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Tropaeum Traiani depicting a falx in battle

The history of Dacian warfare spans from ca. 10th century BC up to the 2nd century AD in the region defined by Ancient Greek and Latin historians as Dacia. It concerns the armed conflicts of the Dacian tribes and their kingdoms in the Balkans. Apart from conflicts between Dacians and neighboring nations and tribes, numerous wars were recorded among Dacians too.



Tribal wars

The Dacians fought amongst each other but were later united first under Burebista and later under Decebalus.Despite this after the death of Burebista[1] at 44 BC they had been split by a civil war.


The kingdom of Cothelas (4th century BC) one of the Getae was an area near the Black Sea, between northern Thrace and the Danube[2].

The kingdom of Rubobostes (2nd century BC) was a region in Transylvania.

The kingdom of Burebista (82 BC and 44 BC) that the Greeks[3] believed their king was the greatest of all Thracians.

The kingdom of Decebalus 87106[4].Decebalus was the last king of the Dacians and despite his fierce resistance against the Romans,faced defeat and committed suicide rather than being marched through Rome as a captured foreign leader.

Domitian's Dacian War

Domitian's Dacian War.The two punitive expeditions mounted as a border defense against raids of Moesia‎ from Dacia in 86-87 AD ordered by the Emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus (Domitian) in 87 AD, and 88 AD. The first expedition was an unmitigated disaster, and the second achieved a peace, seen as unfavorable and shameful by many in Rome.

Trajan's Dacian Wars

Trajan's Dacian Wars.The two campaigns of conquest ordered or led by the Emperor Trajan in 101-102 AD, and 105-106 AD from Moesia‎ across the Danube north into Dacia. Trajan's forces were successful in both cases, reducing Dacia to client state status in the first, and taking the territory over in the second.These wars involved no less than 13 legions[5].

Dacian troop types and organization


Infantry and Cavalry

The Dacian tribes, were part of the greater Thracian family of peoples. They established a highly militarized society and, during the periods when the tribes were united under one king (82 BC-44 BC, 86-106) posed a major threat to the Roman provinces of Lower Danube. Dacia was conquered (except for the Free Dacians) and transformed into a Roman province in 106 after a long, hard war.

Dacian scale armour

The most important weapon of the Dacian arsenal was the falx. This dreaded weapon, similar to a large sickle came in two variants: a shorter, one-handed falx called a sica[6], and a longer two-handed version. The shorter falx was called sica (sickle) in the Dacian language. The two-handed falx was a polearm. It consisted of a three-feet long wooden shaft with a long curved iron blade of nearly-equal length attached to the end. The blade was sharpened only on the inside, and was reputed to be devastatingly effective. However, it left its user vulnerable because, being a two-handed weapon, the warrior could not also make use of a shield. Alternatively, it might used as a hook, pulling away shields and cutting at vulnerable limbs.

Using the falx, the Dacian warriors were able to counter the power of the compact, massed Roman formations. During the time of the Roman conquest of Dacia (101 - 102, 105 - 106), legionaries had reinforcing iron straps applied to their helmets. The Romans also introduced the use of leg and arm protectors (greaves and manica) as further protection against the falxes.

A typical falx.
Sica,a small version of the falx

The Dacians were adepts of surprise attacks and skilful, tactical withdrawals using the fortification system. During the wars with the Romans, fought by their last king Decebal (87-106 ), the Dacians almost crushed the Roman garrisons South of the Danube in a surprise attack launched over the frozen river ( winter of 101-102 ). Only the intervention of Emperor Trajan with the main army saved the Romans from a major defeat. But, by 106 the Dacians were surrounded in their capital Sarmizegetusa.The city was taken after the Romans discovered and destroyed the capital's water supply line.Dacians decorated their bodies with tattoos like the Illyrians[7] and the Thracians[8].The Pannonians north of the Drava had accepted Roman rule out of fear of the Dacians[9].

As a result, the king committed suicide and Dacia became a Roman province until 271.

Marcus Annaeus Lucanus[10] 39 - 65 wrote of Dacian hordes;

Have poured her captains, and the troops who guard the northern frontier from the Dacian hordes

Dacians that could afford armor wore customised Phrygian type helmets with solid crests(intricately decorated), domed helmets and Sarmatian helmets.[11].They fought with spears,javelins,falxes, one sided battle axes and used "Draco" Carnyxe's as standards.Most used only shields as a form of defense.Cavalry would be armed with a spear, a long bronze La Tene sword and an oval shield.

