The Full Wiki

DDT: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on DDT

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

DDT
Identifiers
CAS number 50-29-3 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 3036
ChemSpider 2928
ATC code P03AB01,QP53AB01
SMILES
InChI
InChI key YVGGHNCTFXOJCH-UHFFFAOYAJ
Properties
Molecular formula C14H9Cl5
Molar mass 354.49 g/mol
Density 0.99 g/cm³[1]
Melting point
109 °C[1]
Boiling point
decomp.[1]
Hazards
EU classification Yes
R-phrases R25 R40 R48/25 R50/53
S-phrases (S1/2) S22 S36/37 S45 S60 S61
LD50 113 mg/kg (rat)
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.DDT (from its trivial name, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well-known synthetic pesticides.^ DDT stands for d ichloro, d iphenyl t richloroethane .
  • Bioaccumulation & Biomagnification 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is a synthetic bug killer known as an organochlorine pesticide.
  • Cancer Risk Lingers for Long-Banned DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC men.webmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whatever it does to different types of eggshells, DDT remains unquestionably one of the most effective ways to control the mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite.
  • DDT, Eggshells, and Me - Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC reason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history.
.First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops.^ In World War II, typhus was no problem.
  • The American Spectator : DDT, Fraud, and Tragedy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Millions of soldiers and civilians were sprayed right on their bodies with DDT during and after World War II, to prevent malaria and typhus.
  • ESR | July 24, 2006 | The truth about malaria and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.enterstageright.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later another scientist, Mueller, discovered DDT's insecticidal properties in 1939.

The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods."[2] After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed.[3]
.In 1962, Silent Spring by American biologist Rachel Carson was published.^ And then came Rachel Carson and her wrong-headed book, Silent Spring .
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1962 Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring was published.

^ After Rachel Carson published "Silent Spring," DDT was banned nearly everywhere.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The book catalogued the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on ecology or human health.^ Huge amounts of the chemical were sprayed in America.
  • John Stossel : Hooray for DDT's life-saving comeback - Townhall.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

^ General DDT impacts on Human Health .
  • DDT and Malaria - Dickinson College Wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wiki.dickinson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environmental health Criteria 83, DDT and its Derivatives--Environmental Effects.
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds.^ DDT is a pesticide used in growing crops.
  • Bird Alert! 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bird Alert! 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.naturemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or is it also harmful to birds, fish and other wildlife?
  • The DDT Insecticide Ban... What Was the Truth Behind it? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.matrixbookstore.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pesticides and cancer risks in agriculture.

.Its publication was one of the signature events in the birth of the environmental movement, and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led to DDT being banned in the US in 1972.[4] DDT was subsequently banned for agricultural use worldwide under the Stockholm Convention, but its limited use in disease vector control continues to this day and remains controversial.^ DDT was banned for general (but not public health use) in the US in 1972, and similar bans apply in other countries.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where was DDT banned in 1972?
  • DDT Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The 1972 EPA ban on DDT in the USA was NOT what led developing countries to curtail using DDT. Nor was it the environmental movement.
  • Jeff Dorchen: Astroturf and DDT = Libertarian Lobotomy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]
  • MOT: Astroturf and DDT = Libertarian Lobotomy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC oblivio.com [Source type: Original source]

[5]
Along with the passage of the Endangered Species Act, the US ban on DDT is cited by scientists as a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle, the national bird of the United States,[6] from near-extinction in the contiguous US.[7]

Contents

Properties and chemistry

.DDT is an organochlorine, similar in structure to the insecticide methoxychlor and the acaricide dicofol.^ DDT is an organochlorine compound that was first synthesized in 1874 & its insecticidal efficacy was discovered in 1935.

^ INTRODUCTION: DDT is an organochlorine insecticide used mainly to control mosquito-borne malaria; use on crops has generally been replaced by less persistent insecticides (79).
  • EXTOXNET PIP - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC extoxnet.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT is an organochlorine insecticide used mainly to control mosquito-borne malaria; use on crops has generally been replaced by less persistent insecticides ( 1 ).
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is a highly hydrophobic, colorless, crystalline solid with a weak, chemical odor.^ DDT is a white, crystalline solid with no odor or taste.
  • ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: DDT, DDE, and DDD 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aaenvironment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is nearly insoluble in water but has a good solubility in most organic solvents, fats, and oils.^ It is very soluble in fats and most organic solvents and practically insoluble in water.

^ It is insoluble in water and is slightly soluble in alcohol.
  • DDT - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to its extremely low solubility in water, DDT will be retained to a greater degree by soils and soil fractions with higher proportions of soil organic matter (82).
  • EXTOXNET PIP - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC extoxnet.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

.DDT does not occur naturally, but is produced by the reaction of chloral (CCl3CHO) with chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl) in the presence of sulfuric acid, which acts as a catalyst.^ Chemical structure: DDT is created by the reaction of trichloromethanal with chlorobenzene (C 6 H 5 Cl).

^ DDT does not occur naturally in the environment.
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; a colourless organic crystalline compound, (ClC 6 H 4 ) 2 CH(CCl 3 ), made by the reaction of trichloromethanal with chlorobenzene.
  • DDT Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Trade names that DDT has been marketed under include Anofex, Cezarex, Chlorophenothane, Clofenotane, Dicophane, Dinocide, Gesarol, Guesapon, Guesarol, Gyron, Ixodex, Neocid, Neocidol, and Zerdane.^ Trade or other names for DDT include Anofex, Cesarex, Chlorophenothane, Dedelo, p,p'-DDT, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, Dinocide, Didimac, Digmar, ENT 1506, Genitox, Guesapon, Guesarol, Gexarex, Gyron, Hildit, Ixodex, Kopsol, Neocid, OMS 16, Micro DDT 75, Pentachlorin, Rukseam, R50 and Zerdane.

^ TRADE OR OTHER NAMES : Trade or other names include Anofex, Cesarex, Chlorophenothane, Dedelo, p,pÕ-DDT, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, Dinocide, Didimac, Digmar, ENT 1506, Genitox, Guesapon, Guesarol, Gexarex, Gyron, Hildit, Ixodex, Kopsol, Neocid, OMS 16, Micro DDT 75, Pentachlorin, Rukseam, R50 and Zerdane (79,73).
  • EXTOXNET PIP - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC extoxnet.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ By 1942 a preparation named Neocid was being marketed as a louse killer.

[3]

Isomers and related compounds

o,p' -DDT, a minor component in commercial DDT.
.Commercial DDT is actually a mixture of several closely related compounds.^ Pure DDT is a colourless, crystalline solid that melts at 109° C (228° F); the commercial product , which is usually 65 to 80 percent active compound, along with related substances, is an amorphous powder that has a lower melting point .
  • DDT (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greater potency of DDT in the yeast cell system may indicate that the DDT-related compounds have greater biological activity than that indicated by their affinities for human estrogen receptor in a cell-free system.

^ He scrubbed the box with an acetone solvent, and repeated the experiment with a number of closely related compounds that he had been working with.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The major component (77%) is the p,p isomer which is pictured at the top of this article. .The o,p' isomer (pictured to the right) is also present in significant amounts (15%).^ DDT and o,o'-DDT isomers typically present in much lesser amounts ( 3 ).
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT and o,o'-DDT isomers typically present in much lesser amounts (73).
  • EXTOXNET PIP - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC extoxnet.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) make up the balance. .DDE and DDD are also the major metabolites and breakdown products of DDT in the environment.^ DDT, DDE, and DDD, September 2002.
  • Fraude E Ddt 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The metabolites ortho,para -DDD, para,para -DDD, and para,para -DDE are included in the DDT complex.

^ DDT and its breakdown product DDE, can stay in the environment for long periods of time.

[3] .The term "total DDT" is often used to refer to the sum of all DDT related compounds (p, p-DDT, o, p-DDT, DDE, and DDD) in a sample.^ DDT, DDE, and DDD, September 2002.
  • Fraude E Ddt 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, the term DDT will be used to refer to the collection of all forms of DDT, DDE, and DDD. Should this not be clear from the context, the term ΣDDT (Σ is used to mean sum of) will be used.
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT, DDD, and DDE stick strongly to soil and can remain in soil for hundreds of years (Weis & Cutler).
  • DDT and Malaria - Dickinson College Wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wiki.dickinson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Production and use statistics

.From 1950 to 1980, when DDT was extensively used in agriculture—more than 40,000 tonnes were used each year worldwide[8]—and it has been estimated that a total of 1.8 million tonnes of DDT have been produced globally since the 1940s.^ More than a million people every year die from malaria .

^ (Pyrethroids are used extensively in agriculture as well.
  • Malaria, Mosquitoes, and DDT | Worldwatch Institute 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, more than 40 years after Carson's death, the struggle over DDT use continues.
  • DDT-eating scientist
    exposes eco-fraud
    19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .In the U.S., where it was manufactured by Ciba,[9] Montrose Chemical Company, Pennwalt[10] and Velsicol Chemical Corporation,[11] production peaked in 1963 at 82,000 tonnes per year.^ Workers without wearing protective clothing, with nine to 19 years of continuous exposure to DDT in the Montrose Chemical Company which manufactured DDT, never developed a single case of cancer.
  • The American Spectator : DDT, Fraud, and Tragedy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last year, there were nearly 10,000 successful breeding pairs.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With American production of DDT reaching two million pounds per month by the end of 1944 (it was now being manufactured by the giant Du Pont chemical company, among others), malaria was a minor problem in the last months of the war.

[3] .More than 600,000 tonnes (1.35 billion lbs) were applied in the U.S. before the 1972 ban, with usage peaking in 1959 with about 36,000 tonnes applied that year.^ Despite 8,000 cases and more than 200 deaths last year in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control advises that individuals avoid mosquito bites by staying indoors during peak mosquito hours, wearing long sleeves, and using insect repellant.
  • In Africa, DDT Makes a Comeback To Save Lives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.larouchepub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malaria affects more 40 percent of the world's population, killing more than a million people every year, most of them young children.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08381705.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ In 1950, a year in which more than 200 million pounds of insecticides were used in agriculture alone in this country, investigators of the Federal Food and Drug Administration announced: .
  • DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nccn.net [Source type: Academic]

[12]
.Today, 4-5,000 tonnes of DDT are used each year for the control of malaria and visceral leishmaniasis, with India being the largest consumer.^ Today, DDT is still needed for malaria control.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In 2000, malaria was again controlled when DDT was brought back to use.
  • DDT: A Double-Edged Sword 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ddt23.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT in malaria control over the last 55 years.
  • The Debate over DDT | Pesticide Action Network North America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.panna.org [Source type: Academic]

.India, China, and North Korea are the only countries still producing and exporting it, and production is reportedly on the rise.^ Currently, major DDT-production facilities continue to operate only in China and India, he says.
  • Indoor Usage of DDT for Malaria Control - Article 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.malaria.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only two countries--India and China--continue to manufacture the substance, and only a few dozen more still use it.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most significant source of exposure to individuals in the United States is occupational, occurring only to those who work or worked in the production or formulation of DDT products for export ( 5 ).
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

[13]

Mechanism of action

.In insects, it has potent insecticidal properties, where it kills by opening sodium ion channels in the neurons, causing them to fire spontaneously leading to spasms and eventual death.^ DDT kills by attacking a mosquito's nervous system, affecting the nerve cells so that they keep firing and the insect goes into a spasm, lurching, shuddering, and twitching before it dies.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lead arsenate was overwhelmingly the most popular insecticide throughout the early 20th century; it often killed plants, bees and livestock as readily as it killed insects.
  • Agribusiness, Biotechnology and War 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.organicconsumers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A leading entomologist describes the death and suffering caused by insect-borne diseases, and tells why we must bring back DDT. .

.Insects with certain mutations in their sodium channel gene are resistant to DDT and other similar insecticides.^ Artifacts and mimics of DDT and other insecticides.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The government gave the department permission to use DDT for 10 years (2000 to 2010) during which it has to find new measures as mosquitoes develop a resistance to the insecticide.
  • News - Health: DDT takes a bite out of KZN's malaria rate 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.iol.co.za [Source type: News]

^ DDT residues in the other two major species of fish, the Channel Catfish and the Smallmouth Buffalo, declined by 86% and 88% respectively.
  • Triana Justice Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.DDT resistance is also conferred by up-regulation of genes expressing cytochrome P450 in some insect species.^ This article discusses some issues on DDT-resistant insects.
  • DDT: A Double-Edged Sword 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ddt23.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But to the contrary, not only do insects become resistant to DDT, recent studies show DDT resistance can confer reproductive advantages in insects (beyond merely surviving to reproduce), exponentially increasing the numbers of resistant insects in each generation.
  • Jeff Dorchen: Astroturf and DDT = Libertarian Lobotomy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]
  • MOT: Astroturf and DDT = Libertarian Lobotomy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC oblivio.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many species of insects rapidly develop populations resistant to DDT; the high stability of the compound leads to its accumulation in insects that constitute the diet of other animals, with toxic effects on them, especially certain birds and fishes.
  • DDT (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.In humans, however, it may affect health through genotoxicity or endocrine disruption.^ He noted that government agencies both here and in other countries have classified DDT as an agent that may cause cancer and nerve damage and disrupt the human and animal endocrine systems.
  • HEALTH: WHO Urges DDT for Malaria Control Strategies - IPS ipsnews.net 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ Edwards JG. Birds not seriously affected by DDT. Hearings before Edwards JG. Mosquitoes, DDT, and human health.
  • Fraude E Ddt 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Endocrine disrupters DDT, DDD and DDE are all strongly suspected of being environmental endocrine disrupters (chemicals that affect the hormonal system).
  • DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pan-uk.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See Effects on human health below

History

Commercial product containing 5% DDT
.First synthesized in 1874 by Othmar Zeidler,[3] DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939 by the Swiss scientist Paul Hermann Müller, who was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his efforts.^ In 1948 MÜller was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work in discovering the wonder chemical.

^ DDT was first synthesized by Othmar Zeidler from Strasbourg, Austria in 1874.

^ He discovered the unique properties that DDT had and realized the importance of such an insecticide.

[2]

Use in the 1940s and 1950s

.DDT is the best-known of a number of chlorine-containing pesticides used in the 1940s and 1950s.^ DDT is the best known of a number of chlorine-containing pesticides used extensively in agriculture in the 1940s and 1950s.
  • DDT Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Weighing the risks In the 1950s and 60s, DDT spraying eradicated malaria across Southern Europe, and it was used commonly in Africa until the late 1970s.
  • BBC News | AFRICA | DDT and Africa's war on malaria 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ A persistent, broad-spectrum compound often termed the "miracle" pesticide, DDT came into wide agricultural and commercial usage in this country in the late 1940s.

.With pyrethrum in short supply, DDT was used extensively during World War II by the Allies to control the insect vectors of typhus—nearly eliminating the disease in many parts of Europe.^ DDT use continued in the southern part of the country for many years.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has also been used extensively in the control of termites.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ It was extensively used during the Second World War among Allied troops and certain civilian populations to control insect typhus and malaria vectors, and was then extensively used as an agricultural insecticide after 1945 ( 3 ).
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the South Pacific, it was sprayed aerially for malaria control with spectacular effects.^ Based off the statistics that show that it was the agricultural use of DDT that had an effect on the environment and not the small amount that was used for protection against malaria, DDT has begun to be used again for malaria control.

^ However in the late 1980s, environmentalists and international guidelines forced Brazilians to reduce and then stop spraying small amounts of DDT inside houses for malaria control.
  • U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC epw.senate.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That interesting Tim, But subsequent events in South Africa to the study you just mention involved an epidemic of malaria post-DDT discontinuation due to faiure of pyrythoids followed by reintroductionn of DDT spraying that has bought that epidemic under control.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While DDT's chemical and insecticide properties were important factors in these victories, advances in application equipment coupled with a high degree of organization and sufficient manpower were also crucial elements in the success of these wartime spray programs.^ I am aware of only one study showing nervous system damage from DDT. It examined workers in Central America who participated in mosquito eradication programs, and were exposed to very high doses of the chemical.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problem is that DDT, like thousand of other insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and vermicides created throughout the years are man-made chemicals that are designed to kill.
  • Triana Justice Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Swiss scientist Paul Muller was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering (1939) DDT's insecticidal properties.

[15] .In 1945, it was made available to farmers as an agricultural insecticide.^ DDT was then extensively used as an agricultural insecticide after 1945.

[3] .DDT played a small role in the final elimination of malaria in Europe and North America, as malaria had already been eliminated from much of the developed world before the advent of DDT through the use of a range of public health measures and generally increasing health and living standards.^ Its use has been banned in North America and Europe.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The World Health organisation recently recommended wider use of DDT in Africa to eliminate malaria.
  • http://organic.com.au/news/2006.09.27/ 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC organic.com.au [Source type: News]

^ Malaria is a major, ongoing disease problem in much of the developing world.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .One CDC physician involved in the United States' DDT spraying campaign said of the effort that "we kicked a dying dog."^ According to one journalist investigating the issue, About the best one CDC physician involved in the campaign could say about it was that we kicked a dying dog.'
  • PANNA: PAN Magazine: In Depth: DDT & Malaria 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC magazine.panna.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to one journalist investigating the issue, "About the best one CDC physician involved in the campaign could say about [the DDT campaign] was that 'we kicked a dying dog.'

