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DVD
DVD logo.svg
DVD-R read/write side
DVD-R read/write side
Media type Optical disc
Capacity 4.7 GB (single-sided, single-layer)
8.5 GB (single-sided, double-layer)
9.4 GB (double-sided, single-layer)
17.08 GB (double-sided, double-layer – rare)
Read mechanism 650 nm laser, 10.5 Mbit/s (1×)
Write mechanism 10.5 Mbit/s (1×)
Standard DVD Forum's DVD Books[1][2][3] and DVD+RW Alliance specifications
.DVD, also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc, is an optical disc storage media format, and was developed and invented by Sony, and Philips in 1995. Its main uses are video and data storage.^ Sony and Philips have developed a competing Super Audio CD format that uses DVD discs.

^ (Laserdisc uses analog video, DVD uses digital video; they are very different formats.

^ Most DVD-Video discs contain Dolby Digital soundtracks.

.DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs), but store more than six times as much data.^ DVD is movies on a shiny disc, and much more.

^ A DVD-Video disc containing mostly audio can play for 13 hours (24 hours with dual layers) using 48/16 PCM (slightly better than CD quality).

^ DVD+RW drives read DVD-ROMs and CDs, and usually read DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs, but do not read or write DVD-RAM discs.

.Variations of the term DVD often indicate the way data is stored on the discs: DVD-ROM (read only memory) has data that can only be read and not written; DVD-R and DVD+R (recordable) can record data only once, and then function as a DVD-ROM; DVD-RW (re-writable), DVD+RW, and DVD-RAM (random access memory) can all record and erase data multiple times.^ DVD+RW drives read DVD-ROMs and CDs, and usually read DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs, but do not read or write DVD-RAM discs.

^ Discs can only be written while in the cartridge.

^ DVD-RW discs can be rewritten about 1,000 times.

.The wavelength used by standard DVD lasers is 650 nm;[4] thus, the light has a red color.^ These devices go under names such as DVD Red, Video Clarifier, Image Stabilizer, Color Corrector, DVD Red , and CopyMaster .

^ Fluorescent multilayer technology, which can be used in cards or discs, aims a laser at fluorescent dye, causing it to emit light.

^ On November 19th the DVD Forum steering committee finally approved the blue-laser HD DVD standard for continued work.

.DVD-Video and DVD-Audio discs refer to properly formatted and structured video and audio content, respectively.^ DVD-Video discs purchased.

^ Audio details of DVD-Video .

^ DVD-Audio is a separate format from DVD-Video.

.Other types of DVDs, including those with video content, may be referred to as DVD Data discs.^ DVD-Video discs purchased.

^ Superbit DVDs, from Columbia TriStar, use a high data rate for the video to improve picture quality.

^ DVD-RAM is fast and reliable, and the discs have an optional cartridge to help protect data.

Contents

History

.In 1993 two optical disc storage formats were being developed.^ Sony and Philips have developed a competing Super Audio CD format that uses DVD discs.

^ EVD uses its own optical disc format and a proprietary video compression technology (VP5 and VP6, developed by On2 in the U.S.).

^ This means the disc contains a two-channel Dolby Surround signal encoded in Dolby Digital format.

One was the MultiMedia Compact Disc (MMCD) also called (CDi), backed by Philips and Sony, and the other was the Super Density (SD) disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Hitachi, .Mitsubishi Electric, Pioneer, Thomson, and JVC.^ No single company "owns" DVD. The official specification was originally developed by a consortium of ten companies: Hitachi, JVC, Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Philips, Pioneer, Sony, Thomson, Time Warner, and Toshiba.

^ Primary Blu-ray backers are Dell, Hitachi, HP, LG, Panasonic, Philips, Pioneer, Mitsubishi, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, and Thomson.

Optical discs
Optical media types
Standards
Further reading
.Representatives of the SD camp approached IBM, asking for advice on the file system to use for their disc as well as looking for support for their format for storing computer data.^ Support for UDF bridge format, which stores both UDF and ISO-9660 file systems on the disc.

^ MPEG-4 files can be stored on DVD-ROM for use on computers.

^ The specification for the UDF file system used by DVD is available from www.osta.org .

A researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center received that request and also learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Microsoft, Sun, Dell, and many others. This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. Also The Sk Group ( Steven Kinnersley ) the original creator of the 2 sided DVD.
.The TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a single, converged standard.^ A group of computer companies led by IBM insisted that the factions agree on a single standard.

^ The ATSC standard includes both standard-definition (SD) and high-definition (HD) digital formats.

^ As of mid 2005 about 40 titles were available in WMV HD format, usually with both a standard DVD and a WMV HD DVD in the package.

[5] Lou Gerstner, president of IBM, was recruited to apply pressure on the executives of the warring factions. .Eventually, the computer companies won the day, and a single format, now called DVD, was agreed upon.^ The format is being called "HD DVD-9."

^ A group of computer companies led by IBM insisted that the factions agree on a single standard.

^ (More accurately called an enhanced DVD) A DVD-ROM disc that runs on Windows and Mac OS computers.

.The TWG also collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system (known as Universal Disc Format [UDF]) for use on the new DVDs.^ The specification for the UDF file system used by DVD is available from www.osta.org .

^ You may also need software that can read the UDF file system format used by DVDs.

^ Support for UDF bridge format, which stores both UDF and ISO-9660 file systems on the disc.

.Philips and Sony decided it was in their best interest to avoid another format war over their MultiMedia Compact Disc, and agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format with technologies from both.^ The MMCD format was backed by Sony, Philips, and others.

^ A "one-stop shop" for Blu-ray player and disc licensing is being set up by Panasonic, Philips and Sony.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ A group of computer companies led by IBM insisted that the factions agree on a single standard.

.The specification was mostly similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option (MMCD was single-sided and optionally dual-layer, whereas SD was single-layer but optionally double-sided) and EFMPlus modulation.^ Double-sided or dual-layer discs cost about $0.20 more to replicate.

^ Many discs use dual layers.

^ Capacity (single layer/dual layer) .

.EFMPlus was chosen because of its great resilience to disc damage, such as scratches and fingerprints.^ There are commercial products that clean discs and provide some protection from dust, fingerprints, and scratches.

^ Problems can also occur because of damaged or defective discs or because of a defective player.

EFMPlus, created by Kees Immink (who also designed EFM), is 6% less efficient than the modulation technique originally used by Toshiba, which resulted in a capacity of 4.7 GB, as opposed to the original 5 GB. The result was the DVD specification, finalized for the DVD movie player and DVD-ROM computer applications in December 1995.
The DVD Video format was first introduced by Toshiba in Japan in November 1996, in the United States in March 1997 (test marketed),[6] in Europe in October 1998, and in Australia in February 1999.
.In May 1997, the DVD Consortium was replaced by the DVD Forum, which is open to all other companies.^ In May 1997, the DVD Consortium was replaced by the DVD Forum , which is open to all companies, and as of 2005 had over 250 members.

^ EVD is a "homegrown" alternative to DVD technologies developed by the DVD Forum and CE companies in Japan.

^ Many companies now produce DVD-RW drives, all of which write CD-R/RW. As of mid 2002 DVD-RW drives were selling for under $200.

[6] .DVD specifications created and updated by the DVD Forum are published as so-called DVD Books (e.g.^ The DVD Forum finalized specifications for supporting 1394 and HDMI in 2002, and players with DVI/HDMI digital outputs appeared in 2003.

