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The Dasven Patshah Da Granth (Punjabi: ਦਸਵੇ ਪਾਤਸ਼ਾਹ ਦਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ), Dasam Granth (Punjabi: ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ), (Book of the Tenth Emperor), is a scripture of Sikhism, containing some of the texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. Some compositions of the Dasam Granth like Jaap Sahib, Tvai Prasad Sawaiye (Amrit Savaiye), and Benti Chaupai are part of daily prayers Nitnem of the Sikhs. These compositions are also part of Sikh baptism (Khande di Pahul).

Contents

Structure

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Overview

The Dasam Granth contains 1428 pages and contains the writings of the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. It contains Jaap Sahib, the Akal Ustat or praise of the Creator, the Bachitar Natak or Wonderful Drama, in which gives an account of his parentage, his divine mission, and the battles in which he had been engaged.

Then come three abridged compositions of the wars of Durga with demons, (Chandi Chritras: Chandi Chritra I, Chandi Chritra II, Chandi di Var). These were written to instill the spirit of war among Sikhs. The first stanza of the Sikh ardaas, an invocation to God and the 9 Guru's preceding Guru Gobind Singh Ji, is from Chandi di Var.

Then follow the Gyan Parbodh, or awakening of knowledge; the Shabad Hazare; quatrains called Sawaiyas, which are religious hymns in praise of God and reprobation of idolatry and hypocrisy; the Shastar Nam Mala, a list of offensive and defensive weapons used in the Guru's time, with special reference to the attributes of the Creator; the Kabiovach Bainti Chaupai will "absolve the suffering, pain or fear of the person, who will even once recite this Bani"; the Zafarnamah, containing the tenth Guru's epistle to the emperor Aurangzeb; and Hikayats, several metrical tales in the Persian language.

The Dasam Granth is said to have been compiled by Bhai Mani Singh a companion and disciple of the Guru, after the tenth Guru's death.

Contents

The Contents of the Dasam Granth are:

  • Jaap (Meditation)
  • Akal Ustat (praises of God)
  • Bachitar Natak (autobiography of the Guru)
  • Chandi Charitar I & II (the character of Goddess Chandi)
  • Chandi di Var (a ballad to describe Goddess Chandi)
  • Gyan Prabod (The Awakening of Knowledge)
  • Chaubis Avtar (Narrative of 24 incarnations of Vishnu as ordered by God Almighty)
  • Shabad Hazare (Ten Shabads)
  • Swayyae (33 stanzas)
  • Khalsa Mehma (the praises of the Khalsa)
  • Shastar Nam Mala (a list of weapons)
  • Charitropakhyan (various character of men and women [details both negative and positive])
  • Zafarnamah (epistle of victory, a letter written to Emperor Aurangzeb)

Language and Literary Quality

The Dasam Granth is all rhymed poetry. It was designed to be heard, so there is considerable repetition, and a variety of meters to hold the attention. The language of most of the Dasam Granth is largely Braj veering towards Sanskrit at one extreme and simple colloquial Hindi at the other, although conventional Hindi is used marginally. The Braj dialect is a variety of medieval Hindi with a mixture of Sanskrit and Arabic words. The Zafarnamah and the Hikayats are in Persian using Gurmukhi characters and several passages in other works are in Punjabi. The 'author(s)' not only used this melange of languages but also coined words half Arabic half Sanskrit (and sometimes words without any meaning just to create a musical effect). Some of this kind of writing has great power and beauty.

From A Short History of the Sikhs, Ganda Singh & Teja Singh:

"In Hindi he developed a style, which for martial cadence, variety of form and richness of imagination...has remained unsurpassed since his times. In lines ranging from monosyllabic verse to long and multiplied swayyas and kabits, we seem to hear the torrential flow of hill streams or the galloping sweep of cavalry on the march. His intellect quivers in emotion and breaks out against superstition and hypocrisy into humour, irony or banter. His emotion...is raised to the highest pitch of ecstasy when he communes with God."

From Sikhan de Raj di Vithya (History of the Sikh Rule):

"This Granth is very difficult, and is composed in the Gurmukhi dialect in several kinds of verses. In it there is the description of several weapons of warfare, the rules of warfare, the shortcomings in the character of men and women, and some information on worship and religious knowledge. The descriptions of scenes of battle are couched in extremely vigorous staccato rhyme often reduced to lines of one word each. The battles waged by Chandi encounters with the hill chiefs at Bhangani and Nadaun are among the most stirring that exist.