^ In 1959, the United States alone used 80 million pounds of DDT, with the overwhelming share being devoted to spraying crops.
  • The Becker-Posner Blog: DDT and Deaths From Malaria –BECKER 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.becker-posner-blog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.In 1955, the World Health Organization commenced a program to eradicate malaria worldwide, relying largely on DDT. The program was initially highly successful, eliminating the disease in "Taiwan, much of the Caribbean, the Balkans, parts of northern Africa, the northern region of Australia, and a large swath of the South Pacific"[17] and dramatically reducing mortality in Sri Lanka and India.^ A malaria-eradication campaign with DDT began nearly worldwide in the 1950's.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The World Health organisation recently recommended wider use of DDT in Africa to eliminate malaria.
  • http://organic.com.au/news/2006.09.27/ 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC organic.com.au [Source type: News]

^ DDT spraying in the USA eradicated malaria.
  • Jeff Dorchen: Astroturf and DDT = Libertarian Lobotomy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

[18] .However resistance soon emerged in many insect populations as a consequence of widespread agricultural use of DDT. In many areas, early victories against malaria were partially or completely reversed, and in some cases rates of transmission even increased.^ DDT can be an effective weapon against malaria.
  • DDT use provokes political battle in Uganda | PRI.ORG 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pri.org [Source type: News]

^ Only Ecuador reported increased use of DDT and greatly reduced malaria rates.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Manto hails DDT against malaria .
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] The program was successful in eliminating malaria only in areas with "high socio-economic status, well-organized healthcare systems, and relatively less intensive or seasonal malaria transmission".[20]
.DDT was less effective in tropical regions due to the continuous life cycle of mosquitoes and poor infrastructure.^ DDT it was effective in repelling the mosquitoes .

^ It was DDT's flagging effectiveness due to resistant mosquitoes.
  • Jeff Dorchen: Astroturf and DDT = Libertarian Lobotomy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ With the increasing use of DDT, basic research in entomology came to a near standstill, as scientific expertise was diverted from studies of the life cycles and ecological relationships of insects toward maximizing the effectiveness of new chemicals.
  • Agribusiness, Biotechnology and War 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.organicconsumers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was not pursued at all in sub-Saharan Africa due to these perceived difficulties, with the result that mortality rates in the area were never reduced to the same dramatic extent, and now constitute the bulk of malarial deaths worldwide, especially following the resurgence of the disease as a result of microbe resistance to drug treatments and the spread of the deadly malarial variant caused by Plasmodium falciparum.^ Malaria is one of the world's most deadly diseases, each year killing about 880,000 people, mostly children in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the World Health Organization.
  • Should DDT Be Used to Combat Malaria?: Scientific American 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: News]

^ Two Kenyan doctors, working in the same grievously malarial and medically underserved outpost, each with a very different take on the role DDT might play in reducing the burden of the disease.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bad Blood - OnEarth Magazine, from NRDC, Winter 2008 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.onearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States also stands poised to devote increased resources to IRS. Last year, President George W. Bush announced his President's Malaria Initiative, a five-year, 1.2-billion-dollar plan to reduce malaria-caused mortality by 50 percent in 14 sub-Saharan African countries.
  • HEALTH: WHO Urges DDT for Malaria Control Strategies - IPS ipsnews.net 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

.The goal of eradication was abandoned in 1969, and attention was focused on controlling and treating the disease.^ By 1969 there were only 9 cases and shortly thereafter the disease was eradicated from the island and remains so to this day.
  • U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC epw.senate.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The goal for variant 4 was specified as eradication, not sustained malaria control.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Spraying programs (especially using DDT) were curtailed due to concerns over safety and environmental effects, as well as problems in administrative, managerial and financial implementation, but mostly because mosquitoes were developing resistance to DDT.[19] Efforts were shifted from spraying to the use of bednets impregnated with insecticides and other interventions.^ More and more strains of Anopheles mosquitoes were developing resistance to DDT and other insecticides.

^ It can't be used as wide area insectide because the mozzies will develop resistence.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20][21]

Silent Spring and the U.S. ban

.As early as the 1940s, scientists in the U.S. had begun expressing concern over possible hazards associated with DDT, and in the 1950s the government began tightening some of the regulations governing its use.^ With over one million people dying every year from malaria, the benefits of DDT use far outweigh any possible adverse affects.
  • The Legacy of the DDT Ban, the Legacy of Rachel Carson > Facts & Fears > ACSH 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.acsh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though DDT need not be used on everything as it was in the 1950s and 1960s, its judicious use is clearly effective in controlling malaria.
  • The Legacy of the DDT Ban, the Legacy of Rachel Carson > Facts & Fears > ACSH 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.acsh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, cases dropped by 80% in 2000 in KwaZuluNatal, the one province in South Africa that began using DDT extensively again.
  • The Legacy of the DDT Ban, the Legacy of Rachel Carson > Facts & Fears > ACSH 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.acsh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .However, these early events received little attention, and it was not until 1957, when the New York Times reported an unsuccessful struggle to restrict DDT use in Nassau County, New York, that the issue came to the attention of the popular naturalist-author, Rachel Carson.^ It was the questions, however, that impressed Rachel Carson.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / THE DEADLY DUST: The Unhappy History of DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT's absence from early literature is little assurance that it was not used.

^ Rachel Carson, however, had little interest in that race.
  • DDT-eating scientist
    exposes eco-fraud
    19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.William Shawn, editor of The New Yorker, urged her to write a piece on the subject, which developed into her famous book Silent Spring, published in 1962. The book argued that pesticides, including DDT, were poisoning both wildlife and the environment and were also endangering human health.^ In 1962 Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring was published.

^ In short, though Silent Spring is her most famous book, it was not her best.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1962, when Rachel Carson published her breakthrough book on the environment, "Silent Spring," Edwards was delighted.
  • DDT-eating scientist
    exposes eco-fraud
    19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.Silent Spring was a best seller, and public reaction to it launched the modern environmental movement in the United States.^ The emotional public reaction to Silent Spring launched the modern environmental movement.
  • Facts versus fears - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC dwb4.unl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But, in 1962, Rachel Carson published Silent Spring, the book that launched the environmental movement.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the publication of her best-selling book, Silent Spring , she single-handedly launched the American and global environmental movements.

.The year after it appeared, President Kennedy ordered his Science Advisory Committee to investigate Carson's claims.^ President Kennedy spoke of the book at a press conference and called for a committee to investigate its findings.

^ In 1963, in direct response to the public concern aroused by Silent Spring , President Kennedy’s Science Advisory Committee recommended a reduction of DDT use with a view to its total elimination as quickly as possible, along with other “hard” pesticides.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / THE DEADLY DUST: The Unhappy History of DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As shown in Annex 2, time and science have discredited most of Carson’s claims.
  • U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC epw.senate.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The report the committee issued "add[ed] up to a fairly thorough-going vindication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring thesis," in the words of the journal Science,[22] and recommended a phaseout of "persistent toxic pesticides".[23] DDT became a prime target of the growing anti-chemical and anti-pesticide movements, and in 1967 a group of scientists and lawyers founded the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) with the specific goal of winning a ban on DDT. Victor Yannacone, Charles Wurster, Art Cooley and others associated with inception of EDF had all witnessed bird kills or declines in bird populations and suspected that DDT was the cause.^ And then came Rachel Carson and her wrong-headed book, Silent Spring .
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1962 Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring was published.

^ After Rachel Carson published "Silent Spring," DDT was banned nearly everywhere.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In their campaign against the chemical, EDF petitioned the government for a ban and filed a series of lawsuits.^ After he discovered that Tris, a flame-retardant in children’s pajamas, caused mutations in the Ames Test, he helped environmentalists three decades ago in their successful campaign to ban Tris — one of the early victories against synthetic chemicals.

^ The residents of Triana, along with the Justice Department, each file a lawsuit against Olin Corporation.
  • Triana Justice Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clear evidence of their disregard for human life is their decades-long campaign to ban the insecticide DDT, even for specific use against malaria-carrying mosquitoes.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Around this time, toxicologist David Peakall was measuring DDE levels in the eggs of peregrine falcons and California condors and finding that increased levels corresponded with thinner shells.^ Canadian Wildlife Service manuscript, April 8, 1971 (No correlation between shell-thinning and DDE in eggs of bald eagles and cormorants); Anon.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been suggested that, depending on patterns of international DDT use and trade, it is possible that dietary exposure levels may actually increase over time (73).
  • EXTOXNET PIP - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC extoxnet.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Levels in fatty tissues may either remain relatively the same over time or even increase with continued exposure.
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In response to an EDF suit, the U.S. District Court of Appeals in 1971 ordered the EPA to begin the de-registration procedure for DDT. After an initial six-month review process, William Ruckelshaus, the Agency's first Administrator rejected an immediate suspension of DDT's registration, citing studies from the EPA's internal staff stating that DDT was not an imminent danger to human health and wildlife.^ General DDT impacts on Human Health .
  • DDT and Malaria - Dickinson College Wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wiki.dickinson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other assertions about massive species extinctions include wildlife…and…there is a present need for essential uses of DDT.” these: Norman Myers estimated that we lose “one species a day” This decision, however, was overruled by EPA Administrator and “most haven’t even been identified.” He added: that “The William Ruckelshaus, who never attended a single day of the seven extinction rate will accelerate to one species every hour, by the late 6 5 months of DDT hearings.
  • Fraude E Ddt 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In her book Silent Spring , Rachel Carson described potentially catastrophic consequences for wildlife and humans of the widespread use of DDT. US hearings Growing campaigns by environmentalist groups during the 1960s culminated in the hearings into DDT by the newly formed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  • How DDT can stop millions of malaria deaths - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: News]

[12] .However, the findings of these staff members were criticized, as they were performed mostly by economic entomologists inherited from the United States Department of Agriculture, whom many environmentalists felt were biased towards agribusiness and tended to minimize concerns about human health and wildlife.^ United States Department of Agriculture; 1968.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, many environmentalists concerned about possible ecological repercussions oppose DDT. According to WHO, and the UN Children’s Fund’s Malaria Report 2005, roughly 350-million and 500-million in more than 100 nations are afflicted with malaria each year.
  • DDT: A Double-Edged Sword 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ddt23.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The decision not to ban thus created public controversy.[15]
.The EPA then held seven months of hearings in 1971-1972, with scientists giving evidence both for and against the use of DDT. In the summer of 1972, Ruckelshaus announced the cancellation of most uses of DDT—an exemption allowed for public health uses under some conditions.^ DDT has never been banned for public health use, in the US or elsewhere.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reality is that DDT is probably the most useful insecticide ever used for public health.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was from an organization that was BEGGING to allow DDT use.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Immediately after the cancellation was announced, both EDF and the DDT manufactures filed suit against the EPA, with the industry seeking to overturn the ban, and EDF seeking a comprehensive ban.^ Your RPL instructor gave a very simplifed explanation about industry response to the US ban on DDT, it was far more complex.
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were great immediate profits to be made from DDT’s manufacture, distribution, and agricultural use; and there was an eager market for house, yard, and other domestic uses as well.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / THE DEADLY DUST: The Unhappy History of DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many industrialized nations banned or began to restrict the use of DDT during the 1970s, but at about the same time, use of DDT in developing nations was peaking.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

The cases were consolidated, and in 1973 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that the EPA had acted properly in banning DDT.[12]
.The U.S. DDT ban took place amid a climate of growing public mistrust of industry, with the Surgeon General issuing a report on smoking in 1964, the Cuyahoga River catching fire in 1969, the fiasco surrounding the use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), and the well-publicized decline in the bald eagle population.^ In 1941, before any DDT was used, 197 bald eagles were counted.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT has never been banned for public health use, in the US or elsewhere.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When did the WHO ban use of DDT? .
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.Some uses of DDT continued under the public health exemption.^ DDT has never been banned for public health use, in the US or elsewhere.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reality is that DDT is probably the most useful insecticide ever used for public health.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We are concerned about the health of children and adults given the persistence of DDT and its active metabolites in the environment and in the body, and we are particularly concerned about the potential effects of continued DDT use on future generations."
  • Should DDT Be Used to Combat Malaria?: Scientific American 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: News]

.For example, in June 1979, the California Department of Health Services was permitted to use DDT to suppress flea vectors of bubonic plague.^ Use of DDT to fight malaria has been increasing since it was endorsed in 2006 by the World Health Organization and the President's Malaria Initiative, a U.S. aid program launched by former President Bush.
  • Should DDT Be Used to Combat Malaria?: Scientific American 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: News]

^ And resistance issues have greatly reduced the efficacy of DDT, and it’s use was never efficient in areas where vectors are active during the day or don’t rest on interior wall.
  • DDT vs. Malaria: The Lesser of Two Evils? | PRI's The World: Science 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.world-science.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .DDT also continued to be produced in the US for foreign markets until as late as 1985, when over 300 tonnes were exported.^ Although exports, and overall production, continued to rise until 1963, US consumption of DDT peaked in 1959, before any significant restrictions were placed on its use, and declined steadily thereafter.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worse still, DDT is often produced, imported, and/or exported to and from countries despite bans and restrictions.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tumwine said the western world was discouraging DDT use to ensure that Africans continue suffering and seeking foreign aid.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Restrictions on usage

.In the 1970s and 1980s, agricultural use of DDT was banned in most developed countries, beginning with Hungary in 1968[26] then in Norway and Sweden in 1970, and the US in 1972, but not banned in the United Kingdom until 1984. The use of DDT in vector control has not been banned, but it has been largely replaced by less persistent alternative insecticides.^ I don't know of any African countries that have banned the use of DDT. .
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT was banned for general (but not public health use) in the US in 1972, and similar bans apply in other countries.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT was finally restricted to vector control for the entire country beginning in 1990.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Stockholm Convention, which entered into force in 2004, outlawed several persistent organic pollutants, and restricted the use of DDT to vector control.^ DDT is also one of the "dirty dozen" chemicals included in the 2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
  • Malaria, Mosquitoes, and DDT | Worldwatch Institute 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT is a persistant organic pollutant, and under the 2001 Stockholm Convention, is banned worldwide except for public health vector control.
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of DDT has been banned in 34 countries and severely restricted in 34 other countries.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

.The Convention has been ratified by more than 160 countries and is endorsed by most environmental groups.^ In 1950, a year in which more than 200 million pounds of insecticides were used in agriculture alone in this country, investigators of the Federal Food and Drug Administration announced: .
  • DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nccn.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It is common in Sub-Saharan African countries, for the citizens to be more concerned with their conditions rather than factors that could effect their health later in life.
  • DDT and Malaria - Dickinson College Wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wiki.dickinson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an affluent, mostly urban country such as the U.S., where malaria had been all but eradicated, the DDT ban was little more than an inconvenience.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recognizing that a total elimination of DDT use in many malaria-prone countries is currently unfeasible because there are few affordable or effective alternatives, the public health use of DDT was exempted from the ban until alternatives are developed.^ I don't know of any African countries that have banned the use of DDT. .
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT was banned for general (but not public health use) in the US in 1972, and similar bans apply in other countries.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The few countries that still do need to use DDT to control malaria are able to obtain it.

.The Malaria Foundation International states that "The outcome of the treaty is arguably better than the status quo going into the negotiations...For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before."^ Resistance of vectors of disease to insecticides.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malaria Foundation International (1999-2003).

[27]
.Despite the worldwide ban on agricultural use of DDT, its use in this context continues in India[28] North Korea, and possibly elsewhere.^ Its use has been banned in North America and Europe.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT has never been banned for public health use, in the US or elsewhere.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When did the WHO ban use of DDT? .
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Today, about 4-5,000 tonnes of DDT are used each year for vector control.^ Based off the statistics that show that it was the agricultural use of DDT that had an effect on the environment and not the small amount that was used for protection against malaria, DDT has begun to be used again for malaria control.

^ One year later, Rachel Carson published Silent Spring , her landmark study of the ecological damage caused by the widespread use of DDT and other pesticides.
  • Malaria, Mosquitoes, and DDT | Worldwatch Institute 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CEC draft agreement entitled "North American Regional Action Plan on DDT, Task Force on DDT and Chlordane," dated October 10, 1996, calls for the elimination, distribution, and use of DDT for malaria control in Mexico in 10 years.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[13] .In this context, DDT is applied to the inside walls of homes to kill or repel mosquitos entering the home.^ DDT it was effective in repelling the mosquitoes .

^ DDT kills not only mosquitoes, but also their predators.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT also kills mosquitoes that land on walls.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This intervention, called indoor residual spraying (IRS), greatly reduces environmental damage compared to the earlier widespread use of DDT in agriculture.^ But DDT has always been used in indoor spraying - it was never banned.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "This is a relatively minor use of DDT compared with agricultural uses," he continued.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also reduces the risk of resistance to DDT.[29] This use only requires a small fraction of that previously used in agriculture; for example, the amount of DDT that might have been used on 40 hectares (99 acres) of cotton during a typical growing season in the U.S. is estimated to be enough to treat roughly 1,700 homes.^ This level of treatment for the whole country of Guyana, covering an area of 215,000 km 2 , is roughly equal to the amount of DDT that might be used to spray only 4 km 2 (1,000 acres) of cotton during a single growing season.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ More than 795 kg of DDT might be used to treat a mere 0.4 km 2 (100 acres) of cotton during a growing season.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]

Environmental impact

.DDT is a persistent organic pollutant that is extremely hydrophobic and strongly absorbed by soils.^ DDT, DDD, and DDE stick strongly to soil and can remain in soil for hundreds of years (Weis & Cutler).
  • DDT and Malaria - Dickinson College Wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wiki.dickinson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT is also one of the "dirty dozen" chemicals included in the 2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
  • Malaria, Mosquitoes, and DDT | Worldwatch Institute 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public health advocates, including environmentalists, supported the public health exception in the U.N. Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants which allowed use of DDT for control of malaria vectors in developing countries.
  • Stop Pushing DDT - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.Depending on conditions, its soil half life can range from 22 days to 30 years.^ The half life of heptachlor in temperate soil is up to 2 years.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ The half-life of toxaphene in soil ranges from 100 days up to 12 years, depending on the soil type and climate.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ The half life of dieldrin in temperate soils is approximately 5 years.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

.Routes of loss and degradation include runoff, volatilization, photolysis and aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation.^ Routes of loss and degradation include runoff, volatilization, photolysis and biodegradation (aerobic and anaerobic) ( 3 ).
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Estimated half lives in soil from aerobic and anaerobic degradation range from 2.7 to 22.9 years.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

.When applied to aquatic ecosystems it is quickly absorbed by organisms and by soil or it evaporates, leaving little DDT dissolved in the water itself.^ DDT is far more persistent in water and soil.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Surely, DDT applied once directly to the surfaces would not be enough to leak into ground water.
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evapotranspiration - The total water loss due to the transpiration of vegetation plus the evaporation from the soil; higher climatic temperatures result in a higher evapotranspiration rate.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Its breakdown products and metabolites, DDE and DDD, are also highly persistent and have similar chemical and physical properties.^ Both DDE and DDD are breakdown products of DDT. .
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDE is DDT's main metabolite and also the most persistent form of the chemical.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Small amounts of the breakdown products DDD and DDE can also be found in the formulation.

