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Daniel Jonah Goldhagen
Born June 1959
Occupation Political Scientist, Author
Nationality USA
Notable work(s) Hitler's Willing Executioners, A Moral Reckoning, Worse Than War
Spouse(s) Sarah Williams Goldhagen
Official website

Daniel Jonah Goldhagen (born 1959) is an American author and former Associate Professor of Political Science and Social Studies at Harvard University. Goldhagen reached international awareness as the author of two controversial books about the Holocaust, Hitler's Willing Executioners (1996) and A Moral Reckoning (2002). He is also the author of 2009's Worse Than War, which examines the phenomenon of genocide.

Contents

Personal life

Born in Boston, Massachusetts in June 1959, Goldhagen is the son of Norma and Erich Goldhagen. He grew up in Newton, Massachusetts.[1] He is married to Sarah Williams Goldhagen, an architectural historian and the current architecture critic for The New Republic.[2]

Education

  • BA in Social Studies (summa cum laude), Harvard University
  • MA and PhD in Government, Harvard University, 1994

Intellectual development

Goldhagen is the son of retired Harvard professor Erich Goldhagen, who survived the Holocaust in a RomanianJewish ghetto in Czernowitz,[1] and whom Goldhagen credits with creating an intellectual framework for studying the subject that focuses on dispassionately explaining the events, its perpetrators and their motives.[3] Goldhagen entered Harvard College in 1977 and spent more than 20 years there, mostly as an undergraduate and graduate student, later as an assistant professor in the Government and Social Studies Department.[4][5] Early in his graduate study, he attended a lecture by Saul Friedländer, when he had what he described as a "light bulb moment". He realized that in the discussion of the Holocaust in the “intentionalist-functionalist debate” a question was not being asked or addressed: When Hitler gave the order for the annihilation of Jews, why did people carry it out? According to Goldhagen, those involved in the debate assumed that once the order was given, it would be implemented. Goldhagen was interested in addressing who the individuals were who did the killing and the reasons they did it.[1]

In graduate school, Goldhagen received a Fulbright Fellowship to conduct a multi-year, multi-disciplinary investigation in German archives, including more than a year in the German justice system’s archives in Ludwigsburg, Germany,[1] which houses the testimony of some of the perpetrators.[6] He concluded that during the Holocaust a large percentage of the killers were ordinary Germans who killed because having been raised in a profoundly antisemitic culture, they were ready and willing to carry out the government’s program to kill Jews, whom they believed to be deleterious to their culture. This is the basis of Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust.

The article that first brought Goldhagen attention, written while a graduate student, was a 1989 review in the New Republic of Princeton professor Arno J. Mayer's 1988 book Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?, entitled "False Witness".[7] In it, Goldhagen wrote of "Mayer's enormous intellectual error" in ascribing the cause of the Holocaust to anti-Communism, rather than anti-Semitism,[8] excoriated Mayer for saying that most of the massacres of the Soviet Jews during the first weeks of Barbarossa in the summer of 1941 were committed by local people with little German involvement,[9] and accused Mayer of factual distortion in writing of the Wannsee Conference of 1942, which Goldhagen asserted was meant to plot the genocide of European Jews, rather than, as Mayer claimed, merely resettling Jews.[10] Goldhagen also accused Mayer of attempting to suppress history, and of being an apologist for Nazi Germany like Ernst Nolte, for trying to "dedemonize" National Socialism.[11] In her review of Mayer's book late in 1989, Lucy Dawidowicz praised Goldhagen's piece, marking him as a rising new light in Holocaust studies who had rebutted "Mayer's falsification" of history.[12][13]

In 2003, Goldhagen left Harvard to devote himself to writing. He has written on a number of topics. His work attempts to bring together four elements, which for analytical purposes are kept distinct (as stated in a Moral Reckoning and Worse Than War): description (what happens), explanation (why it happens), moral evaluation (our judgement of it), and prescription (what ought to be done).[14][15]

Goldhagen's study of the Holocaust raised in his mind a set of questions about other mass killings:[16] Who did the killing in those places, and what, despite temporal and cultural differences, do they have in common with each other? This resulted in the book Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity. It explores the global nature of the problem and the potential for averting or forestalling such crimes against humanity in the future.[17]

