|— District —|
Location of Dadeldhura
|Region||Far-Western (Sudur Pashchimanchal)|
|- Total||1,538 km2 (593.8 sq mi)|
|- Density||82/km2 (212.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone||NPT (UTC+5:45)|
Dadeldhura district, a part of Mahakali zone, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. The district, with Dadeldhura as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,538 km² and has a population (2001) of 126,162.
The region has many local religious temples. The district is seldom visited by tourists to Nepal, but contains local routes to Mt Kailaish in Tibet, Ra Ra Lake in Humla district and the last remaining remnants of the Far Western Malla Kingdom. Nagi Malla was the last royal to live here before Nepalese unification.
The spoken language is Dotyalli and the majority of inhabitants are Hindu. The district is entirely rural, and has yet to be modernized. The largest city is Dadheldura city.
Dadeldhura's Vital Statistics
Mahakali Zone28°59' to 29°26' North latitude; 80°12' to 80°47' East Longitude
East-Doti; West-Uttar Pradesh (India); North-Baitadi; South-Kanchanpur & Kailali
432m-2639 m asl
1constituency; 9 ilakas; 20 VDCs; 1 Municipality
agricultural land: 12.70%; forest-75.80%; Settlement-2789 ha others-14651 ha
Average HH size:
119,941 (male-51.3%; female-48.7%)
Pop. growth rate:
1.9% (3% as per DDC’s database)
Eco. active pop.:
Brahmin, Chhetri, Thakuri, & others
Religious: Ugratara, Bhagember, Ghatalthan & Parshuram Temples; Historical sites: Amar Singh Fort, Ajayameru Fort; Lake: Alital
Donor Presence UNDP:
PDDP-entire district & VDP in 5 VDCs
DPCP in VDP VDCs
BPEP- entire district through DOE
RCIW (food for work) in 18 VDCs and 1 Municipality
CBED in 15 VDCs and 1 Municipality
Ugratara temple at sunrise
Main economic source: agricultural products; forest products; medicinal herbs; migratory labour remittance
Main export include herbs, rosin & turpentine
140 primary schools; 24 lower secondary; 29 secondary; 2 higher secondary; 3 private boarding schools
1 campus (Amargadi.. offering 1-year B.Ed course)
1 Para-medical campus (Amargadi)
Literacy status-overall: 34%; (male: 55%; female: 13%)
Infrastructure: 15-bed district hospital in Amargadi-1; 36-bed Team Mission Hospital in Amargadi-1 (with X-ray machine); primary health centre-1; 9 health posts; 14 sub-health posts; 3 Ayurvedic Clinics; 17 private clinics
Manpower in Hospital: 3 posts for doctors, but no doctors; 3 posts for nurses-currently only 1 nurse
District Agriculture Development Office
Main agricultural products: paddy, wheat, maize, millet, pulses, soybean, mustard, potatoes, sugarcane,
Main fruit products: citrus fruits, walnut, apples, pears
District Forest Office
Forest cover 115,000 ha (75.80%);
Community Forests-230 plots (14,730 ha)
Rosin & Turpentine industries
District Cottage & Small Industry Development Office
Registered Cottage Industries-203 (65 mills, 23 furniture-making, 28 textile units,12 hosiery industries, 75 others)
Agriculture Development Bank-1; Rashtriya Banijya Bank-2; Nepal Bank-1; Grameen Bikas Bank-1
District Drinking Water Office
According to DWO 82% have piped drinking water (but many projects now in dilapidated condition due to lack of maintenance)
District Irrigation Office
Total irrigated land-4565 ha through 11 projects implemented by DIO ; 4 more projects under construction to irrigate additional 440 ha
Nepal Electricity Authority
66 KVA national grid supplies electricity to Amargadi, Samaiji, Ajayabhek, Asigram and Ganeshpur VDCs)
Micro-hydro in Rupal VDC
Water turbine electrification project in Laldhunga, Jogbuda through private initiative
REDP+DDC micro-hydro projects-4 KW project in Sana Khola, Tallo Debari in Jogbuda VDC; 7 KW Chamagaon, Belapur VDC; 22 KW Shirshagad, Jogbuda VDC
Telephone lines-156; MARTS lines-25; VHF/UHFlines-7
Fax facility-8, Email-2; Wireless set-1; Express mail delivery-1
District post office-1; Ilaka post office-8; Additional post office-22
Dadeldhura headquarters to Dhangadi to Dipayal (135 + 65 km) blacktopped road
Dadeldhura headquarters to Baitadi Headquarters (83 km) unpaved road
Under construction Dadeldhura headquarters to Baitadi’s Melauli (65 km); Jogbuda to Kanchanpaur (40 km); Jogbuda to Budur in Doti (30 km); 4 Intra-district roads (138 km)
Synopsis of Activities being undertaken under PDDP (as of November 1999) Participatory Planning & Monitoring
As per the Programme’s objective of assisting the DDC in its annual participatory planning and monitoring process, the DDC is continuing with the planning cycle (pre-planning workshop, VDC Council, Ilaka Planning Workshops, Sectoral Planning Committee meeting, DDC Co-ordination meeting, DDC meeting and District Council). The planning process for FY57/58 has been initiated. The Ilaka Planning Workshops have recently been completed and the District Council is expected to be held soon.