[1] .These products together are known as "total DDT". DDT and its breakdown products are transported from warmer regions of the world to the Arctic by the phenomenon of global distillation, where they then accumulate in the region's food web.^ Just this week, the British medical journal The Lancet reports that DDE — a breakdown product of DDT — is associated with pre-term deliveries and low birth weights.
  • The Debate over DDT | Pesticide Action Network North America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.panna.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT and its metabolites have been detected in food from all over the world and this route is likely the greatest source of exposure for the general population .
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the Kariba region of Zimbabwe, the only region that still actively employs DDT for malaria control, shows much higher levels of total DDT residues.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

[31]
.DDT, DDE, and DDD magnify through the food chain, with apex predators such as raptors having a higher concentration of the chemicals than other animals sharing the same environment.^ DDT, DDE, and DDD, September 2002.
  • Fraude E Ddt 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT is concentrated in organisms and can be transferred through food chains.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What happens to DDT, DDE, and DDD when it enters the environment?
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are very lipophilic and are stored mainly in body fat.^ DDT, DDE, and DDD are stored most readily in fatty tissue, especially DDE. Some of these stored amounts leave the body very slowly.
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are generally very insoluble in water, are lipophilic and are very persistent.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ Laboratory studies indicate that bats may be affected by DDT released from stored body fat during long migratory periods ( 12 ).
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.DDT and DDE are very resistant to metabolism; in humans their half-lives are 6 and up to 10 years, respectively.^ DDT, DDD, and DDE stick strongly to soil and can remain in soil for hundreds of years (Weis & Cutler).
  • DDT and Malaria - Dickinson College Wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wiki.dickinson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most serious evidence of DDT's harm to humans are a few studies showing that higher levels of DDE (the form DDT takes when it metabolizes) in a mother's blood is associated with premature birth and shorter duration of breast-feeding.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In recent years (since 2001) DDT has started to make a comeback and the enivronmental issues (as discussed in the environmental section) and resistance has been re-investigated.

In the United States, these chemicals were detected in almost all human blood samples tested by the Centers for Disease Control in 2005, though their levels have sharply declined since most uses were banned in the US.[32] Estimated dietary intake has also declined,[32] despite it still being commonly detected in food samples tested by the FDA.[33]
.Marine algae (seaweeds) have been shown to act as bioremediation agents and can reduce the toxicity of soil contaminated by DDT by up to 80% within six weeks.^ DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) was first synthesized in 1877, 1 but it was not until 1940 that a Swiss chemist discovered that it could be sprayed on walls and would cause any insect to die within the next six months, without any apparent toxicity to humans.
  • National Policy Analysis #386: The Greatest Unfounded Health Scares of Recent Times, Part I: DDT - January 2002 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT is a pesticide , and even though it has not been used in this country since 1972, soil has small amounts and, under certain conditions, contaminated soil transfers DDT to crops.
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, when bound to soil particles, DDT can begin to bioaccumulate, building up in plants and in the fatty tissue of the fish, birds and animals that eat the plants.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

[34]

Effects on wildlife and eggshell thinning

.DDT is toxic to a wide range of animals in addition to insects.^ DDT is highly toxic to fish, with 96-hour LC50 values in the range of 0.4 g/L in shrimp to 42 g/L in rainbow trout.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT is a broad-spectrum insecticide, meaning that it is toxic to a wide range of non-target insects and other arthropods, including many beneficial insects.
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To: eagleninja It is a well established fact that DDT destroyed the egg shells of a wide range of birds including the bald eagle, our nation's symbol of freedom.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is highly toxic to aquatic life, including crayfish, daphnids, sea shrimp and many species of fish.^ It is highly toxic to fish and to birds.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fish DDT is highly toxic to fish.
  • DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pan-uk.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT is highly toxic to fish, with 96-hour LC50 values in the range of 0.4 g/L in shrimp to 42 g/L in rainbow trout.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

.It is less toxic to mammals but cats are very susceptible, and in several instances cat populations were significantly depleted in malaria control operations that used DDT, often leading to explosive growth in rodent populations.^ In 2000, malaria was again controlled when DDT was brought back to use.
  • DDT: A Double-Edged Sword 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ddt23.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "DDT use for malaria control is completely harmless."

^ Throughout the 1950s the use of DDT for malaria control expanded globally.

[35] .DDT may be moderately toxic to some amphibian species, especially in the larval stages.^ But the routine use of DDT against malaria is an exercise in toxic futility, especially when it's pursued at the expense of a superior and far more benign technology.
  • Malaria, Mosquitoes, and DDT | Worldwatch Institute 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indoor residual application of DDT may have little impact especially where the Malaria vector tends to rest and bite outdoors and does not enter houses; 6.
  • DDT vs. Malaria: The Lesser of Two Evils? | PRI's The World: Science 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.world-science.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some DDT may have entered the soil from waste sites.
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most famously, it is a reproductive toxicant for certain birds species, and it is a major reason for the decline of the bald eagle,[7] brown pelican[36] peregrine falcon, and osprey.^ But the bald eagle and peregrine falcons are increasing in numbers.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is little question that DDT accumulation in the environment led to the precipitous decline in raptor populations starting around 1960, with many birds including the bald eagle having been listed on the endangered species list for this reason alone.

^ DDT and PCB¹s have been almost completely outlawed in the U.S., and some of the species most at risk from those pesticides, such as eagles and peregrine falcons, are no longer facing extinction.

[1] Birds of prey, waterfowl, and song birds are more susceptible to eggshell thinning than chickens and related species, and DDE appears to be more potent than DDT.[1]
.The biological mechanism for the thinning is not entirely known, but there is strong evidence that p,p'-DDE inhibits calcium ATPase in the membrane of the shell gland and reduces the transport of calcium carbonate from blood into the eggshell gland.^ Calcium deficiency is a known cause of thin eggshells.
  • Facts versus fears - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC dwb4.unl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • National Policy Analysis #386: The Greatest Unfounded Health Scares of Recent Times, Part I: DDT - January 2002 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There’s an extensive literature documenting declines of birds of prey that correlate with DDT use as well as laboratory studies that demonstrate adverse impacts of DDT on calcium metabolism in birds that contribute to eggshell thinning.
  • DDT vs. Malaria: The Lesser of Two Evils? | PRI's The World: Science 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.world-science.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American kestrels were fed day old cockerels injected with DDE. Residues of DDE in the eggs correlated closely with the dietary DDE concentration and there was a linear relationship between degree of egg shell thinning and the logarithm of the DDE residue in the egg.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

This results in a dose-dependent reduction in eggshell thickness.[1][37][38][39] .There is also evidence that o,p'-DDT disrupts the development of the female reproductive tract, thereby impairing the quality of the eggshells produced by the bird once it matures.^ DDT produced eggs with thicker eggshells.
  • John Stossel : Hooray for DDT's life-saving comeback - Townhall.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

^ There is evidence that DDT causes reproductive effects in test animals.
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There’s an extensive literature documenting declines of birds of prey that correlate with DDT use as well as laboratory studies that demonstrate adverse impacts of DDT on calcium metabolism in birds that contribute to eggshell thinning.
  • DDT vs. Malaria: The Lesser of Two Evils? | PRI's The World: Science 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.world-science.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] Multiple mechanisms may be at work, or different mechanisms may operate in different species.[1] .Some studies have shown that although DDE levels have fallen dramatically, eggshell thickness remains 10–12 percent thinner than before DDT was first used.^ Several useful studies on DDT are available.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The second study, which used a percent resulted in shells 9 percent thinner than normal.
  • Fraude E Ddt 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most serious evidence of DDT's harm to humans are a few studies showing that higher levels of DDE (the form DDT takes when it metabolizes) in a mother's blood is associated with premature birth and shorter duration of breast-feeding.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

[41]

Effects on human health

.Potential mechanisms of DDT on humans are genotoxicity and endocrine disruption.^ There is also concern that it has the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of humans(38).
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ruckelshaus declared that DDT was a "potential human carcinogen" and banned it for virtually all uses.
  • National Policy Analysis #386: The Greatest Unfounded Health Scares of Recent Times, Part I: DDT - January 2002 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nationalcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocrine disrupters DDT, DDD and DDE are all strongly suspected of being environmental endocrine disrupters (chemicals that affect the hormonal system).
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.DDT may have direct genotoxicity,[42] but may also induce enzymes that produce other genotoxic intermediates and DNA adducts.^ Fires involving DDT may produce irritating or poisonous gases.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Do not administer adrenaline, other adrenergic amines or stimulants, because of the enhanced myocardial sensitivity induced by DDT these may induce ventricular fibrillation.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These other isomeric forms may add to the action of DDT as it is known that ortho para-DDT is of insecticidal value (Worthing & Walker, 1987).
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[42] .It is an endocrine disruptor; The DDT metabolite DDE acts as an antiandrogen (but not as an estrogen).^ Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth.
  • PANNA: PAN Magazine: In Depth: DDT & Malaria 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC magazine.panna.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth, Lancet 38, 110-114.

^ Endocrine disrupters DDT, DDD and DDE are all strongly suspected of being environmental endocrine disrupters (chemicals that affect the hormonal system).
  • DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pan-uk.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

o,p'-DDT, a minor component in commercial .DDT has weak estrogenic activity.^ Some organochlorines have been shown to have weak estrogenic activity, that is, they are chemically similar enough to estrogen to trigger hormonal responses in contaminated animals.

^ The greater potency of DDT in the yeast cell system may indicate that the DDT-related compounds have greater biological activity than that indicated by their affinities for human estrogen receptor in a cell-free system.

^ Some organochlorines have been shown to have weak estrogenic activity, but the amounts of naturally occurring estrogens in the environment dwarf the amounts of synthetic estrogens.
  • Facts versus fears - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC dwb4.unl.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, p,p'-DDT, the main component of DDT, has little or no androgenic or estrogenic activity.^ But little or no DDT. .
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greater potency of DDT in the yeast cell system may indicate that the DDT-related compounds have greater biological activity than that indicated by their affinities for human estrogen receptor in a cell-free system.

^ Activation of estrogen receptors and inhibition of androgen receptors may be mechanisms of the action of DDT-related compounds which lead to the observed perturbations of reproductive function.

[42]

Acute toxicity

.DDT is classified as "moderately toxic" by the United States National Toxicology Program (NTP)[43] and "moderately hazardous" by WHO, based on the rat oral LD50 of 113 mg/kg.^ (LD 50 ) in rats as 250 mg/kg and Gosselin et al.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT seemed to be the ideal insecticide it is cheap and of relatively low toxicity to mammals (oral LD50 is 300 to 500 mg/kg).

^ DDT* residues of in human fat (1995-1997) mg/kg (for UK) No.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .DDT has on rare occasions been administered orally as a treatment for barbiturate poisoning.^ "Coumestrol did not antagonize the uterotrophic action of estradiol when administered either prior to, or jointly with, E2 treatment, or when administered orally or parenterally."
  • Estriol, DES, DDT. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC raypeat.com [Source type: Academic]

[45]

Chronic toxicity

Diabetes

.Organochlorine compounds, generally, and DDT and DDE, specifically, have been linked to diabetes.^ DDT is an organochlorine insecticide used mainly to control mosquito-borne malaria; use on crops has generally been replaced by less persistent insecticides ( 1 ).
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Exposure is generally in the form of DDE, indicating that exposure to DDT was not recent.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT and DDE have been reported in surface waters at levels of 0.001 micrograms per liter (ug/L), while DDD generally is not found in surface water.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

.A number of studies from the US, Canada, and Sweden have found that the prevalence of the disease in a population increases with serum DDT or DDE levels.^ The most serious evidence of DDT's harm to humans are a few studies showing that higher levels of DDE (the form DDT takes when it metabolizes) in a mother's blood is associated with premature birth and shorter duration of breast-feeding.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth.
  • PANNA: PAN Magazine: In Depth: DDT & Malaria 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC magazine.panna.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth, Lancet 38, 110-114.

[46][47][48][49][50][51]

Developmental and reproductive toxicity

.DDT and DDE, like other organochlorines, have been shown to have xenoestrogenic activity, meaning they are chemically similar enough to estrogens to trigger hormonal responses in animals.^ They are by-products resulting from the production of other chemicals.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ Like other organochlorine pesticides, DDT bioaccumulates.
  • Malaria, Mosquitoes, and DDT | Worldwatch Institute 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other chemicals are available, but they are generally less effective, shorter-acting and - most importantly for the Third World - more expensive.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This endocrine disrupting activity has been observed toxicological studies involving mice and rats, and available epidemiological evidence indicates that these effects may be occurring in humans as a result of DDT exposure.^ Studies involving human volunteers who ingested DDT for up to 21 months did not result in any observed adverse effects.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ It was concluded that the human evidence from several epidemiological studies was not adequate to indicate that DDT was carcinogenic.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This sort of activity has been observed in DDT in laboratory studies involving mouse and rat test subjects, but available epidemiological evidence does not indicate that these effects have occurred in humans as a result of DDT exposure.

.There is therefore concern that DDT may cause developmental and reproductive toxicity.^ There is evidence that DDT causes reproductive effects in test animals.
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecological studies have demonstrated that bioaccumulated DDT could cause thinning of eggshells and reproductive failure in birds of prey.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT may be moderately toxic to some amphibian species and larval stages are probably more susceptible than adults ( 11 , 12 ).
  • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.
  • A review article in The Lancet concludes that, "research has shown that exposure to DDT at amounts that would be needed in malaria control might cause preterm birth and early weaning ...^ DDT is still needed for disease control.
    • The Debate over DDT | Pesticide Action Network North America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.panna.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Today, DDT is still needed for malaria control.
    • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Alternatives to DDT can control malaria.
    • The Debate over DDT | Pesticide Action Network North America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.panna.org [Source type: Academic]

    toxicological evidence shows endocrine-disrupting properties; human data also indicate possible disruption in semen quality, menstruation, gestational length, and duration of lactation."[21]
  • Human epidemiological studies suggest that DDT exposure is a risk factor for premature birth and low birth weight, and may harm a mother's ability to breast feed.[52] .Some 21st century researchers argue that these effects may cause increases in infant deaths in areas where DDT is used for malaria control, and thus offset any benefit derived from its anti-malarial effects.^ We had to use DDT, they argued, or lose it.
    • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ DDT causes the death of algae.
    • U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC epw.senate.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Infant Death: minimum DDT dose .
    • DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: Academic]
    • DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nccn.net [Source type: Academic]

    [53][54][55] .A 2008 study, however, failed to confirm the association between exposure and difficulty breastfeeding.^ In this latter study, which found a significant association between long-term, high DDT exposures and pancreatic cancers in chemical workers, there were questions raised as to the reliability of the medical records of a large proportion of the cancer cases ( 3 , 10 ).
    • DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC pmep.cce.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Epidemiological studies on the association between exposure to DDT and cancer risk have been reviewed extensively (Ahlborg et al., 1995; Longnecker et al., 1997; Baris et al., 1998).

    ^ In a prospective study of the association between exposure to DDE and the development of breast cancer, the resources of two specimen banks established in Washington County, Maryland, USA, in 1974 and 1989 were used.

    [56]
  • .
  • Several recent studies demonstrate a link between in utero exposure to DDT or DDE and developmental neurotoxicity in humans.^ Exposure is generally in the form of DDE, indicating that exposure to DDT was not recent.
    • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The study is one of the first to link DDT with human developmental problems.
    • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A recent Berkley study indicates that in-utero exposure to DDT could be associated with developmental delays .
    • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For example, a 2006 study conducted by the University of California, Berkeley suggests children who have been exposed to DDT while in the womb have a greater chance of experiencing development problems,[57] and other studies have found that even low levels of DDT or DDE in umbilical cord serum at birth are associated with decreased attention at infancy[58] and decreased cognitive skills at 4 years of age.^ But other studies have found no such associations.
    • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

    ^ A study of German children found that girls with higher DDE in the blood at 8 years of age were shorter than those with lower DDE levels.
    • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The impact of DDT on children in the Berkeley study was trivial by comparison.
    • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [59] .Similarly, Mexican researchers have demonstrated a link between DDE exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy and retarded psychomotor development.^ Published in August 2007, this study is literally the first prospective research examining exposure to DDT early in life and subsequent risk to breast cancer.
    • Stop Pushing DDT - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ In a prospective study of the association between exposure to DDE and the development of breast cancer, the resources of two specimen banks established in Washington County, Maryland, USA, in 1974 and 1989 were used.

