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Darwin
Northern Territory
Darwin skyline.jpg
Darwin skyline from East Point in 2007
Darwin is located in Australia
Darwin
Population: 120,652 (2008)[1] (16th)
Density: 926/km² (2,398.3/sq mi) (2008)[2]
Established: 1869
Area: 112.01 km² (43.2 sq mi)
Time zone: ACST (UTC+9:30)
Mayor: Graeme Sawyer
Location:
LGA: Darwin, Palmerston, Litchfield
County: Palmerston County
State District: Port Darwin (and 14 others)
Federal Division: Solomon
Mean Max Temp Mean Min Temp Annual Rainfall
32.0 °C
90 °F
23.2 °C
74 °F
1,716.1 mm
67.6 in
Map of Darwin with suburbs

Darwin (pronounced /ˈdɑrwɨn/[3], locally [ˈdaːwən][4]) is the capital city of the Northern Territory, Australia. Situated on the Timor Sea, Darwin has a population of 120,652, making it by far the largest and most populated city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, but the least populous of all Australia's capital cities. It is the smallest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, and acts as the Top End's regional centre.

Darwin has grown from a pioneer outpost and small port into one of Australia's most modern and multicultural cities. Its proximity to Asia makes it an important Australian gateway to countries such as Indonesia and East Timor. The Stuart Highway begins in Darwin, ending at Port Augusta in South Australia.

The city itself is built on a low bluff overlooking the harbour. Its suburbs spread out over some area, beginning at Lee Point in the north and stretching to Berrimah in the east — past Berrimah, the Stuart Highway goes on to Darwin's satellite city, Palmerston, and its suburbs.

The region, like the rest of the Top End, has a tropical climate, with a wet season and a dry season. It receives heavy rainfall during the Wet, and is well-known for its spectacular lightning.[5]

The original inhabitants of the greater Darwin area are the Larrakia people. On 9 September 1839, HMS Beagle sailed into Darwin harbour during its surveying of the area. John Clements Wickham named the region "Port Darwin" in honour of former shipmate Charles Darwin (although this was not because of Darwin's scientific achievements, since those achievements were decades in the future; rather, Wickham was simply naming locations from a list of former shipmates[6]).

Having been almost entirely rebuilt twice, once due to Japanese air raids during World War II and again after being devastated by Cyclone Tracy in 1974, the city is one of Australia's most modern capitals.[7][8]

Contents

History

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Pre-European settlement, first European contact

The Aboriginal people of the Larrakia language group are the first inhabitants of the greater Darwin area.[9] They had trading routes with Southeast Asia (see Macassan contact with Australia), and imported goods from as far afield as South and Western Australia. Established songlines penetrated throughout the country, allowing stories and histories to be told and retold along the routes.

The Dutch visited Australia's northern coastline in the 1600s, and created the first European maps of the area. This accounts for the Dutch names in the area, such as Arnhem Land and Groote Eylandt.

The first British person to see Darwin harbour appears to have been Lieutenant John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle on 9 September 1839. The ship's captain, Commander John Clements Wickham, named the port after Charles Darwin, the British naturalist who had sailed with them both on the earlier second expedition of the Beagle.

In the early 1870s, Darwin felt the effects of a gold rush at Pine Creek after employees of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line found gold while digging holes for telegraph poles.

In early 1875, Darwin's European population had grown to approximately 300 because of the gold rush. On 17 February 1875, the SS Gothenburg left Darwin en route for Adelaide. Amongst the approximately 88 passengers and 34 crew (surviving records vary) were government officials, circuit court judges, Darwin residents taking their first furlough and miners. While travelling south along the north Queensland coast, the Gothenburg encountered a cyclone-strength storm and was wrecked on a section of the Great Barrier Reef. Only 22 men survived, while between 98 and 112 people perished. Many passengers who perished were Darwin residents and news of the tragedy severely affected the small community, reportedly taking several years to recover.[10]

1900 to present

The Northern Territory was initially settled and administered by South Australia, until its transfer to the Commonwealth in 1911. On 5 February 1869, George Goyder, the Surveyor-General of South Australia, established a small settlement of 135 people at Port Darwin. Goyder named the settlement Palmerston, after the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston. In 1870, the first poles for the Overland Telegraph were erected in Darwin, connecting Australia to the rest of the world. The discovery of gold at Pine Creek in the 1880s further boosted the young colony's development. Upon Commonwealth administration in 1911, Darwin became the city's official name.

The period between 1911 and 1919 was filled with political turmoil, particularly with trade union unrest, which culminated on 17 December 1918. Led by Harold Nelson, some 1000 demonstrators marched to Government House at Liberty Square in Darwin where they burnt an effigy of the Administrator of the Northern Territory John Gilruth and demanded his resignation. The incident became known as the 'Darwin Rebellion'. Their grievances were against the two main Northern Territory employers; Vestey’s Meatworks and the Commonwealth of Australia. Both Gilruth and the Vestey company left Darwin soon afterwards.