Analysis of the proposed and approved programmes of the governmental development agencies in Dadeldhura for FY 2056/57 indicates that a total of 55 programmes included in the DDP have been incorporated into HMG’s Red Book (90%). While all the programmes of the other agencies have been listed in the Red Book, only 70% of the programmes of the District Health Office were approved for implementation. In addition to the programme listed in the DDP, 3 programmes of the District Road Office, one programme of the District Health Office and 7 activities of the District Water Supply Office, (with a total budgets of Rs. 43 lakhs) which were not prioritised through the bottom-up planning system were also incorporated into the Red Book.
As per the budget, 69.1% of the total budget endorsed by the District Council has been included in the Red Book. The percentage of inclusion varies among ministries, with the District Forestry Office accounting for only 31.5% inclusion and the District Soil Conservation Office accounting for 99.6% of the budget requested by the District Council.
Group discussions during Pre-Planning Workshop at the DDC
District Information Unit has been established and equipped with GIS maps and database, as well as two computers, photocopier, fax and email facilities. Updating of Data collected in 1995/96 is being carried out. 18 of the 20 VDCs and 1 municipality have collected updated data. Data collection was carried out by the VDC secretaries, the DDC having provided Rs.1500 incentive to them. Data entry of 8 VDCs is being carried out by Computer Operator and PO of Information Section.
District profile and sectoral information have been published and disseminated. Database created by DDC widely being used by LAs for planning development activities in the district.
The DDC has been publishing its newsletter, the Jilla Bikas Bulletin on a quarterly basis.
Restructured organisational setup of DDC has been operationalised with the establishment of two Programme Sections (Social & Education Development & Information, Research and Publication Development Sections), and internalising the Programme Officers. Programme Officers have been serving as resource persons in the DDC’s HRD Unit.
DDC has established an HRD Unit too. The Unit has been undertaking training on PD approach, gender, users’ group, etc. in the district. The Unit is planning to conduct training to the authorities of other non-PDDP VDCs to districts as per demand.
The Public Service Fund has been fully utilised on a community managed health clinic and a school. Both these organisations have been providing good service to the rural inhabitants of Dadeldhura, as well as of neighbouring Baitadi.
Village Development through Social Mobilisation
VDP is being implemented in Rupal, Gangkhet (’96), Bhageshwar, Dewal Dibyaour and Nava Durga VDCs (’97). The DDC has also expanded VDP in Samaiji VDC through its own resources.
VDP covers all 45 wards of the five VDCs. The programme also covers 127 settlements (86.5% of the total settlements) and 2815 households (82.33% of the total households).
3385 people have organised themselves into 149 COs including 87 male, 40 female and 23 mixed COs. The number of female COs has increased significantly in 1999.
These members had saved a total of Rs. 1.16 million of which they had invested Rs. 0.96 million. The cumulative investment stands at Rs. 2.34 million. The investment was taken by 1436 people of which 43.92% was invested on livestock & poultry, 12.08% on household expenditure, 10.43% on trade & services, and 6.27% on farming and manufacturing.
Bhumiraj CO members in Rupal VDC engaged in discussions
689 members from 92 COs have utilised Rs. 2.19 million credit capital which they had invested in income generating activities, mainly in livestock & poultry (75.49) and trade & service (20.53%).
Baseline survey reports of all 5 VDCs have been prepared; similarly VDC Plans of all VDP VDCs and Enterprise Development Plans of all COs have also been prepared.
23 COs received training to become village experts in the field of animal health, manufacturing, auditing etc. The CO members also received skill development training in improved farming, animal husbandry, leather shoe-making, traditional paper-making, knitting and sewing.