    ^ The study provided no support for the hypothesis of a link between environmental exposure to DDT derivatives and cancer of the male reproductive tract (Cocco & Benichou, 1998).

    [60]
  • .
  • A number studies have documented decreases in semen quality among men with high exposures to DDT or DDE (generally from IRS).^ Exposure is generally in the form of DDE, indicating that exposure to DDT was not recent.
    • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Dermal exposure to DDT has not been associated with illness or irritation in a number of studies.
    • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

    ^ DDT in milk (official high number) .
    • DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: Academic]
    • DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nccn.net [Source type: Academic]

    [61][62][63]
  • .
  • Several studies have examined the association between time to pregnancy (TTP) and levels of DDT or DDE in the blood of pregnant women.^ Several useful studies on DDT are available.
    • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some risk of lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer was found in humans exposed to DDT. Animal studies showed a significant association between DDT administration and lymphoma, respiratory cancer, liver cancer, and estrogenic effects on mammary tissue.
    • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The most serious evidence of DDT's harm to humans are a few studies showing that higher levels of DDE (the form DDT takes when it metabolizes) in a mother's blood is associated with premature birth and shorter duration of breast-feeding.
    • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

    These studies have generally found that high exposure levels do not increase TTP.[64] There is some evidence that the daughters of highly exposed women may have more difficulty getting pregnant (i.e. increased TTP).[65]
  • .
  • DDT exposure is associated with early pregnancy loss, a type of miscarriage.^ Published in August 2007, this study is literally the first prospective research examining exposure to DDT early in life and subsequent risk to breast cancer.
    • Stop Pushing DDT - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Epidemiological studies on the association between exposure to DDT and cancer risk have been reviewed extensively (Ahlborg et al., 1995; Longnecker et al., 1997; Baris et al., 1998).

    ^ Occupational exposures in insecticide application, and some pesticides; DDT and associated compounds.

    .A prospective cohort study of Chinese textile workers found "a positive, monotonic, exposure-response association between preconception serum total DDT and the risk of subsequent early pregnancy losses."^ Dermal exposure to DDT has not been associated with illness or irritation in a number of studies.
    • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some risk of lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer was found in humans exposed to DDT. Animal studies showed a significant association between DDT administration and lymphoma, respiratory cancer, liver cancer, and estrogenic effects on mammary tissue.
    • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A growing number of peer-reviewed studies suggest links between DDT exposure and a range of ills, such as breast and liver cancer, neurological and developmental abnormalities, and a variety of hormonal effects.
    • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [66] .The median serum DDE level of study group was lower than that typically observed in women living in homes sprayed with DDT, suggesting that these findings are relevant to the debate about DDT and malaria control.^ In addition, the ratio of DDE/DDT is lower in suburban women, suggesting that these women's residue levels stem from recent, direct exposure.
    • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ DDT use for malaria control is effective when used to spray homes and to spray on bed nets.
    • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Women with breast cancer had adipose DDE concentrations 9.2% lower than control women.
    • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

    [67]
  • A case-control study of congenital hypothyroidism in Japan concluded that in utero DDT exposure may affect thyroid hormone levels and "play an important role in the incidence and/or causation of cretinism."[68] Other studies have also found the DDT or DDE interfere with proper thyroid function.[69][70]

Other

Occupational exposure to DDT (either as a farmer or a malaria control worker) has been linked to:

Carcinogenicity

.DDT is suspected to cause cancer.^ Studies in animals have shown that oral exposure to DDT can cause liver cancer.
  • Public Health Statement for DDT, DDE, and DDD - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT is considered a probable human carcinogen because of its chemical similarity to other known carcinogens, and the fact that it causes cancer in some animals.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greenpeace claimed DDT caused cancer in humans, which has since been proven untrue.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The NTP classifies it as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen", and the EPA classifies DDT, DDE, and DDD as a class B2 "probable" human carcinogens.^ DDT, DDE, and DDD, September 2002.
  • Fraude E Ddt 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PCBs are therefore classified as probable humans carcinogens (Group 2A).
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ IARC has classified DDT as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B).
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

.The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies it is as a "possible" human carcinogen.^ IARC has classified heptachlor as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B).
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ IARC has classified mirex as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B).
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ IARC has classified HCB as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B).
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

.These evaluations are based mainly on the results of animal studies.^ Why do we have lab animals if not to study these effects?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers and activists have never studied or compared these side effects, or evaluated their risks and benefits.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bald eagle’s comeback was primarily the result of outlawing the killing of these animals, and private conservation measures as well.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][21]
There is epidemiological evidence (i.e. studies in humans) that DDT causes cancer of the liver,[21][32] pancreas[21][32] and breast.[32] .There is mixed evidence that it contributes to leukemia,[32] lymphoma[32][73] and testicular cancer.^ There is a possible link between DDT and the risk of breast cancer, and evidence suggests it may suppress the immune system.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also evidence of reproductive harm, teratogenic effects (birth defects), and cancer.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21][32][74]
.In contrast, epidemiological studies suggest that DDT/DDE does not cause multiple myeloma,[21] or cancers of the prostate,[21] endometrium,[21][32] rectum,[21][32]lung,[32] bladder,[32] or stomach.^ Ecological studies have demonstrated that bioaccumulated DDT could cause thinning of eggshells and reproductive failure in birds of prey.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Case-control study on breast cancer and adipose tissue concentrations of congener specific polychlorinated biphenyls, DDE and hexachlorobenzene.

^ Since the results of the first eggshell study could not be duplicated or replicated later, it was obviously something other than DDT causing the problem.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]

Breast cancer

.The question of whether DDT or DDE are risk factors of breast cancer has been the subject of numerous investigations.^ Breast Cancer and Pesticide DDT, DDE Skip to main content .

^ Organochlorine exposure and risk for breast cancer.

^ Information on risk factors for breast cancer was obtained from standardiszed questionnaires.

.While individual studies have come to conflicting conclusions, the most recent reviews of all the evidence conclude that exposure to DDT before puberty increases the risk of breast cancer later in life.^ Chlordane exposure has not been associated with increased risk of mortality from cancer.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ Our data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to [DDT] and PCBs increases the risk of breast cancer."
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk in Colombian women.

[32][75] .Until recently, almost all studies measured DDT or DDE blood levels at the time of breast cancer diagnosis or after.^ Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer.

^ Blood levels of DDT and breast cancer risk among women living in the north of Vietnam.

^ Breast Cancer and Pesticide DDT, DDE Skip to main content .

.This study design has been criticized, since the levels of DDT or DDE at diagnosis do not necessarily correspond to the levels present in a woman's body at the time when her cancer first started.^ The most serious evidence of DDT's harm to humans are a few studies showing that higher levels of DDE (the form DDT takes when it metabolizes) in a mother's blood is associated with premature birth and shorter duration of breast-feeding.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Women more exposed to DDT prior to puberty were five times more likely to develop breast cancer than those with lower exposure.
  • Stop Pushing DDT - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ Fertility studies in Scandanavia (not entirely sure which country), where DDT was widely used to control pests, have found that the average male sperm count has dropped by almost 50% since DDT started to be used, while there is an increased rate of certain cancers of the reproductive organs compared to former years.

[76] .Such studies have thus yielded conflicting results and taken as a whole "do not support the hypothesis that exposure to DDT is an important risk factor for breast cancer."^ Our data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to [DDT] and PCBs increases the risk of breast cancer."
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk of breast cancer and organochlorine exposure.

^ These results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to DDT increases the risk for breast cancer (Hunter et al., 1997).

[42] .The studies of this design have been extensively reviewed.^ Epidemiological studies on the association between exposure to DDT and cancer risk have been reviewed extensively (Ahlborg et al., 1995; Longnecker et al., 1997; Baris et al., 1998).

[21][77][78]
.In contrast to these studies, a study published in 2007 found a strong association between exposure to specifically the p,p-isomer of DDT early in life and breast cancer later in life.^ Dermal exposure to DDT has not been associated with illness or irritation in a number of studies.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ Organochlorine exposure and risk for breast cancer.

^ Organochloride exposure and risk of breast cancer.

.Unlike previous studies, this was prospective cohort study in which blood samples were collected from young mothers in the 1960s while DDT was still in use, and their breast cancer status was then monitored.^ Several useful studies on DDT are available.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Re: DDT and breast cancer [letter].

^ Some risk of lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer was found in humans exposed to DDT. Animal studies showed a significant association between DDT administration and lymphoma, respiratory cancer, liver cancer, and estrogenic effects on mammary tissue.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to suggesting that exposure to the p,p-isomer of DDT is the more significant risk factor of breast cancer, the study also suggests that the timing of exposure is critical.^ Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk in Colombian women.

^ The risk for breast cancer increased nonsignificantly with increasing serum concentration of all DDT isomers.

^ Organochlorine exposure and risk for breast cancer.

.For the subset of women born more than 14 years prior to the introduction of DDT into US agriculture, there was no association between DDT levels and breast cancer.^ Blood levels of DDT and breast cancer risk among women living in the north of Vietnam.

^ There was suspicion that DDT causes breast cancer, but study after study has found no connection.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Re: DDT and breast cancer [letter].

.However, for women born more recently—and thus exposed earlier in life—the third who were exposed most to p, p-DDT had a fivefold increase in breast cancer incidence over the least exposed third, after correcting for the protective effect of o,p-DDT.[42][79] These results are supported by animal studies.^ Why do we have lab animals if not to study these effects?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT can have an adverse effect on beneficial animals.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to DDT increases the risk for breast cancer (Hunter et al., 1997).

[32]

DDT use against malaria

.Malaria remains a major public health challenge in many parts of the world.^ Malaria Control and Public Health (2004) 2.
  • The Debate over DDT | Pesticide Action Network North America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.panna.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The overwhelming majority—90 percent—of malaria victims live in Africa, where the disease plagues both human and economic health (Africa facts, maps, more).
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most nations where malaria is a problem, and most health professionals working in the field of malaria control, support the targeted use of DDT, as part of the tool kit for malaria control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in 2008 there were 243 million cases, resulting in 863,000 deaths.^ According to the World Health Organization an estimated 300 million people have died of malaria and other insect-borne diseases as a direct RESULT of the ban on DDT---most of them poor, black, and under five years of age.
  • Old DDT Migrating North | Mother Jones 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

^ The World Health Organization (WHO) is expected to do the same in short order, according to a comprehensive report published in the current issue of the journal Nature Medicine.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the U.N. World Health Organization (WHO), malaria kills one child under the age of 5 every 30 seconds.

.About 89% of these deaths occur in Africa, and mostly to children under the age of 5.[80] Spraying DDT is one of many public health interventions currently used to fight the disease.^ DDT has never been banned for public health use, in the US or elsewhere.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reality is that DDT is probably the most useful insecticide ever used for public health.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This small epidemic occurred 13 years after the invention of DDT in Germany, in 1874, and 14 years after the invention of the first mechanical pesticide crop sprayer, which was used to spray formulations of water, kerosene, soap and arsenic.

Its use in this context has been called everything from a "miracle weapon [that is] like Kryptonite to the mosquitoes,"[81] to "toxic colonialism."[82]
.Before the advent of DDT, aggressive campaigns to eliminate mosquito breeding grounds by drainage or poisoning with Paris green or pyrethrum were used, sometimes successfully, to fight the disease.^ In the 1970s, Greenpeace took the lead in condemning DDT — after the chemical had been used successfully to rid North America and Europe of malaria, which had been endemic throughout both continents.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "In May 1955 the Eighth World Health Assembly adopted a Global Malaria Eradication Campaign based on the widespread use of DDT against mosquitos and of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria and to eliminate the parasite in humans.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Moreover, the CDC advocates awareness and prevention–reducing the likelihood of getting bitten by mosquitoes with the use of repellents, timing of outdoor activity, and sourc reduction by eliminating breeding places also reduces the likelihood of infection.
  • DDT vs. Malaria: The Lesser of Two Evils? | PRI's The World: Science 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.world-science.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many parts of the world, rising standards of living resulted in the elimination of malaria as a collateral benefit of the introduction of window screens and improved sanitation.^ Malaria no longer afflicts the United States, Canada and Northern Europe in part because of changes in living habits -- the shift to cities, better sanitation, window screens.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ And, unlike many mosquitoes, it is long-lived, meaning that once it has picked up the malaria parasite it can spread the protozoan to many others.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, DDT is still used in many parts of the world, and its persistence in the environment poses a danger for ecosystems and human beings.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .Today, a variety of interventions are used, and usually many are used simultaneously.^ Today, various other forms of the word "polio" are still used to describe the effects of neurotoxins, although usually with regard to paralysis in animals.

.These include the use of antimalarial drugs to prevent or treat malaria infections; improvements in public health infrastructure to quickly diagnose, sequester, and treat infected individuals; the distribution of bednets and other methods intended to keep mosquitoes from biting humans; and vector control strategies.^ Treated bed nets are indeed a useful tool for controlling malaria.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Malaria Control and Public Health (2004) 2.
  • The Debate over DDT | Pesticide Action Network North America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.panna.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Public health workers involved in vector control.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[80] .These include larvaciding with appropriate insecticides, ecological controls such as draining mosquito breeding grounds or introducing fish to eat larva, and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides.^ DDT is one 12 insecticides recommended and approved by the WHO for IRS; IRS is just one of several strategies for vector control (others including nets, larvacides, and a variety of environmental management strategies); and vector control is just one pillar of a malaria control strategy which ideally should also involve prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases with appropriate drugs.
  • DDT vs. Malaria: The Lesser of Two Evils? | PRI's The World: Science 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.world-science.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Efforts to control malaria essentially have run along one of two lines: drugs, such as ACT, to kill the parasite or insecticides to kill the mosquito.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indoor Residual Spraying see the following link - .
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.IRS involves the treatment of all interior walls and ceilings with insecticides, and is particularly effective against mosquitoes, since many species will rest on an indoor wall before or after feeding.^ But house spraying is only effective against mosquitoes that bite indoors -- not all do.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ And resistance issues have greatly reduced the efficacy of DDT, and it’s use was never efficient in areas where vectors are active during the day or don’t rest on interior wall.
  • DDT vs. Malaria: The Lesser of Two Evils? | PRI's The World: Science 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.world-science.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT has over many decades proven the most effective chemical for malaria (mosquito) control but its use is often restricted on environmental grounds.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.DDT is one of 12 insecticides approved by the WHO for IRS, and the contemporary DDT debate revolves around how much of a role the chemical should play in this mix of strategies.^ The WHO says it is one of twelve approved insecticides and even has a pamphlet on how to use it.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To me, the questions we should be asking are how much of a role should DDT play in a diverse mix of strategies.
  • DDT vs. Malaria: The Lesser of Two Evils? | PRI's The World: Science 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.world-science.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am aware of only one study showing nervous system damage from DDT. It examined workers in Central America who participated in mosquito eradication programs, and were exposed to very high doses of the chemical.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The WHO's anti-malaria campaign of the 1950s and 1960s relied heavily on DDT and initially the results were promising, though short lived.^ American foreign aid could be used to finance ineffective alternative anti-malaria methods, but not DDT. Within a short time, the mosquitoes and malaria reappeared, and deaths skyrocketed.
  • John Stossel : Hooray for DDT's life-saving comeback - Townhall.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

^ After more than 30 years and tens of millions dead -- mostly children -- the World Health Organization (WHO) has ended its ban on DDT. DDT is the most effective anti-mosquito, anti-malaria pesticide known.
  • John Stossel : Hooray for DDT's life-saving comeback - Townhall.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

^ But fortunately, India's National Anti-Malaria Programme has objected to this commitment, because it has used DDT to control vectors since it began its operations in 1953.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Experts tie the resurgence of malaria to numerous factors, including poor leadership, management, and funding of malaria control programs; poverty; civil unrest; and increased irrigation.^ Separate analyses of data from 1993 to 1995 showed that countries that have recently discontinued their spray programs are reporting large increases in malaria incidence.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ From USAID: 'Contrary to popular belief, USAID does not “ban” the use of DDT in its malaria control programs.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, years of effort to improve malaria control programs are finally bearing fruit.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The evolution of resistance of the malaria parasite to the drugs traditionally used to treat the disease (e.g.^ "In May 1955 the Eighth World Health Assembly adopted a Global Malaria Eradication Campaign based on the widespread use of DDT against mosquitos and of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria and to eliminate the parasite in humans.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Efforts to control malaria essentially have run along one of two lines: drugs, such as ACT, to kill the parasite or insecticides to kill the mosquito.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treated bed nets are indeed a useful tool for controlling malaria.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.chloroquine) and evolution of resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides have greatly exacerbated the situation.^ For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am not against DDT per se in malarial control, but surely there are better insecticidal compounds and we need to keep an eye on the resistance situation.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in South Africa when certain mosquitoes developed resistance to the major alternative class of insecticides, the synthetic pyrethroids, DDT was used.'
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][83] .Resistance of mosquitoes to DDT was largely fueled by its often unrestricted use in agriculture.^ In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A serious problem was that Anopheles funestus mosquitoes developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids - the main alternative to DDT - making the switch an expensive and futile exercise.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When it was used in vast quantities in agriculture, DDT probably harmed reproduction in birds of prey - but this harm subsequently proved reversible.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This, coupled with the awareness that DDT may be harmful both to humans and the environment led many governments to restrict or curtail the use of DDT in vector control.^ Whether used in agriculture or for vector control, once DDT enters the environment, it can remain for many years.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To: brityank Oh, it used to be common practice to dump DDT all over a person who was badly infested with parasites- and as far as I can tell, it never harmed the recipient.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.Once the mainstay of anti-malaria campaigns, as of 2008 only 12 countries were still using DDT, including India and some southern African states,[80] though the number is expected to rise.^ I don't know of any African countries that have banned the use of DDT. .
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT use continued in the southern part of the country for many years.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT is still used to control mosquito vectors of malaria in numerous countries.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