^ A working group of the DVD Forum is creating a standardized WebDVD format for set-top DVD players, to be known as Enhanced DVD. .

^ The DVD Forum steering committee once again failed to approve the AOD format (now being called HD DVD by proponents in the DVD Forum).

.DVD-ROM Book, DVD-Audio Book, DVD-Video Book, DVD-R Book, DVD-RW Book, DVD-RAM Book, DVD-AR Book, DVD-VR Book, etc).^ DVD+RW drives read DVD-ROMs and CDs, and usually read DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs, but do not read or write DVD-RAM discs.

^ It's not a new idea --it's been done with CD-ROM for years-- but the differences with DVD are that the quality of the audio and video are finally better than TV, and the discs can be played in low-cost settop players.

^ Most DVD-Audio players are also "universal" players that play DVD-Video discs as well.

[1][2][3]
.Some specifications for mechanical, physical and optical characteristics of DVD optical discs can be downloaded as freely available standards from the ISO website.^ They require special, very expensive recorders, but the discs can be read by standard DVD readers.

^ ECMA has developed international standards for DVD-ROM (part 1, the smallest part of the DVD spec), available for free download as ECMA-267 and ECMA-268 from www.ecma-international.org .

^ The reality is that most people ripping and downloading DVDs are doing it for the challenge, not to avoid buying discs.

[7] .Also, the DVD+RW Alliance publishes competing DVD specifications such as DVD+R, DVD+R DL, DVD+RW or DVD+RW DL.^ More information on writable DVD formats is available at industry associations: RW Products Promotion Initiative (RWPPI) , Recordable DVD Council (RDVDC) , and DVD+RW Alliance .

^ You must use a different software utility, such as Toast, to write to DVD-RW discs.

^ X-ray machines such as those used for airport security have no effect on storebought DVDs or on DVDs that you have recorded (R, RW, or RAM format).

.These DVD formats are also ISO standards.^ The DVD-R 1.0 format is standardized in ECMA-279 .

^ As of mid 2005 about 40 titles were available in WMV HD format, usually with both a standard DVD and a WMV HD DVD in the package.

^ These kinds of advanced DVDs should play on most players but may reveal more player bugs than standard discs (see 1.41 ).

[8][9][10][11]
.Some of DVD specifications (e.g.^ Some DVD movies were produced with added content designed specifically for the Nuon platform.

for .DVD-Video) are not publicly available and can be obtained only from the DVD Format/Logo Licensing Corporation for a fee of US $5000.[12][13] Every subscriber must sign a non-disclosure agreement as certain information in the DVD Book is proprietary and confidential.^ What is shocking to us is that there are still some titles only released on DVD. We just don't get why any studio would leave at least 3 to 6 percent on the table.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Toshiba's showing it has moved on from the horrors of the format war, today announcing Three Non-HD DVD Recorders and a few other Japan only Blu-ray products.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Now here we are almost a year later and according to DVD Town, only two of the four movies will be available on Blu-ray on July 29th.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

[12]

Etymology

.The official DVD specification documents have never defined the initialism DVD. Usage in the present day varies, with Digital Versatile Disc,[14] Digital Video Disc, and DVD being the most common.^ The original initialism came from "digital video disc."

^ Most DVD-Video discs contain Dolby Digital soundtracks.

^ DVD-Video discs purchased.

.DVD was originally used as an initialism for the unofficial term digital videodisk.^ DVD uses digital video, and even though it's heavily compressed, most professionals agree that when properly and carefully encoded it's virtually indistinguishable from studio masters.

^ DVD does use the same 16:9 aspect ratio of HDTV and the Dolby Digital audio format of U.S. DTV. .

^ New receivers with improved digital connections such as IEEE 1394 (FireWire) are needed to use the full digital resolution of DVD-Audio.

[15]
.It was reported in 1995, at the time of the specification finalization, that the letters officially stood for Digital Versatile Disc (due to nonvideo applications).^ The DVD Forum finalized specifications for supporting 1394 and HDMI in 2002, and players with DVI/HDMI digital outputs appeared in 2003.

^ (Although Lisa erroneously claims DVD stands for "digital versatile disc" -- who you gonna believe, me or an 8-year old genius?

^ Some members of the DVD Forum (see 6.1 ) tried to express how DVD goes far beyond video by retrofitting the painfully contorted phrase "digital versatile disc," but this has never been officially accepted by the DVD Forum as a whole.

[16]
.However, the text of the press release announcing the specification finalization only refers to the technology as "DVD", making no mention of what (if anything) the letters stood for.^ Some TV series reverse, go from Blu-ray back to DVD-only releases .
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ The followup to the popular PopcornHour media streamer series has finally been announced, and the list of features makes it look worth the wait.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ There's no word on when (or if) this technology will make it to US soil, but the sooner the better -- nothing like a little inbuilt backwards compatibility to ease the mind.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

[6]
.A newsgroup FAQ written by Jim Taylor (a prominent figure in the industry) claims that four years later, in 1999, the DVD Forum stated that the format name was simply the three letters "DVD" and did not stand for anything.^ A report from DVD Forum Steering Committee in 1999 decreed that DVD, as an international standard, is simply three letters.

^ This FAQ is written and maintained by Jim Taylor .

^ What do the letters DVD stand for?

[17]
The DVD Forum website has a section called "DVD Primer" in which the answer to the question, "What does DVD mean?" reads, "The keyword is 'versatile.' .Digital Versatile Discs provide superb video, audio and data storage and access—all on one disc."^ It's an optical disc storage technology for video, audio, and computer data.

^ A producer can choose to put 525/60 NTSC video on one side of the disc and 625/50 PAL on the other.

^ HDMI. Digital video in the DVI format (with HDCP), plus digital audio.

[18]

DVD capacity

Capacity and nomenclature[19][20]
SS = single-sided, DS = double-sided, SL = single-layer, DL = dual-layer
Designation Sides Layers
(total)
Diameter Capacity
(cm) (GB) (GiB)
DVD-1[21] SS SL 1 1 8 1.46 1.36
DVD-2 SS DL 1 2 8 2.66 2.47
DVD-3 DS SL 2 2 8 2.92 2.72
DVD-4 DS DL 2 4 8 5.32 4.95
DVD-5 SS SL 1 1 12 4.70 4.38
DVD-9 SS DL 1 2 12 8.54 7.95
DVD-10 DS SL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75
DVD-14[22] DS DL/SL 2 3 12 13.24 12.33
DVD-18 DS DL 2 4 12 17.08 15.90
Capacity and nomenclature of (re)writable discs
Designation Sides Layers
(total)
Diameter Capacity
(cm) (GB) (GiB)
DVD-R SS SL (1.0) 1 1 12 3.95 3.68
DVD-R SS SL (2.0) 1 1 12 4.70 4.37
DVD-RW SS SL 1 1 12 4.70 4.37
DVD+R SS SL 1 1 12 4.70 4.37
DVD+RW SS SL 1 1 12 4.70 4.37
DVD-R DS DL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75
DVD-RW DS DL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75
DVD+R DS DL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75
DVD+RW DS DL 2 2 12 9.40 8.75
DVD-RAM SS SL 1 1 8 1.46 1.36*
DVD-RAM DS DL 2 2 8 2.65 2.47*
DVD-RAM SS SL (1.0) 1 1 12 2.58 2.40
DVD-RAM SS SL (2.0) 1 1 12 4.70 4.37
DVD-RAM DS DL (1.0) 2 2 12 5.16 4.80
DVD-RAM DS DL (2.0) 2 2 12 9.40 8.75*
.The basic types of DVD (12 cm diameter, single-sided or homogenous double-sided) are referred to by a rough approximation of their capacity in gigabytes.^ The term "miniDVD" confusingly refers to 8-cm DVDs and to CDs with DVD-Video content on them, more appropriately called cDVDs.

