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Düsseldorf
top: Düsseldorf-Hafen, bottom row from left: Ständehaus of Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Königsallee and Stadttor
top: Düsseldorf-Hafen,
bottom row from left: Ständehaus of Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Königsallee and Stadttor
Coat of arms of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is located in Germany
Düsseldorf
Coordinates 51°14′N 6°47′E / 51.23333°N 6.78333°E / 51.23333; 6.78333
Administration
Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. region Düsseldorf
District Urban district
City subdivisions 10 districts, 49 boroughs
Lord Mayor Dirk Elbers (CDU)
Governing parties CDUFDP
Basic statistics
Area 217 km2 (84 sq mi)
Elevation 38 m  (125 ft)
Population  582,222  (30 June 2008)[1]
 - Density 2,683 /km2 (6,949 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate D
Postal codes 40001-40629
Area code 0211
Website duesseldorf.de

Düsseldorf (German pronunciation: [ˈdʏsəldɔɐf]) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and center of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region. Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and also renowned for its fashion and trade fairs[2][3]. Even though only among the ten most populous cities in Germany by population within city limits, Düsseldorf ranks as one of the country's five global cities.

As a city by the River Rhine, Düsseldorf is a stronghold for Rhenish carnival celebrations. Every year in July more than 4.5 million people visit the city's Größte Kirmes am Rhein funfair.

Contents

History

When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine River.[4]

In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine. It was from such settlements that the city of Düsseldorf grew.

The first written mention of the town of Düsseldorf dates back to 1135 (then called Dusseldorp in the local Low Rhenish dialect). It was told that under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth, lying to the North of Düsseldorf, became a well fortified outpost, where soldiers kept their watchful eyes over every movement on the Rhine. Kaiserswerth eventually became a suburb of Düsseldorf in 1929.

Düsseldorf in 1647

In 1186 Düsseldorf came under the rule of Berg. The counts of Berg moved their seat to the town in 1280. 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf as it was on this day that the sovereign Count Adolf V of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel the Town privileges.

Prior to that announcement, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and the count of Berg, culminating in the Battle of Worringen. The Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, which is remembered today with a monument on the Burgplatz. In fact, the custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf, who, upon hearing that their city was victorious, did these "flips" in celebration.

After this battle the relationship of the two cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals. It is often said that there is a kind of hostility between the citizens of Cologne and Düsseldorf. Today, it finds its expression mainly in a humorous form (especially during the Rhineland Karneval) and in sports.

The historic townhall of Düsseldorf in the Altstadt.

A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls in all four directions. In 1380, Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St. Lambertus. In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, and after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg, who made Düsseldorf their main domicile, even after they inherited the Palatinate, in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine.

Düsseldorf's growth was even more impressive under the leadership of Johann Wilhelm II (r. 1690-1716) in the 18th century, also known to his people as Jan Wellem. Greatly influenced by his wife Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, the art lover designed a vast art gallery with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures that were housed in the Stadtschloss (city castle).

After the death of childless Jan Wellem, the flourishing royal capital fell back to hard times, especially after Elector Karl Theodor inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich. With him he took the art collection, which became part of what is now the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon made Berg a Grand Duchy and Düsseldorf its capital. J. C. C. Devaranne, a leader of Solingen's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813. After the defeat of Napoleon, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815. The parliament of the Rhine Province was established in Düsseldorf later.

Düsseldorf in 1900

By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882; the figure doubled in 1892. It was a target of strategic bombing during World War II, particularly during the RAF bombing campaign against the Ruhr industry in 1943 when over 700 bombers would be used in a single night. Raids continued late into the war. As part of the campaign against German oil facilities, the RAF raid of February 20/21 1945 on the Rhenania Ossag refinery in the Reisholz district of Düsseldorf halted oil production there. The bombings virtually reduced the city to a pile of rubble.[citation needed]

Climatic year of Düsseldorf.

In 1946 Düsseldorf was made capital of the new federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city's reconstruction proceeded at a frantic pace and the economic transformation saw Düsseldorf growing into the wealthy city of trade, administration and service industries as it is known today.

Geography

The districts of Düsseldorf
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Physical geography

Düsseldorf lies in the middle of the lower Rhine basin on the delta of the Düssel River where it flows into the Rhine. The city is on the east side of the Rhine, except for District 4 (Oberkassel, Niederkassel, Heerdt and Lörick). Across the Rhine Neuss was built on the delta of the Erft river. Düsseldorf lies southwest of the Ruhr mining district, and in the middle of the Rhine-Ruhr urbanized region. Düsseldorf is built entirely on alluvium, muds, sands, clays and occasionally gravels. The highest point in Düsseldorf is the top of Sandberg in the far eastern part of the city (Hubbelrath borough) at 165 metres (541 ft). The lowest point is at the far northern end in Wittlaer borough where the Schwarzbach (Black Creek) enters the Rhine, with an average elevation of 28 metres (92 ft). Like the rest of the lower Rhinelands Düsseldorf has mild winters and moderately warm summers, with an average yearly temperature of 10.5 °C (51 °F) and 77 centimetres (30 in) of rainfall. The predominate wind direction is out of the south or southeast with velocities in the range of 3 to 4 m/s (7–9 mph), with gusts of 3.5 −4.8 m/s (8–10.7 mph). The wind is calm (under 2 m/s or 4.5 mph) about 35% of the time, more frequently at night and in the winter.[5][6]