Goldhagen has traveled to many of the places he writes about to conduct research and interview perpetrators and victims.[18] His work has been translated into 15 languages and he speaks publicly around the world on a variety of historical and contemporary topics.[19][20]

Works

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Hitler's Willing Executioners

Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and The Holocaust, was first published in 1996. In it, Goldhagen argued that ordinary Germans not only knew about, but actually supported the Holocaust, because of a virulent "eliminationist antisemitism" in German society, which had developed in the preceding centuries. Thus in the twentieth century, with Hitler in power, conditions were primed for the pursuit of large-scale killing of Jews. Hitler's Willing Executioners was based on Goldhagen's Harvard doctoral dissertation, The Nazi Executioners: A study of Their Behavior and The Causation of Genocide, which won the American Political Science Association's 1994 Gabriel A. Almond Award, the annual award for the best disssertation in the field of comparative politics.[21] Goldhagen had been inspired to undertake the project as a response to Christopher Browning's 1992 book Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, which posited a different set of motives for Holocaust killers. In a review of Browning's book in the New Republic, Goldhagen accused Browning "of manufacturing his evidence out of thin air"[22]

The book was published in 15 languages, and was on the bestseller lists in many countries. It was a New York Times (USA) Best Seller for 25 weeks,[23][24] and on Der Spiegel’s (Germany) best seller list for more than a year, and was #1 in Germany for many weeks.[25]

In Germany, the “Goldhagen Debate” turned into a national discussion among people from all walks of life, opening up the topic of the perpetrators[26], humanizing them, discussing their views, what was asked of them by their government, how they acted, and why they killed.[25][26] In late 1996, Goldhagen visited Berlin to participate in the debate on television and in lecture halls before capacity crowds.[25][27] At the end of his tour, both the right of center Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and the left of center Die Zeit agreed with him, and both called his tour through Germany, a Triumphzug, a Triumphal procession.[25][28] Goldhagen was awarded the prestigious Democracy Prize in 1997 by the German Journal for German and International Politics, which asserted that "...because of the penetrating quality and the moral power of his presentation, Daniel Goldhagen has greatly stirred the consciousness of the German public." The laudatio, awarded for the first time since 1990, was given by Jan Philipp Reemtsma and Jürgen Habermas.[4][25][29]

Hitler's Willing Executioners also drew controversy with the publication of two critical articles: "Daniel Jonah Goldhagen's 'Crazy' Thesis", written by political science professor Norman Finkelstein and initially published in UK political journal New Left Review, and "Historiographical review: Revising the Holocaust", written by historian Ruth Bettina Birn and initially published in the Historical Journal of Cambridge.[30] These articles were later published as the book A Nation on Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth.[30] In response to their work, Goldhagen sought a retraction and apology from Birn, according to Salon declaring Finkelstein "a supporter of Hamas".[30]

Goldhagen's engagement with Nazism and the Holocaust led to his investigation and analysis of other genocides or, as he calls them, "eliminationist assaults", resulting in the publication of Worse Than War in October 2009.[31]

A Moral Reckoning

In 2002 Goldhagen published A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and Its Unfulfilled Duty of Repair, his account of the role of the Catholic Church before, during and after World War II. A Moral Reckoning was the subject of considerable controversy involving allegations of anti-Catholic bias.[32]

In the book, Goldhagen acknowledges that individual bishops and priests hid and saved a large number of Jews,[33] yet he asserts that others promoted or accepted anti-Semitism before[34] and during the war,[35] and some played a direct role in the persecution of Jews in Europe during the time of the Nazis.[36]

In the introduction, and in an interview in The Atlantic, Goldhagen said that he intended for the book to primarily be a work of moral philosophy, or applied ethics, where he asks the question: When an institution—especially one that presents itself as a moral institution—has members who have done wrong, what can be done to repair the harm that has occurred, as best it can?[37].