^ Type 4 - A case for a two-sided (Type 2S) 120 mm DVD-RAM disk such that the disk may be removed from the case.

^ The physical discs uses phase-change groove recording on a 12-cm diameter, 1.2-mm thick disc, similar to DVD-RW and DVD+RW. 36 Mbps data transfer rate.

.In draft versions of the specification, DVD-5 indeed held five gigabytes, but some parameters were changed later on as explained above, so the capacity decreased.^ A new version of the recorder was later released that also recorded on DVD-R(G) discs and used the DVD-Video format for better compatibility with existing players.

^ The original was a pay-per-view version of DVD. The later claimant of the name (spelled DivX), is a video encoding format.

^ Some DVD movies were produced with added content designed specifically for the Nuon platform.

.Other formats, those with 8 cm diameter and hybrid variants, acquired similar numeric names with even larger deviation.^ This is similar to Dolby Digital being the marketing name for the AC-3 audio format.

^ None of the writable formats are fully compatible with each other or even with existing drives and players.

^ There are many claims that one or the other format is better, but they are actually very similar.

.The 12 cm type is a standard DVD, and the 8 cm variety is known as a MiniDVD.^ MPEG Layer 3 (MP3) and MPEG-2 AAC (also known as NBC or unmatrix) are not supported by the DVD-Video standard.

^ The term "miniDVD" confusingly refers to 8-cm DVDs and to CDs with DVD-Video content on them, more appropriately called cDVDs.

^ A working group of the DVD Forum is creating a standardized WebDVD format for set-top DVD players, to be known as Enhanced DVD. .

.These are the same sizes as a standard CD and a mini-CD, respectively.^ These are the same form factors as CD. A DVD disc can be single-sided or double-sided.

^ Divx discs came in paperboard and plastic Q-Pack cases the same size as a CD jewel case.

The capacity by surface (MiB/cm2) varies from 6.92 MiB/cm2 in the DVD-1 to 18.0 MiB/cm2 in the DVD-18.
.As with hard disk drives, in the DVD realm, gigabyte and the symbol GB are usually used in the SI sense (i.e., 109, or 1,000,000,000 bytes).^ DVD+RW drives read DVD-ROMs and CDs, and usually read DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs, but do not read or write DVD-RAM discs.

^ A 1x DVD-ROM drive provides a data transfer rate of 1.321 MB/s (11.08*10^6/8/2^20) with burst transfer rates of up to 12 MB/s or higher.

^ Developed by Pioneer based on DVD-R, using similar track pitch, mark length, and rotation control, DVD-RW is playable in many DVD drives and players.

.For distinction, gibibyte (with symbol GiB) is used (i.e., 230, or 1,073,741,824 bytes).^ DVD capacities have similarly confusing units of measurement: a billion bytes (1,000,000,000 bytes) or a gigabyte (1,073,741,824 bytes).

^ The closest I have been able to get to an unambiguous notation is to use "kilobytes" for 1024 bytes, "megabytes" for 1,048,576 bytes, "gigabytes" for 1,073,741,824 bytes, and "BB" for 1,000,000,000 bytes.

.Most computer operating systems display file sizes in gibibytes, mebibytes, and kibibytes, labeled as gigabyte, megabyte, and kilobyte, respectively.^ FAT16 also has a 2 gigabyte file size limit, while FAT32 has a 4 gigabyte file size limit.

^ In this increase of matter in the equatorial regions of these planets of our system, we have the most conclusive evidence that the attraction of matter in these orbs is to their respective equators, and not to their respective centres as Newton supposed.
  • The Influence of the Blue Ray of the sunlight and of the Blue Colour of the Sky by Gen A J Pleasonton, 1877 9 February 2010 13:10 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The computer operating system or playback software must support regional codes and be licensed to descramble copy-protected movies.

Size comparison: a 12 cm DVD+RW and a 19 cm pencil.
.Each DVD sector contains 2,418 bytes of data, 2,048 bytes of which are user data.^ A disc with two layers or two sections one containing pressed (DVD-ROM) data and one containing rewritable (DVD-RAM or other) media for recording.

^ (Red Book audio frames are different than DVD data sectors.

^ DVD-ROM can contain any desired digital information, but DVD-Video is limited to certain data types designed for television reproduction.

There is a small difference in storage space between + and - (hyphen) formats:
Capacity differences of writable DVD formats
Type Sectors Bytes MB MiB GB GiB
DVD−R SL 2,298,496 4,707,319,808 4,707.320 4,489.250 4.707 4.384
DVD+R SL 2,295,104 4,700,372,992 4,700.373 4,482.625 4.700 4.378
DVD−R DL 4,171,712 8,543,666,176 8,543.666 8,147.875 8.544 7.957
DVD+R DL 4,173,824 8,547,991,552 8,547.992 8,152.000 8.548 7.961

Technology

Internal mechanism of a DVD-ROM Drive.
DVD-RW Drive operating with the protective cover removed.
.DVD uses 650 nm wavelength laser diode light as opposed to 780 nm for CD. This permits a smaller pit to be etched on the media surface compared to CDs (0.74 µm for DVD versus 1.6 µm for CD), allowing for a DVD's increased storage capacity.^ DVD uses a smaller wavelength of laser to make smaller pits in tracks that are closer together.

^ But DVD error correction is at least ten times better than CD-ROM error correction and more than makes up for the density increase.

^ A jacket picture is often the same cover art used on the DVD package or sometimes a simplified picture, especially for the smaller sizes.

.In comparison, Blu-ray, the successor to the DVD format, uses a wavelength of 405 nm, and one dual-layer disc has a 50 GB storage capacity.^ A disc with two layers, one that can be read in DVD players and one that can be read in CD players.

^ DVDs or Blu-ray Discs.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Many discs use dual layers.

.Writing speeds for DVD were 1×, that is, 1350 kB/s (1,318 KiB/s), in the first drives and media models.^ Today, every major PC manufacturer has models that include DVD-ROM drives.

^ DVD+RW drives read DVD-ROMs and CDs, and usually read DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs, but do not read or write DVD-RAM discs.

^ The first DVD-ROM drive to read DVD-RAM discs was released by Panasonic in 1999 (SR-8583, 5x DVD-ROM, 32x CD).

More recent models, at 18× or 20×, have 18 or 20 times that speed. .Note that for CD drives, 1× means 150 KiB/s (153.6 kB/s), approximately 9 times slower.^ The data transfer rate from a DVD-ROM disc at 1x speed is roughly equivalent to a 9x CD-ROM drive (1x CD-ROM data transfer rate is 150 KB/s, or 0.146 MB/s).

^ A drive listed as "16x/40x" reads a DVD at 16 times normal, or a CD at 40 times normal.

^ The 150 KB/s 1x data rate commonly listed for CD-ROM drives is "true" kilobytes per second, since the data rate is actually 153.6 thousand bytes per second.