Districts

Düsseldorf is currently (2007) divided into ten administrative districts. Each district (Bezirk) has its own elected district council (Bezirksvertretung) and its own district mayor (Bezirksvorsteher). The district councils are advisory only. Each district is further subdivided into boroughs. There are 49 boroughs in Düsseldorf.[7]

The regional parliament, seen from the top of the Rheinturm.
Schadow Arkaden - shopping mall.

Adjacent cities and districts

The following districts and cities border Düsseldorf (clockwise starting from the north): the City of Duisburg, the District of Mettmann (Ratingen, Mettmann, Erkrath, Hilden, Langenfeld, and Monheim), and the District of Neuss (Dormagen, Neuss, and Meerbusch).

Economy

Düsseldorf is not only widely known as a centre of German advertising and fashion industries: in the last few years the city on the Rhine has become one of the top telecommunications centres in Germany. There are 18 internet service providers located in the capital of North-Rhine Westphalia. With two of the four big German providers of mobile frequencies, D2 Vodafone and E-Plus, Düsseldorf leads the German mobile phone market. There are also many foreign trading centres in Düsseldorf such as NTT, Ericsson, Sandvik, Nokia and GTS.[citation needed] Before its dissolution LTU International, an airline, was headquartered in the city.[8]

Many of the internet companies in Düsseldorf have their roots in the world of advertising: there are 400 advertising agencies in Düsseldorf, among them three of the largest in Germany: BBDO Group, Publicis Group and Grey Group. A number of affiliates of foreign agencies deserve mention as well, such as Ogilvy & Mather, Dentsu, Hakuhodu, Digital District and DDB.[citation needed]

In Düsseldorf there are about 170 national and international financial institutions, and about 130 insurance agencies, and one of the biggest German stock exchanges. There are also about 200 publishing houses in Düsseldorf.[citation needed]

Several other major companies have their headquarters in the city: L'Oréal Germany (Cosmetics and Beauty); Henkel AG & Co. KGaA (Branded Consumer Goods and Industrial technologies); E.ON (energy); ThyssenKrupp (metallurgy); Metro (wholesale, retail); Ergo (insurance); LTU (air transport), Cognis (chemicals, headquarter in Monheim near Düsseldorf, but production mainly in Düsseldorf).[citation needed]

Daimler AG builds the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter and Volkswagen Crafter light commercial vehicles in Düsseldorf.

ThyssenKrupp building in downtown Düsseldorf

Since the 1960s, there has been a strong relationship between the city and Japan. Many Japanese banks and corporations have their European headquarters in Düsseldorf - so many that Düsseldorf has the third largest Japanese community in Europe, after London and Paris.[9][10]

The "Kö", which stands for Königsallee ("King's Avenue"), is a popular shopping destination. Some of the most reputed jewellery shops, designer labels, and galleries have their stores here. The Kö has about the highest rents for shops and bureaus in Germany.[11]

Gehry buildings Der Neue Zollhof in Media harbour, looking from former Monkey's Island.

Media

Important newspapers and journals such as Handelsblatt, Rheinische Post, Wirtschaftswoche, Deutsches Wirtschaftsblatt and VDI-Nachrichten are published in Düsseldorf. Almost all of these papers are available online on the Internet. Renowned filmmaking companies, such as Germany's biggest cinema enterprise, the Riech-Group, and TV channels such as WDR, ZDF, and QVC solidify Düsseldorf's position as a media centre.

Transport

Düsseldorf city railway.

Düsseldorf International Airport, also referred to as Rhein-Ruhr Airport, is located eight kilometres (5 mi) from the city centre and can easily be reached by train or the S-Bahn urban railway. There is a long-distance train station served by regional and national services, which is linked to the airport by the SkyTrain, an automatic peoplemover. The (old) local station situated under the terminal building carries the S-Bahn line (S11) to the city's central station and to Cologne as well as a few selected night services.

After Frankfurt and Munich, Düsseldorf International Airport is Germany's third largest commercial airport, with 18.6 million passengers annually. The airport offers 180 destinations on 4 continents, and is served by 70 airlines. The airport buildings were partly destroyed by a devastating fire caused by welding works in 1996, killing 17 people. It was completely rebuilt and the Skytrain installed.