Bhumiraj CO members in Rupal VDC engaged in discussions
In Gangkhet four drinking water projects and two irrigation projects have already been completed. One drinking water project is nearing completion. In Rupal VDC, SGF projects have finally been initiated-one drinking water project, one irrigation cum water mill and one in irrigation. Nawadurga VDC is implementing 6 drinking water projects and 5 irrigation projects; Bhageshwar VDC is implementing 7 projects-5 in drinking water and 2 in irrigation and 6 projects will be implemented in Dewal Dibyapur VDC, 3 each in drinking water and irrigation.
Under technology transfer, the programme has introduced 10,000 sets of napier fodder grass that has been planted in a demonstration plot in a CO-managed community forest in Gangkhet. Three improved bucks costing Rs. 13000 have been introduced for breeding purposes in Nava Durga VDC. COs of Dewal Dibyapur VDC have also improved bucks.
External resources tapped by the COs:
Irrigation project worth Rs. 8 lakhs in Nawadurga VDC through the District irrigation Office
1 Drinking Water project each in Nawadurga and Dewal Dibyapur VDCs worth 8.5 lakhs through the District Drinking Water and Sanitation Office
A 12-km foot trail from Gaira to Unikot in Gangkhet worth Rs. 7 lakhs from the RCIW project
A 15-km trail linking Doti Gahatal to Unikot in Gangkhet costing Rs. 10 lakhs under the RCIW project
A 9-km foot trail from Seragadh to Dewal in Dewal Dibyapur costing Rs. 6 lakhs under RCIW
A school playground in Dewal Dibyapur worth Rs. 3 lakhs under RCIW project. Manakali in front of her ‘hotel’ in Gaira Bazar
Manakali Devi Khatri of Gangkhet VDC, who once used to be steeped in debt, now lends money to the needy! She built up a savings raising chicken in a region where a chicken sells at the price of a goat! She invested that amount in a ‘hotel’ (eatery) in Gaira Bazar on the highway that serves lunch for passengers on at least 4-5 buses plying on the highway, besides the other wayfarers!
Gajendra Bdr. Shahi DDC Chairman, Dadeldhura
First Social Mobilisation Then Development
Ddeldhura is a beautiful hilly district situated amidst the Chure, inner terai and Mahabharat ranges in the Far Western Development Region. While it shares its southern, eastern and northern boundaries with Kanchanpur, Doti and Baitadi districts respectively, Dadeldhura’s western boundary is the Mahakali river beyond which lies India. There are dense green forests, places of religious and historical significance, and gushing rivers and streams that divide tall mountains. There are beautiful valleys, lowlands and the scintillating view of the lovely Himalaya to the north. Dadeldhura, with its diverse topography and unique culture, definitely has an identity of its own.
It also has its own development problems. Dadeldhura lags behind most districts in human development. Lack of education and the slow pace of development means that superstition and old customs rule sway over the land. The status of women under such circumstances is quite dismal. Loaded with housework, weighed down by large families, and highly under-nourished, even women in their 30s wrinkle up like old women. Even at childbirth, they are fed just dry bread and rice, and are segregated as untouchables.
Most of the youths, leave their educational quest incomplete and head for the Indian plains in search of jobs. Despite the continued efforts of the governmental and non-governmental organisations to speeden development efforts in the district, it does not seem to lessen the tide of people migrating from the hills to the plains of Kailali and Kanchanpur.
If on the one hand there are complaints that development is slow in the district, it is also true that there are many examples of funds allocated for various development initiatives having to be returned unutilised. We can find many huge buildings, drinking water projects and reservoirs, built at huge costs, now in shambles. The ADB and UNICEF have implemented many drinking water projects through the Drinking Water Supply Office, but the problem of drinking water shortage in the district hasn’t been mitigated.
The buildings under the Mahakali Irrigation Project have not been handed over as yet, and are slowly falling apart, with no one to take repair and maintain them. The life of the people of Dadeldhura is quite miserable.
They do not seem too motivated towards getting involved in income generating activities and every day more and more people are sliding below the poverty line.
Looking West from the highway
It is apparent that just plowing in the limited resources and manpower of the government and the I/NGOs for Dadeldhura’s development is not enough to develop the district. First of all they have to be urged to participate in developmental activities by raising their awareness. They have to realise that development is for, of and by the people, and thus they have to cast aside their differences in religion, gender, caste, political beliefs and come together to work in improving their lives. So it is important to mobilise the masses first.
Development plans should be need-based and prioritised. The beneficiaries should be included in every step of the planning, implementing and monitoring processes, and the responsibility of repair and maintenance of the projects should also be handed over to the users’ groups such that they can function independently.
For all this to happen it is of utmost importance to undertake social mobilisation on a massive scale. That is why I think it is imperative to expand the programmes and policies of PDDP throughout the district.