In A Moral Reckoning, Goldhagen says that Germany has done a great deal, both moral and tangible to heal the wounds inflicted in its past.[37] The same can be said for the Northern Protestant State Church of Germany,[38] and other institutions that survived WWII. These could be models, he said, for the Catholic Church to consider. Goldhagen stated there were three kinds of repair to consider: moral, monetary and political. He focused most of the book’s discussion on moral repair, which according to him, consists of owning up to the truth, apologizing for transgressions, working to undo or counteract any continuing harmful effects of past deeds, and renovating itself so that its members would not again perpetrate similar harms. Based on these premises, he laid out specific recommendations for the Catholic Church.

Worse Than War

Goldhagen’s engagement with Nazism and the Holocaust led to his investigation and analysis of other genocides or, as he calls them, “eliminationist assaults,” resulting in the publication of Worse Than War, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity in October 2009. The book is about the phenomenon of genocide, the cause of more deaths in the modern times than military conflict.

Goldhagen says in the book that he started thinking about writing it 26 years before its publication, and worked on it for perhaps a decade, including interviewing both the perpetrators and the victims of genocide from around the world, in Rwanda, Guatemala, Cambodia, Kenya, the former Soviet Union. In addition to the victims and the killers, he researched and interviewed politicians, government officials, members of non-governmental organization and others, to understand the mindset, the local and global conditions that can foment genocidal actions, and the elements can cause such human tragedy to cease.

In the book’s introduction he says “we can focus on this scourge; understand its causes, its nature and complexity, and its scope and systematic quality; and, building upon that understanding, craft institutions and politics that will save countless lives and also lift the lethal threat under which so many people live."

Kirkus Reviews wrote that the book is “A significant achievement…intensely researched and wholly original”.[39]

A documentary film by the same name was first presented in Aspen Colorado on August 6, 2009.[40] Its first television broadcast was in Germany on ARD on October 18, 2009.[41] It will be broadcast on PBS (USA) in 2010.[42]

Media appearances

Goldhagen’s essays and columns on past and current affairs, including Political Islam have appeared in The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, Washington Post, The New Republic, Forward, The Sunday Times, The Guardian, Die Zeit, Süddeutscher Zeitung, Die Welt, Le Monde, Corriere della Sera, La Repubblica, El Pais, El Mundo, Ha’aretz, Gazeta Wyborcza, The Australian and other national and international publications. He has appeared on television and radio programs around the world, including The Today Show, The O’Reilly Factor, and Charlie Rose, and Newsnight (UK), and has been profiled on television, including on Dateline, and on Focus TV (Germany), and in print in the The New York Times Magazine, the New York Review of Books, Der Spiegel, Stern, Profil, and others.[20]. Goldhagen made with JTN Productions a documentary entitled Worse Than War.

Supporters

In Germany, Goldhagen was awarded the Democracy Prize. His 1996 tour through Germany was described in The New York Times Magazine, as scenes “more reminiscent of a Michael Jackson concert than of the publication of a 700 page book of nonfiction”. “So many people came to Goldhagen’s personal appearances – and so many cheered him and booed his detractors”…” Those who could not get into the Frankfurt Opera house for Goldhagen’s debate with his critics nearly demolished the foyer.”[25] Volker Ullrich, an editor at Die Zeit, posited that the German public’s interest in Goldhagen was that “Here finally is someone who expresses what has long been a taboo: that the distinction between ‘criminal Nazi’s’ and ‘normal Germans’ is false; that the readiness to murder millions came from the middle of German society…When someone utters this simple truth it acts on no few Germans as a kind of liberation.”[25] The Israeli historian and Holocaust survivor Israel Gutman has one of Goldhagen's leading defenders[43] The American historian of Germany Gordon A. Craig defended Goldhagen against his critics when Hitler's Willing Executioners was published in the spring of 1996[44]

Time (USA) said that Hitler’s Willing Executioners was one of the two most important books of 1996,[45] and Benjamin B. Ferencz, Chief Prosecutor, Ensatzgruppen Case of the Nuremberg War Crime Trials wrote that “Goldhagen has probed the depths of man’s depravity to explain how a civilized country like Germany and its ordinary citizens became accomplices and perpetrators… It is a bitter revelation of the origins of incredible cruelty that, hopefully, may illuminate the path to a more humane future.”[46] "[A]n original, indeed brilliant contribution to the...literature on the Holocaust.", Gordon A. Craig in the New York Review of Books, April 18, 1996. The New York Times said "His book is one of those rare new works that merit the appellation landmark."[47]