The city is a major hub in the Deutsche Bahn (DB) railway network. More than 1,000 trains stop in Düsseldorf every day. The central railway station at Konrad-Adenauer-Platz is located in Düsseldorf's city centre. Several S-Bahn lines connect Düsseldorf to the other cities of Rhine-Ruhr. Local light rail Stadtbahn traffic as well as bus traffic is carried out by the city-owned Rheinbahn which operates within the VRR public transport system. The light rail system also serves neighbouring cities and is partially operated underground.

The Central Station and the Airport Station (Flughafen-Bahnhof) are connected to the national and European high speed (Intercity / Eurocity, IC / EC) and extreme high speed InterCityExpress.

North Rhine-Westphalia has a closely-woven autobahn network with many routes leading directly to Düsseldorf. The city is connected to the A3, A44, A46, A52, A57, A59 and A524 motorways.

Facts and figures

Demographics

  • 17% of Düsseldorf's population are foreigners, which is a total of 98,686 people. The largest minority ethnic groups are Turkish, Greek, and Italian.[12]
  • Düsseldorf has the third-largest Jewish community in Germany, with about 7,600 members, which is more than 1% of the city's population.
  • Düsseldorf and its surroundings have the third-largest Japanese community in Europe and the largest in Germany (about 11,000).[10][9]

Quality of life

The Mercer's 2009 Quality of Living survey of cities with the highest quality of life ranked Düsseldorf sixth worldwide and first in Germany.[13]

Culture and recreation

Art-loving Elector Jan Wellem and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici of Tuscany, were the patrons of Düsseldorf's first significant cultural activities in the 17th and 18th centuries. Heinrich Heine, whose 200th birthday was celebrated in 1997, Clara and Robert Schumann as well as Felix Mendelssohn are the most prominent artists related to the city. Artistic impulses were often born in the Academy of Fine Arts and the names of Paul Klee, Joseph Beuys, Gerhard Richter as well as Albert Bierstadt are associated with the institution (Düsseldorf School). The Düsseldorf cultural scene comprises traditional and avant-garde, classical and glamorous. The world famous state art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia, the highly acclaimed Deutsche Oper am Rhein (opera), and the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus (theatre), artistic home of Gustaf Gründgens, are major elements of Düsseldorf's reputation as a centre of the fine arts.

Beer

Düsseldorf is well-known for its Altbier,[14] a hoppy beer which translates as old [style] beer, a reference to the pre-lager brewing method of using a warm top-fermenting yeast like British pale ales.[15] Over time the Alt yeast adjusted to lower temperatures, and the Alt brewers would store or lager the beer after fermentation, leading to a cleaner, crisper beer than is the norm for an ale.

The name "altbier" first appeared in the 1800s to differentiate the beers of Düsseldorf from the new pale lager that was gaining a hold on Germany.[16] Brewers in Düsseldorf used the pale malts that were used for the modern pale lagers, but retained the old ("alt") method of using warm fermenting yeasts.[17]

The first brewery to use the name Alt was Schumacher which opened in 1838.[18] The founder, Mathias Schumacher, allowed the pale ale to mature in cool conditions in wooden casks for longer than normal, and laid the foundation for the modern alt beer - an amber coloured, lagered ale.[19] The result is a pale ale that has some of the lean, dryness of a lager, with the fruity notes of an ale.[20]

At present, there are four brewpubs in Düsseldorf which brew Altbier on premises:

  • Füchschen
  • Schumacher
  • Schlüssel
  • Uerige

Three of the four are located in the Old Town (Altstadt); the other (Schumacher) is located between the Altstadt and the main rail station (Hauptbahnhof), and also maintains an establishment in the Altstadt, Goldener Kessel, directly across the street from Schlüssel.

Each produces a special, secret, seasonal "Sticke" version in small quantities, though the names vary: Schlüssel spells it "Stike", without the "c", while Schumacher calls its special beer "Latzenbier", meaning "slat beer", possibly because the kegs from which it was poured had been stored on raised shelves.[21] Füchschen's seasonal is its Weihnachtsbier (Christmas beer), available in bottles starting mid-November, and served in the brewpub on Christmas Eve.[22]

Music and Nightlife

Rhein view from Altstadt

Since the 1950s the "Kom(m)ödchen" has been one of the most prominent political cabarets of Germany. Düsseldorf's most famous contribution to the culture of modern popular music is beyond doubt the avant-garde electronic music band Kraftwerk. Formed by a few Düsseldorf-born musicians, Kraftwerk have often been regarded as the most significant band in the history of post-war German music[citation needed] and as pioneers in electronic music. Internationally-known power metal band Warlock was formed in Düsseldorf in 1982. Their frontwoman, Doro Pesch, has had a successful solo career in Europe and Asia since Warlock ended. The punk band Die Toten Hosen, which is famous around the world, also the most popular singers[citation needed] in Germany Westernhagen and Heino come from Düsseldorf. The electronic act D.A.F. was formed in the city in 1978, as well as the electronic/industrial pioneers Die Krupps in 1980. The experimental post-punk group La Düsseldorf was named after the city, for which it payed with a legal case in the early 1980s. In the Oldtown (Altstadt) German and international tourists go out on the main street Bolkerstraße, while the local scene (students and creative people) prefers[citation needed] the bars on Ratinger Straße and Kurze Straße.

