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Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: المسيح الدجّالal-Masīḥ ad-Daǧǧāl, Arabic for "the false messiah") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. He is to appear pretending to be Masih (i.e. the Messiah) at a time in the future, before Yawm al-Qiyamah (Judgment Day), directly comparable to the figures of the Antichrist and Armilus in Christian and Jewish eschatology, respectively.

Contents

Name

Daǧǧāl is a common Arabic word, with the meaning "deceiving", used in the sense of "false prophet". Al-Masīḥ ad-Daǧǧāl with the definite article, refers to "the deceiving Messiah", a specific end-of times deceiver.

The term is a literal rendition of the Classical Syriac term for "Antichrist", Mšīḥā Daggālā, used in the Syriac Peshitta.[citation needed]

Another name for Dajjal is Sammiri as taken from the name of his place of origin which is also known as Sammiri.

Eschatology

Hadith attributed to Muhammad give many signs of the appearance of the Dajjal, and exhorted his followers to recite the first and last ten verses of Sura Al-Kahf, as protection from the trials and mischief of the Dajjal. It is said that he will have right eye damaged and the left will be working because knowledge acquired through the right eye can be nūrī (means that pertaining to light) and through the left nārī (that pertaining to fire). It is also said that he will have the word kafir (nonbeliever) on his forehead.

The belief is based around the events prior to the Day of Judgment around the Second Coming of Isa (Jesus), when Ad-Daǧǧāl who is blind in his right eye, shall gather an army of those he has deceived and lead them in a war against Jesus, who shall be accompanied by an army of the righteous.

He will appear somewhere between Syria and Iraq, at which time Prophet Isa (known as Jesus in Christianity) will return and the Mahdi will come, the Dajjal will travel the whole world preaching his falsehood but will be unable to enter Mecca or Medina.[1]

Hadith

The name given in the hadith to certain religious impostors who shall appear in the world; a term equivalent to the Christian use of the word Antichrist. According to hadith, Muhammad is said to have prophesized that the Masih ad-Dajjal would be the last of a series of thirty Dajjal or "deceivers" (false prophets).[2]

A couple of hadith describe the Dajjal as follows:

  • Muhammad is reported to have said: Allah is not one eyed while Anti-christ, Dajjal is blind but one eye will be covered by thick film and the other will be protruding like a bulging out grape.
  • Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: "Allah's Apostle said. 'While I was sleeping, I saw myself (in a dream) performing Tawaf around the Ka'ba. Behold, I saw a reddish-white man with lank hair, and water was dropping from his head. I asked, "Who is this?' They(angel jibreel) replied, 'The son of Mary.' Then I turned my face to see another man with a huge body, red complexion and curly hair and blind in one eye. His eye looked like a protruding out grape. They said (to me), He is Ad-Dajjal.' The Prophet added, 'The man he resembled most is Ibn Qatan, a man from the tribe of Khuza'a.'" (Translation of Bukhari ,book 88,volume 9,number 242)
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Umar narrated: Once Allah's Apostle stood amongst the people, glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and then mentioned the Dajjal saying, "l warn you against him (i.e. the Dajjal) and there was no prophet but warned his nation against him. No doubt, Noah warned his nation against him but I tell you about him something of which no prophet told his nation before me. You should know that he is one-eyed, and Allah is not one-eyed."[3]
  • Muhammad told his companions: "Every Messenger of Allah did warn his nation about the trials of Dajjal. Allah, however, delayed Dajjal’s birth and did not let him appear until now. Be aware! he will claim to be God and try to create doubts in your minds. Have a firm belief, the one-eyed creature cannot be your Lord. He will come out riding on a 'donkey', which will have a distance of one mile between its two ears. He will claim to have come with the gifts of paradise and arsenal of hell."[4]
  • Ali was reported to have said: "His right eye will be punctured, and his left eye would be raised to his forehead and will be sparkling like a star. Only the believers will be able to read the word ‘Kufr’ [disbelief], inscribed in bold letters, on his forehead. There will be big mountains of smoke at both front and backsides of his caravan. People will anticipate food within those mountains, during the severe famine. He will be riding on a huge white coloured 'donkey' who will cover a mile in a single stride. All rivers, falling in his way, will become dry and he will call upon people in aloud voice, "O my friends come to me! I am your lord who has made your limbs and given you sustenance.[5]
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Signs of his coming

The following are signs of the forthcoming of Dajjal:[5]

  • People will stop offering the prayers
  • Dishonesty will be the way of life
  • Falsehood will become a virtue
  • People will mortgage their faith for worldly gains
  • Usury and bribery will become legitimate
  • Imbeciles would rule over the wise
  • innocents would be burned by smokeless fire
  • Pride will be taken on acts of oppression
  • The rulers will be corrupt
  • The scholars will be hypocrites
  • Adultery will be rampant
  • Women will dress like men and men will dress like women
  • The liars and treacherous will be respected
  • There will be acute famine at the time