Quotes from Dasam Granth

Internal evidence to the dates of compilation of different portions of various compositions

  • ਸੱਤ੍ਰਹ ਸੈ ਪੈਤਾਲ ਮਹਿ ਸਾਵਨ ਸੁਦਿ ਥਿਤਿ ਦੀਪ ॥ਨਗਰ ਪਾਂਵਟਾ ਸੁਭ ਕਰਨ ਜਮਨਾ ਬਹੈ ਸਮੀਪ ॥2490॥
  • (This work has been completed) in the year 1745 of the Vikrami era in the Sudi aspect of the moon in the month of Sawan, (July 1688 A.D.) in the town of Paonta at the auspicious hour, on banks of the flowing Yamuna. (Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib in 'Krishnavtar')
  • ਸੱਤ੍ਰਹ ਸੈ ਪੈਤਾਲ ਮੈ ਕੀਨੀ ਕਥਾ ਸੁਧਾਰ ॥ਚੂਕ ਹੋਇ ਜਹ ਤਹ ਸੁ ਕਬਿ ਲੀਜਹੁ ਸਕਲ ਸੁਧਾਰ ॥੭੫੫॥
  • In Samvat 1745 (1688 A.D.), this 'katha' (composition) was improved and if there is any error and omission in it, then the poets may still improve it.755. (Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib in 'Krishnavtar')
  • ਸੰਬਤ ਸਤ੍ਰਹ ਸਹਸ ਭਣਿਜੈ ॥ਅਰਧ ਸਹਸ ਫੁਨਿ ਤੀਨਿ ਕਹਿਜੈ ॥ਭਾਦ੍ਰਵ ਸੁਦੀ ਅਸਟਮੀ ਰਵਿ ਵਾਰਾ ॥ਤੀਰ ਸਤੁਦ੍ਰਵ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸੁਧਾਰਾ ॥405॥
  • The Granth was completed on Sunday, the 18th day of month of Bhadon, in 1753 Bikrami Sammat (September 14, 1696 A.D.) on the banks of river Satluj.(Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib in 'Charitropakhyan')
  • ਸੰਮਤ ਸੱਤ੍ਰਹ ਸਹਸ ਪਚਾਵਨ॥ਹਾੜ ਵਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਿਥਮੈ ਸੁਖ ਦਾਵਨ ॥ਤ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ਕਰਿ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸੁਧਾਰਾ ॥ਭੂਲ ਪਰੀ ਲਹੁ ਲੇਹੁ ਸੁਧਾਰਾ ॥860॥
  • This Granth has been completed (and improved) in Vadi first in the month of Haar in the year 1755 Bikrami (July 1698); if there has remained any error in it, then kindly correct it.(Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib in 'Ramavtaar')
  • ਸਤ੍ਰਹ ਸੈ ਚਵਤਾਲ ਮੈ ਸਾਵਨ ਸੁਦਿ ਬੁਧਵਾਰ ॥ਨਗਰ ਪਾਵਟਾ ਮੋ ਤੁਮੋ ਰਚਿਯੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸੁਧਾਰ ॥੯੮੩ ॥
  • This (part of the) Granth has been prepared after revision in Paonta city on Wednesday in Sawan Sudi Samvat 1744 (August 1687 AD). 983.(Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib in 'Krishnavtar')

Condemnation of the concept in Hindu theology that God takes various incarnations