[21]
DVD drive speeds
Drive speed Data rate ~Write time (min)[23]
(Mbit/s) (MB/s) (MiB/s) SL DL
10.80 1.35 1.29 61 107
21.60 2.70 2.57 31 54
2.4× 25.92 3.24 3.09 25 45
2.6× 28.08 3.51 3.35 23 41
43.20 5.40 5.15 15 27
64.80 8.10 7.72 10 18
86.40 10.80 10.30 8 13
10× 108.00 13.50 12.87 6 11
12× 129.60 16.20 15.45 5 9
16× 172.80 21.60 20.60 4 7
18× 194.40 24.30 23.17 3 6
20× 216.00 27.00 25.75 3 5
22× 237.60 29.70 28.32 3 5
24× 259.20 32.40 30.90 3 4

DVD recordable and rewritable

Faceplate of a DVD Drive supporting both DVD+ and DVD- formats.
.HP initially developed recordable DVD media from the need to store data for backup and transport.^ Windows file backup software for recordable DVD and CD. Toast DVD .

^ When the DVD stream recording (SR) format is finalized, DVD-SR players may be usable as "transports" that output any kind of A/V data (even formats developed after the player was built) to different sorts of external displays or converters.

^ DVD-ROM drives can't record on CD-R or any other media, but a few combination DVD-ROM/CD-RW drives can write to CD-R and CD-RW. Most newer recordable DVD drives (see 4.3 ) can also record on CD-R or CD-RW. .

.DVD recordables are now also used for consumer audio and video recording.^ Audio details of DVD-Video .

^ DVD-Audio is a separate format from DVD-Video.

^ A DVD-Video disc containing mostly audio can play for 13 hours (24 hours with dual layers) using 48/16 PCM (slightly better than CD quality).

.Three formats were developed: DVD-R/RW (hyphen), DVD+R/RW (plus), and DVD-RAM.^ DVD+RW drives read DVD-ROMs and CDs, and usually read DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs, but do not read or write DVD-RAM discs.

^ The DVD+RW format uses phase-change media with a high-frequency wobbled groove that allows it to eliminate linking sectors.

^ Sony and Philips have developed a competing Super Audio CD format that uses DVD discs.

.Although most DVD drives and players can nowadays read the DVD+R/RW and DVD-R/RW formats (usually denoted by "DVD±RW" and/or the existence of both the DVD Forum logo and the DVD+RW Alliance logo), the "plus" and the "dash" formats are extremely different physically.^ Most DVD players are as quiet as CD players.

^ (See 2.4.3 ) Some DVD players and drives can't read recordable DVDs.

^ Many new drives write both DVD-R/RW and DVD+R/RW. .

Michael Spath at CDfreaks has analyzed the specification of both formats and came to the conclusion that the DVD+R/RW format is superior to DVD-R/RW.[24]

Dual-layer recording

.Dual-layer recording (sometimes also known as double-layer recording) allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data—up to 8.54 gigabytes per disc, compared with 4.7 gigabytes for single-layer discs.^ Double-sided or dual-layer discs cost about $0.20 more to replicate.

^ Many discs use dual layers.

^ Capacity (single layer/dual layer) .

.Along with this, DVD-DL's have slower write speeds as compared to ordinary DVD's and when played on a DVD player, a slight transition can be seen between the layers.^ Standard VCD players can't play DVDs.

^ Divx discs wouldn't play in regular DVD players or on PCs with DVD-ROM drives.

^ The first DVD-Audio players were released in Japan by Pioneer in late 1999, but they did not play copy-protected discs.

.DVD-R DL was developed for the DVD Forum by Pioneer Corporation; DVD+R DL was developed for the DVD+RW Alliance by Philips and Mitsubishi Kagaku Media (MKM).^ No single company "owns" DVD. The official specification was originally developed by a consortium of ten companies: Hitachi, JVC, Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Philips, Pioneer, Sony, Thomson, Time Warner, and Toshiba.

^ The DVD+RW format uses phase-change media with a high-frequency wobbled groove that allows it to eliminate linking sectors.

^ DVD+RW media is produced by CMC Magnetics, Hewlett-Packard, MCC/Verbatim, Memorex, Mitsubishi, Optodisc, Philips, Ricoh, Ritek, and Sony.

[25]
.A dual-layer disc differs from its usual DVD counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself.^ Many discs use dual layers.

^ When will dual-layer rewritable DVDs be available?

^ A DVD-Video disc containing mostly audio can play for 13 hours (24 hours with dual layers) using 48/16 PCM (slightly better than CD quality).

.The drive with dual-layer capability accesses the second layer by shining the laser through the first semitransparent layer.^ Initially only a few replication plants could make dual-layer discs, but most plants now have the capability.

^ A dual-layer disc has two layers of data, one of them semi-transparent so that the laser can focus through it and read the second layer.

^ Lack of dual-layer production capability is also a lame excuse; in 1997 very few DVD plants could make dual-layer discs, but this is no longer the case.

.In some DVD players, the layer change can exhibit a noticeable pause, up to several seconds.^ How do I hook up a DVD player?

^ In some cases, the sync problem in players can be fixed by pausing or stopping playback and then restarting, or by turning the player off, waiting a few seconds, then turning it back on.

^ It is supported by some DVD recorders, but not by many DVD players.

[26] .This caused some viewers to worry that their dual-layer discs were damaged or defective, with the end result that studios began listing a standard message explaining the dual-layer pausing effect on all dual-layer disc packaging.^ The pause is not a defect in the player or the disc.

^ Many discs use dual layers.

^ Initially only a few replication plants could make dual-layer discs, but most plants now have the capability.

.DVD recordable discs supporting this technology are backward-compatible with some existing DVD players and DVD-ROM drives.^ Divx discs wouldn't play in regular DVD players or on PCs with DVD-ROM drives.

^ It is supported by some DVD recorders, but not by many DVD players.

^ A disc that works in both DVD-Video players and DVD-ROM PCs.

[25] .Many current DVD recorders support dual-layer technology, and the price is now comparable to that of single-layer drives, although the blank media remain more expensive.^ It is supported by some DVD recorders, but not by many DVD players.

^ (See 1.41 ) DVD recorders are more expensive than VCRs.

^ CPRM is handled automatically by DVD recorders, although it's optional and many recorders don't support it.

.The recording speeds reached by dual-layer media are still well below those of single-layer media.^ Capacity (single layer/dual layer) .

^ Shrinking , used for copying dual-layer discs to single-layer discs, leaves out parts of the disc such as extras and audio tracks, and recompresses the video at a lower data rate if there still isn't enough room.

^ Dual-layer record-once (R) drives and discs have been available since 2004.

.There are two modes for dual-layer orientation.^ A dual-layer disc has two layers of data, one of them semi-transparent so that the laser can focus through it and read the second layer.

^ There are various ways to recognize dual-layer discs: 1) the gold color, 2) a menu on the disc for selecting the widescreen or fullscreen version, 3) two serial numbers on one side.

^ There was also a subformat called HD DVD-9 that put HD DVD video on standard, dual-layer DVD-9 discs.

.With Parallel Track Path (PTP), used on DVD-ROM, both layers start at the inside diameter (ID) and end at the outside diameter (OD) with the lead-out.^ The second layer can use either a PTP (parallel track path) layout where both tracks run in parallel (for independent data or special switching effects), or an OTP (opposite track path) layout where the second track runs in an opposite spiral; that is, the pickup head reads out from the center on the first track then in from the outside on the second track.

^ A disc that works in both DVD-Video players and DVD-ROM PCs.

^ Shrinking , used for copying dual-layer discs to single-layer discs, leaves out parts of the disc such as extras and audio tracks, and recompresses the video at a lower data rate if there still isn't enough room.