[13]

Overall effectiveness of DDT against malaria

.When it was first introduced in World War II, DDT was very effective in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality.^ Post-World War II faith in DDT was once so strong that Paul Müller, the scientist who discovered its insecticidal properties, was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize for medicine.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last year the World Health Organisation said 23 countries used DDT for malaria control.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka had reduced its number of malaria cases from millions after the end of the war to just 29.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .The WHO's anti-malaria campaign, which consisted mostly of spraying DDT, was initially very successful as well.^ But fortunately, India's National Anti-Malaria Programme has objected to this commitment, because it has used DDT to control vectors since it began its operations in 1953.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, when large numbers of houses are sprayed with DDT, malaria rates decline and when fewer houses are sprayed, malaria rates increase.
  • EID V3N3 DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria indeed plans to finance some DDT spraying, in Somalia.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.For example, in Sri Lanka, the program reduced cases from about 3 million per year before spraying to just 29 in 1964. Thereafter the program was halted to save money, and malaria rebounded to 600,000 cases in 1968 and the first quarter of 1969. The country resumed DDT spraying, but it was largely ineffective because mosquitoes had acquired resistance to the chemical in the interim, presumably because of its continued use in agriculture.^ Sri Lanka had reduced its number of malaria cases from millions after the end of the war to just 29.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1946, it had three million cases, but the introduction of DDT reduced the numbers, by 1964, to only 29.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Sri Lanka, cases of malaria soon rose to 500,000.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The program was forced to switch to malathion, which though more expensive, proved effective.^ That makes it more effective and less expensive.
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other chemicals are available, but they are generally less effective, shorter-acting and - most importantly for the Third World - more expensive.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lambert "[Goodman et al] says that they switched to pyrethroids to improve the effectiveness of the program against malaria, not because of environmentalist pressure."
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.Today, DDT remains on the WHO's list of insecticides recommended for IRS. Since the appointment of Arata Kochi as head of its anti-malaria division, WHO's policy has shifted from recommending IRS only in areas of seasonal or episodic transmission of malaria, to also advocating it in areas of continuous, intense transmission.^ Who's advocating the use of DDT exclusively!?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But fortunately, India's National Anti-Malaria Programme has objected to this commitment, because it has used DDT to control vectors since it began its operations in 1953.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malaria prevention programs were pressured by outside governments and NGOs to not use DDT. DDT is one of the agents listed in the famous 12 “POP” that many groups are STILL trying to ban… which is why the change in the WHO stance is so remarkable.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .The WHO has none-the-less affirmed its commitment to eventually phasing DDT out, aiming "to achieve a 30% cut in the application of DDT world-wide by 2014 and its total phase-out by the early 2020s if not sooner" while simultaneously combating malaria.^ Yet during the negotiations, the World Wide Fund for Nature, the main supporters of a targeted phase-out date, abandoned its proposal, focusing instead on more stringent attempts to control the illegal use of DDT in agriculture.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But fortunately, India's National Anti-Malaria Programme has objected to this commitment, because it has used DDT to control vectors since it began its operations in 1953.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'Dale Ward: How about using DDT to wipe-out malaria?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The WHO plans to implement alternatives to DDT to achieve this goal.^ Cost-effectiveness of DDT Malaria control decision makers who use or want to use DDT to combat malaria say they want to use it because it is both effective and inexpensive, when compared to alternatives.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]
.South Africa is one country that continues to use DDT under WHO guidelines.^ DDT use continued in the southern part of the country for many years.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The one country that continued to beat malaria was Ecuador, the one country that kept using DDT. .
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ South Africa has been using DDT this way for over a decade.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1996, the country switched to alternative insecticides and malaria incidence increased dramatically.^ In developing countries the incidence of malaria was dramatically reduced.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National cancer registries in the Nordic countries show a continuous increase in the incidence of testicular cancer since the 1950s.

^ When alternative sprays were tried, malaria incidence and deaths went up and when South Africa returned to DDT, malaria incidence and deaths went down.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Returning to DDT and introducing new drugs brought malaria back under control.^ Since DDT was brought back in 2000, malaria is once again under control.
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Uganda has demonstrated that, with the proper support, we can conduct model indoor spraying programs and ensure that money is spent wisely, chemicals are handled properly, our program responds promptly to changing conditions, and malaria is brought under control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But fortunately, India's National Anti-Malaria Programme has objected to this commitment, because it has used DDT to control vectors since it began its operations in 1953.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86] .According to DDT advocate Donald Roberts, malaria cases increased in South America after countries in that continent stopped using DDT. Research data shows a significantly strong negative relationship between DDT residual house sprayings and malaria rates.^ Data from the Pan-American Health Organization show a strong inverse correlation between malaria cases and rates of spraying houses (1959–1992) in South America, even after DDT resistance became widespread in the 1960s (Fig.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who's advocating the use of DDT exclusively!?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1970s, Greenpeace took the lead in condemning DDT — after the chemical had been used successfully to rid North America and Europe of malaria, which had been endemic throughout both continents.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a research from 1993 to 1995, Ecuador increased its use of DDT and resulted in a 61% reduction in malaria rates, while each of the other countries that gradually decreased its DDT use had large increase in malaria rates.^ Pressuring other countries to NOT use it.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The one country that continued to beat malaria was Ecuador, the one country that kept using DDT. .
  • What the World Needs Now Is DDT - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The use of DDT has been banned in 34 countries and severely restricted in 34 other countries.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

[30]

Mosquito resistance to DDT

.The evolution of resistance to DDT in mosquitoes has greatly reduced its effectiveness in many parts of the world, and current WHO guidelines require that before the chemical is used in an area, susceptibility of local mosquitoes to DDT must be confirmed.^ DDT use continued in the southern part of the country for many years.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ RE: In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87] .The appearance of DDT-resistance is largely due to its use in agriculture, where it was used in much greater amounts than the relatively small quantities used for disease prevention.^ "This is a relatively minor use of DDT compared with agricultural uses," he continued.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When it was used in vast quantities in agriculture, DDT probably harmed reproduction in birds of prey - but this harm subsequently proved reversible.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to one study that attempted to quantify the lives saved by banning agricultural uses of DDT and thereby slowing the spread of resistance, "it can be estimated that at current rates each kilo of insecticide added to the environment will generate 105 new cases of malaria."^ DDT has saved lives.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT is safe and cheap - and it saves lives.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ban on agricultural uses of DDT halted or slowed the spread of resistance to the chemical among insects that carry disease.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
Resistance was noted early in spray campaigns, with Paul Russell, a former head of the Allied Anti-Malaria campaign, observing in 1956 that eradication programs had to be wary of relying on DDT for too long as "resistance has appeared [after] six or seven years."[17] DDT has lost much of its effectiveness in many parts of the world including Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Turkey and Central America, and it has largely been replaced by organophosphate or carbamate insecticides, e.g. malathion or bendiocarb.[88]
.In many parts of India, DDT has largely lost its effectiveness.^ DDT has over many decades proven the most effective chemical for malaria (mosquito) control but its use is often restricted on environmental grounds.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, DDT is still used in many parts of the world, and its persistence in the environment poses a danger for ecosystems and human beings.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT use continued in the southern part of the country for many years.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

[89] .Agricultural uses were banned in 1989, and its use for anti-malarial purposes has been declining.^ And, also interestingly, it seems that while many doctors want DDT for treatment of malaria, they are advocating it is only used for that purpose and are not advocating a lifting of the ban on its use in agriculture -in fact they want that to remain -why, if its so safe and the greenies got it wrong?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The insecticide most widely used for house spraying has been DDT, which has continued to be recommended for this purpose long after it was banned for agricultural use in the USA and many other countries...
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest agricultural use of DDT has been on cotton, which accounted for more than 80% of the US use before its ban there in 1972.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

Its use in urban areas has been halted completely.[90] Nevertheless, DDT is still manufactured and used in the country,[91] and one study had concluded that "DDT is still a viable insecticide in indoor residual spraying owing to its effectivity in well supervised spray operation and high excito-repellency factor."[92]
.Studies of malaria-vector mosquitoes in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa found susceptibility to 4% DDT (the WHO susceptibility standard), in 63% of the samples, compared to the average of 86.5% in the same species caught in the open.^ I am aware of only one study showing nervous system damage from DDT. It examined workers in Central America who participated in mosquito eradication programs, and were exposed to very high doses of the chemical.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, IRS using pyrethroids was the most cost-effective vector control option when compared to insecticide treated bed nets (DDT was not considered in this study) (Goodman et al.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In South Africa "Official data shows the country had 7,754 reported cases of malaria and 64 deaths from the disease in 2005 compared to 64,622 cases and 438 deaths in 2000."
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The authors concluded that "Finding DDT resistance in the vector An. arabiensis, close to the area where we previously reported pyrethroid-resistance in the vector An. funestus .Giles, indicates an urgent need to develop a strategy of insecticide resistance management for the malaria control programmes of southern Africa."^ But fortunately, India's National Anti-Malaria Programme has objected to this commitment, because it has used DDT to control vectors since it began its operations in 1953.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Efforts to control malaria essentially have run along one of two lines: drugs, such as ACT, to kill the parasite or insecticides to kill the mosquito.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ QUOTE "Facing pressure from environmentalists, the national malaria control programme abandoned DDT in favour of more expensive pyrethroid nsecticides in 1996."
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93]
.It has been argued that DDT can still be effective against resistant mosquitoes,[94] and that the avoidance of DDT-sprayed walls by mosquitoes is an additional benefit of the chemical.^ In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT also kills mosquitoes that land on walls.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sprayed in small quantities, just twice a year, on the walls and eaves of mud-and-thatch or cinderblock homes, DDT keeps 90 percent of mosquitoes from entering, and it irritates any that do come in, so they rarely bite.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] .For example, a 2007 study reported that DDT-resistant mosquitoes still avoided DDT-treated huts.^ In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A serious problem was that Anopheles funestus mosquitoes developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids - the main alternative to DDT - making the switch an expensive and futile exercise.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mutagenicity IARC (1991) reported one study in which chromosomal aberrations were observed in the peripheral lymphocytes of workers with increased plasma DDT levels.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The researchers argued that DDT was the best pesticide for use in IRS (even though it did not afford the most protection from mosquitoes out of the three test chemicals) because the others pesticides worked primarily by killing or irritating mosquitoes—modes of action the authors presume mosquitoes will develop resistance to.^ We had to use DDT, they argued, or lose it.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can't be used as wide area insectide because the mozzies will develop resistence.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] .Others have argued that the avoidance of DDT sprayed walls by mosquitoes is detrimental to the actual eradication of the disease.^ DDT also kills mosquitoes that land on walls.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sprayed in small quantities, just twice a year, on the walls and eaves of mud-and-thatch or cinderblock homes, DDT keeps 90 percent of mosquitoes from entering, and it irritates any that do come in, so they rarely bite.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just spraying tiny amounts of DDT on walls keeps 90 percent of mosquitoes from even entering homes, irritates those that come in so they don't bite, and kills any that land -- for six months or more.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95] .Unlike other insecticides such as pyrethroids, DDT requires a long period of contact before mosquitoes pick up a lethal dose; however its irritant property makes them fly off before this occurs.^ A serious problem was that Anopheles funestus mosquitoes developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids - the main alternative to DDT - making the switch an expensive and futile exercise.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, unlike many mosquitoes, it is long-lived, meaning that once it has picked up the malaria parasite it can spread the protozoan to many others.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edwards JG. Birds not seriously affected by DDT. Hearings before Edwards JG. Mosquitoes, DDT, and human health.
  • Fraude E Ddt 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"For these reasons, when comparisons have been made, better malaria control has generally been achieved with pyrethroids than with DDT."[88] In India, with its outdoor sleeping habits and frequent night duties, "the excito-repellent effect of DDT, often reported useful in other countries, actually promotes outdoor transmission."[96]

Residents' resistance to use of DDT

.For IRS to be effective, at least 80% of homes and barns in an area must be sprayed,[87] and if enough residents refuse spraying, the effectiveness of the whole program can be jeopardized.^ DDT use for malaria control is effective when used to spray homes and to spray on bed nets.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whole point of eradication, to his mind, was that it got you off the treadmill: DDT was so effective that if you used it properly you could stop spraying and not fear the consequences.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How could you effectively spray eighty per cent of homes in the Amazonian jungle, where communities are spread over hundreds of thousands of highly treacherous acres?
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many residents resist DDT spraying for various reasons.^ One of the reasons that insects develop resistance to DDT is its longevity.
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resistance of the pathogen to various prophylactic and curative measures create many complications.
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason DDT use for mosquito control had fallen to almost zero in the US by 1972 was because of resistance.
  • snopes.com: DDT danger to humans just an urban legend? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, the smell lingers, it stains on the walls, and it sometime fails to kill—or even exacerbates problems with—other insect pests.^ "Sometimes we'd use some sort of petroleum-based carrier, even diesel oil, or add water to a paste or concentration and apply it on the wall with a Hudson sprayer."
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even with pesticide use, insects eat high percentages of many crops and other crops spoil before reaching consumers.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88][95][97] .The use of pyrethroid insecticides (e.g.^ For example, in South Africa when certain mosquitoes developed resistance to the major alternative class of insecticides, the synthetic pyrethroids, DDT was used.'
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) can overcome some of these issues, and meets with less resistance than DDT.[88]

Human exposure associated with DDT spraying

.People living in areas where DDT is used for IRS have high levels of the chemical and its breakdown products in their bodies.^ DDT is found in the bodies of people living in the Arctic regions, where DDT has never been used.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1970s, Greenpeace took the lead in condemning DDT — after the chemical had been used successfully to rid North America and Europe of malaria, which had been endemic throughout both continents.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT has over many decades proven the most effective chemical for malaria (mosquito) control but its use is often restricted on environmental grounds.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Compared to contemporaries living in countries where DDT is not used, South Africans living in sprayed homes have levels that are several orders of magnitude greater.^ The use of DDT has been banned in 34 countries and severely restricted in 34 other countries.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ Several useful studies on DDT are available.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, IRS using pyrethroids was the most cost-effective vector control option when compared to insecticide treated bed nets (DDT was not considered in this study) (Goodman et al.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .Breast milk from regions where DDT is used for malaria control contains enough DDT to greatly exceed the allowable daily intake of breast feeding infants.^ Chapter 8, Assessment of infant intake of chemicals via breast milk.

^ In some regions, DDT use for malaria vector control has made exposure common, and has led to high levels in breast milk.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DDT has also been detected in human breast milk.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

[98][99][100] .These levels have been associated with neurological abnormalities in babies ingesting relatively large quantities of DDT in their milk.^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth, Lancet 38, 110-114.

^ The management of large quantities of ingested DDT should be primarily directed towards decontamination and supportive care, as there is no specific antidote.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[88][98][99]
.Most studies of DDT's health effects on human have been conducted in developed countries where DDT is not used and exposure is relatively low.^ The reality is that DDT is probably the most useful insecticide ever used for public health.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effects of DDT on reproduction and development in humans and experimental animal have been reviewed.

^ Studies on the reproductive effects of DDT in humans are rare.

