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Kuomintang official party flag (Blue Sky White Sun) since 1900

Dang Guo (黨國, literally "Party-State") is a version of the Single-party state ideology that was formerly the official policy of the Republic of China under Kuomintang.

Since 1927, after Sun Yat-sen decided to copy the USSR political system, Chiang Kai-shek used the Kuomintang to control and operate the Republic of China government and the Nationalist Revolutionary Army The ROC bureaucracy was where all of the major national policies of the Kuomintang party, were formulated, resulting in the party holding the supreme power of the whole nation.

Contents

Origin

Dang Guo was short for Yi Dang Zhi Guo (以黨治國), which literary means using the political party to run the state. Sun Yat-sen, the Founding Father of the Republic of China, made Dang Guo the official ROC national policy in 1920, having been influenced by Leninist ideology which led to the Russian revolution. According to Sun Yat-sen, Kuomintang should be paramount over the Republic of China, and Kuomintang should issue orders to the ROC bureaucracy, all the NGO groups, and indeed to any individual.

In 1924 Sun Yat-sen said:

当俄國革命時,用獨裁政治,諸事一切不顾,只求革命成功……,其能成功,即因其將黨放在國上。我以為……應重新組织,把黨放在國上 。
During the Russian revolution, political dictatorship was used, everything else can be discarded, the only aim was the success of the revolution... its success was due to the party (Communist Party of the Soviet Union) being on top of the state. I suggest... we should reorganise, by putting the party (Kuomintang) on top of the state (ROC).

Kuomintang holding supreme power

After Sun Yat-sen decided to follow and copy the USSR political system, his successor Chiang Kai-shek used Kuomintang to control and to operate both the Republic of China government and the Nationalist Revolutionary Army, which was sometimes called The Party's Army (黨軍), and equivalent to Mao Zedong's famous quote Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun. The ROC bureaucracy had then become the means and tools of Kuomintang, where all the major national policies were formulated, resulting in the party holding the supreme power of the whole nation.

Under Dang Guo, ROC military personnel and civil servants alike were expected to owe their allegiance to Kuomintang first and the State second - a policy reflected by such phrases as "Service to the Party and the Nation" (功在黨國), and also on the national anthem, which makes an explicit reference to "Our Party". Likewise, the emblem of Kuomintang was used as the emblem of the State, and the flag of Kuomintang has been used as the naval jack to this day.

Dang Guo was not abandoned by Kuomintang until the democratization of the Republic of China in the 1990s.

PLA of the Communist Party of China

  • 毛泽东 1938年《战争和战略问题》:“我们的原则是党指挥枪,而决不容许枪指挥党。

Translation:On 1938, Mao Zedong stated: The fundamental principle is, the Communist Party is in command of the Army, not the other way around

On 1 April 2009 Gen. Li Jinai, the PLA's top political commissar who sits on the 11-member Chinese Communist Party Central Committee that exercises direct control over China, had stated that China's military (People's Liberation Army PLA) must continue taking orders exclusively from the Communist Party in an essay published in the party's official theoretical journal, Qiushi.

The essay further stated:

"Unshakingly uphold the basic principle and system of the party's absolute leadership over the army,"

"Resolutely oppose the wrong thinking of 'army-party separation, depoliticization, and army nationalization,'"

"At all times, make the party flag the army's flag and ... in all things listen to the commands of the party, Central Military Commission and President Hu,"

[1]

See also

Additional source

References

  1. ^ . Victoria Advocate Publishing Co. 1 April 2009. http://www.victoriaadvocate.com/news/2009/apr/01/bc-as-china-communist-party-military/. Retrieved 2009-09-09.  
This article contains Traditional Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
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