.With Opposite Track Path (OTP), used on many DVD Video discs, the lower layer starts at the ID and the upper layer starts at the OD, where the other layer ends; they share one lead-in and one lead-out.^ A disc with two layers on one side and one layer on the other.

^ A disc with two layers, one that can be read in DVD players and one that can be read in CD players.

^ DVD-Video discs purchased.

.However, some DVD Video discs also use a parallel track, such as those authored episodically, as in a disc with several separate episodes of a TV series—where more often than not, the layer change is in-between titles and therefore would not need to be authored in the opposite track path fashion.^ DVD-Video title authoring is also very complex.

^ Some DVD authoring software (see 5.4 ) can import video from an unprotected disc.

^ DVD-Video discs purchased.

[citation needed]

DVD Video

.DVD Video is a standard for content on DVD media.^ Is DVD-Video a worldwide standard?

^ The term "miniDVD" confusingly refers to 8-cm DVDs and to CDs with DVD-Video content on them, more appropriately called cDVDs.

^ In certain cases, you might want to buy a DVD PC instead of a standard DVD player, especially if you want progressive video.

.The format went on sale in Japan in November 1996, in the United States in March 1997, in Europe in October 1998 and in Australia in February 1999.[27] By June 2003, weekly DVD Video rentals began outnumbering weekly VHS cassette rentals, reflecting the rapid adoption rate of the technology in the U.S. marketplace.^ DVD-Audio is a separate format from DVD-Video.

^ Superbit DVDs, from Columbia TriStar, use a high data rate for the video to improve picture quality.

^ Once the video is formatted to fullscreen or widescreen form, it's encoded and stored on DVD discs.

[5][28] .Currently, DVD Video is the dominant form of home video distribution worldwide.^ Is DVD-Video a worldwide standard?

^ DVD comes in two home-entertainment flavors: DVD-Video and DVD-Audio.

^ Once the video is formatted to fullscreen or widescreen form, it's encoded and stored on DVD discs.

.Although many resolutions and formats are supported, most consumer DVD Video discs use either 4:3 or anamorphic 16:9 aspect ratio MPEG-2 video, stored at a resolution of 720/704×480 (NTSC) or 720/704×576 (PAL) at 29.97, 25, or 23.976 FPS.^ Different pixel aspect ratios (none of them square) are used for each aspect ratio and resolution.

^ Once the video is formatted to fullscreen or widescreen form, it's encoded and stored on DVD discs.

^ DVD uses MPEG-2 video encoding (see 3.4 for details).

.Audio is commonly stored using the Dolby Digital (AC-3) or Digital Theater System (DTS) formats, ranging from 16-bits/48 kHz to 24-bits/96 kHz format with monaural to 6.1-channel "Surround Sound" presentation, and/or MPEG-1 Layer 2 and/or LPCM Stereophonic.^ Dolby Digital and DTS can store mono, stereo, and multichannel audio (usually 5.1 channels).

^ Dolby Digital is multi-channel digital audio, using lossy AC-3 coding technology from PCM source with a sample rate of 48 kHz at up to 24 bits.

^ Dolby Digital 2-channel or 5.1-channel audio encoding software.

.Although the specifications for video and audio requirements vary by global region and television system, many DVD players support all possible formats.^ Video and audio performance in all modern DVD players is excellent.

^ It is supported by some DVD recorders, but not by many DVD players.

^ There are also all-region players.

.DVD Video also supports features such as menus, selectable subtitles, multiple camera angles, and multiple audio tracks.^ The following details are for audio tracks in DVD-Video.

^ Audio details of DVD-Video .

^ A DVD-Video disc can have up to 8 audio tracks (streams) associated with each video track (or each video angle).

DVD Audio

.DVD Audio is a format for delivering high fidelity audio content on a DVD. It offers many channel configuration options (from mono to 5.1 surround sound) at various sampling frequencies (up to 24-bits/192 kHz versus CDDA's 16-bits/44.1 kHz).^ There are many variations on the DVD theme.

^ (Audio CD is limited to 44.1 kHz at 16 bits.

^ DVD-Audio is a separate format from DVD-Video.

.Compared with the CD format, the much higher-capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music (with respect to total running time and quantity of songs) and/or far higher audio quality (reflected by higher sampling rates and greater sample resolution, and/or additional channels for spatial sound reproduction).^ The HD formats are 2.7 and 6 times the resolution of DVD, and the 60p version is twice the frame rate.

^ The latter is 5.3 times the resolution of DVD's 720x576/25 format.

^ DVD-Audio is a separate format from DVD-Video.

.Despite DVD Audio's superior technical specifications, there is debate as to whether the resulting audio enhancements are distinguishable in typical listening environments.^ By the end of 2000 there were about 50 DVD-Audio titles available.

^ There's enormous confusion about whether DVD video is progressive or interlaced.

^ Part of the reason for general lack of support is that very few computers provide the high quality audio environment needed to take advantage of DVD-Audio fidelity.

.DVD Audio currently forms a niche market, probably due to the very sort of format war with rival standard SACD that DVD Video avoided.^ What about music on DVD: DVD-Audio and SACD? .

^ Audio details of DVD-Video .

^ The DVD-R 1.0 format is standardized in ECMA-279 .

Security

.DVD Audio discs employ a DRM mechanism, called Content Protection for Prerecorded Media (CPPM), developed by the 4C group (IBM, Intel, Matsushita, and Toshiba).^ Content Protection for Prerecorded Media (CPPM) CPPM is used only for DVD-Audio.

^ CSS was developed primarily by Matsushita and Toshiba.

^ Content Protection for Recordable Media (CPRM) CPRM is a mechanism that ties a recording to the media on which it is recorded.

.Although CPPM was supposed to be much harder to crack than DVD Video's CSS, it too was eventually cracked in 2007 with the release of the dvdcpxm tool.^ An off-line design tool for DVD-Video planning and layout.

^ The difference between circumventing CSS encryption with DeCSS and intercepting decrypted, decompressed video with a DVD ripper is that DeCSS can be considered illegal under the DMCA and the WIPO treaties.

^ DVD is essentially a bigger, faster CD that can hold high-quality digital video, better-than-CD audio, pictures, and any other sort of digital information.

.The subsequent release of the libdvdcpxm library (which is based on dvdcpxm) allowed for the development of open source DVD-Audio players and ripping software, such as DVD-Audio Explorer[29].^ Basic DVD-Audio authoring software.

^ Professional DVD-Audio authoring software.

^ Many computer DVD software players .

.As a result, making 1:1 copies of DVD-Audio discs is now possible with relative ease, much like DVD-Video discs.^ DVD-Video discs purchased.

^ Audio details of DVD-Video .

^ DVD-Audio is a separate format from DVD-Video.

Improvements and succession

Blu-ray Disc

.In 2006, a new format called Blu-ray Disc (BD), designed by Sony, Samsung, and Panasonic, was released as the successor to DVD. Another format, HD DVD, competed unsuccessfully with this format in the format war of 2006–08.^ The format is being called "HD DVD-9."

^ What about the new HD formats?

^ And there are new HD formats (see 6.5 ).