Memorial to the 1942 air raids on the city.

Around 10,000 Allied troops arrived in Darwin in the early 1940s at the outset of World War II, in order to defend Australia's northern coastline. On 19 February 1942 at 0957, 188 Japanese warplanes attacked Darwin in two waves. It was the same fleet that had bombed Pearl Harbor, though a considerably larger number of bombs were dropped on Darwin than on Pearl Harbor. The attack killed at least 243 people and caused immense damage to the town. These were by far the most serious attacks on Australia in time of war, in terms of fatalities and damage. They were the first of many raids on Darwin.

Despite this major attack, Darwin's development was furthered considerably during the war, with sealed roads constructed connecting the region to Alice Springs in the south and Mount Isa in the south-east, and Manton Dam built in the south to provide the city with water. On Australia Day (26 January) 1959, Darwin was granted city status.[11]

Remains of Palmerston Town Hall, destroyed by Cyclone Tracy

On 25 December 1974, Darwin was struck by Cyclone Tracy, which killed 71 people and destroyed over 70% of the town's buildings, including many old stone buildings such as the Palmerston Town Hall, which could not withstand the lateral forces generated by the strong winds. After the disaster, 30,000 people of a then population of 43,000 were evacuated, in what turned out to be the biggest airlift in Australia's history.[7] The town was subsequently rebuilt with newer materials and techniques during the late 1970s by the Darwin Reconstruction Commission, led by former Brisbane Lord Mayor Clem Jones. A satellite city of Palmerston was built 20 km (12 mi) south of Darwin in the early 1980s.

On 17 September 2003, the Adelaide-Darwin railway was completed.

Geography

Darwin skyline

Darwin is situated in the Northern Territory, on the Timor Sea. The town proper is built on a low bluff overlooking Darwin harbour, flanked by Frances Bay to the east and Cullen Bay to the west. The remainder of the city is flat and low-lying, and coastal areas are home to recreational reserves, extensive beaches, and excellent fishing.

Darwin is closer to the capitals of five other countries than to the capital of Australia: Darwin is 3,969 kilometres (2,466 mi) away from Canberra. Dili (East Timor) is 656 kilometres (408 mi) from Darwin, Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea) is 1,818 kilometres (1,130 mi), Jakarta (Indonesia) is 2,700 kilometres (1,678 mi) from Darwin, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei) is 2,607 kilometres (1,620 mi) from Darwin, and Melekeok (Palau) is 2,247 kilometres (1,396 mi) from Darwin.

Even Singapore is only slightly farther away at 3,350 kilometres (2,082 mi), as is Manila (Philippines) at 3,206 kilometres (1,992 mi), and Honiara (Solomon Islands) at 3,198 kilometres (1,987 mi).[12] Ambon, Indonesia is only 881 kilometres (547 mi) away from Darwin.

Along with its importance as a gateway to Asia, Darwin also acts as an access point for the Kakadu National Park, Arnhem Land, and northerly islands such as Groote Eylandt and the Tiwi Islands. The city is the largest in the area, and provides services for these remote settlements.

City and suburbs

Outer Darwin

Darwin and its suburbs spread in an approximately triangular shape, with the older southwestern suburbs - and the city itself - forming one corner, the newer northern suburbs in another, and the eastern suburbs, progressing towards Palmerston, forming the third.

Mitchell Street in Darwin CBD

The older part of Darwin is separated from the newer northern suburbs by Darwin International Airport and Royal Australian Air Force Base. Palmerston is a satellite city 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Darwin that was established in the 1980s and is one of the fastest growing municipalities in Australia.[13] The rural areas of Darwin including Howard Springs, Humpty Doo and Berry Springs are experiencing strong growth.[14]

Darwin's central business district is bounded by Daly Street in the north-west, McMinn Street in the north-east, Mitchell Street on the south-west and Bennett Street on the south-east. The CBD has been the focus of a number of major projects, including the billion dollar redevelopment of the Stokes Hill wharf waterfront area including a convention centre with seating for 1500 people and approximately 4,000 square metres (43,000 sq ft) of exhibition space. The development will also include hotels, residential apartments and public space.[15]

The city's main industrial areas are along the Stuart Highway going towards Palmerston. The largest shopping precinct in the area is Casuarina Square.

The most expensive residential areas are located along the coast in suburbs such as Larrakeyah and Brinkin,[16] despite the slight risk these low-lying regions face during cyclones and higher tides.[17] Inner, eastern suburbs such as Malak and Karama are home to lower-income households.[18]

Climate

Wet Season storm at night

Darwin has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw)[19] with distinct wet and dry seasons and the average maximum temperature is similar all year round. The dry season runs from April/May to October (the southern hemisphere winter), during which nearly every day is warm and sunny, and afternoon humidity averages around 30%.[20]

There is very little rainfall between May and September. In the coolest months of June and July, the daily minimum temperature may dip as low as 14 °C (57 °F), but very rarely lower, and frost has never been recorded.

