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Dalits
Ravidaskijai.JPG
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Sri Ravidas · B. R. Ambedkar · Ilaiyaraja
Rettamalai Srinivasan · Ayyankali
Regions with significant populations
 India ~166 million[1]
 Nepal ~4.5 Million (2005)[2]
 Pakistan ~2.0 Million (2005)[3]
 Sri Lanka Unknown (2008)
 Bangladesh Unknown (2008)
Languages

Languages of India

Religion

Hinduism · Sikhism · Islam · Buddhism · Christianity

Related ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Munda

Dalit is a self-designation for a group of people traditionally regarded as low caste. Dalits are a mixed population of numerous caste groups all over South Asia, and speak various languages.

While the caste system has been abolished under the Indian constitution,[4] there is still discrimination and prejudice against Dalits in South Asia. Since Indian independence, significant steps have been taken to provide opportunities in jobs and education. Many social organizations have encouraged proactive provisions to better the conditions of dalits through improved education, health and employment.

Contents

Dalits in 2010

Many Dalits which comprises SCs were successful in adapting to post-independence India, becoming bureaucrats, civil servants and lawyers. In 2010 most of the sub-castes of Dalits have become rich and economically well off . Dalits are now considered as a progressive caste. They have acquired management and technical education as well. Dalits are now working as successful Engineers, Doctors, Lawyers, Architects, Managers, IT professionals and Entrepreneurs. They are not engaged in low cadre work now. Further,they are now also working as scientists in India's most prestigious research organization like DRDO, Indian Space Research Organisation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.

Etymology

The word "Dalit" comes from the Marathi language, and means "ground", "suppressed", "crushed", or "broken to pieces". It was first used by Jyotirao Phule in the nineteenth century, in the context of the oppression faced by the erstwhile "untouchable" castes of the twice-born Hindus.[5]

According to Victor Premasagar, the term expresses their "weakness, poverty and humiliation at the hands of the upper castes in the Indian society."[6]

Gandhi's coinage of the word Harijan, translated roughly as "Children of God", to identify the former Untouchables. The terms "Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes" (SC/ST) are the official terms used in Indian government documents to identify former "untouchables" and tribes. However, in 2008 the National Commission for Scheduled Castes, noticing that "Dalit" was used interchangeably with the official term "scheduled castes", called the term "unconstitutional" and asked state governments to end its use. After the order, the Chhattisgarh government ended the official use of the word "Dalit".[7]

"Adi Dravida", "Adi Karnataka" and "Adi Andhra" are words used in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, respectively, to identify people of former "untouchable" castes in official documents. These words, particularly the prefix of "Adi", denote the aboriginal inhabitants of the land.[8]

Social status of Dalits

In the context of traditional Hindu society, Dalit status has often been historically associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure, such as any involving butchering, removal of rubbish, removal of waste and leatherwork. Dalits work as manual labourers, cleaning latrines and sewers, and clearing away rubbish.[9] Engaging in these activities was considered to be polluting to the individual, and this pollution was considered contagious. As a result, Dalits were commonly segregated, and banned from full participation in Hindu social life. For example, they could not enter a temple nor a school, and were required to stay outside the village. Elaborate precautions were sometimes observed to prevent incidental contact between Dalits and other castes.[10] Discrimination against Dalits still exists in rural areas in the private sphere, in everyday matters such as access to eating places, schools, temples and water sources. It has largely disappeared in urban areas and in the public sphere.[citation needed]

Some Dalits have successfully integrated into urban Indian society, where caste origins are less obvious and less important in public life. In rural India, however, caste origins are more readily apparent and Dalits often remain excluded from local religious life, though some qualitative evidence suggests that its severity is fast diminishing.[11][12]

In India's biggest state Uttar Pradesh Dalits have revolutionized the politics and have come to the top in state assemble poll.

Dalits and similar groups are also found in Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. In addition, the Burakumin of Japan, Baekjeong of Korea and Midgan of Somalia are similar in status to Dalits.

