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Döner kebab
Bursa24.JPG
Döner meat being sliced from a rotating spit. Note the cast iron plate behind the spit, which is used to cook the meat.
Origin
Place of origin Turkey
Region or state Bursa and Erzurum
Creator(s) Disputed, goes back to 18th century.[1]
Dish details
Course served Snack or main course
Serving temperature Hot
Main ingredient(s) Sliced lamb, beef, chicken
Variations Multiple

Döner kebab (Turkish: döner kebap or döner kebabı, literally "rotating roast", often abbreviated as döner, also spelled donair, donar, doner, or sometimes donner), is a Turkish dish made of lamb meat cooked on a vertical spit and sliced off to order. Two similar dishes are called shawarma in Arabic and gyros in Greek,[2] although ingredients and sauces differ. The English term kebab in some countries refers specifically to döner kebab.

There are many variants in the composition of the meat, the ways of serving it, and the garnishes.

History

Cağ Kebabı, a related dish. Note that the meat is horizontally stacked.

Before taking its modern aspect, as mentioned in Ottoman Travelbooks of the 18th century,[3][4] the döner used to be a horizontal stack of meat rather than vertical, probably sharing common ancestors with the Cağ Kebabı of the Eastern Turkish province of Erzurum.

In his own family Biography, İskender Efendi from the 19th century Bursa claims that "he and his grandfather had the idea of roasting the lamb vertically rather than horizontally, and invented for that purpose a vertical mangal".[5] With time, the meat took a different marinade, got leaner, and eventually took its modern shape.[4]

See also : kebab, döner, döner kebab, dürüm in Wiki.

Preparation

Döner meat being sliced

The meat used for döner in Turkey is mostly lamb,[6] but, the chicken variant has also made its way in the very large Turkish street food milieu.

There are two basic ways of preparing the meat for döner kebabs:

  • The more common and authentic method is to stack marinated slices of lean lamb meat onto a vertical skewer in the shape of an inverted cone. The meat is cooked by charcoal, wood, electric, or gas burners. The döner stack is topped with fat (mostly tail fat), that drips along the meat stack when heated. At times, tomatoes, and onions are placed at the top of the stack to also drip juices over the meat, keeping it moist. In Turkey, most restaurants prepare their döner early in the morning, and serve the last portion by the end of the afternoon.
  • In Western Europe and Canada, meat for döner kebab is often industrially processed from compressed ground meat (in essence, a form of meatloaf) containing a mixture of different meat kinds from various animals, making the specific contents less traceable. For that purpose, in Germany the amount of ground meat is not allowed to surpass 60% (Deutsches Lebensmittelbuch).
  • The Dutch TV program Keuringsdienst van Waarde analysed the contents of Döner Kebab sandwiches in The Netherlands using DNA technique. The results showed that only one kebab sandwich contained 100% lambmeat, while most consisted of mixes between lamb and beef. Others consisted of 100% beef, chicken, turkey or pork.[7]

Serving and accompaniments

In modern Turkey, the döner is served in diverse ways as main courses or street snacks:

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Main courses

  • Porsiyon ("the Portion", döner on a slightly heated plate, sometimes with a few grilled peppers or broiled tomatoes on the side)[6][7]
  • Pilavüstü ("Ricetop", döner served on a base of pilaf rice that gets tastier as the fat in the meat drips into the rice)[8][9]
  • İskender (specialty of Bursa, served in an oblong plate, atop a base of thin pita, complete with a dash of pepper or tomato sauce and boiling fresh butter)[10][11]

Snacks

  • Dürüm, wrapped in a thin lavaş that is sometimes also grilled after being rolled, to make it crispier. It has two main variants in mainland Turkey:[12]
    • Soslu dürüm (speciality of Ankara, contains İskender sauce, making it juicier)
    • Kaşarlı dürüm döner (speciality of Istanbul, grated kaşar cheese is put in the wrap which is then toasted to melt the cheese and crisp up the Lavash)[13]
  • Tombik or gobit (literally "the Fatty", döner in a bun-shaped pita, with crispy crust and soft inside, and generally less meat than a dürüm)[14]
  • Ekmekarası ("in a bread", generally the most filling version, consisting of a whole (or a half) regular Turkish bread filled with döner)[15]

Döner kebab around the world

Döner kebab sandwich served in a thick pita (Turkish: pide).