  • ਕਿਤੇ ਕਿਸਨ ਸੇ ਕੀਟ ਕੋਟੈ ਉਪਾਏ, ਉਸਾਰੇ ਗੜੇ ਫਿਰ ਮੇਟੇ ਬਨਾਏ॥
  • He hath Created millions of Krishnas like worms. He Created them, annihilated them, again created them, again destroyed them.
  • ਕਿਤੇ ਕ੍ਰਿਸਨ ਸੇ ਕੀਟ ਕੋਟੈ ਬਨਾਏ ॥ਕਿਤੇ ਰਾਮ ਸੇ ਮੇਟਿ ਡਾਰੇ ਉਪਾਏ ॥
  • Somewhere He hath created millions of servants like Krishna. Somewhere He hath effaced and then created (many) like Rama. (pg.98)
  • ਰਾਮ ਰਹੀਮ ਉਬਾਰ ਨ ਸਕਹੈ ਜਾਕਰ ਨਾਮ ਰਟੈ ਹੈ॥ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾ ਬਿਸ਼ਨ ਰੁਦ੍ਰ ਸੂਰਹ ਸਸਿ ਤੇ ਬਸਿ ਕਾਲ ਸਭੈ ਹੈ ॥੧ (ਸ. ਹਜਾਰੇ)
  • Ram and Rahim whose names you are uttering cant save you. Brahma, Vishnu Shiva, Sun and Moon, all are subject to the power of Death.1. .(pg.1349)
  • ਰਾਮ ਰਹੀਮ ਪੁਰਾਨ ਕੁਰਾਨ ਅਨੇਕ ਕਹੈਂ ਮਤ ਏਕ ਨ ਮਾਨਯੋ॥ਸਿੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਸਾਸਤ੍ਰ ਬੇਦ ਸਭੈ ਬਹੁ ਭੇਦ ਕਹੈਂ ਹਮ ਏਕਨ ਜਾਨਯੋ॥ਪਾਂਇ ਗਹੇ ਜਬ ਤੇ ਤੁਮਰੇ ਤਬ ਤੇ ਕੋਊ ਆਂਖ ਤਰੇ ਨਹੀ ਆਨਯੋ ॥(ਰਾਮਾਵਤਾਰ)
  • O God ! the day when I caught hold of your feet, I do not bring anyone else under my sight; none other is liked by me now; the Puranas and the Quran try to know Thee by the names of Ram and Rahim and talk about you through several stories, but I do not accept these
  • ਜਾਕਰ ਰੂਪ ਰੰਗ ਨਹਿ ਜਨਿਯਤ ਸੋ ਕਿਮ ਸਯਾਮ ਕਹੈ ਹੈ॥(ਸਬਦ ਹਜ਼ਾਰੇ ਪਾ.10)
  • He, whose form and colour are not, how can he be called Shyaam (black)? .(p1349)
  • ਕਾਹੂ ਕਹਯੋ ਕ੍ਰਿਸਨਾਂ ਕਹੁ ਕਾਹੂ ਮਨੈ ਅਵਤਾਰਨ ਮਾਨਯੋ॥ ਫੋਕਟ ਧਰਮ ਬਿਸਾਰ ਸਭੈ ਕਰਤਾਰ ਹੀ ਕਉ ਕਰਤਾ ਜੀਅ ਜਾਨਯੋ॥...ਅੰਤ ਮਰੇ ਪਛੁਤਾਇ ਪ੍ਰਿਥੀ ਪਰ, ਜੇ ਜਗ ਮੈ ਅਵਤਾਰ ਕਹਾਏ॥(33 ਸਵੈਯੇ)
  • Someone calls Him Ram or Krishna and someone believes in His incarnations, but my mind has forsaken all useless actions and has accepted only One Creator.12. (p. 1352)
  • ਕਾਲ ਹੀ ਪਾਇ ਭਇਓ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾ ਗਹਿ ਦੰਡ ਕਮੰਡਲ ਭੂਮ ਭ੍ਰਮਾਨਯੋ ॥ਕਾਲ ਹੀ ਪਾਇ ਸਦਾ ਸ਼ਿਵਜੂ ਸਭ ਦੇਸ ਬਿਦੇਸ ਭਇਆ ਹਮ ਜਾਨਯੋ ॥
  • Brahma came into being under the control of time and taking his staff and pot his hand, he wandered on the earth; Shiva was also under the control of time and wandered in various countries far and near;
  • ਕ੍ਰਿਸਨ ਔ ਬਿਸਨ ਜਪੇ ਤੁਹਿ ਕੋਟਿਕ ਰਾਮ ਰਹੀਮ ਭਲੀ ਬਿਧਿ ਧਿਆਯੋ ॥ਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਜਪਿਓ ਅਰੁ ਸੰਭੁ ਥਪਿਓ ਤਿਹ ਤੇ ਤੁਹਿ ਕੋ ਕਿਨਹੂੰ ਨ ਬਚਾਯੋ ॥……..ਤੋਹਿ ਬਚਾਇ ਸਕੈ ਕਹੁ ਕੈਸੇ ਕੈ ਆਪਨ ਘਾਵ ਬਚਾਇ ਨ ਐਹੈ ॥ਕੋਪ ਕਰਾਲ ਕੀ ਪਾਵਕ ਕੁੰਡ ਮੈ ਆਪ ਟੰਗਿਓ ਤਿਮ ਤੋਹਿ ਟੰਗੈਹੈ ॥
  • Thou hast meditated on millions of Krishnas, Vishnus, Ramas and Rahims. Thou hast recited the name of Brahma and established Shivalingam, even then none could save thee…….They cannot save themselves from the blow of death, how can they protect thee? They are all hanging in the blazing fire of anger, therefore they will cause thy hanging similarly. (pg111)
