Dachau: Wikis

  
  

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Dachau
Dachau1.jpg
Coat of arms of Dachau
Dachau is located in Germany
Dachau
Coordinates 48°15′37″N 11°26′3″E / 48.26028°N 11.43417°E / 48.26028; 11.43417
Administration
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Upper Bavaria
District Dachau
Lord Mayor Peter Bürgel (CSU)
Basic statistics
Area 34.85 km2 (13.46 sq mi)
Elevation 482 m  (1581 ft)
Population 40,570  (31 March 2007)
 - Density 1,164 /km2 (3,015 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate DAH
Postal code 85221
Area code 08131
Website www.dachau.de
Location of the town of Dachau within Dachau district
Map
Dachau: Church of St Jakob

Dachau is a town in Upper Bavaria, in the southern part of Germany. It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt—of the administrative region of Upper Bavaria, about 20 km north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich with roughly 40,000 inhabitants. The historic centre of town with its 18th century castle is situated on an elevation and visible over a great distance.

Dachau was founded in the 8th century. It was home to many artists during the late 19th and early 20th century; for instance, Ludwig Thoma was born here.

Contents

History

Prehistoric times and Early Middle Ages

As the Amper River would divert into backwaters in several places, there were many fords making it possible to cross the river. The oldest findings of human presence here date back to the Stone Age. The most noteworthy findings were discovered near Feldgeding in the adjoining municipality Bergkirchen. Around 1000 B.C. the Celts arrived in this area and settled. The name “Dachau” originated in the celtic Dahauua, which roughly translates to “loamy meadow” and also alludes to the loamy soil of the surrounding hills. Some theories assume the name “Amper” river may derive from the Celtic word for “water”. Approximately at the turn of the first millennium the Romans conquered the area and incorporated it into the province of Rhaetia. A Roman trade road between Salzburg and today’s Augsburg is said to have run through Dachau. Remains of this old route are found along the Amper marshlands.

Middle Ages

The first known documentation of Dachau was a medieval deed by the Noble Erchana of Dahauua to the Bishop of Freising, both descendants of the lineage of the Aribons. With this deed dating back to August 15, 805 A.D., the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, she donated her entire property in Dachau, including 5 so called Colonenhöfe and some serfs and bondsman, to devolve to the Bishop of the Diocese of Freising after her death.

From the 12th century, Dachau was a summer residence for several Bavarian princes. Between 1240 and 1270, Dachau was granted market privileges, first by Duke Otto II, and then by his son, Duke Ludwig II der Strenge.

From 16th century to modern times

Between 1546 and 1577, the House of Wittelsbach had the Dachau Palace erected in the Renaissance style. From June 1715 to Autumn 1717, Joseph Effner remodelled the palace to suit the contemporary taste in style.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the castle's north-, east- and south-wing had to be demolished due to their state of disrepair. The west-wing housing the dance hall with a superb view of the enchanting gardens, still remains today. On the first floor the original renaissance wood carved, coffered ceiling can be admired by visitors.

Beginning during the second half of the 19th century the town became home to numerous artists. The Dachau artists' colony gave the town recognition as one of the most important artist's colonies in Germany beside Worpswede.

Second World War

In 1933, the Dachau concentration camp was built east of the city by the German government and was operated until 1945. It became the prototype for all other camps. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps.[1]

Geography

Geographical location

Dachau is located just 20 km northwest of Munich. It is situated at an altitude of 482 meters above sea level by the river Amper, with a boundary demarcated by lateral moraines formed during the last ice age and the Amper glacial valley. It is also close to a large marshy area called Dachauer Moos. Highest elevation of the district is the so called “Schlossberg”, the lowest point is located near the neighbourhood of Prittlbach, at the border to the next community of Hebertshausen. The bordering communities are Bergkirchen to the west, Schwabhausen to the northwest, Röhrmoos to the north, Hebertshausen to the northeast, and Karlsfeld to the south. To the east the greater district Dachau borders on the greater district of Munich with the community of Oberschleißheim.

The city is divided into 3 zones:

  • Historic Center: Dachau old town, Mitterndorf, Udlding,Etzenhausen, Unterer Markt, Webling
  • Dachau-East: Oberaugustenfeld, Unteraugustenfeld, Polln, Obergrashof, partially Prittlbach
  • Dachau-South: Himmelreich, Holzgarten, partially Gröbenried

Since 1972 also belonging to Dachau: the former community Pellheim with Pullhausen, Assenhausen, Lohfeld and Viehgarten.

