.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regional/International Cooperation: The Czech Republic cooperates closely with its neighbouring countries in the field of utilization of frontier river courses.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: The Czech Republic is a member of OECD and an associate member of EU. .
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

A full list is available here: [26]. Full nudity on other beaches is legal, but rare, and usually only happens in non-crowded places.

Pub Crawl

.There is a Pub Crawl that meets every night under the astronomical clock in the Old Town Square of Prague at 9:15. Its cheap and they take you to some cool pubs, bars and you end up at a night club.^ Some of you will soon reply me to shut up because it's American problems.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Some 13.3% of the population is over 64 years old, and 18.3% is under 15 (1996).
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ John838 said: August 14th, 2009 at 3:15 am If you have to do it, you might as well do it right , cheap , , , , .

Its a really good way to see what the Prague night life is really like. Even in the off season.

Geocaching

.Geocaching is a popular sport in the Czech Republic, there are thousands of caches both in the cities and in the country.^ Welcome to Czech republic Czech Republic The Heart Of Europe (PAL) Find thousands of answers for hundreds of subjects at Smart QandA .
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Czech Republic has bilateral tax treaties (BITs) with about 65 countries.
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^ The Czech Republic has sent experts on the management and planning of water resources to the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Czech caches are usually listed on geocaching.com and the descriptions are often bilingual (Czech and English).

Chimney climbing

.Czech Republic is one of the very few (if not the only) country to have an official chimney climbing association - "Svaz českých komínářů" or the "Union of Czech Chimney Climbers" - a state-registered civic organization of people who climb factory chimneys and cooling towers as a leisure activity and also take part in industrial architecture history documentation as well as chimney maintenance and preservation.^ Confederation of Industry of the Czech Republic (est.
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^ The State pays for people who are not earning, i.e.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1993, the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic was founded to ensure equal access by all researchers to funding sources, regardless of their status in the organization.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Post a message here to apply for membership: [27].

Eat

Tipping is a standard 10%, and is not normally added to the bill. .Don't be confused by the percentage figures listed at the bottom of the bill - by Czech law, a receipt must show the VAT paid (19% in most cases) - the VAT is already included in the final amount, and you should add 10% to this.^ You should understand that we intend to settle the question finally.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But M. Chvalkovsky did not succeed in persuading Prague to accept this plan, which must already have almost amounted to a Protectorate.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

It is normal practice to give the waiter the tip before you leave the table. Tip is not obligatory - if you weren't satisfied with services offered, don't bother tipping.
.In a vast majority of better restaurants located in major cities you can pay by credit card (EC/MC, VISA), but don't be surprised if a few will not accept them.^ Though most transactions are still in cash, credit cards are gaining a wider acceptance within major cities.
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Make sure to check the door for respective card logos when entering the restaurant or ask the waiter before ordering. Czechs sometimes use special meal tickets (stravenky) to pay in some restaurants - these are tax-preferred and subsidised by employers. .You won't get these tickets unless you get a job in the Czech Republic, just don't be surprised when you see them.^ Regional/International Cooperation: The Czech Republic is a signatory to the most important international conventions for environmental protection, and has met the obligations and commitments of these conventions.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ July 15th, 2008 3:02 pm ET I see the Senator is stuck in the past Just a little history – Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Solvakia in 1993.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ "I see the Senator is stuck in the past Just a little history – Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Solvakia in 1993.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Traditional local food