Döner kebab is now widely available across Europe and North America, mostly in the variant developed in Germany. The meat may be lamb, mutton, beef, goat, or chicken. Döner kebab is the origin of other similar Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dishes such as shawarma and gyros.

Outside of Turkey, generally a döner sandwich is served with a salad made from shredded lettuce, tomatoes, and onions—often also with cabbage and cucumbers. Usually there is a choice between a hot sauce, a whiter yoghurt sauce containing garlic (tarator/tzatziki), and a dairy sauce containing herbs. Most döner vendors in Europe also have French fries which can be served as a side or wrapped with the meat and salad. Sometimes more varied ingredients are available, such as hummus (chick pea paste), tahini-based tarator, or Turkish white cheese. This type of serving is uncommon in Turkey, and is mostly found in western European countries.

The "donairs" made in Atlantic (Eastern) Canada are almost always made with a sweetened garlic sauce, and this sauce (called "donair sauce") is also used as a dipping sauce for Eastern-Canadian snacks like garlic fingers. Donair pizzas are available in Atlantic Canada as well, and feature donair meat, donair sauce, tomatoes, and onions as toppings.[citation needed]

Albania

In Albania, döner kebabs are usually called "sufllaqe" and sold at fast food stores. In southern parts of the country, they are called "gjiro". They are made with either lamb, beef or chicken, lettuce, tomatoes, mayonnaise, french fries, ketchup, and/or mustard, etc. In general, a normal gjiro in Southern Albania is made with tomatoes, onions, french fries, ketchup, mustard and "salc kosi" (yogurt sauce).In the capital ( Tirana) they are made with meat wrapped in freshly made pitta with thick yoghurt and cucumber sauce . Another variant includes a Russian Salad dressing versus salc kosi or mayonnaise.

Australia

In Australia, döner kebab—usually called just kebabs—are very popular owing to immigration from Greece, Turkey, the former Yugoslavia and Lebanon. Many consider them to be a healthier alternative to traditional fast food

In Australian shops or stalls run by Greeks, kebabs are usually called souvlaki or gyros, spelt phonetically as "yeeros", or "yiros" in South Australia. Kebabs often include a fried egg in Western Australia. Meat (beef or lamb) and chicken kebabs can often be found in Sydney and Melbourne where many suburbs have take-away shops that offer them. They are optionally served with cheese and a salad consisting of lettuce, tomato, onion, and tabouli on either pita bread (also known in some areas as Lebanese bread) or using thicker but still quite flat Turkish breads. These are sliced in half with the filling placed in between the slices, rather than wrapped, Souvlaki-style as is common with pita/pide breads.

The most commonly used sauces are tomato sauce, barbecue sauce, hummus (made with chickpeas), garlic sauce (tzatziki) and chili or sweet chilli sauce. Döner kebabs in Sydney and Melbourne can be served with all the ingredients placed onto or next to the pita bread on a plate, or more commonly, with the ingredients rolled into the pita bread in the form of a "wrap". There are two primary ways to serve the wrapped version. It can be toasted in a sandwich press, which has the effect of melting any cheese, heating the meat and baking the bread so that it hardens and becomes crisp. It can also be served without toasting.

An additional form is predominant in Canberra, where the bread with filling is passed underneath a grill for a minute. The sandwich is then wrapped in paper to stop the filling from falling out and usually placed in a foil/paper sleeve. This variety is also available in Auckland in New Zealand. In Brisbane, kebabs are influenced most strongly by the Turkish variation. They are invariably served in a pita wrap and toasted in a sandwich press for about a minute before being inserted into a foil or paper sleeve.

Shops or vans selling kebabs are colloquially referred to as "Kebaberies" in some parts of Australia. Kebab meat can also be found as a pizza topping in the western suburbs of Sydney and Melbourne, as a "beef pizza" or "Turkish pizza".