Genetics

One study found some association between caste status and Y-chromosomal genetic markers seeming to indicate a more European lineage of the higher castes;[13][14] however, many recent studies indicate no genetic differences between upper and lower castes. Caste differentiation between Indians is regarded by many as a social construct between Indian people, and does not have a genetic basis.[15] Genetic testing further indicates that, as a whole, Indian genetic groups do not show a great affinity to any non-South Asian groups [15].

Dalits and religion

Sachar Committee report of 2006 revealed that scheduled castes and tribes of India are not limited to the religion of Hinduism. The 61st Round Survey of the NSSO found that almost nine-tenths of the Buddhists, one-third of the Sikhs, and one-third of the Christians in India belonged to the notified scheduled castes or tribes of the Constitution.

Religion Scheduled Caste Scheduled Tribe
Buddhism 89.50% 7.40%
Christianity 9.00% 32.80%
Sikhism 30.70% 0.90%
Hinduism 22.20% 9.10%
Zoroastrianism - 15.90%
Jainism - 2.60%
Islam 0.80% 0.50%

[16]

Hinduism

The large majority of the Dalits in India are Hindus, although some in Maharashtra and other states have converted to Buddhism, often called Neo-Buddhism.[17] Dalits in Sri Lanka can be Buddhist (See Rodiya) or Hindus.

Historical attitudes

The term, Chandala can be seen used in the Manu Smriti (codes of caste segregation) to the Mahabharata the religious epic. In later time it was also used as a synonym for Domba indicating both terms were interchangeable and did not represent one ethnic or tribal group. Instead, it was a general opprobrious term. In the early Vedic literature several of the names of castes that are spoken of in the Smritis as Antyajas occur. We have Carmanna (a tanner of hides) in the Rig Veda (VIII.8,38) the Chandala and Paulkasa occur in Vajasaneyi Samhita. Vepa or Vapta (barber) in the Rig Veda. Vidalakara or Bidalakar occurs in the Vajasaneyi Samhita. Vasahpalpuli (washer woman) corresponding to the Rajakas of the Smritis in Vajasaneyi Samhita. Fa Hien, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who recorded his visit to India in the early 4th century C.E., noted that Chandalas were segregated from the mainstream society as untouchables. Traditionally, Dalits were considered to be beyond the pale of Varna or caste system. They were originally considered as Panchama or the fifth group beyond the fourfold division of Indian people. They were not allowed to let their shadows fall upon a non-Dalit caste member and they were required to sweep the ground where they walked to remove the 'contamination' of their footfalls. Dalits were forbidden to worship in temples or draw water from the same wells as caste Hindus, and they usually lived in segregated neighborhoods outside the main village. In the Indian countryside, the dalit villages are usually a separate enclave a kilometre or so outside the main village where the other Hindu castes reside.

Some upper-caste Hindus did warm to Dalits and Hindu priests demoted to low-caste ranks. An example of the latter was Dnyaneshwar, who was excommunicated into Dalit status in the 13th century but continued to compose the Dnyaneshwari, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. Eknath, another excommunicated Brahmin, fought for the rights of untouchables during the Bhakti period. Historical examples of Dalit priests include Chokhamela in the 14th century, who was India's first recorded Dalit poet and Raidas, born into a family of cobblers. The 15th century saint Sri Ramananda Raya also accepted all castes, including untouchables, into his fold. Most of these saints subscribed to the Bhakti movements in Hinduism during the medieval period that rejected casteism. Nandanar, a low-caste Hindu cleric, also rejected casteism and accepted Dalits. Due to isolation from the rest of the Hindu society, many Dalits continue to debate whether they are 'Hindu' or 'non-Hindu'. Traditionally, Hindu Dalits have been barred from many activities that were seen as central to Vedic religion and Hindu practices of orthodox sects. Among Hindus each community has followed its own variation of Hinduism, and the wide variety of practices and beliefs observed in Hinduism makes any clear assessment difficult.