  • ਮੈ ਨ ਗਨੇਸ਼ਹਿ ਪ੍ਰਿਥਮ ਮਨਾਊਂ ॥ਕਿਸ਼ਨ ਬਿਸ਼ਨ ਕਬਹੂੰ ਨਹ ਧਿਆਊਂ ॥ਕਾਨ ਸੁਨੇ ਪਹਿਚਾਨ ਨ ਤਿਨ ਸੋਂ ॥ਲਿਵ ਲਾਗੀ ਮੋਰੀ ਪਗ ਇਨ ਸੋਂ ॥੪੩੪॥(ਕ੍ਰਿ.ਵਤਾਰ)
  • I do not adore Ganesha in the beginning and also do not meditate on Krishna and Vishnu; I have only heard about them with my ears and I do not recognize them; my consciousness is absorbed at the feet of the Supreme Lord.434.
  • ਖੋਜ ਰਹੇ ਸ਼ਿਵ ਸੇ ਜਿਹ ਅੰਤ ਅਨੰਤ ਕਹਿਓ ਥਕ ਅੰਤ ਨ ਪਾਯੋ ॥ਤਾਹੀ ਕੀ ਬਾਤ ਸੁਨੋ ਤੁਮਰੇ ਮੁਖ ਤੇ ਸੁਕਦੇਵ ਇਹੈ ਠਹਰਾਯੋ ॥੨੪੦੩॥
  • He, whom Shiva etc. had been searching, but could not know His Mystery; O Shukdev ! relate to me the story of that Lord.2403.
  • ਜੌ ਕਹੌ ਰਾਮ ਅਜੋਨਿ ਅਜੈ ਅਤਿ ਕਾਹੇ ਕੌ ਕੌਸ਼ਲ ਕੁੱਖ ਜਯੋ ਜੂ ॥ਕਾਲ ਹੂੰ ਕਾਲ ਕਹੈ ਜਿਹਿ ਕੌ ਕਿਹਿ ਕਾਰਣ ਕਾਲ ਤੇ ਦੀਨ ਭਯੋ ਜੂ ॥
  • If you consider Ram, the Lord as Unborn, then how did he take birth from the womb of Kaushalya? He, who is said to be the destroyer of death, then why did he become subjugated himself before death?
  • ਸੱਤ ਸਰੂਪ ਬਿਬੈਰ ਕਹਾਇ ਸੁ ਕਯੋਂ ਪਥ ਕੌ ਰਥ ਹਾਂਕ ਧਯੋ ਜੂ ॥ਤਾਹੀ ਕੋ ਮਾਨਿ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਕਰਿ ਕੈ ਜਿਹ ਕੋ ਕੋਊ ਭੇਦੁ ਨ ਲੇਨ ਲਯੋ ਜੂ ॥੧੩॥
  • If he (Krishna) is called the Truth-incarnate, beyond enmity and opposition, then why did he become the charioteer of Arjuna? O mind! you only consider him the Lord God, whose Mysetry could not be known to anyone.13.
  • ਕਯੋਂ ਕਹੁ ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾਨਿਧ ਹੈ ਕਿਹ ਕਾਜ ਤੇ ਬੱਧਕ ਬਾਣ ਲਗਾਯੋ ॥ਅਉਰ ਕੁਲੀਨ ਉਧਾਰਤ ਜੋ ਕਿਹ ਤੇ ਅਪਨੋ ਕੁਲ ਨਾਸੁ ਕਰਾਯੋ ॥
  • Krishna himself is considered the treasure of Grace, then why did the hunter shot his arrow at him? He has been described as redeeming the clans of others then he caused the destruction of his own clan;
  • ਆਦਿ ਅਜੋਨਿ ਕਹਾਇ ਕਹੋ ਕਿਮ ਦੇਵਕਿ ਕੇ ਜਠਰੰਤਰ ਆਯੋ ॥ਤਾਤ ਨ ਮਾਤ ਕਹੈ ਜਿਹ ਕੋ ਤਿਹ ਕਯੋਂ ਬਸੁਦੇਵਹਿ ਬਾਪੁ ਕਹਾਯੋ ॥੧੪॥
  • If he (Krishna) is said to be unborn and without a beginning, then how did he come into the womb of Devaki? He, who is considered without any father or mother, then why did he cause Vasudev to be called his father? 14.
  • ਕਾਹੇ ਕੋ ਏਸ਼ ਮਹੇਸ਼ਹਿ ਭਾਖਤ ਕਾਹਿ ਦਿਜੇਸ਼ ਕੋ ਏਸ ਬਖਾਨਯੋ ॥ਹੈ ਨ ਰਘ੍ਵੇਸ਼ ਜਦ੍ਵੇਸ਼ ਰਮਾਪਤਿ ਤੈ ਜਿਨ ਕੌ ਬਿਸ੍ਵਨਾਥ ਪਛਾਨਯੋ ॥
  • Why do you consider Shiva or Brahma as the Lord? There is none amongst Ram, Krishna and Vishnu, who may be considered as the Lord of the Universe by you;
  • ਏਕ ਕੋ ਛਾਡਿ ਅਨੇਕ ਭਜੈ ਸੁਕਦੇਵ ਪਰਾਸਰ ਬਯਾਸ ਝੁਠਾਨਯੋ ॥ਫੋਕਟ ਧਰਮ ਸਜੇ ਸਭ ਹੀ ਹਮ ਏਕ ਹੀ ਕੌ ਬਿਧ ਨੈਕ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਨਯੋ ॥੧੫॥