The "late night kebab" has become an icon of urban food culture in Australia, with kebabs often purchased and consumed following a night of drinking. Kebabs are considered suitable following consumption of alcohol due their high content of lipids (fats) which aids in metabolism of alcohol. The prices range from $5 to $10.

Austria

Döner kebab shops can be found in all cities across the country. Kebabs (rarely referred to as "döner") are very popular in Austria and outsell burgers or the traditional Würstel (sausage) stands.[citation needed] The range of döner is similar to other German speaking countries, but one is more likely to find a chicken kebab in central Vienna than lamb or beef kebab.

Afghanistan

Döner is very popular, locals especially in Herat and Kabul enjoy the döner kebab. In Afghanistan it is called shawarma or Kababe Torki (Turkish kebab).

Azerbaijan

In Azerbaijan döner is often called "national fast food". It is very popular in all regions of the country. The most popular variety is Turkish döner.

Belgium

Döner kebab restaurants and food stands can be found in almost all cities and smaller towns in Belgium. The variety served is similar to that of Germany and the Netherlands. However, it is not uncommon to see döner served with French fries in Belgium, often stuffed into the bread itself (similar to the German "Kebab mit Pommes"). This is probably done to suit local taste, as French fries are still the most common Belgian fast food. Available sauces in Belgium are usually mayonnaise-based and the most popular are the garlic and cocktail variety, as well as a spicy sauce known as samurai that originated in the Belgian fries-shops. Other popular sauces include plain mayonnaise, sambal oelek or harissa paste, andalouse sauce, "américaine" sauce and tomato or curry ketchup. Belgians are renowned for mixing two sauces for maximizing taste effects (e.g. garlic and sambal). Another basic ingredient of the typical Belgian Kebab is two or three green, spicy, Turkish peppers.

Brazil

Döner kebab is one of the most popular fast-food dishes on São Paulo streets. It is usually served as a sandwich, and it is called "Churrasco Grego", which means "Greek Barbecue".

Bulgaria

Döner kebab stands are a common sight in Bulgaria. The Döner kebap or Dyuner (Дюнер) is widely made of chicken meat, and it’s wrapped in a flatbread or Turkish wrap. It consist a wide variety of salad choices most commonly used are tomatoes, chopped lettuce, onions, hot peppers, cabbage and cucumbers. Rice and bean salads are offered along the coastline. In recent years the use of French fries has become a popular ingredient. It is served with yoghurt-mayonnaise based garlic sauce, with ketchup or mayonnaise on demand, and hot spices. It’s a widely adopted fast food choice, and there are a number of venues that specialize in the Greek, German and Turkish styles of Döner kebabs in the capital. Due to health regulations the portions are considerably smaller than the rest of Europe. However most Döner stands offer two or three portions for the price of one in order to compete on the fast food market. The price of a portion is 1 Euro (2 BGL).

Canada

A variation on the döner kebab known as "donair" was introduced in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada in the early 1970s. A restaurant called King of Donair claims to have been the first to serve this version in 1973.[8] The meat in this version of the döner kebab (sometimes called 'Halifax donair') is sliced from a loaf cooked on a vertical spit, made from a combination of ground beef, flour or bread crumbs, and various spices, while the sauce is made from evaporated milk, sugar, vinegar, and garlic. The meat and sauce are served rolled in a flatbread pita with diced tomato and onion. The donair is very popular throughout the Atlantic provinces of Canada, and is also available in some other areas of the country, with many fast food pizza restaurants also featuring donairs on the menu. Many of them also offer a donair pizza featuring all of the donair ingredients served on a pizza crust. Donair subs are also not uncommon.

In Atlantic Canada you can also find donair meat used in offerings such as donair egg rolls (an egg roll casing stuffed with donair meat), donair calzones/panzerottis, and in donair poutine (french fries topped with cheese curds, donair meat and donair sauce or gravy or a combination).