Bodies of Water

Running from the west the river Amper runs south of Dachau’s old town, changes its direction at the former paper milling plant to the northeast and continues through Prittlbach into Hebertshausen.

Coming from Karlsfeld, the Würm crosses Dachau-East and merges into the river Amper just outside the district limit of Hebertshausen.

The Gröbenbach, which has its source south of Puchheim, runs through town coming from the south and merges into the Amper river at several locations near the festival grounds.

The Mühlbach, a man made canal, which is diverted from the river Amper at the electrical power plant and runs parallel and flows back into it after passing the paper mill. The name derives from the frequent mills in former times along the canal which took advantage of the decline between Mühlbach and Amper. West of the so called Festwiese runs another canal, called Lodererbach.

In town there are still parts of the Schleißheimer canal remaining today. This canal was build in the mid-eighteenth century as part of the northern Munich canal system to which the Nymphenburger Canal belongs as well. It functioned as a transportation route between Dachau and Schleißheim. The building material recovered from the demolition of three wings of the Dachau castle was transported to Schleißheim this way.

By allowing it to run to seed and through deliberate cultivation by the town of Dachau the canal is only still recognizable as such between Frühlingstrasse and the Pollnbach. Outside the city limit the original canal continues on to Schloss Schleißheim.

Within the city boundaries, in Dachau Süd (South), there is also a small lake called Stadtweiher.

Transport

The city is served by Munich S-Bahn (S2) and Deutsche Bahn via Dachau railway station located in the South of the town. The station is also annexed to the central bus terminal. The town is also served by Dachau Stadt Railway Station which serves the local A line with the rural vicinity. There are five bus lines which are operated by Stadtwerke Dachau: 719, 720, 722, 724 and 726. There is no tramway transport.

Dachau has a well developed road infrastructure for regional transportation. The city is connected to Bundesautobahn 8 (via Fürstenfeldbruck) with Munich-Pasing southbound, and westbound terminating in Karlsruhe. Dachau is connected to Bundesautobahn 92 via Oberschleißheim connector which is located east of Dachau. Bundesautobahn 99 is connected with Dachau via Karlsfeld which is located south of Dachau. Bundesstraße No. 471 (via Rothschwaige) connects eastbound towns such as the neighboring city Fürstenfeldbruck and westbound towns such as Oberschleißheim. Bundesstraße No. 304 starts in the south of the city and connects southbound towns until the German-Austrian border. Additionally, several Staatsstraßen connect Dachau with surrounding towns and villages.

Sights

Dachau in autumn 2002
  • Dachau Palace: A medieval castle which became the favourite residence of the Bavarian dukes in the 16th century. It was renovated into an enormous four-wing complex. Only one wing exists today.
  • Palace garden: a landscape garden.
  • Church of St Jakob (St James), built in the 17th century (Stadtpfarrkirche)
  • Old town
  • Town hall
  • Dachauer Moos: a wetland area.
  • Church of St Nicolas, Mitterndorf (1496)
  • Dachau Concentration Camp memorial Site: Dachau is best known for its proximity to the relatively well-preserved site of the infamous Dachau concentration camp, the first large-scale concentration camp in Germany, converted from an old gunpowder factory by the Nazi regime in 1933.
Dachau South

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Dachau is twinned with:

Dachau is a member of Euroart, the European Federation of Artists' Colonies[2].

People

Famous people who lived, worked or were born in Dachau include

References

  1. ^ That Was Dachau 1933 - 1945 by Stanislav Zámečník Page 377 and 379
  2. ^ http://euroartcities.eu/
This article incorporates information from the revision as of 2006-11-24 of the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia.

Literature

  • Hans-Günther Richardi: Dachauer Zeitgeschichtsführer. Stadt Dachau, Dachau 1998 (German)

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents

Dachau, [1] is a city with about 40,000 citizens in Bavaria, Germany and has a history of more than 1,200 years. In former times Dachau had always been a retreat for Bavarian kings, dukes and nobility, the castle and the surrounding gardens offering a staggering view on the Alps and Munich weather permitting. Dachau became a town famous for its impressionist painters from the second half of the 19th century on. With the advent of the Nazi regime, Dachau was chosen in 1933 as site for their very first concentration camp. This has cast a pall over the rest of this small and pleasant town on the outskirts of Munich. Dachau served as a camp for political prisoners mainly and finally ended up being a staging ground to ship prisoners to Eastern death camps in Poland and elsewhere, though approximately 42,000 people were killed at the camp itself and its 169 sub-camps. Today Dachau has a big cultural scene as well as a still impressive picture-perfect old town and castle. The concentration camp remains as a memorial to its dark history is maintained and visited by thousands every year.