The wet season is associated with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains.[21] The majority of rainfall occurs between December and March (the southern hemisphere summer), when thunderstorms are common and afternoon relative humidity averages over 70% during the wettest months.[20] It does not rain every day during the wet season, but most days are warm to hot with plentiful cloud cover; January averages under 6 hours of bright sunshine daily.

The hottest month is November, just before the onset of the main rainy season. Because of its long dry season, Darwin has the most daily average sunshine hours (8.4) of any Australian capital with the most sunshine from April to November. The sun passes directly overhead in mid October and mid February.[22] Climatically Darwin has more in common with Singapore than Sydney because it sits well inside the tropical zone.

Darwin is located in one of the most lightning prone areas in the world. In 2002 a single thunderstorm produced 1,634 lightning strikes in Darwin in just a few hours, which is the same number that Perth, Western Australia, experiences on average in an entire year.[5]

Climate data for Darwin Airport (1941-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.6
(96)
36.0
(97)
36.0
(97)
36.7
(98)
36.0
(97)
34.5
(94)
34.8
(95)
36.0
(97)
37.7
(100)
38.9
(102)
37.3
(99)
37.0
(99)
38.9
(102)
Average high °C (°F) 31.8
(89)
31.4
(89)
31.9
(89)
32.7
(91)
32.0
(90)
30.6
(87)
30.5
(87)
31.3
(88)
32.5
(91)
33.2
(92)
33.3
(92)
32.6
(91)
32.0
(90)
Average low °C (°F) 24.8
(77)
24.7
(76)
24.5
(76)
24.0
(75)
22.1
(72)
19.9
(68)
19.2
(67)
20.4
(69)
23.0
(73)
25.0
(77)
25.4
(78)
25.3
(78)
23.2
(74)
Record low °C (°F) 20.2
(68)
17.2
(63)
19.2
(67)
16.0
(61)
13.8
(57)
12.1
(54)
10.4
(51)
13.2
(56)
14.3
(58)
19.0
(66)
19.3
(67)
19.8
(68)
10.4
(51)
Rainfall mm (inches) 423.3
(16.67)
365.7
(14.4)
320.8
(12.63)
99.8
(3.93)
20.4
(0.8)
2.0
(0.08)
1.3
(0.05)
5.2
(0.2)
15.4
(0.61)
68.7
(2.7)
139.0
(5.47)
250.4
(9.86)
1,719.2
(67.69)
Sunshine hours 176.7 161.0 210.8 264.0 297.6 297.0 313.1 319.3 297.0 294.5 252.0 213.9 3,096.9
Avg. rainy days 21.3 20.4 19.5 9.1 2.1 0.6 0.5 0.7 2.3 6.5 12.2 16.7 111.9
Source: [23] 2010-03-08

Demographics

Major overseas born populations[24]
Country of birth Population (2006)
United Kingdom 4,356
New Zealand 2,177
Philippines 1,462
East Timor 1,000
Italy 973
Greece 893
Indonesia 691
Germany 609
Papua New Guinea 488
Malaysia 484
Vietnam 473
India 470
Thailand 424
Darwin
Population by year
[25]
1911 1,082
1956 8,900
1961 15,477
1974 46,700 (Cyclone Tracy)
1975 25,700
1981 61,412
1991 86,415
2002 107,456
2006 114,368
2011 131,209[26] (projected)
2021 168,706[26] (projected)
2031 210,617[26] (projected)
2056 334,938[26] (projected)

In 2006, the largest ancestry groups in Darwin were, Australian (42,221 or 36.9 per cent), English (29,766 or 26 per cent), Irish (9,561 or 8.3 per cent), Scottish (7,815 or 6.8 per cent), Chinese (3,502 or 3 per cent), Greek (2,828 or 2.4 per cent) and Italian (2,367 or 2 per cent)[27]

Darwin's population is notable for the highest proportional population of Aboriginals of any Australian capital city.[28] In the 2006 census 10,259 (9.7 per cent) of Darwin's population was Aboriginal.

Darwin's population changed after the Second World War. Darwin, like many other Australian cities, experienced influxes from Europe, with significant numbers of Italians and Greeks during the 1960s and 1970s. Darwin started to also experience an influx from other European countries, which included the Dutch, Germans and many others.[29] A significant percentage of Darwin's residents are recent immigrants from South East Asia (Asian Australians were 9.3% of the Darwin's population in 2001).