Traditional Czech food is hearty and suitable after a hard day in the fields. It is heavy and quite fatty, and is excellent in the winter. .In the recent time there was a tendency towards more light food with more vegetables, now the traditional heavy and fatty Czech food is usually not eaten everyday and some people avoid it entirely.^ Before World War II, Czechoslovakia favored traditional export-oriented light industries, including food processing.
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^ If the fate of Slovakia and Sub-Carpathian Russia now appears obvious it is more difficult to perceive the Fhrer's intentions towards "Czechia."
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a long tradition of brewing in the Czech Republic; some of the world's oldest brands were invented there.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However nothing goes as well with the excellent Czech beer as some of the best examples of the traditional Czech cuisine, like pork, duck, or goose with knedlíky (dumplings) and sauerkraut.^ However, after the fifth year, some students may choose to enter more specialized programs that will include their secondary education studies as well.
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^ There is a long tradition of brewing in the Czech Republic; some of the world's oldest brands were invented there.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A traditional main meal of a day (usually lunch) consists of two or three dishes.^ The topography of the Czech Republic consists of two main regions.
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The first dish is hot soup (polévka). .The second dish is the most important part, very often based on some meat and side-dish (both served on the same plate).^ Both states maintain a customs union that continues most of the same trade policies of the former Czechoslovakia.
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The third, optional part is either something sweet (and coffee) or small vegetable salad or something similar.
Czech cuisine knows many different kinds of soup (polévka). The most common are bramboračka - potato soup (sometimes with forest mushrooms), hovězí vývar - clear beef soup (sometimes s játrovými knedlíčky - with liver dumplings), gulášovka - thick goulash soup, zelňačka - thick and sour cabbage soup, česnečka (strong garlic soup, very healthy and tasty, but do not eat this before kissing), kulajda - thick soup with forest mushrooms and milk, hrášková polévka from young green peas, čočková polévka from lentils, fazolačka from beans, rajská polévka - tomato soup, and many others. A special case not to everyone's tastes is držková polévka made from cow stomach. Rybí polévka - thick fish soup made from carps (including its head, some innards, roe and sperm) is the traditional soup of the Christmas Dinner.
Some soups are eaten with bread, sometimes small croutons are put inside the soup just before eating. Soup can be also eaten as the only dish, especially for a smaller dinner.
The second dish (main course, hlavní jídlo) of a meal is (in the traditional cuisine) often the famous heavy and fatty part, very often based on pork, but also beef, chicken, duck, or other meat. .Important part of most main courses is side-dish (the whole dish including the side-dish is served on one plate) - usually cooked or baked potatoes, fries, rice, pasta or the most typical side-dish of the Czech cuisine - knedlíky.^ Nuclear power is an important part of the Czech.
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^ Under Empress Maria-Theresa (1740 – 1780) Bohemia became part of Austria, and the most industrialized part of the Austrian Empire, but Czech culture and language were suppressed.
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^ Herr von Ribbentrop and various Nazi high Officials and dignitaries, in particular with Herr Keppler, who appears to have played an important part in the whole affair.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

Knedlíky (usually translated as dumplings) come in many different kinds. Most kinds are used as side-dish, however some kinds with filling are used as dish by itself. The most common type, always used as side-dish, are houskové knedlíky (bread dumplings). These are cooked in a shape of a cylinder, which is then cut into round slices about 8 cm in diameter remotely resembling white bread. Houskové knedlíky are served with Czech classics such as guláš, similar to Hungarian goulash but with a thinner sauce and less spicy; Svíčková na smetaně, beef sirloin with a creamy root vegetable (carrot, celeriac, parsnip) sauce, served with a tablespoon of cranberry sauce, a slice of orange and whipped cream; Vepřová pečeně se zelím a knedlíkem locally named as Vepřo-knedlo-zelo, the combination of roast pork, knedlíky and sauerkraut. .The latter combines very well with the world-famous Czech beer, the major brands being Pilsner Urquell, Gambrinus, Budvar, Staropramen, Velkopopovický Kozel and Krušovice.^ There is a long tradition of brewing in the Czech Republic; some of the world's oldest brands were invented there.
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^ At 166 liters (44 gallons) per person, the Czech Republic is the world's highest per capita beer-consuming nation.
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^ Some of these and other consumer goods — such as the world-famous pilsner beer, ham, and sugar — had figured prominently in the pre-World War II export trade, but machinery was predominant under the Communist regime.
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.If you are lucky enough to enter a pub serving Svijany, you should definitely order it, as it is believed to be one of the most delicious brands worldwide.^ You should seek an audience with the Minister for Foreign Affairs in order to hand him the note, the text of which you will find herewith.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You should lose no opportunity to protest against a statement which is one more proof of the German Government's bad faith.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

Another common kind is bramborové knedlíky (potato dumplings), the slices are smaller, more yellow in color, and are also always served as a side-dish. A typical combination is roasted meet (pork or lamb for example) with spinach and bramborové knedlíky or duck with sauerkraut and bramborové knedlíky (or combination of bramborové and houskové knedlíky). Less common are chlupaté knedlíky (hairy dumplings, but there are no hairs, don't panic), which are not sliced but cooked in shape of balls. They are also usually served with roasted meat and either sauerkraut or spinach.
.Other Czech dishes include pečená kachna, roast duck again served with bread or potato dumplings, and red and white sauerkraut; moravský vrabec, known as 'Moravian Sparrow', but which is in fact pork cooked in garlic and onions; smažený kapr, fried carp breaded and served with a very rich potato salad and eaten on Christmas Eve; pečené vepřové koleno, roast pork knee, served with mustard and fresh horseradish; bramborák, garlicky potato pancakes; smažený sýr, breaded deep-fried edam (the most popular cheese in the Czech Republic) served with boiled potatoes or french fries and tartar sauce; párek v rohlíku, long, thin hot dogs with crusty rolls and mustard or ketchup.^ Mammals commonly found in the Czech Republic include the fox, hare, hart, rabbit, and wild pig.
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^ The extent of Czechoslovakian industry still ranks both the Czech and Slovak republics among the world's most industrialized countries.
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^ Both short-term and medium-term goals following from the contemporary state of the environment in the Czech Republic are subordinate to this long-term goal.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

If you must, you can always get hranolky - french fries. And of course, the ubiquitous zelí (raw cabbage), which is served with absolutely everything. Game is also very good, and includes dishes such as kančí, wild boar, bažant, pheasant and jelení or daňčí, both types of venison. These are almost always served either with dumplings and red and white cabbage, or as guláš.
Don't expect a wide selection of zelenina, vegetables, unless in the countryside - peppers, tomatoes and cabbage are the most commonly-seen side dishes, often served as a small garnish.
Visitors may be surprised when they find "American potatoes" in the menu. These are actually potato wedges, usually spiced.