In the summer of 2008, after numerous cases of E. coli related food poisoning due to the consumption of undercooked donair meat in Alberta, the federal government came out with a set of guidelines for the preparation of donairs. The principle guideline was that the meat should be cooked at least twice: once on the spit, and then grilled as the donair is being prepared. Many Atlantic Canadian establishments already did this, however, Albertan restaurants, recently introduced to donairs by a large number of Atlantic Canadians looking for work there, often omitted the grilling step.

Cayman Islands

Döner kebab is available in Georgetown, Grand Cayman with a Caribbean flair. The meat is cooked on the traditional vertical spit, and the kebab is served on flat bread with a variety of sauces, including garlic and mango pepper sauce.

China

Döners are widespread in western China, especially Xinjiang, owing to Turkish influence. Döner kebabs are a regional specialty that have gradually spread to elsewhere in China.

Denmark

In Denmark, döner kebabs are sold under a variety of names depending on the döner salesman's ethnic background. In Copenhagen, döners are usually called "shawarma" (Arabic) or simply kebab, but in other parts of the country are sold as "guss" (Iraqi). However, the tag "döner" is rarely used. Döner kebabs were first introduced to Denmark in 1981 by Turkish migrant workers, and have since become a staple. In Denmark döner is served with salad, tomatoes, sour cream dressing and chili oil in either a pita bread, rolled in a flat bread (dürüm), with fries, or served on pizza. Often, döner kebab will be served in a dürüm roll, or "en rulle" (a roll) for short.

Finland

A plate of döner kebab in Kamppi, Helsinki

In Finland, kebabs have gained a lot of popularity since Turkish immigrants opened restaurants and imported their own traditional food (albeit modified to suit Finnish taste as in Germany, e.g. replacing lamb with beef in most cases). This popularity is apparent when perusing choices of cuisine, especially in larger cities. Kebab foods are generally regarded as fast food, often served in late-night restaurants also serving pizza. However, recently kebab restaurants have begun to appear in shopping malls and in the form of proper high street restaurants as well.[9] There are at least 1122 currently active restaurants that serve kebab foods[10] in Finland. Furthermore, there is on average one kebab restaurant for every 5222 people in mainland Finland.[11] Beef is predominantly used instead of lamb because Finns are familiar with the taste and consume beef significantly more than lamb, which also means that it is cheaper and more readily available. Some döners can be a mix of lamb and beef. Unlike in Central Europe, where kebabs are made from whole cuts of meat, practically all available kebab in Finland is made from ground meat. Often restaurants do not prepare the meat themselves, but use processed ready-made pieces instead.

France

Most kebab shops (themselves known simply as kebabs) are run by some of the many Turkish immigrants in France. The basic kebab consists of Turkish bread stuffed with grilled sheep shavings, onions and lettuce, with a choice of sauce from sauce blanche (yogurt sauce with garlic and herbs), harissa (spicy red sauce originally from North Africa), ketchup, or several others. Very frequently kebabs called are served with French fries, often stuffed into the bread itself. This variation is called Döner grec ("Greek kebab"). Other variations include turkey or chicken, fish, beef,falafel or sausage, and replacing the Turkish bread with pita bread or baguette; indeed, this is actually more common than the Turkish pide bread in many smaller towns.

Germany

A version developed to suit German tastes by Turkish immigrants in Berlin has become one of Germany's most popular fast food dishes; in fact, often these immigrants export German döners back to Turkey.

Döner, common German style (Berlin)
Döner kebab in a dürüm

In many cities throughout Germany, döner kebab is more popular than hamburgers or sausages, especially with young people, who eat a "döner" (as it is usually called) for lunch, dinner and late at night after returning from clubs and bars. German musician Peter Fox alludes to eating döner after clubbing in his 2009 single Schwarz zu Blau.