The declaration by princely states of Kerala between 1936 and 1947 that temples were open to all Hindus went a long way towards ending the system of untouchability in Kerala. Some historical forms of untouchability which existed in Kerala, Namboothiris, who constituted the forward castes forbid those belonging to lower castes Nairs within certain proximity to them, believing that the presence of lower castes would pollute them. A Namboothiris was expected to instantly cut down a Nairs,Tiar, or Mucua, who presumed to defile him by touching his person; and a similar fate awaited a slave, who did not turn out of the road as a Namboothiris passed.[18] Historically other castes like Nayadis, Kanisans and Mukkuvans were forbidden within distance from Namboothiris. Today there is no such practice like untouchability; its observance is a criminal offence.[19]

Reform Movements

The earliest known historical people to have rejected the caste system were Gautama Buddha and Mahavira. Their teachings eventually became independent religions called Buddhism and Jainism. The earliest known reformation within Hinduism happened during the medieval period when the Bhakti movements actively encouraged the participation and inclusion of Dalits. In the 19th Century, the Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj and the Ramakrishna Mission actively participated in the emancipation of Dalits. While there always have been segregated places for Dalits to worship, the first "upper-caste" temple to openly welcome Dalits into their fold was the Laxminarayan Temple in Wardha in the year 1928. It was followed by the Temple Entry Proclamation issued by the last King of Travancore in the Indian state of Kerala in 1936.

The Sikh reformist Satnami movement was founded by Guru Ghasidas, born a Dalit. Other notable Sikh Gurus such as Guru Ravidas were also Dalits. Other reformers, such as Jyotirao Phule, Ayyankali of Kerala and Iyothee Thass of Tamil Nadu worked for emancipation of Dalits. The 1930s saw key struggle between Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar over whether Dalits would have separate or joint electorates. Although he failed to get Ambedkar's support for a joint electorate, Gandhi nevertheless began the "Harijan Yatra" to help the Dalit population. Palwankar Baloo, a Dalit politician and a cricketer, joined the Hindu Mahasabha in the fight for independence.

Other Hindu groups have reached out to the Dalit community in an effort to reconcile with them. On August 2006, Dalit activist Namdeo Dhasal engaged in dialogue with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in an attempt to "bury the hatchet". Hindu temples are increasingly receptive to Dalit priests, a function formerly reserved for Brahmins.[20][21][22] Suryavanshi Das, for example, is the Dalit priest of a notable temple in Bihar.[23]. Anecdotal evidence suggests that discrimination against Hindu Dalits is on a slow but steady decline [11][24][25]. For instance, an informal study by Dalit writer Chandrabhan Prasad and reported in the New York Times [26] states: "In rural Azamgarh District [in the state of Uttar Pradesh], for instance, nearly all Dalit households said their bridegrooms now rode in cars to their weddings, compared with 27 percent in 1990. In the past, Dalits would not have been allowed to ride even horses to meet their brides; that was considered an upper-caste privilege."

Many Hindu Dalits have achieved affluence in society, although vast millions still remain poor. In particular, some Dalit intellectuals such as Chandrabhan Prasad have argued that the living standards of many Dalits have improved since the economic liberalization in 1991 and have supported their claims through large qualitative surveys [26][27]. Recent episodes of Caste-related violence in India have adversely affected the Dalit community. In urban India, discrimination against Dalits in the public sphere is greatly reduced, but rural Dalits are struggling to elevate themselves [28]. Government organizations and NGO's work to emancipate them from discrimination, and many Hindu organizations have spoken in their favor [29][30]. Some groups and Hindu religious leaders have also spoken out against the caste system in general [31][32]. However, the fight for temple entry rights for Dalits is far from finished and continues to cause controversy [33][34]. Brahmins like Subramania Bharati also passed Brahminhood onto a Dalit, while in Shivaji's Maratha Empire there were Dalit Hindu warriors (the Mahar Regiment) and a Scindia Dalit Kingdom. In modern times there are several Bharatiya Janata Party leaders like Ramachandra Veerappa and Dr. Suraj Bhan. (See List of Dalits)

