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Dardic
Geographic
distribution:
Afghanistan (eastern) Pakistan (northern) India Jammu and Kashmir (northwestern)
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan?
   Dardic
Subdivisions:

The Dardic languages is a sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in northern Pakistan, eastern Afghanistan, and in the Indian region of Jammu and Kashmir.

Contents

Position in Indo-Iranian languages

The Dardic group has traditionally been defined as a sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages which experienced strong influence from the Nuristani and East Iranian languages. Nuristani, a group of languages spoken in northeast Afghanistan, has sometimes been included in Dardic, but is today generally regarded as an independent group, as one of the three sub-groups of Indo-Iranian, following the studies of Georg Morgenstierne in 1973 to 1975 CE.

There is still some dispute regarding the ultimate classification of the Dardic languages. The very existence of the family may at some point cease to be. This is due to the fact that Shina is very similar to the Northwest Indo-Aryan languages[citation needed], Khowar has a substantial Iranic influence[citation needed] and Kashmiri may be a separate Indo-Aryan sub-group to itself[citation needed]. Thus the Dardic languages are a group of Indo-European languages which share some similarities, but are classified together largely for geographic convenience.

Except for Kashmiri, all of the Dardic languages are small minority languages which have not been sufficiently studied. In many cases they are spoken in areas difficult to access due to mountainous terrain and/or armed conflicts in the region. All of the languages (including Kashmiri) have been historically influenced by more prominent (non-Dardic) neighboring languages, which blurs their classification.

While it is true that many Dardic languages have been influenced by non-Dardic neighbors, Dardic may in turn also have left a discernible imprint on non-Dardic Indo-Aryan languages, such as Punjabi[1] and allegedly even far beyond. [2][3] It has also been asserted that some Pahari languages of Uttarakhand demonstrate Dardic influence.[1][4]

Verb position in Dardic

Unlike most other Indo-Aryan (or Iranian) languages, several Dardic languages present "verb second" as the normal grammatical form. This is similar to many Germanic languages, such as English.[5]

Language
English (Germanic) This is a horse. We will go to Tokyo.
Kashmiri (Dardic) Yi chhu akh gur. As gachhav Tokyo.
Sanskrit (Indo-Aryan) Eṣa (eko) 'śvo ('sti). Vayaṃ Tokyo gacchāmaḥ.
Farsi (Iranian) Ein yek asb ast. Ma Tokyo kh(w)ahem raft.
Hindi-Urdu (Indo-Aryan) Ye aik ghora hai. Hum Tokyo jaenge.
Punjabi (Indo-Aryan) Ae ikk kora ai. Assi Tokyo javange.

List of Dardic languages

Languages spoken in Northern Pakistan
Kunar languages
Chitral languages
Kohistani languages
Shina languages
Kashmiri

See also

Sources

  • Morgenstierne, G. Irano-Dardica. Wiesbaden 1973;
  • Morgenstierne, G. Die Stellung der Kafirsprachen. In Irano-Dardica, 327-343. Wiesbaden, Reichert 1975
  • Decker, Kendall D. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, Volume 5. Languages of Chitral.
  • The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan 2003.
  • National Institute of Pakistani Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University & Summer Institute of Linguistics [1]
  • Dardic language tree

References

  1. ^ a b Colin P. Masica (1993), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521299446, http://books.google.com/books?id=Itp2twGR6tsC, "... he agreed with Grierson in seeing Rajasthani influence on Pahari and "Dardic" influence on (or under) the whole Northwestern group + Pahari ..." 
  2. ^ Dayanand Narasinh Shanbhag, K. J. Mahale (1970), Essays on Konkani language and literature: Professor Armando Menezes felicitation volume, Konkani Sahitya Prakashan, http://books.google.com/books?id=BkqgAAAAMAAJ, "... Konkani is spoken. lt shows a good deal of Dardic ( Paisachi ) influence ..." 
  3. ^ Gulam Allana (2002), The origin and growth of Sindhi language, Institute of Sindhology, http://books.google.com/books?id=bt5jAAAAMAAJ, "... must have covered nearly the whole of the Punjabi ... still show traces of the earlier Dardic languags that they superseded. Still further south, we find traces of Dardic in Sindhi ..." 
  4. ^ Arun Kumar Biswas (editor) (1985), Profiles in Indian languages and literatures, Indian Languages Society, http://books.google.com/books?id=lOsvAAAAIAAJ, "... greater Dardic influence in the western dialects of Garhwali ..." 
  5. ^ Stephen R. Anderson (2005), Aspects of the theory of clitics: Volume 11 of Oxford studies in theoretical linguistics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199279906, http://books.google.com/books?id=i68PtEWIEd4C, "... The literature on the verb-second construction has concentrated largely on Germanic ... we can compare with the Germanic phenomena, however: Kashmiri ... in two "Himachali" languages, Kotgarhi and Koci, he finds word-order patterns quite similar ... they are sometimes said to be part of a "Dardic" subfamily ..." 







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