.Many experts are therefore concerned about the health consequences of its use in IRS, as this results in very high exposure.^ Not all of Carson's concerns about the health effects of DDT have stood the test of time--it has yet to be conclusively linked to human illness--but her larger point was justified: DDT was being used without concern for its environmental consequences.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This guy was so concerned about the potential toxic effects of indiscriminate DDT use that he dosed himself and observed the findings!
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although studies of DDT concentrations based on geographic area are useful, they may obscure hot spots of high DDT concentrations that occur within small geographic areas as a result of occupational exposure.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

.They urge that alternatives been used instead.^ Cost-effectiveness of DDT Malaria control decision makers who use or want to use DDT to combat malaria say they want to use it because it is both effective and inexpensive, when compared to alternatives.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21][32] .Epidemiologist Brenda Eskenazi argues that "We know DDT can save lives by repelling and killing disease-spreading mosquitoes.^ Ironically, almost none of this money is spent to kill or repel the mosquitoes that spread disease.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT has saved lives.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT is safe and cheap - and it saves lives.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But evidence suggests that people living in areas where DDT is used are exposed to very high levels of the pesticide.^ I am aware of only one study showing nervous system damage from DDT. It examined workers in Central America who participated in mosquito eradication programs, and were exposed to very high doses of the chemical.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While I would not use Carson’s anecdote as scientific evidence, neither would I dismiss it by misleading people to think the victim died of a cancer different from the one she died of, or that there could be no link to the DDT application, when there could be.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mean levels detected in the living areas of 12 homes in New Jersey prior to and after treatment for termites ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 g/m3, respectively .
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

.The only published studies on health effects conducted in these populations have shown profound effects on male fertility.^ Why do we have lab animals if not to study these effects?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These effects have usually been shown to be related to the solvent (Hayes & Laws, 1991).
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers and activists have never studied or compared these side effects, or evaluated their risks and benefits.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clearly, more research is needed on the health of populations where indoor residual spraying is occurring, but in the meantime, DDT should really be the last resort against malaria rather than the first line of defense."^ Manto hails DDT against malaria .
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have had malaria more than a dozen times.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overwhelming majority—90 percent—of malaria victims live in Africa, where the disease plagues both human and economic health (Africa facts, maps, more).
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101]
.Illegal diversion of DDT to agriculture is also a concern, as it is almost impossible to prevent, and its subsequent use on crops is totally unregulated.^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet during the negotiations, the World Wide Fund for Nature, the main supporters of a targeted phase-out date, abandoned its proposal, focusing instead on more stringent attempts to control the illegal use of DDT in agriculture.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When it was used in vast quantities in agriculture, DDT probably harmed reproduction in birds of prey - but this harm subsequently proved reversible.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, DDT use is wide spread in Indian agriculture,[102] particularly mango production,[103] and is reportedly used by librarians in the country to protect books.^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet during the negotiations, the World Wide Fund for Nature, the main supporters of a targeted phase-out date, abandoned its proposal, focusing instead on more stringent attempts to control the illegal use of DDT in agriculture.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example: In Silent Spring Carson claims a person was struck down with cancer almost immediately after using DDT three times to spray her basement.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] Other example include Ethiopia, where DDT intended for malaria control is reportedly being used in coffee production,[105] and Ghana where it is used for fishing."[106] The consequent insecticidal residues in crops at levels unacceptable for the export trade have been an important factor in recent bans of DDT for malaria control in several tropical countries".[88] Adding to this problem is a lack of skilled personnel and supervision.[95]

Criticism of restrictions on DDT use

.Critics claim that restrictions on the use of DDT in vector control have resulted in substantial numbers of unnecessary deaths due to malaria.^ In the 1970s, Greenpeace took the lead in condemning DDT — after the chemical had been used successfully to rid North America and Europe of malaria, which had been endemic throughout both continents.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the restriction and ban of DDT in some nations, average breast milk levels have decreased substantially.
  • NRDC: Healthy Milk, Healthy Baby - DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most nations where malaria is a problem, and most health professionals working in the field of malaria control, support the targeted use of DDT, as part of the tool kit for malaria control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Estimates for the number of these deaths range from hundreds of thousands, according to Nicholas Kristof,[107] to much higher figures.^ From my own observations and discussions with many doctors here the WHO data are not correct, the number of people with malaria is much higher.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In India, where malaria infected an estimated seventy-five million and killed eight hundred thousand every year, fatalities had dropped to zero by the early sixties.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Robert Gwadz of the National Institutes of Health said in 2007 that "The ban on DDT may have killed 20 million children."[108] These arguments have been called "outrageous" by former WHO scientist Socrates Litsios, and May Berenbaum, an entomologist at the University of Illinois, says that "to blame environmentalists who oppose DDT for more deaths than Hitler is worse than irresponsible."[81] Investigative journalist Adam Sarvana and others characterize this notion as a "myth" promoted principally by Roger Bate of the pro-DDT advocacy group Africa Fighting Malaria (AFM) in service of his anti-regulatory, free market ideology.[109][110]
.Criticisms of a "ban" on DDT often specifically reference the 1972 US ban (with the erroneous implication that this constituted a worldwide ban and prohibited use of DDT in vector control).^ The use of DDT was banned in the United States in 1972.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT has never been banned for public health use, in the US or elsewhere.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When did the WHO ban use of DDT? .
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reference is often made to Rachel Carson's Silent Spring even though she never pushed for a ban on DDT. John Quiggin and Tim Lambert have written that "the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted."[111] Carson actually devoted a page of her book to considering the relationship between DDT and malaria, warning of the evolution of DDT resistance in mosquitoes and concluding:
.It is more sensible in some cases to take a small amount of damage in preference to having none for a time but paying for it in the long run by losing the very means of fighting [is the advice given in Holland by Dr Briejer in his capacity as director of the Plant Protection Service].^ The amounts currently proposed are a very small fraction of this (~0.5 kg/ family per year)~ 2 to 20 tonnes per country by my estimate, or about 0.1% .
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I got the feeling some time ago that Tim Lambert was the "Mark Latham" of science bloggers: more interested in fighting that getting to the truthy of the matter.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If intrinsic, this slow decay would place severe constraints on the proposed injection model, requiring the engine to be active for a very long time.
  • DDT Observations 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC asc.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Practical advice should be "Spray as little as you possibly can" rather than "Spray to the limit of your capacity."^ The accreted material can therefore remain on the WD, driving its mass closer to the Chandrasekhar limit, rather than being blown off in a nova.
  • DDT Observations 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC asc.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To: Squawk 8888 Your support is appreciated- than you.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let's again take a look at what you wrote in the "director's cut" of your essay: Yet Carson is also regularly accused of killing more people than Hitler.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Amir Attaran and Roger Bate, many environmental groups fought against the public health exception of DDT in the 2001 Stockholm Convention, over the objections of third world governments and many malaria researchers.^ Nairobi-based physician Paul Saoke is chairman of Kenya's DDT and Malaria Expert Committee on implementation of the Stockholm Convention and head of the country's chapter of the international health advocacy group Physicians for Social Responsibility.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most nations where malaria is a problem, and most health professionals working in the field of malaria control, support the targeted use of DDT, as part of the tool kit for malaria control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last year the World Health Organisation said 23 countries used DDT for malaria control.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attaran strongly objected to an outright ban, writing, "Environmentalists in rich, developed countries gain nothing from DDT, and thus small risks felt at home loom larger than health benefits for the poor tropics.^ DDT has been banned in most developed countries since the 1970s.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the World Health Organization last year recommended the use of DDT in places like Africa where malaria is still common, saying the benefits outweighed the risks.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08381705.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ Last year the World Health Organisation said 23 countries used DDT for malaria control.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than 200 environmental groups, including Greenpeace, Physicians for Social Responsibility and the World Wildlife Fund, actively condemn DDT..."^ In the 1970s, Greenpeace took the lead in condemning DDT — after the chemical had been used successfully to rid North America and Europe of malaria, which had been endemic throughout both continents.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The campaign to ban it, joined by 260 environmental groups, reads like a who's who of the environmental movement and includes names such as Greenpeace, Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF), and (ironically) the Physicians for Social Responsibility.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spokesmen for Greenpeace and the World Wildlife Fund, activist environmental groups that have led the effort to ban worldwide use of the pesticide DDT, have admitted to the New York Times that DDT may be necessary and desirable after all.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112]
It has also been argued that donor governments and agencies have refused to fund DDT spraying, or made aid contingent upon not using DDT. According a report in the British Medical Journal, use of DDT in Mozambique "was stopped several decades ago, because 80% of the country's health budget came from donor funds, and donors refused to allow the use of DDT."[113] Roger Bate asserts that "many countries have been coming under pressure from international health and environment agencies to give up DDT or face losing aid grants: Belize and Bolivia are on record admitting they gave in to pressure on this issue from [USAID]."[114]
.The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has been the focus of much criticism.^ As an official of the Agency for International Development stated, "Rather dead than alive and riotously reproducing."
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "On May 2, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), endorsed indoor spraying of DDT to rid homes of malaria-carrying mosquitoes.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thankfully, the U.S. Agency for International Development, World Health Organization and other agencies are helping us launch spraying programs.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the agency is currently funding the use of DDT in some African countries,[115] in the past it has not.^ The use of DDT in targetted programs has been more than frowned upon - it has limited access to international/external funding.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last year the World Health Organisation said 23 countries used DDT for malaria control.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT was banned for general (but not public health use) in the US in 1972, and similar bans apply in other countries.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When John Stossel accused USAID of not funding DDT because it wasn't "politically correct," Anne Peterson, the agency's assistant administrator for global health, replied that "I believe that the strategies we are using are as effective as spraying with DDT ...^ That is, if DDT had continued to be used in large quantities for agricultural use, it would eventually accumulate in sufficient concentrations to present a serious human health risk.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "In May 1955 the Eighth World Health Assembly adopted a Global Malaria Eradication Campaign based on the widespread use of DDT against mosquitos and of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria and to eliminate the parasite in humans.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of DDT in targetted programs has been more than frowned upon - it has limited access to international/external funding.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

So, politically correct or not, I am very confident that what we are doing is the right strategy."[116] .USAID's Kent R. Hill states that the agency has been misrepresented: "USAID strongly supports spraying as a preventative measure for malaria and will support the use of DDT when it is scientifically sound and warranted."^ USAID says we support it's use where appropriate.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, there are 12 insecticides approved by the World Health Organization used for spraying in malaria control, including DDT. USAID expects to consider the use of all insecticides on a scientific, case-by-case basis, and will provide the essential technical planning, training, logistics and support needed before spraying begins.'
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most nations where malaria is a problem, and most health professionals working in the field of malaria control, support the targeted use of DDT, as part of the tool kit for malaria control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117] .With regard to decision to start funding the use of the chemical, the Agency's website states that "USAID has never had a 'policy' as such either 'for' or 'against' DDT for IRS. The real change in the past two years [2006/07] has been a new interest and emphasis on the use of IRS in general—with DDT or any other insecticide—as an effective malaria prevention strategy in tropical Africa."^ Artifacts and mimics of DDT and other insecticides.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Manto hails DDT against malaria .
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And for the umpteenth time I'm not opposed to using DDT against malaria.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115] .The website further explains that in many cases alternative malaria control measures were judged to be more cost-effective that DDT spraying, and so were funded instead.^ DDT use for malaria control is effective when used to spray homes and to spray on bed nets.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet during the negotiations, the World Wide Fund for Nature, the main supporters of a targeted phase-out date, abandoned its proposal, focusing instead on more stringent attempts to control the illegal use of DDT in agriculture.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most countries in Africa where USAID provides support to malaria control programs, it has been judged more cost-effective and appropriate to put US government funds into preventing malaria through insecticide-treated nets, which are every bit as effective in preventing malaria and more feasible in countries that do not have existing, strong indoor spraying programs.'
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[118]

Alternatives to DDT

DDT versus other insecticides

.Advocates of increased use of DDT in IRS claim that alternative insecticides are more expensive, more toxic, or not as effective.^ Who's advocating the use of DDT exclusively!?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other chemicals are available, but they are generally less effective, shorter-acting and - most importantly for the Third World - more expensive.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A serious problem was that Anopheles funestus mosquitoes developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids - the main alternative to DDT - making the switch an expensive and futile exercise.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As discussed above, susceptibility of mosquitoes to DDT varies geographically and the same is true for alternative insecticides, so its effectiveness vis-a-vis other chemicals varies.^ Other chemicals are available, but they are generally less effective, shorter-acting and - most importantly for the Third World - more expensive.
  • DDT is safe: just ask the professor who ate it for 40 years 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A serious problem was that Anopheles funestus mosquitoes developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids - the main alternative to DDT - making the switch an expensive and futile exercise.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1972 DDT ban did nothing to restrict the chemical’s use against malaria, but had the effect of eliminating the single most intense source of selection pressure for insecticide resistance in mosquitos.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With regard to toxicity and cost-effectiveness versus other insecticides, actual data is lacking.^ TEFs are regarded as risk management tools and they do not necessarily represent actual toxicity with respect to all endpoints.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ Some developing countries still use it in malaria campaigns, not only because of its effectiveness, but also because of its low cost and lack of acute toxicity for applicators, compared to alternative chemical pesticides that are more costly or more toxic.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had little alternative: no other insecticide, at any price, was known to be equally effective.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The relative costs of employing various insecticides vary by location and ease of access, the habits of the particular mosquitoes prevalent in each area, the degrees of resistance to various pesticides exhibited by the mosquitoes, and the habits and compliance of the population, among other factors.^ In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West Nile virus and other factors in the natural environment pose greater threats to birds and wildlife than pesticide spraying.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pesticide exposures and other agricultural risk factors for leukemia among men in Iowa and Minnesota.

.Furthermore, the choice of insecticide has little impact on the overall cost of a round of spraying, since insecticide costs are only a fraction total budget for an IRS campaign.^ Paris green and pyrethrum were crude insecticides that had to be applied repeatedly; pyrethrum killed only those mosquitoes that happened to be in the room when you were spraying.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases, indoor residual spraying of DDT, or any other insecticide, is not cost-effective and is very difficult to maintain.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Malaria Eradication Campaign was only launched in three countries of tropical Africa since it was not considered feasible in the others.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, to be effective, IRS needs to be maintained throughout the malaria season, and DDT lasts longer than alternative insecticides, so needs to be applied less frequently.^ In the 1970s, Greenpeace took the lead in condemning DDT — after the chemical had been used successfully to rid North America and Europe of malaria, which had been endemic throughout both continents.
  • DDT and Other Pesticide Scares 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.akdart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the World Health Organization last year recommended the use of DDT in places like Africa where malaria is still common, saying the benefits outweighed the risks.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08381705.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ Last year the World Health Organisation said 23 countries used DDT for malaria control.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, e.g. malathion and bendiocarb, respectively, are more expensive than DDT per kilogram and are applied at roughly the same dosage.^ The use of DDT in targetted programs has been more than frowned upon - it has limited access to international/external funding.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ QUOTE "Facing pressure from environmentalists, the national malaria control programme abandoned DDT in favour of more expensive pyrethroid nsecticides in 1996."
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appears that the main toxicity to humans is related more to the solvent vehicle rather than the DDT itself.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Pyrethroids such as deltamethrin are also more expensive than DDT, but are applied more sparingly (0.02-0.3 g/m2 vs 1-2 g/m2), so the net cost per house is about the same per 6 months.^ A serious problem was that Anopheles funestus mosquitoes developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids - the main alternative to DDT - making the switch an expensive and futile exercise.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, IRS using pyrethroids was the most cost-effective vector control option when compared to insecticide treated bed nets (DDT was not considered in this study) (Goodman et al.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of DDT in targetted programs has been more than frowned upon - it has limited access to international/external funding.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

DDT versus non-chemical vector control

.Before DDT, malaria was successfully eradicated or curtailed in several tropical areas by removing or poisoning the breeding grounds of the mosquitoes or the aquatic habitats of the larva stages, for example by filling or applying oil to places with standing water.^ But the World Health Organization last year recommended the use of DDT in places like Africa where malaria is still common, saying the benefits outweighed the risks.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08381705.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ DDT has over many decades proven the most effective chemical for malaria (mosquito) control but its use is often restricted on environmental grounds.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was several years before the arrival of DDT, so he brought with him the only tools malariologists had in those years: diesel oil and an arsenic-based mixture called Paris green, both of which were spread on the pools of water where gambiae larvae bred; and pyrethrum, a natural pesticide made from a variety of chrysanthemum, which was used to fumigate buildings.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These methods have seen little application in Africa for more than half a century.^ A decade into that effort, however, there's little to show for it: malaria is far more pervasive today than it was when the campaign started.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 90 percent of the deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the most virulent form of the disease resides.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In little more than two decades, DDT has prevented 500 million human deaths, due to malaria, that otherwise would have been inevitable."
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

[119]
.The relative effectiveness of IRS (with DDT or alternative insecticides) versus other malaria control techniques (e.g.^ Artifacts and mimics of DDT and other insecticides.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, IRS using pyrethroids was the most cost-effective vector control option when compared to insecticide treated bed nets (DDT was not considered in this study) (Goodman et al.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, none of the malaria control or insecticide control specialists in Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya or South Africa could cite a formal cost-effectiveness study to assess whether IRS using DDT was, in truth, the most effective and inexpensive method to be used.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