Meals You Usually Do Not Get in a Restaurant

Generally, probably the best place to really try the Czech cuisine is to be invited for such a meal to somebody's home. However, it is not so easy, because people today tend to prepare simpler and more international foods. .Traditional Czech cuisine is often reserved to Sundays or some holidays or prepared by old grandma when her children visit her.^ There is a long tradition of brewing in the Czech Republic; some of the world's oldest brands were invented there.
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This is not a rule, but it is a common situation. In common restaurants, even the better ones, the traditional Czech food usually does not match what the old grandma serves. This does not mean that the food is bad or not tasty, but it is missing something that the home preparation can provide. In luxurious restaurants specialized in Czech cuisine, the food can be excellent, but the luxurious style and creative improvements by the chef often do not match the style of the traditional folk cuisine. Again, this is not a hard rule. Sometimes you can compliment the food in a restaurant "As if my grandma prepared it."
.There are some dishes that are usually not served in any restaurants or pubs, are usually made at home and are worth trying if you have the opportunity.^ Davis tried to back out but Lansky said: "You will be there at 6 p.m."
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Brambory na loupačku ("potatoes to be peeled") is a cheap and simple meal usually made in the countryside. Whole unpeeled potatoes are cooked in a big pot and put in the pot itself or a bowl on the table. .You just take a hot potato from the pot, peel it yourself, put some salt, butter, and/or curd (tvaroh) on it and eat it.^ But when some of you are cynical enough to defend him, you just make you America a laughing stock.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Drink it down with lot of cold milk. For such a simply meal it can be incredibly tasty, especially when eaten in the countryside after a day spent outside and chatting over it.
.Picking mushrooms in forests is a very popular activity in the Czech Republic.^ With respect to the development launched by the UNCSD, it must be stated that the Czech Republic fully acknowledges this activity and in the frame of its possibilities takes part in the relevant activity of this UN body.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ July 15th, 2008 3:31 pm ET McCain called it the Czech Republic twice very recently.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Probably not surprisingly, collected mushrooms are eaten then. In restaurants, usually only cultivated mushrooms are used. If forest mushrooms are served in a restaurant, then usually only as a minor addition to a meal. Homemade mushroom meals are a completely different story. A classic example is Smaženice (the name is based on the verb 'smažit' - to fry), also known as míchanice (to mix) - forest mushrooms, the more kinds the better, are sliced to small pieces, mixed and stewed (with some fat, onion, and caraway). Later, eggs are added to the mixture. Smaženice is served with bread. Smažené bedly are whole caps of parasol mushrooms coated in breadcrumbs and fried. Černý kuba (literally black jimmy) is a traditional Christmas fasting meal made from dried mushrooms and peeled barley. Houbová omáčka (mushroom sauce), served with meat and bread dumplings is also popular. Fresh or dried mushrooms make also a nice addition to bramboračka s houbami (potato soup with mushrooms). Kulajda is a soup from mushrooms and cream. .Soups and sauces are the most likely forest mushroom meals to find in a restaurant, because they contain relatively small amount of mushrooms.^ Most forests were privately owned, and during the world wars, they were excessively exploited.
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If you want to pick mushrooms by yourself, be careful. There are hundreds of species, some of them very tasty, some merely edible, but some poisonous or even deadly. There is also a species used as a hallucinogenic drug. A tasty and edible species may look very similar to a deadly species. If you do not know mushrooms very well, you should be accompanied by an experienced mushroom-picker.