Gates of the concentration camp (Arbeit Macht Frei meaning "work will set you free")
Gates of the concentration camp (Arbeit Macht Frei meaning "work will set you free")
  • Public Transportation: The S-2 from Munich runs to the center of town.
  • Train Regional trains run from Munich Hauptbahnhof every hour or so and take approximately thirty minutes to reach Dachau.
  • Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site, Alte Römerstraße 75, D - 85221 Dachau (Bus 724 or 726 from Dachau station), +49(0)8131 - 669970, [2]. 9 am to 5 pm, Tuesdays to Sundays. The memorial provides several services including: # Audio guides (€ 3) # A brief introduction (€ 1.50) # Guided tours for individuals (€ 3; book in advance) # Guided tours for groups (€ 65 for up to 30 people; book in advance) Free.  edit
    • Several tours run from Munich costing about € 20, including transportation.[3][4] [5],
  • Dachau Old Town
  • City Hall
  • Dachau Castle
  • Castle Garden
  • Dachau Painting Gallery The Dachau Painting Gallery (Dachauer Gemäldegalerie in German) has a representative permanent collection of typical landscape and genre paintings of the 19th and early 20th century. Dachau was the site of one of the most important - in terms of art history - German artist colonies at that time, which had a large impact on the development of modern art in the twentieth century. Famous painters, such as Christian Morgenstern, Carl Spitzweg, Eduard Schleich the Elder or Adolf Hölzel, Ludwig Dill and Arthur Langhammer prized the moor landscape of Dachau as an attractive motif. Special exhibitions vary.[6]
  • District Museum of Dachau The District Museum (Bezirksmuseum in German), which received the Bavarian Museum Award in 1993, reflects the cultural history of the town of Dachau and the surrounding county. On three floors you find numerous impressive exhibits illustrating settlement forms and town history, guild and market law, crafts and trade, everyday life and festive traditions, religious folklore and much more. Special exhibitions deal with various aspects of cultural history.

Eat

Original Bavarian Beer Garden

  • Alte Liebe, Im Lus 4, Mitterndorf, +49 8131 667131,
  • Drei Rosen, Muenchner Str. 5, Dachau, +49 8131 84363, [7],
  • Zieglerbraeu, Konrad-Adenauer-Str.8, Dachau, +49 8131 454396, [8]
  • Seven Days, Schleißheimer Str. 12, Dachau, +49 8131 299877
  • The Harp, Pfarrstr. 3, Dachau, +49 8131 86258
  • Café GRAMSCI, Burgfriedenstraße 3, Dachau, 49 8131 669102
  • Youth Hostel ("Jugendgästehaus"), Roßwachtstraße; Bus 726 "Saubachsiedlung"

Contact

Tourist Information Dachau Konrad-Adenauer-Straße 1, 85221 Dachau, Tel. +49 8131/75-286 or -287, Fax +49 8131/75-150 infobuero@dachau.de [http://www.dachau.info] [http://www.dachau.de]

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Simple English

Dachau

Dachau
Coordinates 48°15′37″N 11°26′3″E / 48.26028°N 11.43417°E / 48.26028; 11.43417
Administration
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Upper Bavaria
District Dachau
Lord Mayor Peter Bürgel (CSU)
Basic statistics
Area 34.85 km2 (13.46 sq mi)
Elevation 482 m  (1581 ft)
Population 40,570  (31 March 2007)
 - Density 1,164 /km2 (3,015 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate DAH
Postal code 85221
Area code 08131
Website www.dachau.de
Location of the town of Dachau within Dachau district

Dachau is a city in the south of Germany, about 20 km (12.4 mi) north-west of Munich. It has about 40,000 inhabitants. The town contains a historic town centre with an 18th century castle.

Dachau was founded in the 8th century. In 1933, a Concentration camp was built in Dachau. It was the first camp of the Nazis and became the prototype for all other camps. More than 30,000 prisoners died, or were killed.

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