bednets or prompt access to anti-malarial drugs) varies greatly and is highly dependent on local conditions.[20]
.A study by the World Health Organization released in January 2008 found that mass distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets and artemisinin based drugs cut malaria deaths in half in Rwanda and Ethiopia, countries with very high malaria burdens.^ She later distributed treated bed-nets to fight malaria.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08381705.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ The World Health Organization (WHO) is expected to do the same in short order, according to a comprehensive report published in the current issue of the journal Nature Medicine.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am aware of only one study showing nervous system damage from DDT. It examined workers in Central America who participated in mosquito eradication programs, and were exposed to very high doses of the chemical.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.IRS with DDT was determined to not have played an important role in the reduction of mortality.^ Eradication campaigns using pesticides of which DDT played a staring role seem to have done the job.
  • John Quiggin » Lomborg on the mythical DDT ban 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC johnquiggin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ms Carson's campaign had effectively highlighted environmental concern but failed to acknowledge DDT’s important role in malaria prevention particularly in the Third World.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, for now and the foreseeable future, DDT will continue to play some role as a front-line weapon in the malaria wars.
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[120]
.Vietnam is an example of a country that has seen a continued decline in malaria cases after switching in 1991 from a poorly funded DDT-based campaign to a program based on prompt treatment, bednets, and the use of pyrethroid group insecticides.^ "In May 1955 the Eighth World Health Assembly adopted a Global Malaria Eradication Campaign based on the widespread use of DDT against mosquitos and of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria and to eliminate the parasite in humans.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although exports, and overall production, continued to rise until 1963, US consumption of DDT peaked in 1959, before any significant restrictions were placed on its use, and declined steadily thereafter.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, IRS using pyrethroids was the most cost-effective vector control option when compared to insecticide treated bed nets (DDT was not considered in this study) (Goodman et al.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Deaths from malaria dropped by 97%.[121]
.In Mexico, the use of a range of effective and affordable chemical and non-chemical strategies against malaria has been so successful that the Mexican DDT manufacturing plant ceased production voluntarily, due to lack of demand.^ "In May 1955 the Eighth World Health Assembly adopted a Global Malaria Eradication Campaign based on the widespread use of DDT against mosquitos and of antimalarial drugs to treat malaria and to eliminate the parasite in humans.
  • Junkscience.com -- 100 things you should know about DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.junkscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But the World Health Organization last year recommended the use of DDT in places like Africa where malaria is still common, saying the benefits outweighed the risks.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08381705.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ But fortunately, India's National Anti-Malaria Programme has objected to this commitment, because it has used DDT to control vectors since it began its operations in 1953.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[122] .Furthermore, while the increased numbers of malaria victims since DDT usage fell out of favor would, at first glance, suggest a 1:1 correlation, many other factors are known to have contributed to the rise in cases.^ But fortunately, India's National Anti-Malaria Programme has objected to this commitment, because it has used DDT to control vectors since it began its operations in 1953.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'Dale Ward: How about using DDT to wipe-out malaria?
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, unlike many mosquitoes, it is long-lived, meaning that once it has picked up the malaria parasite it can spread the protozoan to many others.
  • gladwell dot com - the mosquito killer 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gladwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A review of fourteen studies on the subject in sub-Saharan Africa, covering insecticide-treated nets, residual spraying, chemoprophylaxis for children, chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment for pregnant women, a hypothetical vaccine, and changing the first line drug for treatment, found decision making limited by the gross lack of information on the costs and effects of many interventions, the very small number of cost-effectiveness analyses available, the lack of evidence on the costs and effects of packages of measures, and the problems in generalizing or comparing studies that relate to specific settings and use different methodologies and outcome measures.^ In many cases, indoor residual spraying of DDT, or any other insecticide, is not cost-effective and is very difficult to maintain.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study was, however, limited by the small numbers of deaths.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not just about DDT. It is about a number of different insecticides that can be used for indoor spraying.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two cost-effectiveness estimates of DDT residual spraying examined were not found to provide an accurate estimate of the cost-effectiveness of DDT spraying; furthermore, the resulting estimates may not be good predictors of cost-effectiveness in current programs.^ They estimate that DDT spray reduced the risk of disease transmission by nearly three-quarters.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08381705.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ Average residues detected in meat and fish in India were 1.0 and 1.1 g/g fat respectively, with an estimated daily intake of 48 g/person/day for DDT and its metabolites.
  • IOMC, POPs Assessment Report, Dec. 1995: Chapter 6 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chem.unep.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ A spraying program with Icon (a pyrethroid also used in agriculture, and which thus can quickly breed mosquito resistance) resulted in the deaths of two students.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123]
.However, a study in Thailand found the cost per malaria case prevented of DDT spraying ($1.87 US) to be 21% greater than the cost per case prevented of lambda-cyhalothrin-treated nets ($1.54 US),[124] at very least casting some doubt on the unexamined assumption that DDT was the most cost-effective measure to use in all cases.^ It is no panacea, but it is still the most cost-effective method of malaria prevention in most locations.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT use for malaria control is effective when used to spray homes and to spray on bed nets.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some risk of lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer was found in humans exposed to DDT. Animal studies showed a significant association between DDT administration and lymphoma, respiratory cancer, liver cancer, and estrogenic effects on mammary tissue.
  • DDT (PIM 127) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The director of Mexico's malaria control program finds similar results, declaring that it is 25% cheaper for Mexico to spray a house with synthetic pyrethroids than with DDT.[122] However, another study in South Africa found generally lower costs for DDT spraying than for impregnated nets.^ DDT use for malaria control is effective when used to spray homes and to spray on bed nets.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this and other current malaria control program, spraying with DDT is restricted to the inside of homes.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uganda has demonstrated that, with the proper support, we can conduct model indoor spraying programs and ensure that money is spent wisely, chemicals are handled properly, our program responds promptly to changing conditions, and malaria is brought under control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125]
.A more comprehensive approach to measuring cost-effectiveness or efficacy of malarial control would not only measure the cost in dollars of the project, as well as the number of people saved, but would also take into account the negative aspects of insecticide use on human health and ecological damage.^ The overwhelming majority—90 percent—of malaria victims live in Africa, where the disease plagues both human and economic health (Africa facts, maps, more).
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, IRS using pyrethroids was the most cost-effective vector control option when compared to insecticide treated bed nets (DDT was not considered in this study) (Goodman et al.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most nations where malaria is a problem, and most health professionals working in the field of malaria control, support the targeted use of DDT, as part of the tool kit for malaria control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One preliminary study regarding the effect of DDT found that it is likely the detriment to human health approaches or exceeds the beneficial reductions in malarial cases, except perhaps in malarial epidemic situations.^ DDT can have an adverse effect on beneficial animals.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study is one of the first to link DDT with human developmental problems.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies on the reproductive effects of DDT in humans are rare.