Beer Snacks

Also try traditional beer snacks, often the only food served in some pubs (hospoda, pivnice), and designed to be washed down by a good beer:
.
  • Utopenec - (means 'drowned man' in Czech) a pickled sausage with onion, garlic and other vegetables and spices.
  • Zavináč - (rollmop) a slice of pickled fish, most often herring or mackerel, rolled-up and filled with various pickled vegetables (sauerkraut, onion, sometimes carrot or pepper).
  • Tlačenka s cibulí - (brawn with onion) a slice of haggis-like meat pudding, sprinkled with vinegar and garnished with fresh onion slices.^ The In 1995, the Czech Statistical Office prepared projections of the expected number of inhabitants up to 2020, which comprise two variants, high and low.
    • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    Beware, can be rather acidic due to vinegar.
  • Nakládaný Hermelín - pickled Brie-like cheese, often marinated with garlic and chilli.
  • Pivní sýr - beer cheese - a soft cheese, with a strong, Cheddar-like flavour. .You should add a splash of beer to the cheese, and then mash it all together, and serve it on traditional Czech bread - Šumava (the name of a region in South Bohemia) is the most common bread, a very tasty dense loaf made from rye and carroway seeds.
  • Tvarůžky or Syrečky - traditional cheese with a very strong aroma, and very much an aquired taste.^ The first act of the German military authorities after the occupation of the Czech provinces was to make Vienna the centre of a new air fleet, the Fourth [1] (South-East), made up of units stationed in Austria, Sudetenland, Bohemia and Moravia.
    • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Under Empress Maria-Theresa (1740 – 1780) Bohemia became part of Austria, and the most industrialized part of the Austrian Empire, but Czech culture and language were suppressed.
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    ^ The new settlers kept the Roman version of the name Boii for that region, Boiohaemum, which later became Bohemia.
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    Often served deep-fried, but can be eaten alone, just with some chopped onion, mustard and bread. Sometimes also marinated in beer ('syrečky v pivu'). This cheese naturaly contains almost no fat (less than 1%).
  • Romadur - traditional cheese with strong aroma. Aroma is similar to Tvarůžky, but Romadur is different type of cheese.
  • Matesy s cibulí - (soused herring) cold fish served with onions.
If you want a warm, bigger, and more complicated meal which goes excellently with beer, get some of the typical Czech meals based on fatty meat (pork, duck, or goose) with sauerkraut and knedlíky (dumplings). Another excellent option is a whole pork knee with horseradish and bread (ovarové koleno s křenem).

Sweets

.Czechs like sweets but consumer patterns are different compared to France, USA or the UK. As everywhere some traditional treats have become a mass-market production for tourists, others are pretty difficult to be found.^ On the other hand, environmentally unfriendly productions are penalized by emission charges and other economic instruments, like tax differentiations.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a long tradition of brewing in the Czech Republic; some of the world's oldest brands were invented there.
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^ The electricity production market in the Czech Republic is dominated by Ceske Energeticke Zavody (CEZ), which is majority owned by the state.
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On the street

.
  • Lázeňské oplatky - spa wafers from Mariánské Lázně and Karlovy Vary (major spa towns in Western Bohemia better known by their German names of Marienbad and Karlsbad) are meant to be eaten while "taking the waters" at a spa, but they're good on their own, too.^ Remember, the guy needed help distinguishing from various terriorist groups and the nations they're affliated with from Lieberman and Graham.
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain again cites current events in ‘Czechoslovakia’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    .Other major spas are Karlova Studánka (favourite destination of Václav Havel - former Czechoslovakian president), Františkovy Lázně, Jánské Lázně, Karviná, and Luhačovice.^ Havel's rival and former prime minister, Vaclav Klaus, was elected president by a slim majority of 142 votes in the 281-member parliament after two inconclusive elections and three rounds of balloting on 28 February.
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    You will find most easily not only in spa resorts but also in Prague. Have them either out of the box on your own or heated and iced with sugar, cinnamon or so.
  • Trdlo - is being offered in dedicated sell-points in the streets of Prague. It is a mediaeval style sweet roll from eggs and flour.

In restaurants

  • Jablkový závin or štrůdl, apple strudel, often served warm with whipped cream.
  • Medovník - a newcomer having quickly spread in most restaurants. A brown high cake made of gingerbread, honey and walnuts.
  • Ovocné knedlíky - fruit stuffed dumplings served either as main course or a filling dessert. The smaller ones ('tvarohové') come with plum, apple or apricot filling, the bigger ones ('kynuté') come with strawberries, blueberries, povidla (plum jam) or toher fruits. Knedlíky are served with melted butter, iced with tvaroh (curd cheese) and sugar, and topped with whipped cream.
  • Palačinka - not much in common with French crepes, these pancakes are usually thicker and served with a wide choice of fillings including chocolate, ice-cream, fruit and whipped cream.