  • Relinquishing One Lord, you worship many. Likewise Sukhdev, Prashar and Vyas were proven false due to pantheism. All have established hollow religions. I believe in One God who reveals Himself in multifarious modes.(15)
  • ਕੋਊ ਦਿਜੇਸ਼ ਕੋ ਮਾਨਤ ਹੈ ਅਰੁ ਕੋਊ ਮਹੇਸ਼ ਕੋ ਏਸ਼ ਬਤੈ ਹੈ ॥ਕੋਊ ਕਹੈ ਬਿਸ਼ਨੋ ਬਿਸ਼ਨਾਇਕ ਜਾਹਿ ਭਜੇ ਅਘ ਓਘ ਕਟੈ ਹੈ ॥
  • Someone calls Brahma as the Lord-God and someone tells the same thing about Shiva; someone considers Vishnu as the hero of the universe and says that only by remembering him, all the sins will be destroyed;
  • ਬਾਰ ਹਜ਼ਾਰ ਬਿਚਾਰ ਅਰੇ ਜੜ ਅੰਤ ਸਮੈ ਸਭ ਹੀ ਤਜਿ ਜੈ ਹੈ ॥ਤਾਹੀ ਕੋ ਧਯਾਨ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਨਿ ਹੀਏ ਜੋਊ ਥੇ ਅਬ ਹੈ ਅਰੁ ਆਗੈ ਊ ਹ੍ਵੈ ਹੈ ॥੧੬॥
  • O fool ! think about it a thousand times, all of them will leave you at the time of death. Therefore, you should only meditate on Him, who was in the past, is there in the present and will also be there in the future.16.
  • ਕੋਟਕ ਇੰਦ੍ਰ ਕਰੇ ਜਿਹ ਕੋ ਕਈ ਕੋਟਿ ਉਪਿੰਦ੍ਰ ਬਾਨਇ ਖਪਾਯੋ ॥ਦਾਨਵ ਦੇਵ ਫਨਿੰਦ੍ਰ ਧਰਾਧਰ ਪੱਛ ਪਸੂ ਨਹਿ ਜਾਤਿ ਗਨਾਯੋ ॥
  • He, who created millions of Indras and Upendras and then destroyed them; He, who created innumerable gods, demons, Sheshnaga, tortoises, birds, animals etc.,
  • ਆਜ ਲਗੇ ਤਪੁ ਸਾਧਤ ਹੈ ਸ਼ਿਵ ਊ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾ ਕਛੁ ਪਾਰ ਨ ਪਾਯੋ ॥ਬੇਦ ਕਤੇਬ ਨ ਭੇਦ ਲਖਯੋ ਜਿਹ ਸੋਊ ਗੁਰੂ ਗੁਰ ਮੋਹਿ ਬਤਾਯੋ ॥੧੭॥
  • And for knowing whose Mystery, Shiva and Brahma are performing austerities even till today, but could not know His end; He is such a Guru, whose Mystery could not be comprehended also by Vedas and Katebs and my Guru has told me the same thing.17.
  • ਬੇਦ ਕਤੇਬ ਨ ਭੇਦ ਲਹਯੋ ਤਿਹਿ ਸਿੱਧ ਸਮਾਧਿ ਸਭੈ ਕਰਿ ਹਾਰੇ ॥ਸਿੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਸ਼ਾਸਤ੍ਰ ਬੇਦ ਸਭੈ ਬਹੁ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਪੁਰਾਨ ਬਿਚਾਰ ਬੀਚਾਰੇ ॥
  • The Vedas and Ketebs could not comprehend His Mystery and the adepts have been defeated in practicing contemplation; Different kinds of thoughts have been mentioned about God in Vedas, Shastras, Puranas and smrities; (p1351)
  • ਸੋ ਕਿਮ ਮਾਨਸ ਰੂਪ ਕਹਾਏ॥ਸਿਧ ਸਮਾਧਿ ਸਾਧ ਕਰ ਹਾਰੇ ਕਯੋ੍‍ ਨ ਦੇਖਨ ਪਾਏ ॥੧॥ਰਹਾਉ ॥(ਸ. ਹਜ਼ਾਰੇ)
  • How can He be said to come in human form? The Siddha (adept) in deep meditation became tired of the discipline on not seeing Him in any way…..Pause. (p. 1348)
  • ਸ਼ੇਸ਼ ਸੁਰੇਸ਼ ਗਣੇਸ਼ ਮਹੇਸੁਰ ਗਾਹਿ ਫਿਰੈ ਸ੍ਰੁਤਿ ਥਾਹ ਨ ਆਯੋ ॥ਰੇ ਮਨ ਮੂੜ ਅਗੂੜ ਇਸੋ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਤੈ ਕਿਹ ਕਾਜਿ ਕਹੋ ਬਿਸਰਾਯੋ ॥4॥1350 33 ਸਵੈਯੇ
  • Sheshnaga, Indra, Ganesha, Shiva and also the Shrutis (Vedas) could not know Thy Mystery; O my foolish mind! why have you forgotten such a Lord. 4.