Sports

The new ice hockey stadium ISS-Dome

Düsseldorf's football team Fortuna Düsseldorf, the German Champions of 1933, competes in the second German league (2. Bundesliga). Their new stadium, the Esprit arena, opened in January 2005 and has a capacity of 51,500. Düsseldorf is one of nine 1974 FIFA World Cup cities and the Rochusclub Düsseldorf has hosted the tennis world team cup since 1978.

Other sports in Düsseldorf are ice hockey (the DEG Metro Stars, former DEG - Düsseldorfer Eislauf Gemeinschaft, which play in the new ISS-Dome) and American football. The Düsseldorf Panther are the most successful team in Germany with six national champion trophies and the Eurobowl 1995. In addition the Junior-Programm is the most successful youth-football program in Germany with thirteen national championship titles. Rhine Fire Düsseldorf was an established team of the NFL Europe and won the World Bowl two times in 1998 and 2000. Table tennis is also played (Borussia Düsseldorf - the most successful team in Germany with Timo Boll), as are handball (HSG Düsseldorf), basketball (Düsseldorf Giants), baseball (Düsseldorf Senators) and dancing (Rot-Weiß Düsseldorf).

Carnival

One of the biggest cultural events in Düsseldorf is the Karneval (also referred to as the "fifth season") which starts every year on 11 November at 11:11 a.m., and reaches its climax on Rosenmontag (Rose Monday), featuring a huge parade through the streets of Düsseldorf. Karneval ends on Aschermittwoch (Ash Wednesday). The Düsseldorf carnival is part of the traditional carnival festivities in the Rhineland.

Cuisine

Traditional meals in the region are Rheinischer Sauerbraten (a beef roast marinated for a few days in vinegar and spices) and Heaven and Earth (Himmel und Äd) (black pudding with stewed apples mixed with mashed potatoes). In winter the people like to eat Muscheln Rheinischer Art (Rhenish-style mussels). Also a special meal: Düsseldorfer Senfrostbraten (Steaks roasted with mustard).

Together with the French city of Dijon Düsseldorf is known for its Mustard served in a traditional pot called "Mostertpöttche", which was eternalized in a still life by Vincent van Gogh in 1884.[23]

Theatres

Tonhalle Düsseldorf

Museums, arts and history institutes, and other attractions

Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen - K20 (Grabbeplatz)

Parks and gardens

University and colleges

Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf is located in the southern part of the city. It has about 20,000 students and a wide range of subjects in natural sciences, mathematics, computer sciences, philosophy, social sciences, arts, languages, medicine, pharmacy, economy and the law.

Other academic institutions include

Buildings

The Colorium, Düsseldorf media harbour
Gehry Building, Hafen - Düsseldorf Media Harbour
  • Rheinturm (TV tower) the town's landmark (1982: 234 m/768 ft, since 2004: 240.50 m/789 ft), the lights on which comprise the world's largest digital clock.
  • The Gehry buildings in the Düsseldorf media harbour (see picture above).
  • The Colorium, an 18 storey tower designed by Alsop and Partners, also in the Düsseldorf media harbour.
  • The Benrather Schloss (Benrath palace).
  • The Wilhem Marx House of 1922/24: at twelve storeys high, it was Germany's first high-rise building.
  • The Stahlhof of 1906, the administrative centre of Germany's steel economy until 1945.
  • The Stummhaus of 1925, another early German high-rise building.
  • Gerresheim Basilica.[24]
  • St. Suitbertus Basilica.[25]
  • DRV Tower, 120 m (394 ft)-high tower constructed in 1978.
  • GAP 15, an 85 m (279 ft)-high building constructed in 2005 near Königsallee.
  • ARAG-Tower, at 131 m (430 ft) in height, it is Düsseldorf's highest office building; designed by Sir Norman Foster.
  • Eight bridges span the River Rhine at Düsseldorf; they, too, are city landmarks.
  • Eastern pylon of Reisholz Rhine Powerline Crossing, an electricity pylon under whose legs runs a rail

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Düsseldorf is twinned with:[26]