.It is similar to the earlier mentioned study regarding estimated theoretical infant mortality caused by DDT and subject to the criticism also mentioned earlier.^ Ecological studies have demonstrated that bioaccumulated DDT could cause thinning of eggshells and reproductive failure in birds of prey.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DDT is considered a probable human carcinogen because of its chemical similarity to other known carcinogens, and the fact that it causes cancer in some animals.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grover Gardner ( mail ): As referenced above, a National Institutes of Health study in 2007 estimated that banning DDT may have caused the deaths of 20 million children.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[126]
.A study in the Solomon Islands found that "although impregnated bed nets cannot entirely replace DDT spraying without substantial increase in incidence, their use permits reduced DDT spraying."^ DDT use for malaria control is effective when used to spray homes and to spray on bed nets.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They estimate that DDT spray reduced the risk of disease transmission by nearly three-quarters.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08381705.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, IRS using pyrethroids was the most cost-effective vector control option when compared to insecticide treated bed nets (DDT was not considered in this study) (Goodman et al.
  • DDT Should it be used? - Science Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[127]
.A comparison of four successful programs against malaria in Brazil, India, Eritrea, and Vietnam does not endorse any single strategy but instead states "Common success factors included conducive country conditions, a targeted technical approach using a package of effective tools, data-driven decision-making, active leadership at all levels of government, involvement of communities, decentralized implementation and control of finances, skilled technical and managerial capacity at national and sub-national levels, hands-on technical and programmatic support from partner agencies, and sufficient and flexible financing."^ Uganda has demonstrated that, with the proper support, we can conduct model indoor spraying programs and ensure that money is spent wisely, chemicals are handled properly, our program responds promptly to changing conditions, and malaria is brought under control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet during the negotiations, the World Wide Fund for Nature, the main supporters of a targeted phase-out date, abandoned its proposal, focusing instead on more stringent attempts to control the illegal use of DDT in agriculture.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most nations where malaria is a problem, and most health professionals working in the field of malaria control, support the targeted use of DDT, as part of the tool kit for malaria control.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Defending DDT's Defenders: 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[128]
.DDT resistant mosquitoes have generally proved susceptible to pyrethroids.^ In areas in which DDT resistant mosquitos dominate...
  • Is DDT Making a Comeback? | Environment | AlterNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A serious problem was that Anopheles funestus mosquitoes developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids - the main alternative to DDT - making the switch an expensive and futile exercise.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A spraying program with Icon (a pyrethroid also used in agriculture, and which thus can quickly breed mosquito resistance) resulted in the deaths of two students.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus far, pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles has not been a major problem.^ A serious problem was that Anopheles funestus mosquitoes developed resistance to synthetic pyrethroids - the main alternative to DDT - making the switch an expensive and futile exercise.
  • Some are Boojums » Blog Archive » Ruckelshaus, Sweeney and DDT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.someareboojums.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A spraying program with Icon (a pyrethroid also used in agriculture, and which thus can quickly breed mosquito resistance) resulted in the deaths of two students.
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in South Africa when certain mosquitoes developed resistance to the major alternative class of insecticides, the synthetic pyrethroids, DDT was used.'
  • Jennifer Marohasy: DDT returns to battle malaria in Africa: Reuters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Toxicological Profile: for DDT, DDE, and DDE. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, September 2002.
  2. ^ a b NobelPrize.org: The Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine 1948 Accessed July 26, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Environmental Health Criteria 9: DDT and its derivatives, World Health Organization, 1979.
  4. ^ a b Lear, Linda (1997). Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Hoyten.
  5. ^ a b Larson, Kim (December 1, 2007). "Bad Blood". On Earth (Winter 2008). http://www.onearth.org/article/bad-blood?. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  6. ^ ""The Bald Eagle - USA's National Emblem"". http://www.baldeagleinfo.com/eagle/eagle9.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  7. ^ a b E. Stokstad, "Species conservation. Can the bald eagle still soar after it is delisted?", Science 316, 5832 (2007), p. 1689f. doi: [1][2]
  8. ^ Geisz HN, Dickhut RM, Cochran MA, Fraser WR, Ducklow HW (2005). "Melting Glaciers: A Probable Source of DDT to the Antarctic Marine Ecosystem". Environ. Sci. Technol. ASAP: 3958. doi:10.1021/es702919n. http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/esthag/asap/abs/es702919n.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  9. ^ DAVID, DAVID (July 4, 2008). "McIntosh residents file suit against Ciba". http://www.al.com/news/mobileregister/index.ssf?/base/news/1215162908145190.xml&coll=3. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  10. ^ Environmental Cleanup Site Information Database for Arkema (former Pennwalt) facility, Oregon DEQ, April 2009.
  11. ^ ROSEMARY, ROSEMARY (2008-01-27). "Tests shed light on how pCBSA got into St. Louis water". Morning Sun. http://www.themorningsun.com/stories/012708/loc_tests.shtml. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  12. ^ a b c d e DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975), U.S. EPA, July 1975.
  13. ^ a b c d e van den Berg, Henk; Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention (October 23, 2008). "Global status of DDT and its alternatives for use in vector control to prevent disease". Stockholm Convention/United Nations Environment Programme. http://www.pops.int/documents/ddt/Global%20status%20of%20DDT%20SSC%2020Oct08.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  14. ^ Denholm I, Devine GJ, Williamson MS (2002). "Evolutionary genetics. Insecticide resistance on the move". Science 297 (5590): 2222–3. doi:10.1126/science.1077266. PMID 12351778. 
  15. ^ a b c Dunlap, Thomas R. (1981). DDT: Scientists, Citizens, and Public Policy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04680-8. 
  16. ^ Shah, Sonia “Don’t Blame Environmentalists for Malaria,” The Nation. April 2006.
  17. ^ a b c Gladwell, Malcolm (July 2, 2001). "The Mosquito Killer". The New Yorker. http://www.gladwell.com/2001/2001_07_02_a_ddt.htm. .
  18. ^ a b Harrison, Gordon A (1978). Mosquitoes, Malaria, and Man: A History of the Hostilities Since 1880. Dutton. ISBN 0525160256. 
  19. ^ a b c d Chapin G, Wasserstrom R (1981). "Agricultural production and malaria resurgence in Central America and India". Nature 293 (5829): 181–5. doi:10.1038/293181a0. PMID 7278974. 
  20. ^ a b c d Sadasivaiah, Shobha; Tozan, Yesim; Breman, Joel G. (1 December 2007). "Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for Indoor Residual Spraying in Africa: How Can It Be Used for Malaria Control?". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77 (Suppl 6): 249–263. http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/full/77/6_Suppl/249. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rogan WJ, Chen A (2005). "Health risks and benefits of bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT)". Lancet 366 (9487): 763–73. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67182-6. PMID 16125595. 
  22. ^ Greenberg DS (May 1963). "Pesticides: White House Advisory Body Issues Report Recommending Steps to Reduce Hazard to Public". Science (journal) 140 (3569): 878–879. doi:10.1126/science.140.3569.878. PMID 17810673. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17810673. Retrieved 2008-05-21.  cited in Graham Jr., Frank. "Nature’s Protector and Provocateur". Audubon Magazine. http://audubonmagazine.org/books/editorchoice0709.html. 
  23. ^ a b Michaels, David (2008). Doubt Is Their Product: How Industry's Assault on Science Threatens Your Health. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195300673. 
  24. ^ "Sue the Bastards", TIME October 18, 1971
  25. ^ "AEI - Short Publications - The Rise, Fall, Rise, and Imminent Fall of DDT". http://www.aei.org/outlook/27063. 
  26. ^ "Selected passages from the history of the Hungarian plant protection administration on the 50th anniversary of establishing the county plant protection stations". http://www.fvm.hu/main.php?folderID=1564&articleID=6169&ctag=articlelist&iid=1&part=2. 
  27. ^ "MFI second page". Malaria Foundation International. http://www.malaria.org/DDTpage.html. Retrieved 2006-03-15. 
  28. ^ "Concern over excessive DDT use in Jiribam fields". The Imphal Free Press. 2008-05-05. http://www.kanglaonline.com/index.php?template=headline&newsid=42015&typeid=1. Retrieved 2008-05-05. 
  29. ^ "Is DDT still effective and needed in malaria control?". Malaria Foundation International. http://www.malaria.org/DDTcosts.html. Retrieved 2006-03-15. 
  30. ^ a b Roberts, Donald R.; Laughlin, LL; Hsheih, P; Legters, LJ (July-September 1997). "DDT, global strategies, and a malaria control crisis in South America". Emerging Infectious Diseases 3 (3): 295–302. doi:10.3201/eid0303.970305. PMID 9284373.& PMC 2627649. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol3no3/roberts.htm. 
  31. ^ "The Grasshopper Effect and Tracking Hazardous Air Pollutants" (). The Science and the Environment Bulletin (Environment Canada) (May/June 1998). http://www.ec.gc.ca/science/sandemay/PrintVersion/print2_e.html. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Eskenazi, Brenda (May 4, 2009). "The Pine River Statement: Human Health Consequences of DDT Use". Environ. Health Perspect.. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2009/11748/11748.pdf. 
  33. ^ USDA, Pesticide Data Program Annual Summary Calendar Year 2005, November 2006.
  34. ^ D Kantachote, R Naidu, B Williams, N McClure, M Megharaj, I Singleton (2004). "Bioremediation of DDT-contaminated soil: enhancement by seaweed addition". Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 79 (6): 632–638. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/108060819/abstract. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  35. ^ O'Shaughnessy PT (November 2008). "Parachuting cats and crushed eggs the controversy over the use of DDT to control malaria". Am J Public Health 98 (11): 1940–8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.122523. PMID 18799776. http://www.ajph.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18799776. 
  36. ^ "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding and Proposed Rule To Remove the Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Proposed Rule," Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, February 20, 2008. 73 F.R. 9407
  37. ^ Walker et al, 2006, Principles of Ecotoxicology
  38. ^ Guillette, Louis J., Jr. (2006). "Endocrine Disrupting Contaminants" (PDF). http://www.ehponline.org/members/2005/8045/8045.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  39. ^ Lundholm, C.E. (1997). "DDE-Induced eggshell thinning in birds". Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 118 (118): 113. doi:10.1016/S0742-8413(97)00105-9. 
  40. ^ Holm L, Blomqvist A, Brandt I, Brunström B, Ridderstråle Y, Berg C (October 2006). "Embryonic exposure to o,p'-DDT causes eggshell thinning and altered shell gland carbonic anhydrase expression in the domestic hen". Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25 (10): 2787–93. doi:10.1897/05-619R.1. PMID 17022422. 
  41. ^ Division of Environmental Quality
  42. ^ a b c d e Cohn BA, Wolff MS, Cirillo PM, Sholtz RI (October 2007). "DDT and breast cancer in young women: new data on the significance of age at exposure". Environ. Health Perspect. 115 (10): 1406–14. doi:10.1289/ehp.10260. PMID 17938728. 
  43. ^ Pesticideinfo.org
  44. ^ World Health Organization, The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard, 2005.
  45. ^ Rappolt, RT (1973). "Use of oral DDT in three human barbiturate intoxications: hepatic enzyme induction by reciprocal detoxicants". Clin Toxicol 6 (2): 147–51. doi:10.3109/15563657308990512. PMID 4715198. 
  46. ^ Jones, Oliver AH; Maguire, Mahon L; Griffin, Julian L (January 26, 2008). "Environmental pollution and diabetes: a neglected association" (PDF). Lancet 371 (9609): 287–288. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60147-6. PMID 18294985. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6T1B-4RNK38J-B-1&_cdi=4886&_user=4420&_orig=browse&_coverDate=02%2F01%2F2008&_sk=996280390&view=c&wchp=dGLbVtb-zSkzS&md5=49ceb153cf41f91572ac41664bcf057e&ie=/sdarticle.pdf. 
  47. ^ Turyk, Mary (March 6, 2009). "Organochlorine Exposure and Incidence of Diabetes in a Cohort of Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumers". Environ. Health Perspect.. http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2009/0800281/abstract.html. 
  48. ^ Codru, Neculai; Schymura, MJ; Negoita, S; Akwesasne Task Force on Environment; Rej, R; Carpenter, DO (2007). "Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans" (PDF). Environ. Health Perspect. 115 (10): 1442–7. doi:10.1289/ehp.10315. PMID 17938733.& PMC 2022671. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10315/10315.pdf. 
  49. ^ Cox, Shanna; Niskar, AS; Narayan, KM; Marcus, M (2007). "Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides among Mexican Americans: Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982–1984" (PDF). Environ. Health Perspect 115 (12): 1747–52. doi:10.1289/ehp.10258. PMID 18087594.& PMC 2137130. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10258/10258.pdf. 
  50. ^ Turyk M, Anderson H, Knobeloch L, Imm P, Persky V (July 2009). "Organochlorine exposure and incidence of diabetes in a cohort of Great Lakes sport fish consumers". Environ. Health Perspect. 117 (7): 1076–82. doi:10.1289/ehp.0800281. PMID 19654916. 
  51. ^ Philibert, Aline; Harold Schwartz and Donna Mergler (11 December 2009). "An Exploratory Study of Diabetes in a First Nation Community with Respect to Serum Concentrations of p,p’-DDE and PCBs and Fish Consumption". Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6 (12): 3179–3189. http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/6/12/3179. 
  52. ^ Rogan WJ, Ragan NB (2003). "Evidence of effects of environmental chemicals on the endocrine system in children". Pediatrics 112 (1 Pt 2): 247–52. doi:10.1542/peds.112.1.S1.247 (inactive 2009-11-27). PMID 12837917. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12837917. 
  53. ^ Chen A, Rogan WJ (2003). "Nonmalarial infant deaths and DDT use for malaria control". Emerging Infect. Dis. 9 (8): 960–4. PMID 12967494. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no8/03-0082.htm. 
  54. ^ Roberts D, Curtis C, Tren R, Sharp B, Shiff C, Bate R (2004). "Malaria control and public health". Emerging Infect. Dis. 10 (6): 1170–1; author reply 1171–2. PMID 15224677. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol10no6/03-0787_03-1116.htm. 
  55. ^ Chen A, Rogan WJ. Malaria control and public health (replies). Emerging Infectious Disease, 10(6):1171-1172, June 2004
  56. ^ Cupul-Uicab, LA; Gladen, BC; Hernández-Avila, M; Weber, JP; Longnecker, MP (2008). "DDE, a Degradation Product of DDT, and Duration of Lactation in a Highly Exposed Area of Mexico". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (2): 179–183. doi:10.1289/ehp.10550. PMID 18288315.& PMC 2235222. http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2007/10550/abstract.html. 
  57. ^ BBC (2006-07-05). "DDT 'link' to slow child progress". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5145450.stm. Retrieved 2006-07-05. 
  58. ^ Sagiv SK, Nugent JK, Brazelton TB, et al. (May 2008). "Prenatal organochlorine exposure and measures of behavior in infancy using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (5): 666–73. doi:10.1289/ehp.10553. PMID 18470320.& PMC 2367684. http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2008/10553/abstract.html. 
  59. ^ Ribas-Fitó N, Torrent M, Carrizo D (2006). "In utero exposure to background concentrations of DDT and cognitive functioning among preschoolers". Am. J. Epidemiol. 164 (10): 955–62. doi:10.1093/aje/kwj299. PMID 16968864. 
  60. ^ Torres-Sánchez L, Rothenberg SJ, Schnaas L (2007). "In utero p, p'-DDE exposure and infant neurodevelopment: a perinatal cohort in Mexico". Environ. Health Perspect. 115 (3): 435–9. doi:10.1289/ehp.9566. PMID 17431495. 
  61. ^ Jurewicz J, Hanke W, Radwan M, Bonde JP (January 2010). "Environmental factors and semen quality". Int J Occup Med Environ Health: 1–25. doi:10.2478/v10001-009-0036-1. PMID 20053623. 
  62. ^ Aneck-Hahn NH, Schulenburg GW, Bornman MS, Farias P, de Jager C (2007). "Impaired semen quality associated with environmental DDT exposure in young men living in a malaria area in the Limpopo Province, South Africa". J. Androl. 28 (3): 423–34. doi:10.2164/jandrol.106.001701. PMID 17192596. 
  63. ^ De Jager C, Farias P, Barraza-Villarreal A (2006). "Reduced seminal parameters associated with environmental DDT exposure and p, p'-DDE concentrations in men in Chiapas, Mexico: a cross-sectional study". J. Androl. 27 (1): 16–27. doi:10.2164/jandrol.05121. PMID 16400073. 
  64. ^ Harley KG, Marks AR, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B (December 2008). "DDT Exposure, Work in Agriculture, and Time to Pregnancy Among Farmworkers in California". J. Occup. Environ. Med. 50 (12): 1335–1342. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e31818f684d. PMID 19092487.& PMC 2684791. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?an=00043764-200812000-00003. 
  65. ^ Cohn BA, Cirillo PM, Wolff MS (2003). "DDT and DDE exposure in mothers and time to pregnancy in daughters". Lancet 361 (9376): 2205–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13776-2. PMID 12842376. 
  66. ^ Venners SA, Korrick S, Xu X (2005). "Preconception serum DDT and pregnancy loss: a prospective study using a biomarker of pregnancy". Am. J. Epidemiol. 162 (8): 709–16. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi275. PMID 16120699. 
  67. ^ Longnecker MP (2005). "Invited Commentary: Why DDT matters now". Am. J. Epidemiol. 162 (8): 726–8. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi277. PMID 16120697. 
  68. ^ Nagayama J, Kohno H, Kunisue T (2007). "Concentrations of organochlorine pollutants in mothers who gave birth to neonates with congenital hypothyroidism". Chemosphere 68 (5): 972–6. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.01.010. PMID 17307219. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045-6535(07)00040-9. 
  69. ^ Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Ribas-Fito N, Torrent M, Carrizo D, Grimalt JO, Sunyer J (October 2007). "Effects of PCBs, p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, HCB and {beta}-HCH on thyroid function in preschoolers". Occup Environ Med. doi:10.1136/oem.2007.032763. PMID 17933884. 
  70. ^ Schell LM, Gallo MV, Denham M, Ravenscroft J, Decaprio AP, Carpenter DO (June 2008). "Relationship of Thyroid Hormone Levels to Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Lead, p, p'- DDE, and Other Toxicants in Akwesasne Mohawk Youth". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (6): 806–13. doi:10.1289/ehp.10490. PMID 18560538. 
  71. ^ van Wendel de Joode B, Wesseling C, Kromhout H, Monge P, Garcia M, Mergler D (2001). "Chronic nervous-system effects of long-term occupational exposure to DDT". Lancet 357 (9261): 1014–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04249-5. PMID 11293598. 
  72. ^ Anthony J Brown, Pesticide Exposure Linked to Asthma, Scientific American, September 17, 2007.
  73. ^ Spinelli, John J.; Ng, CH; Weber, JP; Connors, JM; Gascoyne, RD; Lai, AS; Brooks-Wilson, AR; Le, ND et al. (2007-12-15). "Organochlorines and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma". Int. J. Cancer 121 (12): 2767–75. doi:10.1002/ijc.23005. PMID 17722095. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/115807299/ABSTRACT. 
  74. ^ McGlynn, Katherine A.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Graubard, BI; Weber, JP; Rubertone, MV; Erickson, RL (April 29, 2008). "Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100 (9): 663. doi:10.1093/jnci/djn101. PMID 18445826. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/djn101v1. .
  75. ^ Clapp RW, Jacobs MM, Loechler EL (2008). "Environmental and occupational causes of cancer: new evidence 2005-2007". Rev Environ Health 23 (1): 1–37. PMID 18557596. 
  76. ^ Verner MA, Charbonneau M, López-Carrillo L, Haddad S (July 2008). "Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of persistent organic pollutants for lifetime exposure assessment: a new tool in breast cancer epidemiologic studies". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (7): 886–92. doi:10.1289/ehp.10917. PMID 18629310. 
  77. ^ Brody JG, Moysich KB, Humblet O, Attfield KR, Beehler GP, Rudel RA (June 2007). "Environmental pollutants and breast cancer: epidemiologic studies". Cancer 109 (12 Suppl): 2667–711. doi:10.1002/cncr.22655. PMID 17503436. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/114261513/HTMLSTART?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. 
  78. ^ López-Cervantes M, Torres-Sánchez L, Tobías A, López-Carrillo L (February 2004). "Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane burden and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence". Environ. Health Perspect. 112 (2): 207–14. PMID 14754575.& PMC 1241830. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2003/6492/6492.html. 
  79. ^ News media articles about this study: (a) Exposure to DDT is linked to cancer, Douglas Fischer, Contra Costa Times, August 8th, 2007. (b) Study suggests DDT, breast cancer link, Marla Cone, LA Times, September 30th, 2007.
  80. ^ a b c 2009 WHO World Malaria Report 2009
  81. ^ a b Rachel Carson's birthday bashing, Kirsten Weir, Salon.com, June 29, 2007, accessed July 1, 2007.
  82. ^ Paull, John (3 November 2007). "Toxic Colonialism". New Scientist (2628): 25. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19626280.400-toxic-colonialism.html/. 
  83. ^ Feachem RG, Sabot OJ (2007). "Global malaria control in the 21st century: a historic but fleeting opportunity". JAMA 297 (20): 2281–4. doi:10.1001/jama.297.20.2281. PMID 17519417. 
  84. ^ WHO | WHO gives indoor use of DDT a clean bill of health for controlling malaria
  85. ^ Countries move toward more sustainable ways to roll back malaria
  86. ^ Yamey, Gavin (8 May 2004). "Roll Back Malaria: a failing global health campaign". BMJ 328 (7448): 1086–1087. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7448.1086. PMID 15130956. 
  87. ^ a b Indoor Residual Spraying: Use of Indoor Residual Spraying for Scaling Up Global Malaria Control and Elimination. World Health Organization, 2006.
  88. ^ a b c d e f g Control of Malaria Vectors in Africa and Asia C.F.Curtis
  89. ^ Sharma, V.P. (1999). "Current scenario of malaria in India". Parassitologia 41 (1-3): 349–53. PMID 10697882. 
  90. ^ Agarwal, Ravi (May 2001). "No Future in DDT: A case study of India". Pesticide Safety News. 
  91. ^ Art Fisher, Mark Walker, Pam Powell. "DDT and DDE: Sources of Exposure and How to Avoid Them" (PDF). http://www.unce.unr.edu/publications/SP03/SP0316.pdf. Retrieved 2006-03-15. 
  92. ^ a b Sharma SN, Shukla RP, Raghavendra K, Subbarao SK (June 2005). "Impact of DDT spraying on malaria transmission in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh, India". J Vector Borne Dis 42 (2): 54–60. PMID 16161701. 
  93. ^ Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD (2003). "Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus resistance to DDT in South Africa". Med. Vet. Entomol. 17 (4): 417–22. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2003.00460.x. PMID 14651656. 
  94. ^ a b Grieco JP, Achee NL, Chareonviriyaphap T (2007). "A new classification system for the actions of IRS chemicals traditionally used for malaria control". PLoS ONE 2 (1): e716. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000716. PMID 17684562. 
  95. ^ a b c Mabaso ML, Sharp B, Lengeler C (2004). "Historical review of malarial control in southern African with emphasis on the use of indoor residual house-spraying". Trop. Med. Int. Health 9 (8): 846–56. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01263.x. PMID 15303988. 
  96. ^ Sharma, V. P. (10 December 2003). "DDT: The fallen angel" (PDF). Current Science 85 (11): 1532–1537. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/dec102003/1532.pdf. 
  97. ^ In Malaria War, South Africa Turns To Pesticide Long Banned in the West, Roger Thurow, Wall Street Journal, July 26, 2001
  98. ^ a b Bouwman H, Sereda B, Meinhardt HM (2006). "Simultaneous presence of DDT and pyrethroid residues in human breast milk from a malaria endemic area in South Africa". Environ. Pollut. 144 (3): 902–17. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.02.002. PMID 16564119. 
  99. ^ a b Ntow WJ, Tagoe LM, Drechsel P, Kelderman P, Gijzen HJ, Nyarko E (2008). "Accumulation of persistent organochlorine contaminants in milk and serum of farmers from Ghana". Environ. Res. 106 (1): 17–26. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2007.05.020. PMID 17931619. 
  100. ^ Spicer PE, Kereu RK (April 1993). "Organochlorine insecticide residues in human breast milk: a survey of lactating mothers from a remote area in Papua New Guinea". Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 50 (4): 540–6. PMID 8467139. 
  101. ^ Science Daily (May 9, 2009). "Unprecedented Use Of DDT Concerns Experts". ScienceDaily.com. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090504122058.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-30. 
  102. ^ Jayashree, Jayashree (June 10, 2009). "Pesticide level in veggies, fruits rises". Economic Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Markets/Commodities/Pesticide-level-in-veggies-fruits-rises/articleshow/4637527.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  103. ^ SANJANA (June 13, 2009). "A Whole Fruit". Tehelka Magazine 6 (23). http://www.tehelka.com/story_main42.asp?filename=cr130609a_whole.asp. 
  104. ^ Chakravartty, Anupam (June 8, 2009.). "State public libraries gasp for breath". Indian Express. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/State-public-libraries-gasp-for-breath/472785. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  105. ^ Katima, Jamidu (June 2009). "African NGOs outline commitment to malaria control without DDT". Pesticides News (84): 5. 
  106. ^ Ghana News Agency (November 17, 2009). "Ministry moves to check unorthodox fishing methods". Ghana News Agency. http://www.ghananewsagency.org/s_social/r_9596/. Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  107. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. (March 12 2005). "I Have a Nightmare". New York Times: Section A, Page 15 , Column 1. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40B1EFB3F580C718DDDAA0894DD404482&n=Top%252fOpinion%252fEditorials%2520and%2520Op%252dEd%252fOp%252dEd%252fColumnists%252fNicholas%2520D%2520Kristof. 
  108. ^ Finkel, Michael, "Malaria," National Geographic, July 2007
  109. ^ Sarvana, Adam (May 28, 2009). "Bate and Switch: How a free-market magician manipulated two decades of environmental science". Natural Resources New Service. http://www.nrns.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=51:bate-and-switch-how-a-free-market-magician-manipulated-two-decades-of-environmental-science-. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
  110. ^ Gutstein, Donald (November 24, 2009). Not a Conspiracy Theory: How Business Propaganda Hijacks Democracy. Key Porter Books. ISBN 1554701910. . Relevant section excepted at: Gutstein, Donald (January 22, 2010). "Inside the DDT Propaganda Machine". The Tyee. http://thetyee.ca/Mediacheck/2010/01/22/DDTPropaganda/. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  111. ^ Rehabilitating Carson, John Quiggin & Tim Lambert, Prospect, May 2008.
  112. ^ Attaran A, Roberts DR, Curtis CF, Kilama WL (2000). "Balancing risks on the backs of the poor". Nat. Med. 6 (7): 729–31. doi:10.1038/77438. PMID 10888909. 
  113. ^ Sidley P (2000). "Malaria epidemic expected in Mozambique". BMJ 320 (7236): 669. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7236.669. PMID 10710569. 
  114. ^ Bate, Roger (May 14 2001). "A Case of the DDTs: The war against the war against malaria". National Review LIII (9). http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidinthenews/articles/nr_051401.html. 
  115. ^ a b "USAID Health: Infectious Diseases, Malaria, Technical Areas, Prevention and Control, Indoor Residual Spraying". USAID. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/id/malaria/techareas/irs.html. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  116. ^ Stossel, John (November 16, 2007). "Excerpt: 'Myths, Lies, and Downright Stupidity'". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/2020/Stossel/story?id=1898820. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  117. ^ Kent R. Hill (2005). "USAID isn’t against using DDT in worldwide malaria battle". http://www.hillnews.com/thehill/export/TheHill/Comment/LetterstotheEditor/111505.html. Retrieved 2006-04-03. 
  118. ^ "USAID Health: Infectious Diseases, Malaria, News, Africa Malaria Day, USAID Support for Malaria Control in Countries Using DDT". 2005. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/id/malaria/news/afrmal_ddt.html. Retrieved 2006-03-15. 
  119. ^ Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG (2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria control in Africa?". Lancet Infect Dis 2 (10): 618–27. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(02)00397-3. PMID 12383612. 
  120. ^ Impact of long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs) and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) measured using surveillance data in four African countries. World Health Organization, January 31, 2008. News article about the study: Malaria deaths halved in Rwanda and Ethiopia Better drugs, mosquito nets are the crucial tools, David Brown (Washington Post), SF Chronicle, A-12, February 1, 2008.
  121. ^ http://www.afronets.org/files/malaria.pdf World Health Organization, "A story to be shared: The successful fight against malaria in Vietnam," November 6, 2000.
  122. ^ a b "DDT & Malaria". http://www.ipen.org/ipenweb/documents/work%20documents/ddt_ipenreport_english.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  123. ^ C. A. Goodman and A. J. Mills (1999). "The evidence base on the cost-effectiveness of malaria control measures in Africa" (PDF). Health Policy and Planning 14 (4): 301–312. doi:10.1093/heapol/14.4.301. PMID 10787646. http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/14/4/301.pdf. 
  124. ^ Kamolratanakul, P.; Butraporn, P; Prasittisuk, M; Prasittisuk, C; Indaratna, K; Gumede, J. K. (2001). "Cost-effectiveness and sustainability of lambdacyhalothrin-treated mosquito nets in comparison to DDT spraying for malaria control in western Thailand". American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 65 (4): 279–84. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00700.x. PMID 11693869. 
  125. ^ Goodman CA, Mnzava AE, Dlamini SS, Sharp BL, Mthembu DJ, Gumede JK (2001). "Comparison of the cost and cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets and residual house-spraying in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa". Trop. Med. Int. Health 6 (4): 280–95. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00700.x. PMID 11348519. 
  126. ^ Corin, S. E & Weaver, S.A. (2005). "A risk analysis model with an ecological perspective on DDT and malaria control in South Africa" (PDF). Journal of Rural and Tropical Public Health 4: 21–32. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00700.x. http://www.jcu.edu.au/jrtph/vol/v04corin.pdf. 
  127. ^ Over, M; Bakote'e, B; Velayudhan, R; Wilikai, P; Graves, PM (2004). "Impregnated nets or DDT residual spraying? Field effectiveness of malaria prevention techniques in solomon islands, 1993-1999". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71 (2 Suppl): 214–23. PMID 15331840. http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/full/71/2_suppl/214. 
  128. ^ Barat LM (2006). "Four malaria success stories: how malaria burden was successfully reduced in Brazil, Eritrea, India, and Vietnam". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 74 (1): 12–6. PMID 16407339. 

External links

Toxicity
Environmental impact
Politics and DDT
Malaria and DDT
.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Initialism

DDT
  1. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, an insecticide.
  2. (professional wrestling) a move where a wrestler puts another wrestler into a standing front face lock and then falls backwards, driving the recipient's head into the floor.

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of ddt
  • TDD

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on DDT, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message