Condemnation of Idol Worship

  • ਕਾਹੂ ਲੈ ਪਾਹਨ ਪੂਜ ਧਰਯੋ ਸਿਰ ਕਾਹੂ ਲੈ ਲਿੰਗ ਗਰੇ ਲਟਕਾਇਓ ॥
  • Someone worships stone and places it on his head. Someone hangs the phallus (lingam) from his neck. .(pg.42)
  • ਕੋਉ ਬੁਤਾਨ ਕੋ ਪੂਜਤ ਹੈ ਪਸੁ ਕੋਉ ਮ੍ਰਿਤਾਨ ਕੋ ਪੂਜਨ ਧਾਇਓ ॥
  • Some fools worship the idols and some go to worship the dead. (pg.42)
  • ਪਾਇ ਪਰੋ ਪਰਮੇਸਰ ਕੇ ਜੜ ਪਾਹਨ ਮੈਂ ਪਰਮੇਸਰ ਨਾਹੀ ॥੯੯॥
  • O fool! Fall at the feet of Lord-God, the Lord is not within the stone-idols.99.(pg.111)
  • ਤੇ ਭੀ ਬਸਿ ਮਮਤਾ ਹੁਇ ਗਏ ॥ਪਰਮੇਸਰ ਪਾਹਨ ਠਹਿਰਏ ॥੧੩॥
  • They also were overpowered by ‘mineness’ and exhibited the Lord in statues.13. .(pg.134)
  • ਪਾਹਨ ਪੁਜੈ ਹੈ ਏਕ ਨ ਧਿਐ ਹੈ ਮਤ ਕੇ ਅਧਕ ਅਧੇਰਾ ॥ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਕਹੁ ਤਜਿ ਹੈ ਬਿਖ ਕਹੁ ਭਜਿ ਹੈ ਸਾਝਹਿ ਕਹਹਿ ਸਵੈਰਾ ॥
  • Worshipping the stones, they will not meditate on One Lord; there will be prevalent the darkness of many sects; Leaving the ambrosia they will desire for poison, and they will name the evening time as early-morning; .(pg.1142)
  • ਤਾਸ ਕਿਉ ਨ ਪਛਾਨਹੀ ਜੋ ਹੋਹਿ ਹੈ ਅਬ ਹੈ ॥ਨਿਹਫਲ ਕਾਹੇ ਭਜਤ ਪਾਹਨ ਤੋਹਿ ਕਛੁ ਫਲਿ ਦੈ ॥
  • Why do you not pray to Him, who will be there in future and who is there in the present? You are worshipping the stones uselessly; what will you gain by that worship? (pg. 1289)
  • ਅੱਛਤ ਧੂਪ ਦੀਪ ਅਰਪਤ ਹੈ ਪਾਹਨ ਕਛੂ ਨ ਖੈ ਹੈ ॥
  • Rice, incense and lamps are offered, but the stones do not eat anything. (pg.1349)
  • ਕਹਾ ਭਇਓ ਜੋ ਅਤ ਹਿਤ ਚਿਤ ਕਰ ਬਹੁ ਬਿਧ ਸਿਲਾ ਪੁਜਾਈ॥ ਪ੍ਰਾਨ ਥਕਿਓ ਪਾਹਿਨ ਕਹ ਪਰਸਤ ਕਛੁ ਕਰ ਸਿਧਨ ਆਈ॥ਤਾ ਮੈਂ ਕਹਾਂ ਸਿਧ ਹੈ ਰੇ ਜੜ ਤੋਹਿ ਕਛੁ ਬਰ ਦੇਹੈ॥..(ਸਬਦ ਹਜਾਰੇ)
  • Of what use is the worship of the stones with devotion and sincerity in various ways? The hand became tired of touching the stones, because no spiritual power accrued. O fool! where is the spiritual power in them, so that they may bless you with some boon. (pg.1349)
  • ਕਾਹੇ ਕਉ ਪੂਜਤ ਪਾਹਨ ਕਉ ਕਛੁ ਪਾਹਨ ਮੈ ਪਰਮੇਸੁਰ ਨਾਹੀ ॥ਤਾਹੀ ਕੋ ਪੂਜ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਕਰਿ ਕੈ ਜਿਹ ਪੂਜਤ ਹੀ ਅਘ ਓਘ ਮਿਟਾਹੀ ॥
  • Why do you worship stones? Because the Lord-God is not within those stones; you may only worship Him, whose adoration destroys clusters of sins; (pg.1353)
  • ਜੌ ਜੁਗ ਤੈ ਕਰਿ ਹੈ ਤਪਸਾ ਕਛੁ ਤੋਹਿ ਪ੍ਰਸੰਨੁ ਨ ਪਾਹਨ ਕੈ ਹੈ ॥ਹਾਥ ਉਠਾਇ ਭਲੀ ਬਿਧ ਸੋ ਜੜ ਤੋਹਿ ਕਛੂ ਬਰਦਾਨੁ ਨ ਦੈ ਹੈ ॥
  • You may even perform the austerities for an age, but these stones will not fulfill your wishes and please you; they will not raise their hands and grant you the boon; (pg.1353)
  • ਫੋਕਟ ਧਰਮ ਭਯੋ ਫਲ ਹੀਨ ਜੁ ਪੂਜ ਸਿਲਾ ਜੁਗਿ ਕੋਟ ਗਵਾਈ ॥ਸਿੱਧ ਕਹਾ ਸਿਲ ਕੇ ਪਰਸੇ ਬਲ ਬ੍ਰਿੱਧ ਘਟੀ ਨਵਨਿੱਧ ਨ ਪਾਈ ॥
  • The hollow religion became fruitless and O being! you have lost years and years by worshipping the stones; you will not get power with the worship of stones; the strength and glory will only decrease; (pg.1353)
  • ਪਾਹਨ ਕੋ ਅਸਥਾਲਯ ਕੋ ਸਿਰ ਨਯਾਇ ਫਿਰਯੋ ਕਛੁ ਹਾਥ ਨ ਆਯੋ ॥ਰੇ ਮਨ ਮੂੜ ਅਗੂੜ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਤਜਿ ਆਪਨ ਹੂੜ ਕਹਾ ਉਰਝਾਯੋ ॥੨੬॥
  • You had been wandering with bowed head in the temples of stones, but you realized nothing; O foolish mind! you were only entangled in your bad intellect abandoning that Effulgent Lord.26. (pg.1354)
  • ਕਹੂੰ ਲੈ ਠੋਕ ਬਧੇ ਉਰ ਠਾਕੁਰ ਕਾਹੂੰ ਮਹੇਸ਼ ਕੌ ਏਸ ਬਖਾਨਯੋ ॥ਕਾਹੂੰ ਕਹਯੋ ਹਰਿ ਮੰਦਰ ਮੈ ਹਰਿ ਕਾਹੂੰ ਮਸੀਤ ਕੈ ਬੀਚ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਨਯੋ ॥
  • Someone has tied the stone-idol around his neck and someone has accepted Shiva as the Lord; someone considers the Lord within the temple or the mosque; (p1351)
  • ਕਿ ਓ ਬੁਤ ਪਰਸਤੰਦੁ ਮਨ ਬੁਤ ਸਿਕਸਤ (ਜ਼ਫਰਨਾਮਹ)
  • They were the idol worshippers, and me the idol destroyer