Typically, along with the meat, a salad consisting of chopped lettuce, cabbage, onions, cucumber, and tomatoes is offered, as well as a choice of sauces—hot sauce (scharfe Soße), herb sauce (Kräutersoße), curry sauce (Currysoße), cocktail sauce (Cocktailsoße) garlic sauce (Knoblauchsoße), or yogurt (Joghurtsoße). The filling is served in thick flatbread (fladenbrot) that is usually toasted or warmed. There are different variations on the döner kebab, one of which is kebab mit pommes. This is similar to an ordinary döner kebab, except that it has French fries as well as the meat. Another variety is achieved by placing the ingredients on a lahmacun (a flat round dough topped with minced meat and spices) and then rolling the ingredients inside the dough into a tube that is eaten out of a wrapping of usually aluminum foil (döner pizza). When plain dough is used (without the typical Lahmacun spices and minced meat) the rolled kebab is called "dürüm döner" or "döner yufka". The packaging of the döner itself in Germany is typically a waxpaper sleeve with an image of a male cook sharpening a knife in front of a large spit.

Statistically, Germans consume 200 to 300 tonnes of döner kebab per day.[citation needed] In 1998, they spent about €1.5 billion on döner kebab. Germany's large Turkish minority is probably the biggest reason for the widespread sale of döner kebab sandwiches there: from the late 60's on, large numbers of Turks were invited to come to Germany as guest workers, to fill a then acute labour shortage caused by the Wirtschaftswunder after the war. Most of these Turkish workers eventually stayed in Germany, and opening small food shops and takeaways was an excellent option in terms of progressing from more menial jobs.

Hungary

Döner kebabs are not very popular in Hungary but are usually referred to as the Greek term gyros--even Turkish restaurants (owned and run by Turks) call them gyros at the point of sale. It is served in two main forms: in pita (€2) or on a plate (€3-4). French fries are only part of the plate version. The meat in döner kebab is beef, chicken or lamb there, and the more popular pita version is usually served with lettuce, tomatoes, sliced onion and with some kind of a yoghurt sauce (which should be tzatziki in gyros, but it usually has nothing to do with tzatziki) and a mildly hot sauce made of red paprika. Selling döner kebab is widespread in smaller cities and near beaches as well, and it is usually done by locals in Hungary. Selling of döner kebab by Turks is only widespread in Budapest. Döner kebab became popular around the beginning of 1990s.

Iran

Döner is popular in Iran and it is known as the "Turkish kebab" or "kabab Torki" in Persian. It is also called donar by Iranians.

Israel

Although shawarma is much more common in Israel, several restaurants in Tel-Aviv have started to serve authentic döner kebab.

Italy

Döner is very popular, especially among Moroccan immigrants and young people, including students and bargoers in many major cities. Common toppings include french fries, cabbage, lettuce, tomato, onions, hot pepper relish, spiced yogurt, mayonnaise, and ketchup. It is also possible to get the kebabs without bread in a small foil bowl with all of the toppings over rice.

Japan

A Moses (donair) location in Ueno, Tokyo

Döner kebabs are starting to appear, mostly in Tokyo, where they are predominantly sold from parked vans. Döner kebabs have been adjusted to suit Japanese tastes; the salad is usually omitted in favour of shredded cabbage, and the sauce is composed primarily of mayonnaise.

Employees of döner kebab stands (along with those of Indian restaurants) are among the most visible non-East Asian, non-Western European immigrants in Japan. This phenomenon has only become prevalent in the last five years, and is perhaps indicative of changing attitudes towards foreigners.

Mexico

A similar dish is served in Mexico known as tacos al pastor or "tacos de trompo". The cooking is different from that of the kebab. The meat is cooked and then sliced into a "tortilla" made of corn. They can be found all over Mexico, especially in street corners. They are not new to Mexico, and it is unknown if there is a direct relationship with the Turkish Kebab.

Netherlands

Döner kebab is very popular in the Netherlands among all populations. It should not be confused with shawarma.[citation needed] It is generally served with lettuce, onion, tomato slices and sauce, mainly garlic and sambal. It is widely available.

Norway

In Norway, the kebab was introduced by Turkish and Arab immigrants during the 1980s. It soon became a very popular meal after a night out, gaining a cult status among young people during the 1990s[citation needed] . The kebab has become a symbol of immigration from the Muslim world, and speaking Norwegian with an Arab accent or with a lot of words and expressions borrowed from the Turkish, Arabic, Persian and Punjabi languages is sometimes referred to as "Kebabnorsk" (Kebab Norwegian)[citation needed] .