Darwin's population comprises people from many different ethnic backgrounds. The 2006 Census revealed the following most places of birth for overseas migrants: United Kingdom (3.4 per cent), New Zealand (2.1 per cent), Philippines (1.4 per cent) and East Timor (0.9 per cent). 18.3 percent of the city's population was born overseas, which is less than the Australian average of 22%[28]

Darwin has a youthful population with an average age of 32 years (compared to national average of around 35 years)[28] assisted to a large extent by the military presence and the fact that many people opt to retire elsewhere.[30]

The most common non-English languages spoken in Darwin are: Greek, Italian, Indonesian, Vietnamese and Cantonese.[28]

Religion

Christianity is the most professed faith in Darwin with 56,613 followers accounting for 49.5 percent of the population of Darwin.[31] The largest denominations of Christianity are Roman Catholicism (24,538 or 21.5 per cent), Anglicanism (14,028 or 12.3 per cent) and Greek Orthodox (2,964 or 2.6 per cent).[32] Buddhists, Muslims, Hindus and Jews account for 3.2 per cent of Darwin's population. There were 26,695 or 23.3 per cent of people professing no religion.

Population growth

Darwin is one of the fastest growing capital cities in Australia, with an annual growth rate of 2.6 per cent since the 2006 census. In recent years, the Palmerston and Litchfield parts of the Darwin statistical division have recorded the highest growth in population of any Northern Territory Local Government Area and by 2016 the Litchfield could overtake Palmerston as the second largest municipality in metropolitan Darwin.[33] It is predicted by 2021 the combined population of both the Palmerston and the Litchfield would be 101,546 people.[34]

Law and government

Government House, Darwin

The Darwin City Council (Incorporated under the Northern Territory Local Government Act 1993) governs the City of Darwin which takes in the CBD and the suburbs. The Darwin City Council has governed the City of Darwin since 1957. The Darwin City Council consists of 13 elected members, the Lord Mayor and 12 aldermen.

The City of Darwin electorate is organised into four electoral units or wards. The names of the wards are Chan, Lyons, Richardson, and Waters. The constituents of each ward are directly responsible for electing three aldermen. Constituents of all wards are directly responsible for electing the Lord Mayor of Darwin.[35] The current mayor is Graeme Sawyer after council elections in March 2008[36] replacing Garry Lambert, who took over from previous mayor Peter Adamson.[37]

Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory

The rest of the Darwin area is divided into 2 local government areas. One of these is designated as a City, and the second, which is on the city's outer fringe, has the title of Shire. These areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the Northern Territory Government, such as planning and garbage collection.

The Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory convenes in Darwin in the Northern Territory Parliament House. Government House, the official residence of the Administrator of the Northern Territory, is located on The Esplanade.

Also located on the Esplanade is the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory. Darwin has a Magistrate's Court also which is located on the corner of Cavenagh and Bennett Streets quite close to the Darwin City Council Chambers. Darwin's police force are members of the Northern Territory Police Force. Darwin's Mitchell Street, with its numerous pubs, clubs and other entertainment venues, is policed by the CitySafe Unit. The CitySafe unit was recently credited with reducing violent crime in and around Darwin City [38]. Darwin has a long record of alcohol abuse and violent crime with 6000 assaults in 2009,[39] of which 350 resulted in broken jaws and noses — more than anywhere else in the world, according to the Royal Darwin Hospital.[39]

Economy

Darwin CBD (Central Business District), circa 2005

The two largest economic sectors are mining and tourism. Mining and energy industry production exceeds $2.5 billion per annum.[40] The most important mineral resources are gold, zinc and bauxite, along with manganese and many others. The energy production is mostly off shore with oil and natural gas from the Timor Sea, although there are significant uranium deposits near Darwin. Tourism employs 8% of Darwin residents, and is expected to grow as domestic and international tourists are now spending time in Darwin during the Wet and Dry seasons. Federal spending is a major contributor to the local economy as well.

The military presence that is maintained both within Darwin, and the wider Northern Territory, is a substantial source of employment. The continued involvement of the Australian Army in the stabilisation of East Timor has swelled the military population of Darwin to over 11,000 individuals as of 2001. There is also a substantial United Nations presence in Darwin, since Darwin serves as the staging center for U.N. workers and contractors en route to nearby East Timor.

Darwin's importance as a port is expected to grow, due to the increased exploitation of petroleum in the nearby Timor Sea, and to the completion of the railway link and continued expansion in trade with Asia.

During 2005, a number of major construction projects started in Darwin. One is the redevelopment of the Wharf Precinct, which includes a large convention and exhibition centre, apartment housing including Outrigger Pandanas and Evolution on Gardiner, retail and entertainment outlets including a large wave pool and safe swimming lagoon. The Chinatown project has also started with plans to construct multi-level carparks, Chinese-themed retail and dining outlets.[41]

Education

Charles Darwin University

Education is overseen territory-wide by the Department of Education and Training (DET), whose role is to continually improve education outcomes for all students, with a focus on Indigenous students.[42]

Preschool, primary and secondary

Darwin is served by a number of public and private schools that cater to local and overseas students. Over 16,500 primary and secondary students are enrolled in schools in Darwin, with 10,524 students attending primary education, and 5,932 students attending secondary education.[43] There are over 12,089 students enrolled in government schools and 2,124 students enrolled in independent schools.[43]

There were 9,764 students attending schools in the City of Darwin area. 6,045 students attended primary schools and 3,719 students attended secondary schools. There are over 7,161 students enrolled in government schools and 1,108 students enrolled in independent schools.[44] There are over 35 primary and pre - schools, and 12 secondary schools including both government and non-government. Most schools in the city are secular, but there are a small number of Christian, Catholic and Lutheran institutions. Students intending to complete their secondary education work towards the Northern Territory Certificate of Education, which is recognised in all states and territories. Many of the schools are undergoing renovations and reconstruction. Schools have been restructured into Primary, Middle and High schools since the beginning of 2007.