More recently, Dalits in Nepal are now being accepted into priesthood (traditionally reserved for Brahmins). The Dalit priestly order is called "Pandaram"[35]

Islam

Muslim society in India can also be separated into several caste-like groups. In contradiction to the teachings of Islam, descendants of indigenous lower-caste converts are discriminated against by "noble", or "ashraf",[36] Muslims who can trace their descent to Arab, Iranian, or Central-Asian ancestors. There are several groups in India working to emancipate them from upper-caste Muslim discrimination.[37][38]

The Dalit Muslims are referred to by the Ashraf and Ajlaf Muslims as Arzal or "ritually degraded". They were first recorded in the 1901 census as those “with whom no other Muhammadan would associate, and who are forbidden to enter the mosque or to use the public burial ground”. They are relegated to "menial" professions such as scavenging and carrying night soil.

Ambedkar wrote about the Dalit Muslims and was extremely critical of their mistreatment by upper-caste Muslims, writing: "Within these groups there are castes with social precedence of exactly the same nature as one finds among the Hindus."

Sikhism

Irwin Baiya is the most prominent Dalit of the 20th century. Dalits form a class among the Sikhs who stratify their society according to traditional casteism. Kanshi Ram himself was of Sikh background although converted because he found that Sikh society did not respect Dalits and so became a neo-Buddhist. The most recent controversy was at the Talhan village Gurudwara near Jalandhar where there was a dispute between Jat Sikhs and Ravidasia Sikhs. The Different Sikh Dalits are Ravidasia Sikh and Mazhabi Sikh. Although Sikhism does not recognize the Caste System, many families, especially the ones with immediate cultural ties to India, generally do not marry among different castes.

There are sects such as the Adi-Dharmis who have now abandoned Sikh Temples and the 5 Ks. They are like the Ravidasis and regard Ravidas as their guru. They are also clean shaven as opposed to the mainstream Sikhs. Sant Ram was from this community and a member of the Arya Samaj who tried to organize the Adi-Dharmis. Other Sikh groups include Jhiwars, Bazigars, Rai Sikh (many of whom are Ravidasias.) Just as with Hindu Dalits, there has been violence against Sikh Dalits.

Christianity

Across India, many Christian communities still follow the caste system. Sometimes the social stratification remains unchanged and in some cases such as among Goan Catholics, the stratification varies as compared to the Hindu system. Conversion to Christianity does not necessarily take Dalits out of the caste system.

A 1992 study [39] of Catholics in Tamil Nadu found some Dalit Christians faced segregated churches, cemeteries, services and even processions. Despite Christian teachings these Dalit also faced economic and social hardships due to discrimination by upper-caste priests and nuns. Other sources support these conclusions, including Christian advocacy groups for Dalits. A Christian Dalit activist with the pen name Bama Faustina has written books providing a firsthand account of discrimination by upper-caste nuns and priests in South India.

Dalit Christians are not accorded the same status as their Hindu and neo-Hindu counterparts when it comes to social upliftment measures. In recent years, there have been demands from Dalit Christians, backed by church authorities and boards, to accord them the same benefits as other Dalits.

Buddhism

In Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and a few other regions, Dalits have come under the influence of the neo-Buddhist movement initiated by Ambedkar. Some of them have come under the influence of the Neo-Buddhist and Christian Missionaries and have converted away from Hinduism into religions such as Christianity and Buddhism in what they have been told is an "attempt to eliminate the prejudice they face".

BJP Scheduled Caste Morcha president Bangaru Laxman (Organiser, 6-8-1995) accused Congress leader Sitaram Kesri, who had bracketed the Dalits with the minorities as "sufferers of Hindu oppression", of thereby showing "disrespect to [Dalit] saints like Ravidas, Satyakam Jabali, Sadhna Kasai, Banka Mahar, Dhanna Chamar and others who protected Hindus against foreign onslaughts."