Critics

Hitler’s Willing Execution and A Moral Reckoning have ignited vociferous detractors, including many well-known academic historians. Goldhagen has met with critics in front of live audiences and television cameras and on the Internet to publicly debate them. During his book tour of Germany in 1996, he was involved in an angry debate with Hans Mommsen on German television.[25][48]Norman Finkelstein and Ruth Bettina Birn have cited his books as being riddled with errors.[49] William A. Donohue, president of the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights, called Goldhagen an "anti-Catholic bigot".[50] Other critics include Raul Hilberg, Ian Kershaw[51], Fritz Stern[52], Eberhard Jäckel[53], Hans-Ulrich Wehler[54] and David Schoenbaum[55].

Awards

  • Forward, named to Forward 50, 2002 and 1996
  • Journal for German and International Politics Triennial Democracy Prize, 1997, with laudatio given by Jürgen Habermas.
  • National Book Critics Circle Award Finalist for Hitler’s Willing Executioners, 1996
  • Time, named Hitler’s Willing Executioners one of two best non-fiction books of the year, 1996
  • American Political Science Association, Gabriel A. Almond Award for the best dissertation in the field of comparative politics, 1994
  • Harvard University, Sumner Dissertation Prize, 1993
  • Whiting Fellowship, 1990-1991
  • Fulbright IIE Grant for Dissertation Research, 1988-1989
  • Krupp Foundation Fellowship for Dissertation Research, 1988-1989
  • Center for European Studies Summer Research Grant, 1987
  • Jacob Javits Fellowship 1996-1988, 1989-1990
  • Harvard College, Philo Sherman Bennett Thesis Prize, 1982
  • Deutsche Akademische Austauschdienst (DAAD) Fellowship, 1979-1980

Selected works

  • 1989: False Witness The New Republic, April 17, 1989, Volume 200, #16, Issue # 3, pp39–44
  • 1996: Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and The Holocaust, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, ISBN 0-679-44695-8
  • 2002: A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and Its Unfulfilled Duty of RepairAlfred A. Knopf, New York, ISBN 0-375-41434-7
  • 2009: Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault On Humanity, PublicAffairs, New York, ISBN 978-1-58648-769-0