A dual layer Blu-ray Disc can store 50 to 100 GB.[30][31]
.However, unlike previous format changes (e.g., audio tape to compact disc, VHS videotape to DVD), there is no immediate indication that production of the standard DVD will gradually wind down, as they still dominate, with around 87% of video sales and approximately one billion DVD player sales worldwide.^ DVD still dominates but Blu-ray sales up .
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ There were no clouds above or around the summit.
  • The Influence of the Blue Ray of the sunlight and of the Blue Colour of the Sky by Gen A J Pleasonton, 1877 9 February 2010 13:10 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Made by Panasonic , the DMP-BD70V has a multi-format playback that allows users to play VHS, CD, DVD and 1080p high definition Blu-ray Discs.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

.In fact experts claim that the DVD will remain the dominant medium for at least another five years as Blu-Ray technology is still in its introductory phase, write and read speeds being poor as well as the fact of necessary hardware being expensive and not readily available.^ DVD still dominates the movie market but Blu-ray set to overtake by 2012 .
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ DVD still dominates but Blu-ray sales up .
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ DVDs or Blu-ray Discs.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

[5][32] .Blu-ray players have struggled partly because the MPEG I-frames stored on DVD discs were based on JPEG, which carries DCT information that can be exploited to improve interpolation for higher resolutions[citation needed].^ This is a player feature, not a DVD disc feature.

^ Denon adds DVD-1800BD Blu-ray player to lineup .
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ DVDs or Blu-ray Discs.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

.Consumers initially were also slow to adopt Blu-ray due to the cost[citation needed].^ Sales of high definition Blu-ray recorders are increasing rapidly in Japan as consumers take to the new generation of home movie entertainment.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes, a one-time 720p rental that costs as much as a Blu-ray.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Paul Reid, Panasonic Australia’s Director for Consumer Electronics Group, described the move as a “significant breakthrough” for Blu-ray.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

.By 2009, 85% of stores were selling Blu-ray Discs.^ DVDs or Blu-ray Discs.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Blu-ray releases on March 17th 2009 .
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Blu-Ray discs will go on sale in China for the first time today - officially that is.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

.A high-definition TV and appropriate connection cables are also required to take advantage of Blu-ray disc.^ Panasonic Takes Blu-ray Portable .
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ DVDs or Blu-ray Discs.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Made by Panasonic , the DMP-BD70V has a multi-format playback that allows users to play VHS, CD, DVD and 1080p high definition Blu-ray Discs.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

.Some analysts suggest that the biggest obstacle to replacing DVD is due to its installed base; a large majority of consumers are satisfied with DVDs.^ About 75 DVD-ROM titles available in the U.S. 2000 8.5 million DVD-Video players shipped in the U.S. (Installed base of 13,922,000.

^ The OSTA MultiRead standard addresses this, and some DVD manufacturers have suggested they will support it.

^ DVD-Video players shipped in the U.S. (Installed base of 73,300,000.

[33] .The DVD succeeded because it offered a compelling alternative to VHS. In addition, Blu-ray players are designed to be backward-compatible, allowing older DVDs to be played since the media are physically identical; this differed from the change from vinyl to CD and from tape to DVD, which involved a complete change in physical medium.^ Which will win, Blu-ray or HD DVD? .

^ SVCD players can't play DVDs, since the players are based on CD drives.

^ Most DVD players are as quiet as CD players.

.This situation can be best compared to the changeover from 78 rpm shellac recordings to 45 rpm and 33⅓ rpm vinyl recordings; because the medium used for the earlier format was virtually the same as the latter version (a disc on a turntable, played using a needle), phonographs continued to be built to play obsolete 78s for decades after the format was discontinued.^ Because of PAL's higher resolution, the video usually takes more space on the disc than the NTSC version.

^ A disc can also be designed so that it plays a different version of the movie depending on the parental level that has been set in the player.

^ A new version of the recorder was later released that also recorded on DVD-R(G) discs and used the DVD-Video format for better compatibility with existing players.

.Manufacturers have announced standard DVD releases well into 2009, and the format remains the preferred one for the release of older television programs and films, with some programs such as Star Trek: The Original Series requiring remastering and replacement of certain elements such as special effects in order to be better received in high-definition viewing.^ The DVD-R 1.0 format is standardized in ECMA-279 .

^ Some high-definition versions of DVD use the original DVD physical format but depend on new video encoding technology such as H.264 and VC-1 to fit high-definition video in the space that used to hold only standard-definition video.

^ You give them a disc (or tape that they turn into a disc), they handle order processing, copying onto DVD-Rs, labeling, packaging, and shipment.

[34]

Holographic Versatile Disc

.The Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology that may one day hold up to 3.9 terabytes (TB) of information, albeit the current maximum is 500GB. It employs a technique known as collinear holography.^ A "one-stop shop" for Blu-ray player and disc licensing is being set up by Panasonic, Philips and Sony.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ EVD uses its own optical disc format and a proprietary video compression technology (VP5 and VP6, developed by On2 in the U.S.).

^ The added cost would be hard to justify since discs can hold over 4 hours of video on one side by using two layers.

5D DVD

.The 5D DVD, being developed in the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia, uses a multilaser system to encode and read data on multiple layers.^ The specification for the UDF file system used by DVD is available from www.osta.org .

^ You may also need software that can read the UDF file system format used by DVDs.

^ A dual-layer disc has two layers of data, one of them semi-transparent so that the laser can focus through it and read the second layer.

.Disc capacities are estimated at up to 10 terabytes, and the technology could be commercially ready within ten years.^ Sure, DVD rentals far outnumber online rentals today, but Netflix is assuming that its DVD business could peak in around five to ten years.
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

^ In the morning we made a few 8 by 10 negatives, but as we were making the last of them the wind freshened up, and we could not make as many as we wished.
  • The Influence of the Blue Ray of the sunlight and of the Blue Colour of the Sky by Gen A J Pleasonton, 1877 9 February 2010 13:10 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New standard could pave way for higher capacity Blu-ray discs .
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

[35]

DVD as a backup medium

There are two considerations for a backup medium: obsolescence and durability. .If there is no device that can read the medium, it is obsolete and the data is unavailable and thus lost.^ Others claim there is no meaningfully perceptible difference, especially at the typical data rate of 768 kbps, which is 60% more than Dolby Digital.

^ Digital recording devices are only able to receive data that is marked as copyable, and they must change the flag to "don't copy" or "no more copies" if the source is marked "copy once."

.Durability of DVDs is measured by how long the data may be read from the disc, assuming compatible devices exist that can read it: that is, how long the disc can be stored until data is lost.^ How long do DVDs last?

^ DVD+RW drives read DVD-ROMs and CDs, and usually read DVD-Rs and DVD-RWs, but do not read or write DVD-RAM discs.

^ DVD-RAM is fast and reliable, and the discs have an optional cartridge to help protect data.

.Five factors affect durability: sealing method, reflective layer, organic dye makeup, where it was manufactured, and storage practices.^ The formulation of dye used by different CD-R manufacturers also affects readability.

[36]
.The longetivity of the ability to read from a DVD+R or DVD-R, is largely dependent on manufacturing quality[37] ranging from 2 to 15 years,[38][39][40] and is believed to be an unreliable medium for backup unless great care is taken for storage conditions and handling.^ This is not actually required by the DVD spec, but so far all manufacturers have made their DVD hardware read CDs.

^ (Note: test results vary depending on media quality, handling, writing conditions, player tolerances, and so on.

^ There are rare cases of problems with DVDs, but these have largely disappeared as manufacturing processes have improved.

.According to the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA), "manufacturers claim life spans ranging from 30 to 100 years for DVD, DVD-R and DVD+R discs and up to 30 years for DVD-RW, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM",[41] although a manufacturer of 24-karat gold-based DVDs claims lifespans of up to 300 years.^ It's an optical disc storage technology for video, audio, and computer data.

^ DVD+RW is an erasable format based on CD-RW technology.