Compilation

Letter of Bhai Mani Singh informing about the compilation of various banees of Dasam Granth

Giani Giani Singh claims that the "real" granth by the 10th Guru was in possession of Budha Dal and was lost in the Second Sikh Holocaust (1762)[1]

The Dasam Granth is believed to have been compiled after the Guru's demise by Bhai Mani Singh in the year 1722 AD. Bhai Mani Singh tried to assemble all of the Guru's works from many different sources. Hand written copy of Dasam Granth Sahib is still available in Gurdwara Mehta - Dam Dami Taksal.

Regarding Bhai Mani Singh compiling the writings of Guru Gobind Singh, Giani Gian Singh in Panth Parkash writes

ਸਤ੍ਰਾਂ ਸੈ ਅਠਤ੍ਰੈ ਸਾਲ. ਪੰਥ ਇਕਠਾ ਭਯੋ ਬਿਸਾਲ....
ਇਕ ਦਿਨ ਆਗਿਆ ਪੰਥ ਕੀ ਮਨੀ ਸਿੰਘ ਜੀ ਪਾਇ.
ਬਾਣੀ ਦਸਮੇਂ ਗੁਰੂ ਕੀ ਸੰਗ੍ਰਹਿ ਕਰ ਧਰ ਭਾਇ. 20.
ਏਕ ਜਿਲਦ ਮੈ ਕੀਨੀ ਕਰ ਹੈ. ਤਿਸ ਕਾ ਭੋਗ ਹਕਾਇਤ ਪਰ ਹੈ.[2]
(ਗਿਆਨੀ ਗਿਆਨ ਸਿੰਘ. ਪੰਥ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼)
One day in 1778 Bikrami (1721 AD) the panth got together...
Bhai Mani Singh accepted the orders of the panth
And he collected the banees of the Dasam Guru.
Compiled in one bind (the beerh) ends at Hikayat
(Giani Gian Singh, Panth Parkash. Page 305)

Controversy

M.A. McAuliffe was the first scholar to raise questions about the Dasam Granth. He states[3]: "It is admitted that a knowledge of the religions of the people of India is a desideratum for the British officials who administer its affairs and indirectly for the people who are governed by them so that mutual sympathy may be produced. It seems, at any rate politic to place before the Sikh soldiery their Guru’s prophecies in favor of the English and the texts of their sacred writings which foster their loyalty."