Looking West from the highway
Better Equipped To Manage District Development
Nepal is a poor developing nation lagging with very poor physical infrastructure facilities, and very low per capita income. The income level of the people is also very low. The Far-Western Development Region of Nepal fares the worst in terms of development initiatives compared to the other development regions of the country. And among the hills of this region lies Dadeldhura.
The responsibility given to the DDC for district development has recently been extended with more rights and responsibilities by the Local Self-Governance Act. It is the DDC’s duty thus, to main good linkages with the various sectoral line agencies present in the district to help the DDC, as well as with the NGOs that are involved in the district development process. But due to limited manpower and administrative and financial workload the DDC had been unable to maintain a strong balance with these developmental organisations.
After the implementation of PDDP there has been an improvement in the organizational structure of the DDC. Four programme sections have been established and institutionalised within the DDC. The programme officers working in these sections are very active and help lessen the workload of the DDC and also help to maintain a strong balance between various organisations.
In order to undertake a proper planning exercise anywhere, it is first essential to make a contextual, sectoral and situational analysis of the place. However, none of these information can be found easily at one place in any district-based agency.
I think PDDP’s main achievement is the support it has provided to strengthen and institutionalise the base of participatory planning and monitoring process in the district.
But after the implementation of PDDP, an information center has been set up in Dadeldhura DDC, where one can now find information collected from the settlements, the district’s situational analyses as well as GIS maps based on these information.
The data and pictures have proved extremely useful to the local elected representatives, for the sectoral line agencies and NGOs for district development planning. Furthermore the DDC has received support for updating these data. The data collected in a participatory manner through PDDP’s support contain information from settlements, and thus will be relevant and useful even if ward, VDC and DDC boundaries change.
I think PDDP’s main achievement is the support it has provided to strengthen and institutionalise the base of participatory planning and monitoring process in the district. The Programme has built on the achievements of the Decentralisation Support Project and has promoted decentralised district development by involving people in every step of planning process, and helping prioritise plans that are need-based instead of resource-based like earlier. I truly believe plans developed in this way will indeed bring long term development to the district.
Building a Base of Social Capital First
Pawan Bdr. Karki District Development Advisor Dadeldhura
Dadeldhura is a beautiful hilly district in the Far West, with many villages dotting the hillside. A lot of development effort has been poured into the district in the past, but everywhere one goes, ones comes face to face with poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy and superstition.
Just as in the other districts of Nepal, a lot of emphasis has been paid earlier to developing physical infrastructure. But Dadeldhura’s current state of development stands testament to the fact that development efforts limited to building physical infrastructure translates to half-baked development.
Before any development input is introduced in a district, it is first important to build up social capital. There are always so many factors at play in society. Communities are made up of various people with their own beliefs and attitudes, their political alliances, their religious inclinations, with various levels of literacy and economic conditions. It is not an easy job trying to build social capital amongst such diverse groups.. let alone introducing development works without first building the foundations of social capital. Social capital must be built up before human and physical capitals.
In order to develop social capital it is first essential for the entire community to be mobilised into community organisations. The community organisation members, when they meet, should rise above their religious & political beliefs as well as their ethnic, educational and economic inequities, and think in terms of the development of the entire community. Each and every member should be thinking in terms of "we" and "ours" instead of "me" and "my." These members should compulsorily meet regularly and discuss on issues of taking their community forward, or developing their village. They should show concern and do something for the future generations.
When communities get together like this to plan for something that is beneficial for the entire community, surely mobilising resources for such plans will not be a problem. But since it is not possible for HMG to finance and implement all such plans in one year, it is necessary for the communities to prioritise their plans, such that they can be implemented in a phase-wise manner. It is equally important for people to participate at every step of project implementation and maintenance. Only then can the projects be sustainable.
It was to mobilise the communitites to be involved in the holistic development of their villages that PDDP and its Village Development Programme was implemented in Dadeldhura too. In our district, the communities in five VDCs have been mobilised and they have organised themselves into 149 community organisations. During their meetings the groups, besides undertaking savings and credit activities, discuss about the development challenges and opportunities in their villages. They have formulated their own rules and abide by them. They have begun to take care of the most needy in their community ... the poor, the oppressed and the women. They have initiated income-generating activities, and have developed expertise in the village such that they do not have to depend upon outsiders for their day to day problems. They have prioritised their development needs and are having them fulfilled one at a time. Surely, the people in these villages are set on the path of self-reliance, self-empowerment and self-governance. It is a big helping hand for HMG’s poverty alleviation goals!
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