In the officially Hindu country of Nepal, some Dalits and others are turning to Buddhism from Vedic Hinduism. Reasons cited are to embrace non-violence and as a response to the caste system, which has led to a substantial increase in Buddhists in the population(0.1% to 0.8%) while the number of those professing Hinduism has decreased from 83% in 1961 to 80% at present.

The Prevention of Atrocities Act

The Prevention of Atrocities Act (POA) is a tacit acknowledgement by the Indian government that caste relations are defined by violence, both incidental and systemic.[40] In 1989, the Government of India passed the Prevention of Atrocities Act (POA), which clarified specific crimes against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (the Dalits) as “atrocities,” and created strategies and punishments to counter these acts. The purpose of The Act was to curb and punish violence against Dalits. Firstly, it clarified what the atrocities were: both particular incidents of harm and humiliation, such as the forced consumption of noxious substances, and systemic violence still faced by many Dalits, especially in rural areas. Such systemic violence includes forced labor, denial of access to water and other public amenities, and sexual abuse of Dalit women. Secondly, the Act created Special Courts to try cases registered under the POA. Thirdly, the Act called on states with high levels of caste violence (said to be “atrocity-prone”) to appoint qualified officers to monitor and maintain law and order. The POA gave legal redress to Dalits, but only two states have created separate Special Courts in accordance with the law. In practice the Act has suffered from a near-complete failure in implementation. Policemen have displayed a consistent unwillingness to register offenses under the act. This reluctance stems partially from ignorance and also from peer protection. According to a 1999 study, nearly a quarter of those government officials charged with enforcing the Act are unaware of its existence.[40]

Dalits and contemporary Indian politics

Newspapers in Calcutta announce the surprise majority for Mayawati's party in the 2007 elections in Uttar Pradesh

While the Indian Constitution has duly made special provisions for the social and economic uplift of the Dalits, comprising the so-called scheduled castes and tribes in order to enable them to achieve upward social mobility, these concessions are limited to only those Dalits who remain Hindu. There is a demand among the Dalits who have converted to other religions that the statutory benefits should be extended to them as well, to "overcome" and bring closure to historical injustices.[38]

Another major politically charged issue with the rise of Hindutva's (Hindu nationalism) role in Indian politics is that of religious conversion. This political movement alleges that conversions of Dalits are due not to any social or theological motivation but to allurements like education and jobs. Critics argue that the inverse is true due to laws banning conversion, and the limiting of social relief for these backward sections of Indian society being revoked for those who convert. Bangaru Laxman, a Dalit politician, was a prominent member of the Hindutva movement.

Another political issue is over the affirmative-action measures taken by the government towards the upliftment of Dalits through quotas in government jobs and university admissions. About 8% of the seats in the National and State Parliaments are reserved for Scheduled Caste and Tribe candidates, a measure sought by B. R. Ambedkar and other Dalit activists in order to ensure that Dalits would obtain a proportionate political voice.

Anti-Dalit prejudices exist in fringe groups, such as the extremist militia Ranvir Sena, largely run by upper-caste landlords in areas of the Indian state of Bihar. They oppose equal treatment of Dalits and have resorted to violent means to suppress the Dalits. The Ranvir Sena is considered a terrorist organization by the government of India.[41]

In 1997, K. R. Narayanan became the first Dalit President.

In 2008, Mayawati, a Dalit from the Bahujan Samaj Party, was elected as the Chief Minister of India's biggest state Uttar Pradesh. Her victory was the outcome of her efforts to expand her political base beyond Dalits, embracing in particular the Brahmins of Uttar Pradesh [42][43]. Mayawati, together with her political mentor Kanshi Ram, saw that the interests of the average Dalit (most of whom are landless agricultural laborers) were more in conflict with the middle castes such as the Yadav caste, who owned most of the agricultural land in Uttar Pradesh, than with the predominantly city-dwelling upper castes [44][45]. Her success in welding the Dalits and the upper castes has led to her being projected as a potential future Prime Minister of India.[46]