See also

Famous places

References

Notes
  1. ^ Amt für Statistik, Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf. "City Statistics" (in German). http://www.duesseldorf.de/statistik/d_ueberblick/gesamt.shtml. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  2. ^ Communla Administration of Düsseldorf, 28 of July 2008.
  3. ^ Immobilien Zeitung: Mehr Räume für die große Modenschau vom 28. August 2008, 1st of March 2009.
  4. ^ Weidenhaupt, Hugo: Kleine Geschichte der Stadt Düsseldorf, Triltsch-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1979, ISBN 3-7998-0000-X, (only in German)
  5. ^ Bezirksregierung Düsseldorf - Luftreinhalteplan (2004)PDF
  6. ^ Klimaatlas - NRW (1989): Der Minister für Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalens, Düsseldorf.
  7. ^ "Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf - Aus den Stadtteilen". Duesseldorf.de. http://www.duesseldorf.de/bv/index.shtml. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  8. ^ "Kontakt." LTU International. Retrieved on 21 June 2009.
  9. ^ a b "Japanese Düsseldorf - Düsseldorf Travel Guide - VirtualTourist.com". VirtualTourist.com<!. 2003-02-11. http://www.virtualtourist.com/travel/Europe/Germany/Land_Nordrhein_Westfalen/Duesseldorf-67466/Local_Customs-Duesseldorf-Japanese_Duesseldorf-BR-1.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  10. ^ a b "Japantag in Düsseldorf: Welcome". Japantag-duesseldorf-nrw.de. http://www.japantag-duesseldorf-nrw.de/305.html?&L=1. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  11. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20070809144413/http://comfort-gmbh.de/pressemitteilungen/21.03.2007.pdfPDF (91.4 KB)
  12. ^ "Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf - Ausländer der häufigsten Nationalitäten nach Altersgruppen". Duesseldorf.de. 2007-12-31. http://www.duesseldorf.de/statistik/themen/bevoelkerung/bev03.shtml. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  13. ^ "Mercer's 2009 Quality of Living survey highlights - Global". Mercer. 2009-04-28. http://www.mercer.com/summary.htm?idContent=1128060. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  14. ^ studio orange. "Altbier". Brauer-bund.de. http://www.brauer-bund.de/bierfans/sorten/alt.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  15. ^ "Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter - Copper-bottom ales halt lager tide in Germany". Beerhunter.com. http://www.beerhunter.com/documents/19133-000838.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  16. ^ "Altbier". Germanbeerinstitute.com. http://www.germanbeerinstitute.com/altbier.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  17. ^ "Altbier". Allaboutbeer.com. 2003-03-01. http://www.allaboutbeer.com/style/24.1-altbier.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  18. ^ "Düsseldorf Breweries". Europeanbeerguide.net. http://www.europeanbeerguide.net/dussbrew.htm#schumacher. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  19. ^ Prost! The Story of German Beer, Horst D. Dornbusch, Brewers Publications, 1997, pp 109 - 110. ISBN 0937381551
  20. ^ "Düsseldorf Pub Guide: the best beer bars, pubs and brewpubs". Europeanbeerguide.net. http://www.europeanbeerguide.net/dusspubs.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  21. ^ Horst Dornbusch, Altbier. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications
  22. ^ Fuchschen web page on Weihnachtsbier, visited 2007.04.26
  23. ^ "Düsseldorf Altstadt: Van Gogh, Stilleben mit ABB-Senf". Duesseldorf-altstadt.blogspot.com. 2007-01-25. http://duesseldorf-altstadt.blogspot.com/2007/01/van-gogh-stilleben-mit-abb-senf.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  24. ^ http://www.duesselgruft.de/Duesseldorf/Gerresheim/P1070_1.jpg
  25. ^ http://www.duesseldorf.de/denkmalschutz/grafik/m32.jpg
  26. ^ a b c d e f g "Twin Towns". www.amazingdusseldorf.com. http://www.amazingdusseldorf.com/community-local/people/twin-towns.html. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  27. ^ "Town twinning". Reading Borough Council (2000-2006). http://www.reading.gov.uk/communityandliving/towntwinning/. Retrieved May 6, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Twin City acitivities". Haifa Municipality. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20071009084809/http://www.haifa.muni.il/Cultures/en-US/city/CitySecretary_ForeignAffairs/EngActs.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  29. ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. 2005-05-04. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=3284&kat=11. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Düsseldorf's riverside by night
Düsseldorf's riverside by night

Düsseldorf [1] is a city in western Germany located on the Rhine river. It is the capital city of the state North Rhine-Westphalia.

Understand

Düsseldorf is one of the economic centers of Western Germany and is located along the Rhine River, in the densely populated Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, with a population of over 10 million.

The city is famous for its nightlife, carnival, events, shopping, also for fashion and trade fairs, like the Boot Messe (one of the world's best in boats and watersports) and Igedo (world leader in fashion). Every year more than 4 Million people visit the Kirmes fair, which runs for 9 days in summer.