Most of the infantry would wield a falx and perhaps a sica and would wear no armor at all even shunning shields.


Dacian mercenaries were uncommon in contrast to the Thracians and the Illyrians but they could be found in the service of the Greek Diadochi[12] and of the Romans[13].


A 2nd century AD chieftain would wear a bronze Phrygian type helmet,a corselet of iron scale armor,an oval wooden shield with motifs and wield a sword.[14]


There was no Dacian navy except perhaps boats to cross the Danube that don't qualify as navy.


remains of Fortress of Blidaru

Dacians had built fortresses all around Dacia with most of them being on the Danube[15].A scene from Trajan's column shows Romans attacking a Dacian fortification using the "testudo"[16].

The Dacians constructed stone strongholds, davas, in the Carpathian Mountains in order to protect their capital Sarmizegetusa. The fortifications were built on a system of circular belts. This allowed the defenders, after a stronghold was lost, to retreat to the next one using hidden escape gates.

External influences

Scythian & Sarmatian

Dacian draco.jpg

The Dacian Draco was the standard of the ancient Dacian military.The draco was originally developed by the Sarmatians and Alans, cavalry peoples of the steppes.Sarmatians were part[17] of the Dacian army as allies.The Roxolani became part of the Dacians while the Iazyges fought against them trying to claim their own land[18].

Celtic & Germanic

Celtic iron spearheards and swords from La Tene[19].Many types of Hallstatt culture and Celtic swords[20].Wooden shields , sax knives.The Celtic Bastarnae[21] and Germans[17] were an important part of the Dacian army.Celtic weapons were used like long swords and round shields[22].The Celts played a very active role in Dacia[23].The Scordisci were among the allies used by the Dacians[24].

Hellenic and Hellenistic

Cothelas had become a vassal to ancient Macedon.Some Kings of the Getae had been Hellenized[25]


Roman province of Dacia with Roman settlements and legion garrisons included
Dacian armaments

Dacia became a Roman province at 106 AD.Dacians were eventually Romanized[26].After their defeat from the Roman a coin called Dacicus[27] was minted by Domitian.

Notable events


Dacians were shown by Trajan as dignified[28] and heroic but still dangerous and unable to stand against the might of Rome.Horace (65 BC - 8 BC) the poet writes of them in one of his works and mentions them along with the Scythians as[29] as tyrants and fierce barbarians.Tacitus (56 - 117) a senator and a historian writes that they are a people that can never be trusted[30] and the Roman legions had nothing to fear from them.

The Ancient Greeks[3] expressed admiration and respect for Burebista.

List of Dacian battles

This is a list of battles or conflicts that Dacians had a leading or crucial role in- rarely as mercenaries.They were involved in massive battles against Roman legions.