Tertiary and vocational

Darwin's largest University is the Charles Darwin University which is the central provider of tertiary education in the Northern Territory, it covers both vocational and academic courses, acting as both a university and an Institute of TAFE. There are over 5,500 students enrolled in tertiary and further education courses.[44]

Recreation and culture

Mindil Beach markets

Events and festivals

On 1 July, Territorians celebrate Territory Day. This is the only day of the year, apart from the Chinese New Year, when fireworks are permitted. In Darwin, the main celebrations occur at Mindil Beach, where a large firework display is commissioned by the government.

Weekly markets include Mindil Beach Sunset Markets[45] (Thursdays and Sundays during the dry season), Parap Market, Nightcliff Market and Rapid Creek market.[46]

The Darwin Festival[47] held annually, includes comedy, dance, theatre, music, film and visual art and the NT Indigenous Music Awards. Other festivals include the Glenti, which showcases Darwin's large Greek community, and India@Mindil, a similar festival held by the smaller Indian community. The Chinese New Year is also celebrated with great festivity, highlighting the Asian influence in Darwin.

Darwin, Nightcliff

The Seabreeze festival, which first started in 2005, is held on the second week of May in the suburb of Nightcliff[citation needed]. It offers the opportunity for local talent to be showcased and a popular event is Saturday family festivities along the Nightcliff foreshore which is one of Darwin's most popular fitness tracks[citation needed].

The Speargrass Festival is held annually the week prior to July's first full moon and celebrates the alternative Top End lifestyle. The festival activities include music, screening of locally produced films, screen printing, basket weaving, sweat lodge, water slides, human pyramid, hot tub, frisbee golf, spear throwing, Kubb competition, bingo, communal organic cooking, morning yoga, meditation, greasy pig and healing circles. The festival occurs at the Speargrass property, 50 km (31 mi) northeast of Pine Creek[citation needed].

The Darwin beer-can regatta, held in August, celebrates Darwin's love affair with beer and contestants' race boats made exclusively of beer cans. Also in Darwin during the month of August, are the Darwin Cup horse race, and the Rodeo and Mud Crab Tying Competition.

The World Solar Challenge race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations although some are fielded by high schools. The race has a 20-year history spanning nine races, with the inaugural event taking place in 1987.

Arts and entertainment

Darwin Festival

The Darwin Symphony Orchestra was first assembled in 1989,[48] and has performed throughout the Territory. The Darwin Theatre Company is a locally produced professional theatre production company, performing locally and nationally.[49]

The Darwin Entertainment Centre is the city's main concert venue and hosts theatre and orchestral performances.[50] Other theatres include the Darwin Convention Centre, opened in July 2008. The Darwin Convention Centre is part of the $1.1 billion Darwin Waterfront project.[51]

Darwin's only casino opened in 1981 as the Diamond Beach Casino, it later became the MGM Grand Darwin, before it changed to SKYCITY Darwin after SKYCITY Entertainment Group purchased the hotel in 2004.[52]

Darwin is home to the Indo-Pacific Marine & Australian Pearling Exhibition, which houses an aquarium with living coral and complementary sea life. The Northern Territory Museum and Art Gallery[53] in Darwin gives an overview of the history of the area, including exhibits on Cyclone Tracy and the boats of the Pacific Islands. The East Point Military museum tells the story of the Japanese air raids on Darwin during WWII.

The Darwin Festival and the Darwin Fringe festival are annual events. A range of art galleries including specialised Aboriginal art galleries are a feature of Darwin.

Local and visiting bands can be heard at venues including the Darwin Entertainment Centre, The Vic Hotel, Happy Yess, and Brown's Mart. An yearly music festival, Bass in the Grass, is very popular with youth from the surrounding area. Artists such as Jessica Mauboy and The Groovesmiths call Darwin home.

There have been no major films set in Darwin; however, some scenes for Australia by Baz Luhrmann[54][55] and Black Water[56] were both shot in Darwin in 2007

Mitchell Street in the central business district is lined with nightclubs, takeaways, and restaurants. This is the city's entertainment hub. There are several smaller theatres, three cinema complexes (CBD, Casuarina, and Palmerston), and the Deckchair Cinema.[57] This is an open-air cinema which operates through the dry season, from April to October, and screens independent and arthouse films.