Dalit literature

Dalit literature forms an important and distinct part of Indian literature.[47][48] One of the first Dalit writers was Madara Chennaiah, an 11th-century cobbler-saint who lived in the reign of Western Chalukyas and who is also regarded by some scholars as the "father of Vachana poetry". Another poet who finds mention is Dohara Kakkaiah, a Dalit by birth, six of whose confessional poems survive.[49]

Modern Dalit literature

In the modern era, Dalit literature received its first impetus with the advent of leaders like Mahatma Phule and Ambedkar in Maharashtra, who brought forth the issues of Dalits through their works and writings; this started a new trend in Dalit writing and inspired many Dalits to come forth with writings in Marathi, Hindi, Tamil and Punjabi.[50]

By the 1960s, Dalit literature saw a fresh crop of new writers like Baburao Bagul, Bandhu Madhav [51] and Shankarao Kharat, though its formal form came into being with the Little magazine movement.[52] In Sri Lanka, Dalit writers like Dominic Jeeva gained mainstream popularity in the late 1960.

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Damal, Swarnakumar (2005), Dalits of Nepal: Who are Dalits in Nepal, International Nepal Solidarity Network, http://insn.org/wp-content/DalitsNepalSuvashDarnal.pdf 
  3. ^ Satyani, Prabhu (2005). "The Situation of the Untouchables in Pakistan". ASR Resource Center. http://www.countercurrents.org/dalit-sikand230905.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  4. ^ Excerpts from The Constitution of India, Left Justified, 1997, http://www.leftjustified.com/leftjust/lib/sc/ht/wtp/india.html 
  5. ^ Oliver Mendelsohn, Marika Vicziany. The untouchables: subordination, poverty, and the state in modern India, 1998: Cambridge University Press, p. 4 ISBN 0521556716, 9780521556712
  6. ^ Victor Premasagar in Interpretive Diary of a Bishop: Indian Experience in Translation and Interpretation of Some Biblical Passages (Chennai: Christian Literature Society, 2002), p. 108.
  7. ^ "Dalit word un-constitutional says SC". Express India. 2008-01-18. http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/Dalit-word-unconstitutional-says-SC-Commission/262903/. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  8. ^ Leslie, Julia (2004), Authority and Meaning in Indian Religions, Ashgate Pub Ltd, pp. 46, ISBN 0754634310 
  9. ^ "Manual scavenging - the most indecent form of work". Anti-Slavery.org. 2002-05-27. http://www.antislavery.org/archive/submission/submission2002-scavenging.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  10. ^ "India: "Hidden Apartheid" of Discrimination Against Dalits". Human Rights Watch. 2002-05-27. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/02/13/india15303.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  11. ^ a b Hindus Support Dalit Candidates in Tamil Nadu
  12. ^ Crusader Sees Wealth as Cute for Caste Bias
  13. ^ Utah, America, "Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations", 30 September 2006
  14. ^ "Genetic affinities between endogamous and inbreeding populations of Uttar Pradesh" (2007)
  15. ^ a b http://www.pnas.org/content/103/4/843.full.pdf
  16. ^ Sachar, Rajindar (2006). "Minority Report" (pdf). Government of India. http://www.mfsd.org/sachar/leafletEnglish.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  17. ^ http://www.bangladeshsociology.org/BEJS%203.2%20Das.pdf
  18. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=FnB3k8fx5oEC&pg=PA291 Castes and tribes of Southern India, Volume 7 By Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari, p.251
  19. ^ http://www.nairs.in/acha_a.htm
  20. ^ Low-Caste Hindu Hired as Priest
  21. ^ Dalits: Kanchi leads the way
  22. ^ The new holy order
  23. ^ Patna's Mahavira Temple Accepts Dalit Priest
  24. ^ `Kalyanamastu' breaks barriers
  25. ^ Tirupati temple reaches out to Dalits
  26. ^ a b Crusader Sees Wealth as Cure for Caste Bias
  27. ^ In an Indian Village, Signs of the Loosening Grip of Caste
  28. ^ Business and Caste in India
  29. ^ RSS for Dalit head priests in temples
  30. ^ Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa
  31. ^ Back to the Vaidic Faith
  32. ^ TTD priests do seva in Dalit village
  33. ^ Temple relents, bar on Dalit entry ends
  34. ^ Temples of Unmodern India
  35. ^ [2]
  36. ^ "Hindu Wisdom - Caste_System". hinduwisdom.info. http://hinduwisdom.info/Caste_System.ht. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  37. ^ "Dalit Muslims". www.deshkalindia.com. http://www.deshkalindia.com/dalit-muslims.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  38. ^ a b Sikand, Yoginder. "The 'Dalit Muslims' and the All-India Backward Muslim Morcha". www.indianet.nl. http://www.indianet.nl/dalmusl.html. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  39. ^ [3]
  40. ^ a b The Prevention of Atrocities Act: Unused Ammunition
  41. ^ http://pakobserver.net/200906/27/Articles02.asp
  42. ^ "Mayawati bets on Brahmin-Dalit card for U.P. polls" The Hindu, March 14 2007
  43. ^ "Brahmin Vote Helps Party of Low Caste Win in India" The New York Times, May 11 2007
  44. ^ "The victory of caste arithmetic", Rediff News, May 11 2007
  45. ^ "Why Mayawati is wooing the Brahmins" Rediff News, March 28 2007
  46. ^ "Mayawati Plans to Seek India's Premier Post", The Wall Street Journal, August 11 2008
  47. ^ Dalit literature
  48. ^ Brief Introduction to Dalit Literature
  49. ^ Western Chalukya literature#Bhakti literature.
  50. ^ Dalit’s passage to consciousness The Tribune, September 28, 2003
  51. ^ Dalit literature is not down and out any more Times of India, July 7, 1989
  52. ^ A Critical study of Dalit Literature in India Dr. Jugal Kishore Mishra