References

  1. ^ a b c d Smith, Dinita (April 1, 1996). "Challenging a View Of The Holocaust". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/04/01/books/challenging-a-view-of-the-holocaust.html. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  
  2. ^ "The New Republic Masthead". http://www.tnr.com/masthead. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  3. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (1996). page 604, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and The Holocaust (Hardback ed.). Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-44695-8.  
  4. ^ a b Ruber, Deborah Bradley (January 9, 1997). "Goldhagen Wins German Prize For Holocaust Book". The Harvard University Gazette. http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1997/01.09/GoldhagenWinsGe.html. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  
  5. ^ "Daniel Jonah Goldhagen's Website". http://goldhagen.com/bio. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  6. ^ Carl F. Lankowski, ed (August 1999). Breakdown, Breakup, Breakthrough: Germany's Difficult Passage To Modernity. Berghahn Books, Incorporated. ISBN 1571812113. http://books.google.com/books?id=hb1KXgxs03UC&pg=PA214&lpg=PA214&dq=goldhagen+Ludwigsburg,+Germany&source=bl&ots=04kiJtD7_R&sig=-B9MTQDbRS7VV6X3NLiO-jGSocM&hl=en&ei=2CfGStfRD4ya8Abrodw4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7#v=onepage&q=goldhagen%20Ludwigsburg%2C%20Germany&f=false.  
  7. ^ Guttenplan, D. D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: Norton, 2001 p. 74.
  8. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel. "False Witness," The New Republic, April 17, 1989 p. 40.
  9. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel. "False Witness," The New Republic, April 17, 1989 pp. 40-41.
  10. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel. "False Witness," The New Republic, April 17, 1989 p. 43.
  11. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel. "False Witness," The New Republic, April 17, 1989 p. 44.
  12. ^ Guttenplan, D. D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: Norton, 2001 p. 73.
  13. ^ Dawidowicz, Lucy "Perversions of the Holocaust" pages 56-60 from Commentary, vol. 88, no. 4, October 1989 p. 58.
  14. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (2002). pp5-6,A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church In The Holocaust And Its Unfufilled Duty of Repair. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41434-7.  
  15. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (October 2009). p32,Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity. New York: Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-769-0.  
  16. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (October 2009). Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity. New York: Public Affairs. p. 631. ISBN 978-1-58648-769-0.  
  17. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (October 2009). pp265-361,Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity. New York: Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-769-0.  
  18. ^ "Worse Than War Documentary". http://blisted.breakthrough.tv/b-activists-free-screening-holocaust-survivors-film-worse-than-war-aims-to-prevent-genocide-on-hitler-anniversary-4105. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  19. ^ "Daniel Goldhagen - "Worse than War" - discusses genocide at Holocaust Day L.A. 2009". recorded on April 21, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TarNrmgTWe8. Retrieved 2009-10-03.  
  20. ^ a b "Daniel Jonah Goldhagen's Website". http://www.goldhagen.com/. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  21. ^ "American Political Science Association website_Almond Award". http://www.apsanet.org/content_4119.cfm. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  22. ^ Guttenplan, D. D. The Holocaust on Trial, New York: Norton, 2001 page 214.
  23. ^ "New York Time's Best Seller List 1996-06-30". http://www.hawes.com/1996/1996-06-30.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  24. ^ "New York Time's Best Seller List 1997-06-01". http://www.nytimes.com/1997/06/01/books/paperback-best-sellers-june-1-1997.html. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Elon, Amos. "The Antagonist as Liberator". The New York Times Magazine. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/26/magazine/the-antagonist-as-liberator.html. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  
  26. ^ a b Zank, Michael (July 1998, revised December 2007 and January 2008). "Goldhagen in Germany: Historians' Nightmare & Popular Hero". Religious Studies Review 24 (3): 231-240. http://www.bu.edu/mzank/Michael_Zank/gold.html. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  
  27. ^ Cowell, Alan. (September 8, 1996). Author goes to Berlin to debate Holocaust. The New York Times. Accessed January 4, 2008.
  28. ^ Schirrmacher, Frank (September 13, 1996). "Wunderheiler Goldhagen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: page 1.  
  29. ^ Deborah Bradley Ruber. "Goldhagen Wins German Prize For Holocaust Book". Harvard Gazette. http://www.hno.harvard.edu/gazette/1997/01.09/GoldhagenWinsGe.html.  
  30. ^ a b c Shatz, Adam. (April 8, 1998) Goldhagen's willing executioners: the attack on a scholarly superstar, and how he fights back Slate. Accessed January 4, 2008.
  31. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (October 2009). pp631-635,Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity. New York: Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-769-0.  
  32. ^ Riebling, Mark (January 27, 2003). "Jesus, Jews, and the Shoah". National Review. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_1_55/ai_96403717.   Accessed January 5, 2008.
  33. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (2002). pp50-51,A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church In The Holocaust And Its Unfufilled Duty of Repair. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41434-7.  
  34. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (2002). p226,A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church In The Holocaust And Its Unfufilled Duty of Repair. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41434-7.  
  35. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (2002). p227,A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church In The Holocaust And Its Unfufilled Duty of Repair. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41434-7.  
  36. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (2002). p60,A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church In The Holocaust And Its Unfufilled Duty of Repair. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41434-7.  
  37. ^ a b Gritz, Jennie Rothenberg (January 31, 2003). The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200301u/int2004-01-31. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  
  38. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (2002). p291,A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church In The Holocaust And Its Unfufilled Duty of Repair. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41434-7.  
  39. ^ "Perseus Books Group Foreign Rights Guide 2009". http://www.perseusbooksgroup.com/documents/rights/PBGRightsGuide.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  40. ^ "Worse Than War Screening". http://www.clal.org/sp183.html. Retrieved 2009-10-03.  
  41. ^ "ARD Program Guide for October 18, 2009". http://programm.daserste.de/pages/programm/liste.aspx?datum=zUl3TVc2V8vXkRD8dRUdNQ%3d%3d. Retrieved 2009-10-02.  
  42. ^ "PBS International: Worse Than War Documentary". http://www.wgbhinternational.org/index.php?sid=056qh7hz0p1hzjf9k87n51djmeozma8l&lang=english&page=programs&dle_pp=0&dle_od=asc&pr_act=details&pid=762. Retrieved 2009-10-03.  
  43. ^ Gutman, Israel "Daniel Goldhagen and the Inconceivable Cruelty of the Germans," Ha'aretz, l2 July l996
  44. ^ Craig, Gordon “How Hell Worked”, New York Review of Books, April 18, 1996
  45. ^ "Books: The Best Books of 1996". Time. December 23, 1996. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985753,00.html.  
  46. ^ Goldhagen, Daniel (1996) (Hardback ed.). Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-44695-8.  
  47. ^ Bernstein, Richard (March 9, 1997). "Was Slaughter of Jews Embraced by Germans?". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/03/09/bsp/hitler.html. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  
  48. ^ Kershaw, Ian. The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems & Perspectives of Interpretation, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 254.
  49. ^ Finkelstein, Norman; Ruth Bettina Birn (April 1998). A Nation On Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 9780805058727.  
  50. ^ Donohue, William A.. 2002 Report on Anti-Catholicism. Catholic League. http://www.catholicleague.org/annualreport.php?year=2002&id=71. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  
  51. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship : Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation London : Arnold 2000, pp. 254-256.
  52. ^ “The Past Distorted: The Goldhagen Controversy” in Einstein’s German World, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999, pp. 272-288.
  53. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship : Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation London: Arnold 2000, p. 255.
  54. ^ "The Goldhagen Controversy: Agonising Problems, Scholarly Failure, and the Political Dimension," in German History, vol. 15, 1997, pp. 80–91.
  55. ^ "Ordinary People?" National Review, vol. 48 no. # 12, July 1, 1996, pp. 54–56.