Recreation

A walk at Casuarina Beach

The city has many kilometres of wide, unpolluted beaches, including the Casuarina Beach and well renowned Mindil Beach, home of the Mindil Beach markets. Darwin City Council has designated an area of Casuarina Beach as a free beach which offers a designated nudist beach area since 1976.[58] Swimming in the sea during the months of October–May should be avoided due to the presence of deadly box jellyfish, known locally as sea wasps.

Saltwater crocodiles are very common in all waterways surrounding Darwin and are even occasionally found swimming in Darwin Harbour and on local beaches.

Saltwater Crocodile near Darwin

Fishing is one of the recreations of Darwin locals. Visitors from around the world flock to Darwin aiming to catch the prized barramundi, an iconic fish for the region. The Mary River, Daly River, South and East Alligator River are just a few of the water bodies where the barramundi thrive.

Blue-water fishing is also available off the coast of Darwin; Spanish mackerel, Black Jewfish, queenfish, snapper and other varieties are all found in the area and accessible in a day trip from Darwin. Lake Alexander is a man-made lake which is generally considered safe, bar a freak jellyfish outbreak in 2003,[59] and is located at East Point Reserve.

The Darwin Surf Lifesaving Club[60] operates long boats and surf skis and provides events and lifesaving accreditations.

Parks and gardens

Darwin has extensive parks and gardens. These include the George Brown Darwin Botanic Gardens, East Point Reserve, Casuarina Coastal Reserve, Charles Darwin National Park, Knuckey Lagoons Conservation Reserve, Leanyer Recreation Park, the Nightcliff Foreshore, Bicentennial Park and the Jingili Water Gardens.

Sports

Darwin Cup

The Marrara Sports Complex near the airport has stadiums for Aussie Rules (TIO Stadium), cricket, rugby union, basketball (and indoor court sports), football (soccer), athletics and field hockey. Every two years since 1991 (excluding 2003 due to the SARS outbreak), Darwin has played host to the Arafura Games,[61] a major regional sporting event. In July 2003, the city hosted its first international test cricket match between Australia and Bangladesh, followed by Australia and Sri Lanka in 2004.

Australian-rules football and rugby league are played all year round. Melbourne's Western Bulldogs Australian Football League side plays one home game at Marrara Oval each year. The ATSIC Aboriginal All-Stars also participate in the AFL pre-season competition. In 2003, a record crowd of 17,500[62] attended a pre-season game between the All-Stars and Carlton Football Club at Marrara.

Darwin hosts a round of the V8 Supercars every year bringing thousands of motorsports fans to the Hidden Valley Raceway.

The Darwin Cup culminating on the first Monday of August is a very popular horse race event for Darwin and draws large crowds every year to Fannie Bay Racecourse. While it is not as popular as the Melbourne Cup, it does draw a crowd and, in 2003, Sky Racing began televising most of the races. The Darwin Cup day is a public holiday for the Northern Territory (Picnic Day public holiday).

Media

Darwin's major newspapers are the Northern Territory News, and one Sunday paper, The Sunday Territorian, both owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Darwin also receives the national daily, The Australian, and the Darwin Sun, also produced by News Corporation.

Channel Nine Darwin headquarters which is located in the inner city suburb of The Gardens

Five free-to-air channels service Darwin. Commercial television channels are provided by Southern Cross Darwin (Seven Network affiliate), Channel Nine Darwin (formerly branded as Channel 8) and Darwin Digital Television (Network Ten relay), which launched on 28 April 2008. The two Government owned national broadcast services in Darwin are the ABC and SBS Television.

Darwin has radio stations on both AM and FM frequencies. ABC stations include ABC News Radio (102.5FM), ABC Local Radio (105.7FM), Radio National (657AM), ABC Classic FM (107.3FM) and Triple J (103.3FM). SBS (102.5FM) also broadcasts its national radio network to Darwin.

Darwin has two commercial radio stations Hot 100 and Mix 104.9. Other stations in Darwin include University-based station 104.1 Territory FM, dance music station KIK FM 91.5, Italian language channel Rete Italia 1611AM, community based stations includes Radio Larrakia 94.5 and Yolngu Radio 1530AM and Rhema FM 97.7.

Infrastructure

Royal Darwin Hospital
The Ghan arriving at Darwin Rail Station led by an NR Class Diesel Electric Locomotive.

Health

The Government of the Northern Territory Department of Health and Families oversees one public hospital in the Darwin metropolitan region. The Royal Darwin Hospital, located in Tiwi, is the city's major teaching and referral hospital, and the largest in the Northern Territory.[63]

There is one major private hospital Darwin Private Hospital located at Tiwi, opposite the Royal Darwin Hospital.

Transport

Darwin has no intracity rail. The Alice Springs to Darwin rail line was completed in 2003 linking Darwin to Adelaide. The first service ran in 2004. The Ghan passenger train service from Adelaide via Alice Springs and Katherine runs two to three times per week depending on the season.

The Ghan
Terminus Darwin Katherine

Darwin International Airport, located in the suburb of Marrara, is Darwin's only airport, which shares its runways with the Royal Australian Air Force's RAAF Base Darwin.