Defeat and death

Sunni beliefs

As before, through the medium of the Hadith, the event of Isa’s (Jesus Christ) return and all that follows has been accurately recorded. He will descend on Mount Afeeq, on the white Eastern Minaret of Damascus. He will descend from the heavens with his hands resting on the shoulders of two angels. His cheeks will be flat and his hair straight. When he lowers his head it will seem as if water is flowing from his hair, when he raises his head, it will appear as though his hair is beaded with silvery pearls. He will descend during the time of Fajr and the leader of the Muslims will address him thus, ‘O`Prophet of Allah, lead the prayer.’

Isa will decline with the words, ‘The virtue of this nation that follows Islam is that they lead each other.’ Implying that he will pray behind the imam (leader of the muslims) as the deen of Allah was completed after revelation of Qura'n and Muhammad being the last prophet of Allah.

After the prayer, Isa will prepare himself to do battle and shall take up a spear. An army shall return from a campaign launched before the arrival of Isa. Isa shall set out in pursuit of Dajjal. All those who embraced the evil of Dajjal shall perish even as the breath of Isa touches them. The breath of Isa shall precede him as far as the eye can see. Dajjal will be captured at Lydda. The Dark Messiah shall begin to melt, as lead melts in fire. The spear of Isa shall plunge into Dajjal’s chest, ending his dreaded reign. The followers of Dajjal will be rooted out, for even the trees and rocks will speak out against them. Jesus will break the cross and kill pig (the animal), which will be an indication that his teaching did not include legitimacy of these two.Then all battles shall cease and the world will know an age of peace. Then truly the sheep will lie in the shadow of the wolf without fear. The rule of Jesus will be just and all shall flock to him to enter the folds of the one true religion, Islam.

Shī‘ah beliefs

Twelver Shī‘ah believe that Dajjal will be killed by Muhammad al-Mahdi.[6][7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Volume 3, Book 30, Number 104
  2. ^ Patric Hughes. "A Dictionary of Islam" pg 64
  3. ^ Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 55 Volume 4, Number 553
  4. ^ Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 103. 
  5. ^ a b Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 104. 
  6. ^ Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 105. 
  7. ^ al-Qarashi, Allama Baqir Sharif (2006). The Life of Imam al-Mahdi Peace Be Upon Him. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 343. 

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Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: المسيح الدّجّال‎, literally "The Impostor Messiah") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. He is to appear pretending to be Masih (or the Messiah) at a time in the future, before Yawm al-Qiyamah (Judgment Day).[1]

Contents

Usage

Dajjal is a common Arabic word, used in the sense of "false prophet", but al-Masih ad-Dajjal, with the definite article, refers to "the impostor", a specific end-of times deceiver. The term al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl (Arabic for "the false messiah") is a literal translation of the Syriac term Mšīḥā Daggālā, which had been in the common vocabulary of the Middle East and adapted into the Arabic language 400 years prior to the Qur'an via the Peshitta (which uses that term instead of the Greek "Antichristos")

Eschatology

The belief is based around the events prior to the Day of Judgment around the Second Coming of Prophet Isa (Jesus), when ad-Dajjal who is blind in his right eye, shall gather an army of those he has deceived and lead them in a war against Jesus, who shall be accompanied by an army of the righteous.[1]

He will appear somewhere between Syria and Iraq, at which time Prophet Isa will return and the Mahdi will come, he will travel the whole world in forty days preaching his falsehood but will be unable to enter Mecca or Medina.[2]

Hadith attributed to Muhammad give many signs of the appearance of the Dajjal, and exhorted his followers to recite the first and last ten verses of Sura Al-Kahf, as protection from the trials and mischief of the Dajjal. It is said that he will have right eye damaged and the left will be working because knowledge acquired through the right eye can be noori (means that pertaining to light) and through the left naari (that pertaining to fire). It is also said that he will have the word kafir (means that who doesn't believe God or atheist) on his forehead.