Cukrárna

.Try also the wide variety of rich cream cakes usually found in a Kavárna (a cafe), or a Cukrárna (a shop which sells all things sweet together with ice cream and drinks, found throughout the Czech Republic and often the only place open in small towns and villages on Sundays).^ In Czech, q, w, and x are found only in foreign words.
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^ In 1993, the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic was founded to ensure equal access by all researchers to funding sources, regardless of their status in the organization.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, more than 20,000 shops, restaurants, and workshops in both the Czech and Slovak republics were transferred to private owners by public auction in a wave of "small" privatization, and through distribution of ownership shares.
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.Czech cakes are similar to their Viennese cousins due to the shared history of both countries under the Austro-Hungarian empire.^ Social welfare programs in the former Czechoslovakia dated back to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
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^ Under Empress Maria-Theresa (1740 – 1780) Bohemia became part of Austria, and the most industrialized part of the Austrian Empire, but Czech culture and language were suppressed.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The extent of Czechoslovakian industry still ranks both the Czech and Slovak republics among the world's most industrialized countries.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sample also Vídeňská káva (Viennese coffee), coffee served with a mountain of whipped cream.
  • Rakvička (literally a little coffin) is a light crispy biscuit with cream,
  • Větrník is a round French éclair style cream cake,
  • Punčák is a rum soaked yellow/pink biscuit sugar-glazed cake,
  • Laskonka is a coconut and cream based sandwich cake, and many more!

Home made

  • Bábovka - a traditional cake, similar to marble cake, fairly dry, and usually served dusted with icing sugar.
  • Buchty - traditional buns filled with tvaroh (curd cheese), mák (poppy seeds), or povidla (plum jam)
  • Koláče - rather popular flat tarts topped with various sweet fillings like tvaroh, povidla, mák, fruit jams, chopped apples and nuts. Their size ranges from bite-sized ('svatební koláčky') to pizza-sized, which often contain several fillings combined into an elaborate pattern ('Chodský koláč' or 'frgál').

Drink

Beer

.The Czech Republic is the country where modern beer (pivo in Czech) was invented (in Plzeň).^ The Czech Republic was originally a source country but it has been changed to a transit and target country for victims of trafficking in people.
  • Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home > Country Pages > A-H > Czech Republic Czech Republic Map source: Human Rights Watch last updated October 12, 2006 .
  • Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Czechs are the heaviest beer drinkers in the world, drinking about 160 litres of it per capita per year. Going to a cosy Czech pub for dinner and a few beers is a must!
The best-known export brands are Pilsner Urquell (Plzeňský Prazdroj), Budweiser Budvar (Budějovický Budvar) and Staropramen (freely translateable as "Oldspring"). Other major brands which are popular domestically include Gambrinus, Kozel (goat), Bernard (a small traditional brewery, with very high quality beer), Radegast, and Starobrno (made in Brno, the capital of Moravia). Other fantastic beers worth tasting are Svijany and Dobřanská Hvězda. .Although many Czechs tend to be very selective about beer brands, tourists usually don't find a significant difference.^ As of 2005, about 20% of the Czech labor force was unionized, although union membership was on the decline.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although when he left the presidency opinions about his legacy were mixed in the Czech Republic, on the international scene Havel remains eternally popular for being a voice for democracy.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

And remember, real Czech beer is only served on tap – bottled beer is a completely different experience. High-quality beer can almost certainly be found in a hospoda or hostinec, very basic pubs which serve only beer and light snacks. .Take a seat and order your drinks when the waiter comes to you - going to the bar to order your drinks is a British custom!^ I SHOULD be glad if you would report as soon as possible the result of the dmarche which I have instructed you to make at the Wilhelmstrasse, parallel to that of your British colleague.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

But beware, the handling of the beer is even more important than its brand. A bad bartender can completely ruin even excellent beer. Best bet is to ask local beer connoiseurs about a good pub or just join them.
Beers are sometimes listed by their original sugar content, which is measured in degrees Plato (P/°). The difference is generally apparent in the final alcohol content. Normal beer is about 10° (such as Gambrinus and Staropramen, which results in 4% ABV), lager 12° (such as Pilsner Urquell, which results in about 4.75% ABV). .The latter is stronger and more expensive, so you should specify which one you want when you order.^ You should seek an audience with the Minister for Foreign Affairs in order to hand him the note, the text of which you will find herewith.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You should lose no opportunity to protest against a statement which is one more proof of the German Government's bad faith.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.Czech lager is nothing like the fizzy lagers found in many other countries.^ Introduction In June 1992, the former Czechoslovakia, as many other countries participating at the Rio Conference, signed the relevant documents, especially Agenda 21.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Instead, it has a very strong, hoppy, almost bitter flavour, and goes very well with heavy dishes like duck or pork and dumplings or strong cheeses. .It always has a thick skim on the top when it is served, but do not be afraid to drink "through" it, it is fun and it slowly disappears anyway, nevertheless do not drink the beer too slowly as the fresh cold taste (especially in hot summers) quickly fades – the "true" Czech connoisseurs do not even finish this "tepid goat," as they call it.^ They have even gone to the length of asserting that the Czech Government is mobilizing.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