The kebabs in Norway are served in a variety of ways, commonly in fast-food shops selling both hamburgers and kebabs. The kebab roll has become increasingly popular, with the kebab not served in pita bread, but rather wrapped in pizza dough (making it look like a spring roll) for easy consumption. The most "Norwegian" kebab to date is probably the whalemeat kebab sold at the Inferno Metal Festival. As of 2008, the average price of the kebab in Norway lies around 65 kroner, or about €8.

The Norwegian Food Safety authorities have issued a warning about cheap kebabs, estimating that more than 80% of kebab shops selling these are involved in organized meat smuggling, or are in other ways not in full compliance with stringent Norwegian food safety laws and regulations [12].

Pakistan

In Pakistan, the döner kebab is referred to by its Arabic name, Shawarma, and has become a very popular type of fast food, having become a hot roadside snack.

Philippines

In the Philippines, döner kebab is referred to by its Arabic name, shawarma, and has become relatively common in major cities, especially Manila. This may be due to the huge number of Filipino overseas workers who have been contracted for Middle East work over many years. Filipino-style Shawarma is beef (never minced) or chicken, and, rarely, lamb (which is expensive in the Philippines). It is wrapped in a small pita (one sandwich, around USD$1, is usually not enough if one is hungry), rolled up, and covered in an oil-based garlic sauce (like a thin allioli) and a hot chilli sauce, together with chopped lettuce, onions and tomato. Recipes vary, some using a sweet, almost teriyakilike marinade. "Special" shawarma can include cheese, French fries, and homemade pickles. "Shawarma Rice" is a dish popular among younger diners; it consists of all the aforementioned ingredients, except for the pita, which is replaced with a seasoned rice pilaf.

Poland

In Poland the kebab bars are spread mostly in major cities, but it is still considered one of the most, if not the most popular fast foods for young people. A very Polish specialty is a fresh cabbage salad with cucumbers, tomatoes and other vegetables, added to the meat in a sandwich. A basic version costs 7–8 (€2–€2.5) and includes pita or thick bread, meat with onion, the aforementioned salad and a choice of sauces. It can be super-sized and/or served with extra cheese. Sandwiches are available with hot, medium or mild sauces made of house special ingredients. Kebab shops also serve complete meals, vegetarian dishes and ayran. Undoubtedly[citation needed] Warsaw is the capital of Polish kebab, with shops run by Turkish emigrants, and serving Arab specialties and hookah pipes apart from the sandwiches. As they run 23 hours a day, every day of the week, they are often visited by partying youth and policemen.

Kebabs were rarely seen in Poland before the downfall of the Iron Curtain in 1989. A similar Greek-fashioned dish gyros could have been occasionally encountered in that era. One possible origin of the recent popularity of kebab in Poland is post-communist Berlin, with local Turkish immigrants inspired by their fellow natives in the other country.[citation needed]

Portugal

In Portugal kebabs are fairly recent. The most common kebab in Portugal is served in thick pita bread. Salad, Onion, tomato, fresh cheese and sauce.

Republic of Ireland

In Dublin, Ireland, increasing numbers of Turkish immigrants have led to something of an explosion in the number of late-night kebab eateries, hugely popular with party-goers and evening revellers in the city centre.

Kebabs are often eaten as take-away food on the way home after a night out. Owing to a huge demand for late night food in the city centre, large businesses, such as Abrakebabra, have left their doors open late into the night all through the week. Some businesses put a surcharge on all food purchased later in the night.

The Irish döner kebab consists of döner meat (lamb) placed into a pita with sliced cabbage and red cabbage. Two sauces are then applied through the kebab, a yogurty garlic white sauce and a hot and spicy red sauce. As of 2008, the average price of a kebab in Ireland lies around €6.