Islam's description

The Qur'an doesn't mention the Dajjal by name, like the hadith. A couple of hadith describe the Dajjal as follows:

  • Abdullah narrated:
The Prophet mentioned the Massiah Ad-Dajjal in front of the people saying, Allah is not one eyed while Messiah, Ad-Dajjal is blind in the right eye and his eye looks like a bulging out grape. While sleeping near the Ka'ba last night, I saw in my dream a man of brown color the best one can see amongst brown color and his hair was long that it fell between his shoulders. His hair was lank and water was dribbling from his head and he was placing his hands on the shoulders of two men while circumambulating the Kaba. I asked, 'Who is this?' They replied, 'This is Jesus, son of Mary.' Behind him I saw a man who had very curly hair and was blind in the right eye, resembling Ibn Qatan (i.e. an infidel) in appearance. He was placing his hands on the shoulders of a person while performing Tawaf around the Ka'ba. I asked, 'Who is this? 'They replied, 'The Masih, Ad-Dajjal.'"[3]
Once Allah's Apostle stood amongst the people, glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and then mentioned the Dajjal saying, "l warn you against him (i.e. the Dajjal) and there was no prophet but warned his nation against him. No doubt, Noah warned his nation against him but I tell you about him something of which no prophet told his nation before me. You should know that he is one-eyed, and Allah is not one-eyed."[4]
  • Muhammad told his companions: "Every Messenger of Allah did warn his nation about the trials of Dajjal. Allah, however, delayed Dajjal’s birth and did not let him appear until now. Be aware! he will claim to be God and try to create doubts in your minds. Have a firm belief, the one-eyed creature cannot be your Lord. He will come out riding on a 'donkey', which will have a distance of one mile between its two ears. He will claim to have come with the gifts of paradise and arsenal of hell."[5]
  • Ali was reported to have said: "His right eye will be punctured, and his left eye would be raised to his forehead and will be sparkling like a star. Everyone will be able to read the word ‘Kāfir’ [disbeliever], inscribed in bold letters, within his two eyes. There will be big mountains of smoke at both front and backsides of his caravan. People will anticipate food within those mountains, during the severe famine. He will be riding on a huge white coloured 'donkey' who will cover a mile in a single stride. All rivers, falling in his way, will become dry and he will call upon people in aloud voice, "O my friends come to me! I am your lord who has made your limbs and given you sustenance.[6]

Signs of his coming

The following signs are ascribed to Ali in the forthcoming of Dajjal:[6]

  • People will stop offering prayers
  • Dishonesty will be the way of life
  • Falsehood will become a virtue
  • People will mortgage their faith for worldly gains
  • Usury and bribery will become legitimate
  • Imbeciles would rule over the wise
  • Blood of innocents would be shed
  • Pride will be taken on acts of oppression
  • The rulers will be corrupt
  • The scholars will be hypocrites
  • Adultery will be rampant
  • Women will dress like men, and men will dress like women
  • The liars and treacherous will be respected
  • There will be acute famine at the time

Defeat and death

Some hadith narrations claim that The Mahdi will arrange a Muslim army, and will be on the verge of leading the Muslims in morning prayer when Prophet Isa will descend and kill the Dajjal (Abu-Umamah / Ibn Majah).[7] Shia Islam Twelvers believe that Dajjal will be killed by Muhammad al-Mahdi[8][9]

Dajjal and the Devil

In Islam, the Dajjal and the Devil are defined as two separate beings.

Dajjal

The name given in the hadith to certain religious impostors who shall appear in the world; a term equivalent to the Christian use of the word Antichrist. Muhammad is related to have said there would be about thirty.

The Masihu 'd-Dajjal or "the lying Christ" it is said will be the last of the Dajjals for an account of whom refer to article on Masihu 'd-Dajjal".[10] According to all the hadiths, the masih adajjal has a blind eye, curly hair and also something wrong with his foot. The Masih aDajjal will first say that he is a prophet and then God. He will have a hell fire and a paradise by his side and people that will refuse to follow him, will be forced to enter the hell-fire, that accompanies him. However, this will merely be an illusion and this will, in reality be cool and safe for this person.

Devil

The devil is an evil jinn. He is said to have been named Iblis. When God created Adam, Iblis refused to prostrate before him, and he was therefore expelled from Eden. Satan sought respite, an extension on his life till the Day of Judgment. He obtained it until the Day of Judgement, when he will be destroyed, (Vide Qur'an, surah vii, 13). According to the Qu'ran, the devil was created of (smokeless) fire, whilst Adam was created of (modified) clay."[11]

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Dajjal is One-Eyed
  2. Volume 3, Book 30, Number 104
  3. Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 55 Volume 4, Number 649
  4. Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 55 Volume 4, Number 553
  5. Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 103. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 104. 
  7. Maulana Ahmad Ali. "Major Signs Before The Day Of Judgement" Pg 30
  8. Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 105. 
  9. al-Qarashi, Allama Baqir Sharif (2006). The Life of Imam al-Mahdi Peace Be Upon Him. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 343. 
  10. Patric Hughes. "A Dictionary of Islam" pg 64
  11. Thomas Patrick Hughes "A Dictionary of Islam" Pg 84


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