  • Düsseldorf International Airport (DUS), [2]. Düsseldorf International Airport is the third largest airport in Germany and offers connections to 175 destinations worldwide. The main airport of Düsseldorf is located about 15 kilometers away from the main railway station. It takes 12 minutes by city railway "S11" to the main railway station, by car, bus or taxi about 20 minutes. The costs are €2,20 for city railway or bus ("Preisstufe A"), about €20/€22 for taxi-taxis are located in front of the airport terminals. Fixed Trip to the fairground is 13€ with taxi.  edit
  • Köln Bonn Airport (CGN), [3]. 60 minutes drive away from Düsseldorf city center.  edit
  • Airport Weeze (NRN), [4]. Frequented by smaller, low-cost airlines flying into Düsseldorf. The airport is 80 kilometers away from Düsseldorf main railway station, by car or bus a 90 minutes drive (bus: 5-6 departures per day, €14 fare). If you need to travel from Dusseldorf main airport (DUS) to Weeze Airport (NRN), than Deutsche Bahn is the easiest and fastest option. You can book the train online and it costs about 14 Euro. You just follow the DB signs at the DUS Airport. The train gets you to Weeze, than you change to the special bus, which gets you directly to the Weeze Airport. Bus fare is included in Deutsche Bahn ticket. The train goes every hour.  edit

By train

The Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof (main station) is a major stop for Deutsche Bahn [5] (German state railway). The Rhinebahn tickets for the local Ubahn service, need to be validated on the actual trains, failure to validate i.e. stamp the ticket , will result in either a 40 euro fine or removal to a police station by the security where the Police will request your I.D. such as Passport for later prosecution.Being a non German and not understanding the complicated German for validation, will not be accepted nor will the fact that you have purchased a ticket.Germans consider non stamping of tickets by tourists as being a criminal issue for the Police.

By car

Düsseldorf is connected to the highways A3, A44, A46, A52, A57 (via Neuss) and A59.

  • By bus, tramway or subway: network operated by Rheinbahn AG [6]
Düsseldorf tram
Düsseldorf tram
  • By suburban railway (S-Bahn)

More specifically, for timetables of buses, trams, etc. use:

  • bahn.de [7] (German, English, French and Italian)
  • vrr.de [8] (German, English and French)
  • Net Plan of regional transfer service [9]

Most destinations in Düsseldorf can be reached by local transportation. Tickets must be purchased and postmarked before using the transportation service. After postmarking you usually have 90 Minutes to reach your final destination. Ticket Class "A" is adequate to reach your destinations within Düsseldorf.

See

The tourist information office (across the street from the train station) has free maps with walking routes designed around a specific theme (e.g., "Art Route", "Düsseldorf in 1 Hour").

  • Old City, (U-Bahn stop: Heinrich-Heine-Allee). 16-1. The Old City is the place to go for nightlife. It's sometimes called the longest bar in the world because of all the bars and pubs. In the daytime, it's just enjoyable to walk around and get a feel for the area. Some notable buildings: Heinrich Heine's birthplace, the Schlossturm (Castle Tower), St. Andreas Church, Neander Church.  edit
  • Rhine Promenade. along the river bordering the Old City, it leads all the way down to the Media Harbor.  edit
  • Media Harbor, (Tram stop: Platz des Landtages). has several interesting buildings designed by Frank Gehry, Claude Vasconi, and David Chipperfield.  edit
  • Rhine Tower, (Tram stop: Platz des Landtages). Adults: € 3.50.  editThe 240-meter high Rhine Tower is right on the Rhine river, near the Media Harbor. It offers a 360-degree view from the restaurant, at 172 m. The restaurant is overpriced, but it is worth a trip for the amazing view.
  • Once a year, like in many other German cities, a Night of Museums [10] is organized by the City of Dusseldorf and the consulting firm Ernst & Young.
  • The annual Christmas market, which centres around the Altstadt.
  • Once a year during summer, there is a carnival - Kilmes - along the Rhein. In the park, there are roller coasters, a Ferris wheel, a flying jinny and also a beer garden. And Watermelons are sold everywhere. The theme park is not very large, but it is quite enjoyable.
  • Benrath Palace and Park, (Tram stop: Schloss Benrath, S-Bahn stop: Benrath S), [11]. The Corps de Logis is the central building of the three-wing maison de plaisance, which was erected for the Palatine Elector Carl Theodor by his garden and building director Nicolas de Pigage. Construction was completed in 1770 - it is a complete work of art that unites architecture and nature in one overlapping concept, and is rated as one of the most beautiful palaces of the rococo epoch. The park beside the Palace is enormous, nearly 62.000 square meters.  edit
  • Altstadt. meaning "old city," of Düsseldorf is very beautiful. Here you can find the famous Alt beer, found in traditional breweries like the "Uerige" [12], "Füchschen" [13], "Zum Schlüssel " or "Schumacher" [14] (tourists and local citizens frequent the Old City pubs, creating an authentic and lively blend of personalities).  edit
A street scene in Düsseldorf
A street scene in Düsseldorf
  • Königsallee, (U-Bahn stop: Steinstr./Kö), [15]. This shopping district, known as the "Kö", is internationally recognized for its plethora high level fashion stores. It is sometimes referred to as the "Champs-Élysées of Germany".  edit
  • Film-Museum, Schulstraße 4. Tues-Sun 11-17, Wed 11-21. 3 €; Reduced, 1.50 €; Students under 18 free.  edit
  • Hetjens Museum/Deutsches Keramikmuseum, Schulstrasse 4. Tues-Sun 11-17, Wed 11-21.  edit
  • Theatermuseum, Hofgärtnerhaus, Jägerhofstrasse 1. Tues-Sun 13-20:30.  edit
  • Stadtmuseum, Berger Allee 2. Tues-Sun 11-18.  edit
  • Killepitsch [16] - Killepitsch is a local liquor flavored with herbs (so called "Kräuterlikör"). The liquor has a blood red colour and is made from a combination of 90 fruits, berries, herbs, and spices.