^ DVD-RW disc prices are around $2 (down from the original $30).

[42]

DVD consumer rights

.DVDs that have commercial movies and television content recorded on them are subject to copyright.^ Can I put DVD-Video content on a CD-R or CD-RW? [5.8] How do I copy my home videos/movies/slides to DVD? [5.8.1] How do I put other data files on a DVD I make?

^ This is a variation of DVD-R designed to allow legal download and burn of movies and other video content.

^ Some DVD movies were produced with added content designed specifically for the Nuon platform.

.The rise of filesharing and "piracy" has prompted many copyright owners to display notices on DVD packaging or displayed on screen when the content is played that warn consumers of the illegality of certain uses of the DVD. It is common place to include a 90 second advert warning that copying the contents is illegal.^ Uses HDCP for copy-protected content.

^ It’s possible, but in many cases illegal, to copy any DVD movie.

^ A jacket picture is often the same cover art used on the DVD package or sometimes a simplified picture, especially for the smaller sizes.

Many consumers find these messages irritating. .Many DVD's prevent forwarding of the warning forcing the consumer to watch.^ In addition, DVD will not degrade with age or after many playings like videotape will (which is an advantage for parents with kids who watch Disney videos twice a week!

Ironically, these irritations are typically absent on illegal copies.
Arrangements for renting and lending differ more by geography. .In the U.S., the right to re-sell, rent, or lend out bought DVDs is protected by the first-sale doctrine under the Copyright Act of 1976.^ The first DVD-Audio players were released in Japan by Pioneer in late 1999, but they did not play copy-protected discs.

^ Pioneer released the first DVD-Audio players (without copy protection support) in Japan in late 1999.

^ First Warner , now Disney , we're wondering if any of you are actually interested in any of these DVD trade in programs?
  • Blu-ray :: HDTV Biz-News.com 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hdtv.biz-news.com [Source type: General]

.In Europe, rental and lending rights are more limited, under a 1992 European Directive that gives copyright holders broader powers to restrict the commercial renting and public lending of DVD copies of their work.^ You give them a disc (or tape that they turn into a disc), they handle order processing, copying onto DVD-Rs, labeling, packaging, and shipment.

^ First, please understand that copying a commercial DVD may be illegal, depending on what country you live in and what you do with the copy.

^ No part of it may be sold for profit or incorporated in a commercial document without the permission of the copyright holder.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b DVD FLLC (2009-02) DVD Book Construction - list of all available DVD Books, Retrieved on 2009-07-24
  2. ^ a b DVD FLLC DVD Format Book - History of Supplements for DVD Books, Retrieved on 2009-07-24
  3. ^ a b MPEG.org, DVD Books overview, Retrieved on 2009-07-24
  4. ^ "Build Your Skills: A comparison between DVD and CD-ROM". http://articles.techrepublic.com.com/5100-6349-1047035.html. 
  5. ^ a b c "E-commerce and Video Distribution: DVD and Blu-ray". http://ecommerceandvideodistributiondvd.blogspot.com/. 
  6. ^ a b c Johnson, Lawrence B. (September 7, 1997). "For the DVD, Disney Magic May Be the Key". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9407EEDC1730F934A3575AC0A961958260. Retrieved 2009-05-25. 
  7. ^ ISO ISO Freely Available Standards, Retrieved on 2009-07-24
  8. ^ ISO ISO/IEC 17344:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +R format -- Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 16X), Retrieved on 2009-07-26
  9. ^ ISO ISO/IEC 25434:2008, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +R DL format -- Capacity: 8,55 Gbytes and 2,66 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 16X), Retrieved on 2009-07-26
  10. ^ ISO ISO/IEC 17341:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +RW format -- Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed up to 4X), Retrieved on 2009-07-26
  11. ^ ISO ISO/IEC 26925:2009, Data interchange on 120 mm and 80 mm optical disc using +RW HS format -- Capacity: 4,7 Gbytes and 1,46 Gbytes per side (recording speed 8X), Retrieved on 2009-07-26
  12. ^ a b DVD FLLC (2009) DVD Format Book, Retrieved on 2009-08-14
  13. ^ DVD FLLC (2009) How To Obtain DVD Format/Logo License (2005-2009), Retrieved on 2009-08-14
  14. ^ DVD Primer at DVDForum.org
  15. ^ "A Battle for Influence Over Insatiable Disks". The New York Times. 1995-01-11. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CEEDA143CF932A25752C0A963958260. Retrieved 2007-04-09. 
  16. ^ "DVD designers go with AC-3 Final specs for 'digital versatile disc'...". 1995-12-11. http://login.vnuemedia.com/h/login/login_subscribe.jsp?id=EhTA1werc%2F8oJkXd3AvIhVqJMQ%2BEsnoUjFFnmSZpudrVtJLf7Nv3guKhcy0wXloTw1ec8wBZwjOB%0A62XN0BJm24K0G1zDvlaa2k6JKCFzE7ePjrRq%2BP7fzOttoVmmk0ji0Ak9XMyUDOLcVVHvY1YAAu7R%0A9%2FWEig9DTbEWMSZ81VibQ8Yr05 cHz6%2BtV7gQyZ7v2cr1AiqljrxXu9IdD%2FTDqGSb8vhhZNMn6q9G%0Aegam8cJXu9IdD%2FTDqOmFpnXV7XcQIVOkoLrk6Bs%3D. Retrieved 2007-04-16. 
  17. ^ "DVD FAQ". DVD Demystified. 2006-09-12. http://www.dvddemystified.com/dvdfaq.html#1.1. 
  18. ^ "DVD Primer". DVD Forum. 2004-11-14. http://www.dvdforum.org/faq-dvdprimer.htm#1. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  19. ^ "DVD Book A: Physical parameters". Mpeg.org. http://www.mpeg.org/MPEG/DVD/Book_A/Specs.html. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  20. ^ Cinram: DVD in Detail
  21. ^ a b Jim Taylor. "DVD Demystifed FAQ". Dvddemystified.com. http://www.dvddemystified.com/dvdfaq.html. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  22. ^ "DVD-14". AfterDawn Ltd.. http://www.afterdawn.com/glossary/terms/dvd-14.cfm. Retrieved 2007-02-06. 
  23. ^ The write time is wildly optimistic for higher (>4x) write speeds, due to being calculated from the maximum drive write speed instead of the average drive write speed. 
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ a b Robert DeMoulin. "Understanding Dual Layer DVD Recording". BurnWorld.com. http://www.burnworld.com/howto/articles/intro-to-dual-layer.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-06. 
  26. ^ "DVD players benchmark". hometheaterhifi.com. http://www.hometheaterhifi.com/cgi-bin/shootout.cgi?function=search&articles=all&type=&manufacturer=0&maxprice=0&deInt=0&mpeg=0#SamsungBD-P1000%20Blu-ray/DVD%20Player%20(HDMI). Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  27. ^ "Discount stores are a video lover's channel of choice". Discount Store News (via findarticles.com). 1998-08-10. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3092/is_15_37/ai_50241583. Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
  28. ^ Bakalis, Anna (2003-06-20). "It's unreel: DVD rentals overtake videocassettes". Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/business/20030620-113258-1104r.htm. 
  29. ^ "DVD-Audio ripper". http://forum.doom9.org/showthread.php?p=1099342#post1099342. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  30. ^ "What is Blu-ray Disc?". Sony. http://www.sonystyle.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/CategoryDisplay?catalogId=10551&storeId=10151&langId=-1&identifier=S_BrandShowcase_Blu-ray. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  31. ^ "DVD FAQ: 3.13 - What about the new HD formats?". 2008-09-21. http://www.dvddemystified.com/dvdfaq.html#3.13. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  32. ^ "High-Definition Sales Far Behind Standard DVD's First Two Years". Movieweb.com. 2008-02-20. http://www.movieweb.com/dvd/news/20/26720.php. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  33. ^ Gates And Ballmer On "Making The Transition". BusinessWeek. 2004-04-19. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/04_16/b3879008_mz001.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  34. ^ "Kirk/Spock STAR TREK To Get All-New HD Spaceships". Aintitcool.com. http://www.aintitcool.com/display.cgi?id=24344. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  35. ^ "'5D' storage could hold 2,000 times more than 1 DVD". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2009-05-22. http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2009/05/22/tech-5d-storage-dvd-polarization-colours-3d-swinburne-chon-nature.html. Retrieved 2009-05-29. 
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DVD Manufacturing