Wine

.Wine (víno in Czech) is another popular drink, particularly wine from Moravia in the south-eastern part of the country where the climate is more suited to vineyards.^ As part of the EU, the Czech Republic can tap into a large market, and its maturing economy allows it to compete with countries from Western Europe.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Czech Republic is a strategically located landlocked country in Eastern Europe.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall, the Czech Republic has received more FDI per capita than any other country in Central and Eastern Europe, most of it going towards manufacturing, financial services, hotels and restaurants, and transportation and telecommunications.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

White wines tend to be the best as the growing conditions are more favourable for them. For white wines, try Veltlínské zelené (Green Veltliner), Muškát moravský (Moravian Muscatel), Ryzlink rýnský (Rhine Riesling) or Tramín (Traminer), or red wines such as Frankovka (Blaufrankisch), Modrý Portugal (Blue Portugal, named after the grape, not the country), or Svatovavřinecké (Saint Lawrence). Also try ice wine (ledové víno) made when the grapes are harvested after they have frozen on the vines, or straw wine (slámové víno) made by leaving the grapes to ripen on straw) – these wines are more expensive and are similar to dessert wines. .Bohemian Sekt is also popular with Czechs, and is a sweet, fizzy wine, similar to Lambrusco, and drunk at celebrations.^ Increasingly the East German government was being forced to accede to popular demand for change, which in turn emboldened Czech citizens to make similar demands.
  • Czech Republic – FREE Czech Republic information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Czech Republic research 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The best places for wine are either a wine bar (vinárna), or a wine shop (vinotéka) which sometimes has a small bar area too.

Spirits

For spirits, try Becherovka (herb liqueur, similar to Jagermeister, tastes of a mixtures of cloves and cinnamon, and drunk as a digestive), slivovice (plum brandy, very popular as a pick-me-up), hruškovice (pear brandy, less fiery than Slivovice), and so on. Spirits are made out of almost every kind of fruit (Plums, Peaches, Cherries, Sloes, etc.). Czech unique tuzemský rum (made from sugar beet, not from sugar cane as the Cuban rum, sold under brands like Tuzemák to conform with EU market rules). Be careful as all are about 40% alcohol.

Non-alcoholic

For non-alcoholic drinks, mineral waters are popular, but tend to have a strong mineral taste. Try Mattoni, or Magnesia, both of which taste like normal water and still claim to be good for your health. If you want bubbles, ask for perlivá. If you want it non-carbonated, ask for neperlivá. Sometimes you can see jemně perlivá – it is "lightly bubbled" water. Kofola, a coke-like drink is also very popular, and some Czechs say it is the best thing the communists gave them. Many restaurants don't make any difference between "sparkling water" and "sparkling mineral water".

Others

Restaurants and pubs do not offer water for free. .Not surprisingly, as beer is the national drink, it is usually the cheapest drink you can buy, with prices ranging from 15–60 Kč (0,50–2 EUR) per half litre, depending on the attractiveness of the pub to tourists.^ John629 said: April 13th, 2009 at 6:50 pm If you have to do it, you might as well do it right cheap , cheap , cheap , cheap , buy , .

Drinks are brought to your table, and often each drink is marked on a small slip of paper which is kept on the table in front of you, so you can keep count of what you have had. When you are ready to leave, ask the waiter for the bill – he or she will calculate the bill according to the number of marks on the paper. It is common to share tables in busy pubs and Czech people will ask Je tu volno? (Is this seat free?), before they sit down.
Try also svařák, hot mulled wine served in all pubs, and outdoors at Christmas markets, grog, hot rum and water served with a slice of lemon - add sugar to taste, and medovina, mead, again usually served hot, and particularly good for warming up at a cold winter market. Finally, if you are heading into Moravia, try burčák, a speciality found only around the end of the summer, or early autumn. It is extremely young wine, usually white, and is the cloudy, still fermenting stage in wine production when the wine is very sweet, and very smooth to drink. It continues to ferment in the stomach, so the alcohol content at the time of drinking it is unknown, but it is usually high, creeps up on you, and it is very moreish. .Czechs say that it should only be drunk fresh from the vineyard, and many small private wine makers are passionate about it, waiting up into the night for the moment when the wine reaches the "burčák" stage.^ The incidents which took place at Iglau, Brunn and other German-speaking centres were used to transform at a given moment the Czechoslovak conflict into a German-Czech conflict.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The German-Czech crisis has in a few days reached a stage as acute as in the darkest days of September.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is only then, that is to say about March 9, that he seems to have taken the decisions which led to the disappearance of Czechoslovakia.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

You can see it at wine festivals around the country, and sometimes in markets or wine bars too.
  • Taxi drivers: warning - negotiate the price before you use taxi or use a reputable company (e.g. in Prague AAA taxi, Profi Taxi, City Taxi). Prague taxi drivers are known for taking you the longest possible way to earn more money. .Prague City Council has introduced new regulations which will see all legitimate taxis painted yellow.^ But now, all the bird watchers are coming to our beach to see the Rusty Crumbcatcher or it’s new scientific name Breakfastus Burritus.