Although selected Hindu myths are contained in the Dasven Granth, they are used merely in allegorical and metaphorical terms; Chandi di Var is commonly regarded as a narrative meant to rouse Sikh women to defend the faith, citing Durga as being simply a creation of God; the Chaubis Avtar focuses on the warlike avatars only, and quotes from this work are some of the most commonly used by Sikhs to prove Sikhism's rejection of Hindu theology and divinity of Hindu gods. Moreover, there is to this day much controversy among Sikhs and Sikh theocratic bodies regarding whether certain parts of the Granth were in fact originally part of the tome or added into it at a later time, making such parts illegitimate. There are indeed divergences of writing diction and style among some chapters with others. At any rate, Guru Gobind Singh, in addition to openly belittling Hindu gods and avatars as false and condemning the rites meant to worship them, did not look up to them in the slightest. As stated rather bluntly in the Krishan Avtar:

I do not seek the blessings of Ganesh, I do not worship Krishna or Vishnu. I do not recognise them. I am engrossed in the loving devotion of my Lord alone. The Lord of Death, Akal, is my refuge and He saves me from all tribulations. (Krishan Avtar, 434)

As stated earlier, a widely accepted belief is that Bhai Mani Singh compiled much of the Dasven Granth on behalf of Guru Gobind Singh, contributing much of it by memory; The Guru may not have had absolute control of its formation. There are numerous other theories as to the assembly of the Granth.

From 1895 to 1897, different scholars and theologians assembled at the Akal Takht, Amritsar, to study the 32 printed Dasam Granths and prepare the authoritative version. They met at the Akal Takhat at Amritsar, and held formal discussions in a series of meetings between 13 June 1895 and 16 February 1896. A preliminary report entitled Report Sodhak (revision) Committee Dasam Patshah de Granth Sahib Di was sent to Sikh scholars and institutions, inviting their opinion. A second document, Report Dasam Granth di Sudhai Di was brought out on 11 February 1898. Basing its conclusions on a study of the old handwritten copies of the Dasam Granth preserved at Sri Takht Sahib at Patna and in other Sikh gurudwaras, this report affirmed that the Holy Volume was compiled at Anandpur Sahib in 1698[4] . Further re-examinations and reviews took place in 1931, under the aegis of the Darbar Sahib Committee of the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee they too vindicated the earlier conclusion (agreeing that it was indeed the work of the Guru) and its findings have since been published. Following were the members of the 1895-1897 Sodhak (Revision) Committee (along with their credentials) that was formed for analysis of Dasam Granth[5]

  1. Bhai Manna Singh Hakim, Secretary Gurmat Granth Pracharak Sabha. Had knowledge of English, Persian and Gurmukhi grammar
  2. Bhai Narain Singh, Teacher and Persian Scholar
  3. Bhai Thakar Singh, Clerk Municipal Committee. Proficient in Persian and Gurmukhi. Had knowledge of 'Pingal' (science of poetry)
  4. Bhai Hazura Singh, Ragi Sri Darbar Sahib Amritsar, and Secretary Sangat Lakar Mandi
  5. Bhai Dharam Singh, Member Khalsa Sat Sangat Sabha
  6. Bhai Sant Singh, Gurmukhi Teacher
  7. Bhai Darbara Singh, Proficient in English and Gurmukhi (Grandson of Giani Gian Singh)
  8. Bhai Jaidial Singh, Middle pass, Teacher MB Branch School
  9. Bhai Gurdial Singh, Gurmukh Person
  10. Bhai Kishan Singh and Bhai Ram Singh, Rice Dealers, Members Sat Sangat Sabha
  11. Bhai Narain Singh, Secretary Khalsa Sat Sangat Sabha
  12. Bhai Thakur Singh, Member Sat Sangat Sabha
  13. Bhai Partap Singh, Secretary Khalsa Vidyarathi Sabha
  14. Bhai Bhagwan Singh, Secretary Sangat Chaursti, Attari
  15. Bhai Harnam Singh, Member Khalsa Vidyarathi Sabha
  16. Bhai Harnam Singh, Clerk, Kila Gobindgarh
  17. Bhai Boorh Singh, Secretary Sangat Katra Kalan
  18. Bhai Tek Singh, Secretary Sangat Dauk Baba Sahib
  19. Bhai Ram Singh Attar
  20. Bhai Makhan Singh, Sweet Maker
  21. Bhai Gurdial Singh
  22. Bhai Ghanaya Singh
  23. Bhai Teja Singh
  24. Etc.

References

  1. ^ Giani Kirpal Singh (samp.), Sri Gur Panth Parkash, Vol. 3 (Amritsar: Manmohan Singh Brar, 1973), pp. 1678-80, verses 61-62
  2. ^ Giani Gian Singh, Panth Parkash
  3. ^ The Sikh Religion’,1909, M.A. Macauliffe, Preface xxii
  4. ^ 'Gurmat Granth Pracharak Sabha', Encyclopedia of The Sikhs, Punjabi University Patiala
  5. ^ Report, Sodhak (Revision) Committee,

External links


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