Best place to buy: "Et Kabüffke", Flinger Str. 1, 40213 Düsseldorf, Phone: 0211 133269.

  • "Löwensenf" [17] (Mustard) - One of the most famous producers of German Mustard is situated in Düsseldorf. Moveover, a special mustard-store, with a mustard-tasting-area, is based in the Düsseldorf-Altstadt (some fancy mustards are avaiable at this place: for example "Altbier Mustard", "Chilli Mustard", "Strawberry Mustard", etc.) Best place to buy: Düsseldorfer Löwensenf GmbH, Berger Str. 29, 40213 Düsseldorf, Phone 0211 8368049‎.
  • "Bottles of Altbier" - One nice souvenir/giveaway is a bottle of local Altbier. Breweries usually sell these bottels directly in their gastronomies.
  • Zum Kochlöffel Friedrich-Ebert-Str. 41, Phone: +49 211-1 60 96 15 German cuisine, bistro tables.
  • Alberobello Dorotheenstr. 104, Phone: +49 211-7334158 Italian cuisine, budget prices and superb quality. Reservation recommended.
  • Curry Hammer Str. 2 (Media Harbour), or Moltkestr. 115 (Pempelfort). German cuisine, including the famous sausage with ketchup (on request with golden leaf!).
  • Ess-Klasse Erftstraße 12 (Media Harbour). Lunch and take-away food at affordable prices.
  • Robert's Bistro, Wupperstr. 2, in the Media harbour, Phone: +49 211 304821 [18]. One of Düsseldorf's best restaurants. Specializing in French-ish food, the fish and sweets are fantastic. Expect to pay 20-30 euros per person (for food and wine). They don't take reservations so expect to wait and sit next to strangers, but the experience is well worth it.
  • Mongos [19]. Zollhof 10, Media Harbour. Phone: +49 211 - 40 07 27 0.All-you-can-eat mongolian cuisine, with an enormous choice of unusual foods (i.e. zebra, crocodiles, emu, barracuda, etc).
  • Bug Zollhof 13, Phone: +49 211 3020770. Fish restaurant in the media harbor, known for its stylish location.
  • Zum Schiffchen Hafenstraße 5. Tel. +49 211 - 13 24 21. Rustic bourgeois brewery restaurant, delicious beer and attentive service.
  • Michele Duisburger Str. 6, Phone: +49 211 494349. A small italian restaurant in Düsseldorf-Pempelfort. Famous for the singing Italian chef on Friday evenings. For Friday nights, reservations should be made 3 weeks prior to your stay.
  • Im Schiffchen, Kaiserwerther Markt 9 (U79: Klemensplatz), Phone: +49 211 401050, Fax 403667, restaurant.imschiffchen@t-online.de, [20]. International, nouveau cuisine, that blends classics with French specialties. T-Sa 19:00-21:30.
  • NAGAYA, Bilker Straße 3, Phone: +49 211 863 9636, info@nagaya.de, [21]. Japanese, nouveau cuisine. Open Mo-Sa from 7PM-11PM.
  • Sila Thai[22] Bahnstr. 76, Phone: +49 211 8604427. Excellent original thai cuisine in the city center. Reservations essential.
  • Meerbar [23], Neuer Zollhof 1, im Medienhafen. Phone: +49 211 3398410. Fish restaurant in the Gehry-buildings of the Media harbour; very stylish, very good cuisine.
  • Monkey's West [24], Graf-Adolf-Platz 15, Phone: +49 211 64963726. Considered by many to be one of the best restaurants in Germany. New cuisine touched by local traditions.
A typical cafe scene
A typical cafe scene

Düsseldorf is known for its many bars in the downtown (Altstadt) area. In fact, many people refer to the Altstadt as the "longest bar in the world" ("Längste Theke der Welt"). The most common drink is "Altbier" or simply "Alt." This dark beer, served in small glasses, is available at practically any restaurant in the city. Altbier is only brewed in breweries around Düsseldorf. In the Altstadt you can enjoy Schlüssel, Uerige, Schumacher, and Füchschen beers, at traditional brewery restaurants. The waiters at these traditional restaurants are called "Koebes."