    Public transportation is also very cheap, fast and reliable. .In Prague, the metro runs up to midnight, and night trams run throughout the night, all of them converging at a central tram stop, Lazarská.
  • Pickpockets: Watch your pockets, especially if there is a crowd (sights, subway, trams, in particular numbers 9, 22, and 23) Watch out for large groups of people jostling you.^ Last week I was at my local beach when I saw a bunch of interesting looking people looking interested at the very, very dirty creek that runs out where we surf every day.

    ^ Hellen CLARK said: March 27th, 2009 at 1:33 pm When did you start blogging, I have watched a youtube video on blogging and started my own site, please check it out and give me your thoughts.

    Beware of a particular pickpocket gang who operate in Prague - they are mainly male, although sometimes there are women too, all are extremely overweight and rely on their sheer size and number to disorientate tourists. They tend to operate on the 9, 22, and 23 trams, as well as the central metro stations, usually just as people are getting on and off. Don't challenge them as they can become aggressive, but keep your eyes open. Prosecutions for pick pocketing are rare as legally the police have to catch the pickpocket in the middle of a crime.
  • Prostitution: Prostitution is not illegal in the Czech Republic. However, officially prostitution does not exist as a legal bussiness. Prostitutes do not pay taxes and prostitution is not regulated by the state. The health risk may be very high, especially in cheap brothels or on a street. There also have been cases of prostitutes offering a drink with sleeping pills to their customers and stealing everything from them. .Pay attention to the age of the prostitute, paying a person under 18 years for sex is a criminal offense (otherwise the age of consent is 15).
  • Marijuana: Marijuana is illegal in the Czech Republic, however it is quite popular especially among young people.^ The Czech Republic was originally a source country but it has been changed to a transit and target country for victims of trafficking in people.
    • Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This Program was established by the Department for Prevention of Criminality of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Czech Republic within the Strategy for Prevention of Criminality for years 2004 – 2007 http://www.mmo.cz/soc/spkmo04.html .
    • Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One of the first projects realized in combating against trafficking in women in the Czech Republic was the project PHARE – Empowerment Combating Trafficking in People, which was financed by the European Commission in 2003.
    • Czech Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In case the Police catch you smoking or possessing marijuana, you want to be very polite with them. The reason is that by the current law, possesing "larger than small" amount of marijuana is punishable. What "larger than small" actually means is left to interpretation by the Police (or judge, if things go that far). A new law with more exact numbers is in preparation.
  • Other than that the Czech Republic is a very safe country.

Stay healthy

Grocery stores do not sell what Americans consider over-the-counter drugs, such as aspirin. You will need to go to a pharmacy (lékárna), which is usually open between 8AM and 7PM, Mondays to Fridays. .There are 24-hour pharmacies in the bigger cities, and you should find an address for the closest one to you listed in the window of the nearest pharmacy to you.^ You should lose no opportunity to protest against a statement which is one more proof of the German Government's bad faith.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You should seek an audience with the Minister for Foreign Affairs in order to hand him the note, the text of which you will find herewith.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.If you are in Prague, the most central 24-hour one is in Prague 2 - on the corner of Belgická and Rumunská streets - they dispense both prescription and non-prescription drugs from a small window on Rumunská out of hours - ring the bell if there is no-one there.^ You should lose no opportunity to protest against a statement which is one more proof of the German Government's bad faith.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Davis tried to back out but Lansky said: "You will be there at 6 p.m."
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tap water is good, although the chlorine can be quite strong.
A reputable hospital in Prague is Nemocnice na Homolce, Address: Roentgenova 37/2, Prague 5 (tel 257 272 350). There is a foreigners' clinic (Cizinecké oddělení) there with English-speaking receptionists who can make appointments for you. Most doctors speak some English, and the level of care is of a very high standard.
.Central Europe and parts of the Czech Republic have ticks (Ixodes ricinus) which can carry Encephalitis or Lyme Borreliosis.^ With respect to the development launched by the UNCSD, it must be stated that the Czech Republic fully acknowledges this activity and in the frame of its possibilities takes part in the relevant activity of this UN body.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic is the central body for state administration in environmental matters.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regional/International Cooperation: In the management of toxic chemicals, the Czech Republic cooperates with UNEP, UNO1, and takes part in the IRPTC. .
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Ticks hide in grass and bushes, so try to stay on trails and inspect exposed areas of skin after a hike. Vaccination against Encephalitis is available and recommended. If you want to bushwhack, make sure you have the vaccination and wear long trousers. A good insect repellent (which contains DEET), might be helpful, too. Ticks like to cling to any soft, warm, well-perfused areas of your body (undersides of knees and elbows, skin around ankles, groins, neck area, behind your ears etc.) and if not removed, they'll suck your blood until they grow about 1 cm big. Never try to scratch a tick off or pull it out, because damaging it can cause you a serious infection. The sooner the tick is removed, the smaller the chance of infection. Either ask a physician to remove a tick for you, or try to remove it by yourself: lubricate your finger with any greasy lotion and gently wag a tick from side to side until it wobbles free. Then flush it down the drain - never crush or burn it to avoid infection. .Watch the affected spot: if you see a growing red spot developing there anytime during next several months, immediately visit your physician and tell him about that - you might have contracted Borreliosis.^ The Fhrer informed him of the coming invasion of Bohemia and Moravia and charged him, under threat of seeing Slovakia suffer the same fate, with bringing about the immediate separation of that country from Prague.
  • The End of Czechoslovakia (January 5-March 19, 1939) 10 February 2010 13:54 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the next decade there was a steady drop cod population.
  • Timeline 1968 11 September 2009 3:56 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Czech Republic there are several organizations which are monitoring the state and development of the whole country from the viewpoint of sustainability.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