Russia

In Russia döner kebab is usually called shaurma (Central Russia) or shawerma (North-West). It is widespread and is usually made in booths or small cafes. There are two basic types: in pitah (a type of bun) or in lavash (thin round cake, in which it is packed). Types of meat from which it is usually made are chicken and pork. Other meat is seldom used for döner. Typical recipe includes meat, cabbage and/or carrot salad, cucumbers and/or tomatoes and two types of sauces: ketchup and a type of spicy youghurt (its recipe is usually strictly secured by shaurma makers, called shaurmen). Döner production in Russia is usually subject of a small business, which is most usual owned by Caucasus or Middle Asia migrants. Recently there is a massive campaign against shaurma from local authorities due to hygiene questions of its production and consumption. It was suggested to totally prohibit its sales outside cafes and restaurants satisfying hygiene requirements, but till present time it can be found almost anywhere. There is especially large number of such booths near railway stations and markets. Shaurma is a very popular meal for students and people who have to eat "on the track" due to its relatively low price. It depends on the region, in big cities it is usually a little higher, but in average one portion costs 1.4-2 Euro in booths and higher in cafes. Shaurma can be served also in a plate apart from the bun and can be accompanied with french fries.

Slovenia

In Slovenian cities you can find many döner kebab stands that were spread across the country by immigrants from Kosovo and Bosnia. Some places also serve so called jufka kebab (durum). Common ingredients are: Beef or chicken meat, salad, cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, yogurt sauce.

Sweden

In Sweden, Kebab med bröd can be found in the local pizzeria or specialised kebab/falafel shop. The word "kebab" is normally associated with döner kebab made purely from beef or sometimes chicken. It is quickly, along with falafel, becoming a popular fast-food alternative to the more traditional hot dogs and hamburgers. Other commonly occurring kebab variants are kebabpizza (pizza with kebab meat), kebabrulle (a roll of flat bread, filled with kebab meat, salad, tomatoes, and kebab sauce), and kebabtallrik (a plate of kebab meat with rice/french fries and/or salad).

Switzerland

Döner can be found in cities across Switzerland. Of particular interest are the Döner stands in the Zurich old town. The döner vendors have popularised the grammatically incorrect way of asking if the customer wants the döner "mit scharf/ohne scharf" (i.e. "with hot/without hot"). This ubiquitous error has entered the general usage of German in Austria, Switzerland, and Germany, and people do not react at all to this grammatical peculiarity.

United Kingdom

Döner kebab served in a partitioned tray.

The doner (or donner, but seldom döner) kebab with salad and sauce is a very popular dish in the United Kingdom. The typical kebab shop in the UK will offer hot chilli sauce and garlic yoghurt-style sauce, and in different regions may also offer barbecue sauce, burger sauce, lemon juice, or a mint sauce similar to raita. Sometimes a customer can ask for a mild, a medium or a hot sauce, but it is not made clear what the ingredients are. Kebabs are often eaten as take-away food on the way home after a night out. Kebabs are very much part of the Friday and Saturday night culture in the UK rather than breakfast or lunchtime food. There are several common ways in which doner kebabs are served in the UK:

  • Wrapped in pita bread
  • Roti
  • On naan bread
  • Served as a dish of "doner meat (or chicken doner meat) and chips", typically including salad
  • Often preferred to be garnished with a range of sauces such as tomato ketchup, mayonnaise, chilli sauce, mint or garlic sauce.

The UK doner kebab often uses a different mixture of spices. Menus typically offer doner, shish (lamb and chicken) and kofte kebabs, with a "special" including portions of each with bread and chips. "Doner meat" is often also offered as a pizza or burger topping in such establishments.

United States

In the United States, döner kebab is not widely known, except in some larger cities with a strong Mideastern immigrant community, e.g., New York,[13] Leesburg, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.),[14] Chicago,[15] San Diego,[16] Petaluma, CA,[17] and Los Angeles.[18] In contrast, gyros, considered Greek food, are popular across the U.S., and frequently are found at mobile stands as fair food as well as at Greek- and Italian-style pizza and sandwich shops. In Portland, Oregon a variation can be found at the downtown restaurant "Doner Kebab" where turkey is substituted for the traditional lamb.

Thailand

There is at least one döner kebab shop on the island of Koh Samui. There are many kebab shops around the Nana area on Sukhumvit Road in Bangkok.