Further reading

  • Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-300-08256-8
  • Eley, Geoff (ed.) The Goldhagen Effect: History, Memory, Nazism—Facing the German Past. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000. ISBN 0-472-06752-4.
  • Feldkamp, Michael F. Goldhagens unwillige Kirche. Alte und neue Fälschungen über Kirche und Papst während der NS-Herrschaft. München: Olzog-Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3789281271
  • Finkelstein, Norman & Birn, Ruth Bettina. A Nation On Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth. New York: Henry Holt, 1998. ISBN 0-8050-5871-0
  • Guttenplan, D. D. The Holocaust on Trial. New York: Norton, 2001. ISBN 0-393-02044-4
  • Kwiet, Konrad: “‘Hitler’s Willing Executioners’ and ‘Ordinary Germans’: Some Comments on Goldhagen’s Ideas”. Jewish Studies Yearbook 1 (2000).
  • LaCapra, Dominick. “Perpetrators and Victims: The Goldhagen Debate and Beyond,” in LaCapra, D. Writing History, Writing Trauma Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001, 114-140.
  • Pohl, Dieter. "Die Holocaust-Forschung und Goldhagens Thesen," Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 45 (1997).
  • Rychlak, Ronald. "Goldhagen vs. Pius XII" First Things (June/July 2002) [1]
  • Shandley, Robert & Riemer, Jeremiah (eds.) Unwilling Germans? The Goldhagen Debate. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8166-3101-8
  • Stern, Fritz. "The Goldhagen Controversy: The Past Distorted" in Einstein's German World, 272-288. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-691-05939-X
  • Wesley, Frank. The Holocaust and Anti-semitism: the Goldhagen Argument and Its Effects. San Francisco: International Scholars Publications, 1999. ISBN 1-57309-235-5
  • The “Willing Executioners/Ordinary Men” Debate: Selections from the Symposium, April 8, 1996, introduced by Michael Berenbaum (Washington, D.C.: USHMM, 2001).

External links


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