It is dangerous, but it can be easily treated with antibiotics during early stage. Be wary that American vaccination against Borreliosis most probably won't work against European strains (B. afzelii and B. garini). Note that ticks are sometimes present even in city parks, including Prague.

Respect

Czechs don't appreciate when foreigners incorrectly assume that their country was part of the Soviet Union or the Russian Empire -- both definitely false -- although it was part of the Soviet Bloc and, until 1918, an Austro-Hungarian territory. .Commenting about how "everything is quite cheap here" comes across as condescending about the country's economic status, and in any case is no longer true (other than beer).^ STATUS REPORT: Forests cover 33% of the country's territory (2,631,000 ha) and these areas are increasing (see other data).
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

If you are knowledgable about the Czechoslovakian communist regime following the second world war, bear in mind that this is still a sensitive issue for many and that it is easy to upset people in discussions on the subject.
Czechs are one of the most atheist people in the world, and are very proud of it. This is true especially in large Bohemian cities. Don't assume that anyone you do not know believes in God or has a passion for Christianity. Respect that and your religion will also be respected.
Always say hello (Dobrý den) and goodbye (Na shledanou) when you enter and leave a small shop as it is polite.
While dining at a restaurant with a host's family it is customary for THEM to pick up the bill, the opposite of most Western standards. However don't assume they will - but also don't be surprised if they do.

Contact

There are three main mobile phone operators using the GSM standard, their coverage is very good (except in some remote, mostly uninhabited areas). .If you find using roaming with your own operator too expensive or you want to have a Czech phone number, you can buy an anonymous prepaid card from any of the three main operators.^ June 8th, 2009 at 8:14 am If you want to improve your site backlinks, this seo tool is special for you.

However, the pricing schemes are usually quite complicated and some investigation may be necessary to find the ideal solution (even with the prepaid cards, operators offer various schemes including various additional 'packages'). GPRS and EDGE is widely supported, however 3G networks are almost nonexistent. The fourth operator (U:fon) uses some custom standards and you have to buy special hardware from them.
There are still some telephone boxes available, but they are gradually vanishing since the advent of mobile phones. Some still accept coins, but most of them require special prepaid telephone card.
You can call emergency numbers from any phone for free (even without any card). .The universal emergency number 112 is functional and you can use it, however you will reach only a telephone operator who will need to contact the real emergency service for you.^ However, only 294 of them operated under valid legal provisions and only 50 incineration plants met valid emission limits.
  • Country Profile - Czech-Republic 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

To save precious time, it is best to call directly the service you need: 150 for firefighters, 155 for medical emergency, and 158 for state police.
Wifi is available in many restaurants, especially in larger cities. You may need to ask a waiter for the passphrase. There are also some hotspots available on the streets and some city quarters (for example in Prague) offer free wifi coverage for everyone. However such coverage is usually very slow and unreliable and you may need to create an account (using a web browser and the page it is automatically redirected to) to be able to use it. In most larger cities, there are also several internet cafés available.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Czech Republic
Plural
-
Czech Republic
.
  1. A country in Central Europe.^ Czech Republic Wikipedia Information The Czech Republic (, short form in , ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe and a member state of the European Union.
    • Czech Republic News - The Sacramento Bee 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.sacbee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Czechoslovakia was thus the only country in central Europe with a well-balanced budget.

    ^ It is not a big country, yet it is conveniently located in Central Europe and has a lot to offer – be it for a few days or couple of months.
    • Accommodation in Czech Republic and Cheap Travel to Czech Republic :-) Hospitality Club 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC secure.hospitalityclub.org [Source type: General]

    Official short-form name: Czechia.

Translations

See also


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Czechoslovakia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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