Darwin Airport at night

Darwin can be reached via the Stuart Highway which runs the length of the Northern Territory from Darwin through Katherine, Tennant Creek, Alice Springs and on to Adelaide. Other major roads in Darwin include, Tiger Brennan Drive, Amy Johnson Avenue, Dick Ward Drive, Bagot Road, Trower Road and McMillans Road. Bus service in the greater Darwin area is served by Darwinbus.

Ferries leave from Port Darwin to island locations, mainly for tourists. A ferry service to the Tiwi Islands, the Arafura Pearl operates from Cullen Bay.

Darwin has a new deepwater port at Darwin East Arm, which is capable of handling Panamax sized ships.

Utilities

Water storage, supply and Power for Darwin is managed by Power and Water Corporation, which is owned by the Government of the Northern Territory . The corporation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region. Water is mainly stored in the largest dam, The Darwin River Dam which holds up to 90% of Darwin's water supply. For many years, Darwin's principal water supply came from Manton Dam.

Darwin, suburbs, Palmerston and Katherine is powered by the Channel Island Power Station. The largest power plant in the Northern Territory A new power plant is currently near to completion, the Weddell Power Station. The first generator is due to come on line in late January 2008. The new power station will add 30% capacity to Darwin power supply. A second generator is due for completion in 2008.

Tourism

Darwin skyline from Charles Darwin National Park

Tourism is one of Darwin's largest industries. Tourism is a major industry and employment sector for the Northern Territory. In 2005/06, 1.38 million people visited the Northern Territory. They stayed for 9.2 million nights and spent over $1.5 billion.[64] The tourism industry directly employed 8,391 Territorians in June 2006 and when indirect employment is included, tourism typically accounts for more than 14,000 jobs across the Territory.

Darwin is a hub for tours to Kakadu National Park,[65] Litchfield National Park[66] and Katherine Gorge. The Territory is traditionally divided into the wet and dry, but there are up to six traditional seasons in Darwin. It is warm and sunny from May to September. Humidity rises during the green season, from October to April bringing thunderstorms and monsoonal rains which rejuvenates the landscape. Tourism is largely seasonal with most tourists visiting during the cooler dry season which runs from April to September.

Aviation history

Darwin Aviation Heritage Centre - 1st Ultralight - Hover Bird

Darwin has played host to many of aviation's early pioneers. On 10 December 1919 Captain Ross Smith and his crew landed in Darwin and won a £10,000 Prize from the Australian Government for completing the first flight from London to Australia in under thirty days. Smith and his Crew flew a Vickers Vimy, G-EAOU and landed on an airstrip that has now become Ross Smith Avenue.

Other aviation pioneers include Amy Johnson, Amelia Earhart, Sir Charles Kingsford Smith and Bert Hinkler. The original QANTAS Empire Airways Ltd Hangar, part of the original Darwin Civil Aerodrome in Parap, is now a museum and still bears scars from the bombing of Darwin during World War II.[67]

Darwin was home to Australian and U.S. pilots during the war, with air strips being built in and around Darwin. Today Darwin provides a staging ground for military exercises.

Darwin was a compulsory stop over/check point in the London to Melbourne Centenary Air Race in 1934. The official name of the race was the MacRobertson Air Race. Winners of the great race were Tom Campbell Black and C.W.A. Scott.

The following is an excerpt from Time Magazine, 29 October 1934, Volume XXIV, Number 18.

Third Day. Biggest sensation of the race came just before dawn on the third day, when burly Lieutenant Scott and dapper Captain Black flew their scarlet Comet into Darwin. They had covered the last 300 miles over water on one motor, risked death landing on a field made soggy by the first rain in seven months. Said sandy-haired Lieutenant Scott: "We've had a devil of a trip." But they had flown 9000 miles in two days, had broken the England to Australia record of 162 hr. in the unbelievable time of 52hr. 33 min., were only 2000 miles from their goal at Melbourne.

The Australian Aviation Heritage Centre is located approximately 8 km (5.0 mi) from the City centre on the Stuart Highway and is one of only two places outside the United States where a B52 bomber (on permanent loan from the United States Air Force) is on public display.[68][69]

Sister cities

See also

Lists:

References

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  13. ^ "Palmerston Growth". Palmerston City Council. http://www.palmerston.nt.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=292. Retrieved 16 December 2007. 
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  19. ^ "CHAPTER 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere". physicalgeography.net. http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
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  22. ^ "Direct solar energy". Australian Academy of Science. http://www.science.org.au/nova/005/005act02.htm. 
  23. ^ "Climate statistics for Australian locations". http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_014015_All.shtml. 
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  27. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "Darwin Ancestry Groups". http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?action=404&documentproductno=705&documenttype=Details&order=1&tabname=Details&areacode=705&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&javascript=true&textversion=false&navmapdisplayed=true&breadcrumb=POTLD&&collection=Census&period=2006&productlabel=Ancestry%20(Region)%20by%20Country%20of%20Birth%20of%20Parents&producttype=Census%20Tables&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&topic=Ancestry&. Retrieved 2008-03-26. 
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  30. ^ "Updated Darwin Defence RAAF system". Darwin Defence RAAF Base 2007. http://www.nt.gov.au/business/documents/general/Defence_Support_Chapter13_Budget.pdf. Retrieved 16 December 2007. 
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  32. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "Darwin Religious groups". http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?action=404&documentproductno=705&documenttype=Details&order=1&tabname=Details&areacode=705&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&javascript=true&textversion=false&navmapdisplayed=true&breadcrumb=POTLD&&collection=Census&period=2006&productlabel=Religious%20Affiliation%20(full%20classification%20list)%20by%20Sex&producttype=Census%20Tables&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&topic=Religion&. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
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  38. ^ Jane Bardon (Thu Jul 23, 2009) "Crime statistics show fall in sex assaults" ABC News
  39. ^ a b Australian city of Darwin named 'broken jaw capital of the world', Daily Telegraph, 7 January 2010
  40. ^ "About the Minerals and Energy Group". Department of Primary Industry, Fisheries and Mines. http://www.nt.gov.au/dpifm/Minerals_Energy/index.cfm?header=About%20Minerals%20and%20Energy. 
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  42. ^ Department of Education and Training - About the Department
  43. ^ a b ABS Education Census Table
  44. ^ a b City of Darwin Community Profile Education institute attending
  45. ^ Mindil Beach Sunset Markets
  46. ^ "Markets". Darwin City Council. http://www.darwin.nt.gov.au/residents/community_services/markets.htm. 
  47. ^ Darwin Festival
  48. ^ "Darwin Symphony Orchestra". http://www.dso.org.au/orchestra.php. Retrieved 17 December 2007. 
  49. ^ "Darwin Theatre Company". http://darwintheatrecompany.com.au/profile.shtml. Retrieved 17 December 2007. 
  50. ^ "Darwin Entertainment Centre". http://www.darwinentertainment.com.au/aboutus/index.asp. Retrieved 17 December 2007. 
  51. ^ "Darwin Convention Centre". http://www.futuredarwin.nt.gov.au/tourism/conventioncentre.html. Retrieved 17 December 2007. 
  52. ^ "SKYCITY Entertainment group". http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/BU0402/S00118.htm. 
  53. ^ "Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory". http://www.nt.gov.au/nreta/museums/index.html. 
  54. ^ "Movie 'Australia' Sheds Light on First ever Attack on Aust Soil". The Epoch Times. 2007-05-23. http://en.epochtimes.com/news/7-5-23/55632.html. 
  55. ^ Flora Liveris (2007-07-01). "Stars show up for Darwin film shoot". Northern Territory News. http://www.ntnews.com.au/article/2007/07/01/1410_ntnews.html. 
  56. ^ Daniel Bourchier (2007-04-11). "Croc horror movie based on true Territory story". Northern Territory News. http://www.ntnews.com.au/article/2008/04/11/3842_ntnews.html. 
  57. ^ Darwin Deckchair Cinema
  58. ^ Free Beaches Australia
  59. ^ "Jellyfish infestation closes Darwin's Lake Alexander". ABC News. 2003-08-26. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2003/08/26/932403.htm. 
  60. ^ Darwin Surf Lifesaving Club
  61. ^ Arafura Games
  62. ^ "Marrara Stadium". Australian Stadiums. http://www.austadiums.com/stadiums/stadiums.php?id=69. 
  63. ^ "RDH - Recruitment". Royal Darwin Hospital. Northern Territory Government. http://www.nt.gov.au/health/hospital_svs/tesn/royaldarwinhospital/recruitment/rdh.htm. 
  64. ^ Tourism NT
  65. ^ Kakadu National Park
  66. ^ Litchfield National Park
  67. ^ QANTAS hangar
  68. ^ "Things to do". Within Cooee. http://www.withincooee.com/northern-territory/darwin/darwin-things-to-do/. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  69. ^ "Australian Aviation Heritage Centre". Australian Aviation Heritage Centre. http://www.ntnews.com.au/article/2008/04/01/3760_ntnews.html. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 

External links

Coordinates: 12°27′S 130°50′E / 12.45°S 130.833°E / -12.45; 130.833


Simple English

Darwin is the territorial capital of the Northern Territory in Australia. The city has about 100,000 people living there. The city is named after Charles Darwin, although it was named before he because famous for developing the theory of evolution. [1] A member of the crew of the ship that started a port there in 1839 named it Port Darwin in honor of Darwin, who had sailed on that same ship earlier. [2] Most of Darwin has been built since 1974, when Cyclone Tracy ripped through and destroyed the city. Since then, the city has recovered. It is a very important port, because it is on the coast closest to Indonesia and the rest of Asia. Darwin also has a large military base.

Darwin also has many Indigenous Australians living in the city, more than any other capital city of Australia.

References


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