See also


  1. ^ The Legionary (The Roman World Series) by Peter Connolly,1998,page 14: "... dynamic king Burebista, a century and a half earlier, the Dacians had become the most powerful nation in central Europe, but since his death the country had been split by civil war. ..."
  2. ^ Lewis et al. 2008, p. 773
  3. ^ a b Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza,2009,page 54,"The Greeks were so impressed with his achievements that they named him 'the first and greatest king of the kings of Thracia'"
  4. ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis". Retrieved 2007-11-08. "In the year 88, the Romans resumed the offensive. The Roman troops were now led by the general Tettius Iulianus. The battle took place again at Tapae but this time the Romans defeated the Dacians. For fear of falling into a trap, Iulianus abandoned his plans of conquering Sarmizegetuza and, at the same time, Decebalus asked for peace. At first, Domitian refused this request, but after he was defeated in a war in Pannonia against the Marcomanni (a Germanic tribe), the emperor was obliged to accept the peace."
  5. ^ A Companion to the Roman Army (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World) by Paul Erdkamp,2007,page 218
  6. ^ Rome's Enemies (1): Germanics and Dacians (Men at Arms Series, 129) by Peter Wilcox and Gerry Embleton,1982,page 35
  7. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 198,"their armor is Celtic but they are tattooed like the rest of the Illyrians and Thracians"
  8. ^ The World of Tattoo: An Illustrated History by Maarten Hesselt van Dinter ,2007,page 25: "... in ancient times. The the Danube area Dacians, Thracians and Illyrians all decorated themselves with status-enhancing tattoos, ..."
  9. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,2003,page 1106,"Pannonia north of the Drava appears to have accepted Roman rule without a struggle probably owing to fear of the Dacians to the east.
  10. ^ Luc. 8.331
  11. ^ Rome's enemies: Germanics and Dacians by Peter Wilcox,Gerry Embleton,ISBN-0850454735,1982,
  12. ^ The coming of Rome in the Dacian world,ISBN-387940707X,2000,page 83
  13. ^ The coming of Rome in the Dacian world,ISBN-387940707X,2000,page 115
  14. ^ Rome's Enemies (1): Germanics and Dacians (Men at Arms Series, 129) by Peter Wilcox and Gerry Embleton,1982
  15. ^ Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza, 2009, page 13, "The shores of the Danube were well monitored from the Dacian fortresses Acidava, Buricodava, Dausadava (the shrine of the wolves), Diacum, Drobeta (Turnu Severin), Nentivava (Oltenita), Suvidava (Corabia), Tsirista, Tierna/Dierna (Orsova) and what is today Zimnicea. Downstream were also other fortresses: Axiopolis (Cernadova), Barbosi, Buteridava, Capidava(Topalu), Carsium(Harsova), Durostorum(Silistra), Sacidava/Sagadava (Dunareni) along with still others..."
  16. ^ The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare: Volume 2, Rome from the Late Republic to the Late Empire by Philip Sabin, Hans van Wees, and Michael Whitby,2007,page 149: "... 4.5 Scene from Trajan's column depicting Roman troops attacking a Dacian fortification, using the famous testudo (tortoise) formation to shield themselves from ..."
  17. ^ a b Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza, 2009, page 170
  18. ^ Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza, 2009, page 134
  19. ^ Rome's enemies: Germanics and Dacians by Peter Wilcox,Gerry Embleton,ISBN-0850454735,1982,page 7
  20. ^ Rome's enemies: Germanics and Dacians by Peter Wilcox,Gerry Embleton,ISBN-0850454735,1982,page 9
  21. ^ Rome's enemies: Germanics and Dacians by Peter Wilcox,Gerry Embleton,ISBN-0850454735,1982,page 35
  22. ^ Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza, 2009, page 50
  23. ^ Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza, 2009, page 88
  24. ^ Strab. 7.5,"they often used the Scordisci as allies"
  25. ^ The Thracians, 700 BC - AD 46 by Christopher Webber,ISBN 1841763292, 9781841763293,2001,page 14,"It shows a Hellenised king of the Getae"
  26. ^ Quiles, Carlos. A Grammar of Modern Indo-European. Carlos Quiles Casas, 2007, ISBN 8461176391, p. 76. "Most of the Thracians were eventually Hellenised - in the province of Thrace - or Romanized - Moesia, Dacia, etc. -, with the last remnants surviving in remote areas until the 5th century.
  27. ^ Dacicus,"Dācicus,a gold coin of Domitian, conqueror of the Dacians, Iu."
  28. ^ The Barbarians Speak: How the Conquered Peoples Shaped Roman Europe. by Peter S. Wells,2001,page 105,"... so too the Emperor Trajan represented the Dacians as a strong threat to Roman authority on the lower Danube. The barbarian enemies are represented in heroic fashion, as dignified warriors unable ..."
  29. ^ Q. Horatius Flaccus (Horace),Odes John Conington, Ed.Hor. Carm. 1.35,"Thee Dacians fierce, and Scythian hordes,Peoples and towns, and Rome, their head,And mothers of barbarian lords,And tyrants in their purple dread,"
  30. ^ Tac. Hist. 3.46,"The Dacians also were in motion, a people which never can be trusted, and which, now that our legions were withdrawn from Mœsia, had nothing to fear. "
  31. ^ Celtic Warrior: 300 BC-AD 100 by Stephen Allen and Wayne Reynolds,2001,Front Matter,"... 60: Celtic Boii in Bohemia defeated by Dacian tribes from the lower Danube. 58-51: Caesar's campaigns in Gaul ..."

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