Further reading

  • Dalit - The Black Untouchables of India, by V.T. Rajshekhar. 2003 - 2nd print, Clarity Press, Inc. ISBN 0-932863-05-1.
  • Untouchable!: Voices of the Dalit Liberation Movement, by Barbara R. Joshi, Zed Books, 1986. ISBN 0862324602, 9780862324605.
  • An Anthology Of Dalit Literature, by Mulk Raj Anand. 1992, Gyan Books. ISBN 8121204194, ISBN 9788121204194.
  • Dalits and the Democratic Revolution - Dr. Ambedkar and the Dalit Movement in Colonial India, by Gail Omvedt. 1994, Sage Publications. ISBN 8170363683.
  • The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India, by Oliver Mendelsohn, Marika Vicziany, Cambridge University Press, 1998, ISBN 0521556716, 9780521556712.
  • Dalit Identity and Politics, by Ranabira Samaddara, Ghanshyam Shah, Sage Publications, 2001. ISBN 0761995080, 9780761995081.
  • Journeys to Freedom: Dalit Narratives, by Fernando Franco, Jyotsna Macwan, Suguna Ramanathan. Popular Prakashan, 2004. ISBN 8185604657, 9788185604657.
  • Towards an Aesthetic of Dalit Literature, by Sharankumar Limbale. 2004, Orient Longman. ISBN 8125026568.
  • From Untouchable to Dalit - Essays on the Ambedkar Movement, by Eleanor Zilliot. 2005, Manohar. ISBN 8173041431.
  • Dalit Politics and Literature, by Pradeep K. Sharma. Shipra Publications, 2006. ISBN 8175412712, 9788175412712.
  • Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movement and the Construction of an Indian Identity, by Gail Omvedt. Orient Longman, 2006. ISBN 8125028951, 9788125028956.
  • Dalits in Modern India - Vision and Values, by S M Michael. 2007, Sage Publications. ISBN 9780761935711.
  • Dalit Literature : A Critical Exploration, by Amar Nath Prasad & M.B. Gaijan. 2007. ISBN 8176258172.

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