Further reading

  • Bennett, Hugh (April 2004). ."Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD".^ A disc with two layers or two sections one containing pressed (DVD-ROM) data and one containing rewritable (DVD-RAM or other) media for recording.

    .Optical Storage Technology Association.^ It's an optical disc storage technology for video, audio, and computer data.

    ^ DVD is based on decades of optical storage technology development by dozens of companies.

    .http://www.osta.org/technology/dvdqa/.^ The specification for the UDF file system used by DVD is available from www.osta.org .

    Retrieved 2006-12-17
    .
     
  • Labarge, Ralph. .DVD Authoring and Production.^ Video encoding tools [5.3.2] Audio encoding tools [5.3.3] Other production tools [5.3.4] Other production services [5.4] What DVD authoring systems are available?

    ^ Authoring systems for Windows, oriented toward multimedia DVD-ROM production.

    Gilroy, Calif.: CMP Books, 2001. ISBN 1-57820-082-2.
  • Taylor, Jim. .DVD Demystified, 2nd edition.^ "Big Story," which is also available on the DVD Demystified first edition sample disc .

    New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000. ISBN 0-07-135026-8.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

A DVD.

Contents

English

Initialism

Singular
DVD
Plural
DVDs
DVD (plural DVDs) n
  1. Digital Versatile Disk, the use of which is deprecated in favor of (2)
  2. Digital Video Disk

Derived terms

  • HD-DVD
  • DVD Video, video DVD
  • DVD Audio, audio DVD
  • DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-R DL
  • DVD-ROM, DVD-RAM
  • DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD+R DL

Related terms

  • SACD
  • dualDisc
  • LD, CDDV, VCD, SVCD, BD

See also

  • direct-to-DVD

French

Initialism

DVD m. (plural DVDs)
  1. Initialism DVD

Japanese

Initialism

DVD or DVD (ディーブイディー, ディーヴィーディー, dī-bui-dī, dī-vī-dī)
  1. Initialism DVD

Norwegian

Initialism

DVD m. (definite singular [[DVD-en]]; indefinite plural [[DVD-er]]; definite plural [[DVD-ene]])
  1. Initialism DVD

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

.From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!^ What you are doing in PC games is taking this very very high resolution source, and sampling it down to some resolution for your monitor.
  • Blu-ray Adoption Still Sluggish, HDTV Sales Up - HotHardware 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hothardware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can your guide be used for VC-1 source (sorry, I haven't tried it yet).
  • Blue-Ray / HD-DVD / TS / DVD / AVI -> TO H.246 using MEGUI 9 February 2010 13:10 UTC forum.videohelp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In games your source material is kinda infinite/and you are just sampling it at higher and higher rates.
  • Blu-ray Adoption Still Sluggish, HDTV Sales Up - HotHardware 3 February 2010 14:39 UTC hothardware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A DVD is an optical disc technology that uses multiple layers of a compact disc to store data.^ Many discs use dual layers.

^ It's an optical disc storage technology for video, audio, and computer data.

^ A DVD-Video disc containing mostly audio can play for 13 hours (24 hours with dual layers) using 48/16 PCM (slightly better than CD quality).

.Originally used to store movies, the abbreviation 'DVD' stood for Digital Video Disc; however, after becoming a more widely used format, it was shoehorned into the new abbreviation, Digital Versatile Disc.^ Once the video is formatted to fullscreen or widescreen form, it's encoded and stored on DVD discs.

^ The original initialism came from "digital video disc."

^ (Laserdisc uses analog video, DVD uses digital video; they are very different formats.

Stub
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This article uses material from the "DVD" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

File:DVD two
Two kinds of DVD: Single layer (left) and dual layer (right).

A DVD (which means Digital Versatile Disc or a Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc capable of storing up to 4.7 GB of data, more than six times what a CD can hold. DVDs are often used to store movies at better quality than a VHS. DVDs can also have interactive menus and bonus features such as deleted scenes and commentaries. Like CDs, DVDs are read with a laser.

The disc can have one or two sides, and one or two layers of data per side; the number of sides and layers determines how much it can hold. A 12 cm diameter disc may have one of the following storage capacities:

  • DVD-5: single sided, single layer, 4.7 gigabytes (GB), or 4.38 gibibytes (GiB)
  • DVD-9: single sided, double layer, 8.5 GB (7.92 GiB)
  • DVD-10: double sided, single layer on both sides, 9.4 GB (8.75 GiB)
  • DVD-14: double sided, double layer on one side, single layer on other, 13.3 GB (12.3 GiB)
  • DVD-18: double sided, double layer on both sides, 17.1 GB (15.9 GiB)

There are also 8 cm DVDs with a storage capacity of 1.5 GB.

The capacity of a DVD-ROM can be visually determined by noting the number of data sides, and looking at the data side(s) of the disc. Double-layered sides are usually gold-colored, while single-layered sides are usually silver-colored, like a CD. One additional way to tell if a DVD contains one or two layers is to look at the center ring on the underside of the disc. If there are two barcodes, it is a dual layer disc. If there is one barcode, there is only one layer.

DVD data storing

Both CD and DVD discs have equal sizes (diameter, thickness etc.). However, the amount of information they can store is different. These discs are made of the same materials and have the same methods of production.

CDs and DVDs use the same way of keeping information. Both CDs and DVDs have pits and bumps on the data track (the data track represents a path which has certain information). The information is read by a laser.

A DVD disk has several layers, which are made of plastic. All layers have a thickness of 1.2 millimeters. An injection used on a polycarbonate plastic leads to the creation of microscopic bumps. Today's production uses this type of plastic to create different things because it can resist very high and low temperatures.

When layers are made, the bumps appear. Many bumps form one continuous spiral that can include information. After that a spray of a special reflective layer covers the bumps.

Aluminum is applied behind inner layers and semi-reflective gold covers the outer layers. This helps the laser to concentrate through the outer layers onto the inner ones. Then, after applying a protective liquid (lacquer) and pressing the layers, they are treated with infrared light.

Tracks on a DVD

Every track on a DVD disk circles from its center to the edge. The distance between the tracks on a DVD disk is 740 nanometers. Only a very precise mechanism can read the bumps on the disk, because they are very small (320×400×120 nanometers). The aluminum side of the disk has pits, but the side which is read by the laser has bumps. Because the size of the bumps are very small, a DVD track is very long. A data track of a DVD layer is about 7.5 miles long. This is the length of an ordinary DVD disk. The track of a disc with two sides would be about 30 miles long.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Blu-ray Disc, which are similar to those in the above article.








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