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Distal-less homeobox 4
Symbols DLX4; BP1; DLX7; DLX8; DLX9
External IDs OMIM601911 MGI94904 HomoloGene7292 GeneCards: DLX4 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE DLX4 208216 at tn.png
PBB GE DLX4 210259 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1748 13394
Ensembl ENSG00000108813 ENSMUSG00000020871
UniProt Q92988 P70436
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001934 NM_007867
RefSeq (protein) NP_001925 NP_031893
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
45.4 - 45.41 Mb
Chr 11:
94.96 - 94.96 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Homeobox protein DLX-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLX4 gene.[1]

Many vertebrate homeo box-containing genes have been identified on the basis of their sequence similarity with Drosophila developmental genes. Members of the Dlx gene family contain a homeobox that is related to that of Distal-less (Dll), a gene expressed in the head and limbs of the developing fruit fly. The Distal-less (Dlx) family of genes comprises at least 6 different members, DLX1-DLX6. The DLX proteins are postulated to play a role in forebrain and craniofacial development. Three transcript variants have been described for this gene, however, the full length nature of one variant has not been described. Studies of the two splice variants revealed that one encoded isoform functions as a repressor of the beta-globin gene while the other isoform lacks that function.[1]


Further reading

  • Nakamura S, Stock DW, Wydner KL, et al. (1997). "Genomic analysis of a new mammalian distal-less gene: Dlx7.". Genomics 38 (3): 314–24. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0634. PMID 8975708.  
  • Quinn LM, Johnson BV, Nicholl J, et al. (1997). "Isolation and identification of homeobox genes from the human placenta including a novel member of the Distal-less family, DLX4.". Gene 187 (1): 55–61. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(96)00706-8. PMID 9073066.  
  • Morasso MI, Yonescu R, Griffin CA, Sargent TD (1997). "Localization of human DLX8 to chromosome 17q21.3-q22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.". Mamm. Genome 8 (4): 302–3. doi:10.1007/s003359900427. PMID 9096128.  
  • Price JA, Bowden DW, Wright JT, et al. (1998). "Identification of a mutation in DLX3 associated with tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 (3): 563–9. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.3.563. PMID 9467018.  
  • Quinn LM, Latham SE, Kalionis B (1998). "A distal-less class homeobox gene, DLX4, is a candidate for regulating epithelial-mesenchymal cell interactions in the human placenta.". Placenta 19 (1): 87–93. doi:10.1016/S0143-4004(98)90103-5. PMID 9481790.  
  • Quinn LM, Kilpatrick LM, Latham SE, Kalionis B (1998). "Homeobox genes DLX4 and HB24 are expressed in regions of epithelial-mesenchymal cell interaction in the adult human endometrium.". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 4 (5): 497–501. doi:10.1093/molehr/4.5.497. PMID 9665637.  
  • Quinn LM, Latham SE, Kalionis B (2000). "The homeobox genes MSX2 and MOX2 are candidates for regulating epithelial-mesenchymal cell interactions in the human placenta.". Placenta 21 Suppl A: S50–4. PMID 10831122.  
  • Haga SB, Fu S, Karp JE, et al. (2000). "BP1, a new homeobox gene, is frequently expressed in acute leukemias.". Leukemia 14 (11): 1867–75. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2401912. PMID 11069021.  
  • Masuda Y, Sasaki A, Shibuya H, et al. (2001). "Dlxin-1, a novel protein that binds Dlx5 and regulates its transcriptional function.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (7): 5331–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008590200. PMID 11084035.  
  • Fu S, Stevenson H, Strovel JW, et al. (2002). "Distinct functions of two isoforms of a homeobox gene, BP1 and DLX7, in the regulation of the beta-globin gene.". Gene 278 (1-2): 131–9. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00716-8. PMID 11707330.  
  • Sumiyama K, Irvine SQ, Stock DW, et al. (2002). "Genomic structure and functional control of the Dlx3-7 bigene cluster.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (2): 780–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.012584999. PMID 11792834.  
  • Chase MB, Fu S, Haga SB, et al. (2002). "BP1, a homeodomain-containing isoform of DLX4, represses the beta-globin gene.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (8): 2505–14. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.8.2505-2514.2002. PMID 11909945.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Neufing PJ, Kalionis B, Horsfall DJ, et al. (2003). "Expression and localization of homeodomain proteins DLX4/HB9 in normal and malignant human breast tissues.". Anticancer Res. 23 (2B): 1479–88. PMID 12820413.  
  • Zoueva OP, Rodgers GP (2004). "Inhibition of beta protein 1 expression enhances beta-globin promoter activity and beta-globin mRNA levels in the human erythroleukemia (K562) cell line.". Exp. Hematol. 32 (8): 700–8. doi:10.1016/j.exphem.2004.05.024. PMID 15308321.  
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMID 15489334.  
  • Mpollo MS, Beaudoin M, Berg PE, et al. (2006). "BP1 is a negative modulator of definitive erythropoiesis.". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (18): 5232–7. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl680. PMID 17003054.  
  • Murthi P, Said JM, Doherty VL, et al. (2007). "Homeobox gene DLX4 expression is increased in idiopathic human fetal growth restriction.". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 12 (12): 763–9. doi:10.1093/molehr/gal087. PMID 17062780.  
  • Tomida S, Yanagisawa K, Koshikawa K, et al. (2007). "Identification of a metastasis signature and the DLX4 homeobox protein as a regulator of metastasis by combined transcriptome approach.". Oncogene 26 (31): 4600–8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210242. PMID 17260014.  

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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