  • Jugendherberge Düsseldorf (Backpackers) (City-Hostel), Düsseldorfer Str. 1 (located in Düsseldorf-Oberkassel on the left side of the city), +49 (0)211 557310 (, fax: +49 (0)211572513), [25].  edit
  • Four Points by Sheraton Hotel Düsseldorf [26], Luisenstraße 42, Tel.: +49 211 38670-0. Central location, 82 rooms.
  • InterCity Hotel Düsseldorf [27], Graf-Adolf-Str.81-87, Tel.: +49 211 43694-0. Next to the main station, easy access to all sightseeing spots. New openend.
  • Best Western Savoy [28], Oststr. 128, Tel.: +49 211 388 388-0. Traditional hotel in the city center, opposite the famous "Schumacher" brewery.
  • Innside Premium Hotel Derendorf [29], Derendorfer Allee 8, 40476 Düsseldorf, Tel. +49 211 175 46-0. Newly designed Hotel in the north of Düsseldorf.
  • Hilton Düsseldorf [30], Georg-Glock-Str. 20, Tel. +49 211 4377-0. Renovated traditional hotel in the north of Düsseldorf, good location for business travelers.
  • NH Dusseldorf City Nord [31], Kölner Strasse, 186-188, Located in the center of the city on the Rhine, near The Oberbilker Market.
  • Guesthouse Hegger [32], Self-catering and serviced apartment a few minutes from the airport, fairground and Duesseldorf city centre.
  • Capella Breidenbacher Hof, Königsallee 11, D-40212, [33]. A 5 star boutique hotel located in downtown Düsseldorf. The property consists of 92 guest rooms and suites and offers retail shops, a fitness center, meeting space, the 1806 Restaurant, and a cigar lounge.
  • Intercontinental [34], Königsallee 59, Tel.: +49 211 8285-0. New First-Class Hotel located at Königsallee of Düsseldorf. Awesome Atrium, top-restaurants and concierge-service
  • Radission SAS Media Harbour [35], Hammer Str. 23, Tel.: +49 211 311191-0. New Design-Hotel in Düsseldorf Media Harbour, Luxury Class, very hip!

Cope

Religious services

Holy mass in catholic churches in downtown Düsseldorf:

  • Franziskanerkirche, Immermannstraße/Oststraße (near the central station).[36]. Su: 10AM, 12PM; M-F: 3:30PM.
  • St. Maximilian, Schulstraße/Maxplatz (Altstadt).[37]. Su: 10AM, 11:30AM, 6PM; M-Sa: 6PM.
  • St. Andreas, Hunsrückenstraße (near to the Kunsthalle, Altstadt). [38] Sun: 8:30, 11:00, 18:00; Mon-Sat: 12:00, 18:00 (except Fri)
  • St. Lambertus Basilika minor, Stiftsplatz (near the Rhine bank, Altstadt).[39] Sun: 10:30AM, 5PM; Mo-Sa: 5PM.

Index of churches of all Christian denominations in Düsseldorf: [40].

  • Bonn, the former capital of (West) Germany is located due south and easy to reach by train or S-Bahn.
  • Königswinter A small town reachable by train.
  • Cologne
Augustusburg Palace and Gardens
Augustusburg Palace and Gardens
  • Brühl almost a suburb of Cologne contains the Augustusburg Palace which has been placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The palace is one of the key works of Balthasar Neuman, and contains one of the finest Rococco interiors in the world, the highlight being the main staircase. Also in the grounds is the magnificent hunting Lodge of Falkenslust. Brühl can be easily reached by train. The theme park of Phantasialand is also in Brühl.
  • Ruhr area (Ruhrgebiet) If you are interested in heavy industry and/or industrial culture this might be a worthwhile trip. It is located about 50 km north of Düsseldorf. The region, which was the center of montan (coal and steel) industry in Germany is going through a structural transformation and presents their industrial heritage not without proud on the Industrial Heritage Trail [41].

International

Due to Düsseldorf's close proximity to the German/Belgian/Dutch border weekend trips to foreign destinations are easy to arrange.

Respect

Dusseldorf is in a strong rivalry with its neighbor city Cologne, especially concerning comparisons between the local beers. Cologne is almost twice the size of Düsseldorf in terms of population, and the Cologne Cathedral is known nation-wide. Düsseldorf is an economic powerhouse and capital city of the state of NRW. If you have been to Cologne try to avoid any comparisons between the two cities.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Proper noun

Singular
Düsseldorf

Plural
-

Düsseldorf

  1. The capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Translations

  • Greek: Ντύσσελντορφ

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German

Proper noun

Düsseldorf

  1. Düsseldorf

Simple English

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