Vietnam

You can find pork döner kebabs for sale on the street in some areas of Hanoi, and chicken kebabs in District 3 of Ho Chi Minh City.

Georgia

Döner is a popular food in Georgia. It is a fast food product. The most popular places for eating döner are leselidze and GPA.

Health concerns

Döner kebab is popular in many countries in the form of "fast food", often as an end to a night out when preceded by the consumption of an excess of alcohol.[19] Health concerns surrounding döner kebab in the UK and Western Europe, including the hygiene involved in overnight storage, unacceptable salt and fat levels, and improper labeling of meat used (e.g., illicit addition of pork), are repeatedly reported in the European media.[19][20][21][22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Yierasimos, Marianna (Γιεράσιμος, Μαριάννα) (2005) (in Turkish). 500 Yıllık Osmanlı Mutfağı (500 Years of Ottoman Cuisine). Istanbul: Boyut Kitapları Yayın Grubu. pp. 307. ISBN 9752301118. 
  2. ^ Babionitis, Georgios (Μπαμπινιώτης, Γεώργιος) (2002) (in Modern Greek). Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας — Δεύτερη Ἐκδοση (Dictionary of the New Greek Language — Second Edition). Athens: Κέντρο Λεξικολογίας Ε.Π.Ε.. pp. 2032. ISBN 960-86190-1-7. 
  3. ^ "Döner Hakkında — Dönerin Tarihçesi" (in Turkish). Dönercibaşı- Özbilir Grup. http://www.donercibasi.com/doner.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  4. ^ a b İskenderoğlu, Yavuz (2008). "Yavuz İskenderoğlu-Kebapçı İskender Tarihçesi" (in Turkish). Kebapçı İskender. http://www.kebapciiskender.com.tr/tr/?PID=7. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  5. ^ İskenderoğlu, Yavuz (2008) (in Turkish), Yavuz İskenderoğlu-Kebapçı İskender Tarihçesi, Kebapçı İskender, http://www.kebapciiskender.com.tr/tr/?PID=7, retrieved 2009-03-03 
  6. ^ Yaman, Renan (1993) (in Turkish). Döner Kebabın Hikâyesi (Story of the Döner Kebab). Ankara: THKATV Yayınları. pp. 92–102. 
  7. ^ "Keuringsdienst van Waarde". http://sites.rvu.nl/page/7202/nl. 
  8. ^ "King Of Donair Restaurant (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada) History". http://www.kingofdonairs.com/about.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  9. ^ (Finnish) A kebab restaurant in the mall "Skanssi" [1]
  10. ^ (Finnish) Kebabille.com main page statistics (number of restaurants) [2]
  11. ^ (Finnish) Kebabille.com kebab restaurant densities by municipality [3]
  12. ^ Ivar Brandvol (2007). "Advarer mot billig kebabmat" (in Norwegian). vg.no. http://www.vg.no/pub/vgart.hbs?artid=167470. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  13. ^ Doner kebab houses in New York. Retrieved on 21 March 2009.
  14. ^ "Döner Bistro (Leesburg, Virginia)". http://www.doener-usa.com. Retrieved 2009-05-23. 
  15. ^ Doner Kebab House, Chicago, IL. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
  16. ^ [4]. Retrieved on 9 September 2009.
  17. ^ [5], Petaluma, CA Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  18. ^ Spitz in Eagle Rock, CA. Retrieved on 21 March 2009.
  19. ^ a b "How unhealthy is a doner kebab?". BBC News Magazine. 21 January 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7841890.stm. 
  20. ^ Guardian Health — Kebab anyone?, The Guardian, 6 October 2006
  21. ^ "UK study reveals 'shocking' kebab". BBC News. 27 January 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7852168.stm. 
  22. ^ "Results of council survey on doner kebabs". LACORS. 27 January 2009. http://www.lacors.gov.uk/lacors/NewsArticleDetails.aspx?N=0&Ne=0+2000+3000+4000+5000+6000+7000+8000+9000+10000+11000&id=21002. 

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