Dassault Rafale: Wikis

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Rafale
A Rafale B (foreground), and a Rafale C (background) of the French Air Force
Role Multirole fighter aircraft
National origin France
Manufacturer Dassault Aviation
First flight 4 July 1986
Introduced 4 December 2000
Status Active
Primary users French Air Force
French Navy
Program cost 27.82 billion (2006)
Unit cost Rafale C: €64 million, US$82.3 million (flyaway cost, 2008)[1]
Rafale M: €70 million, US$90.5 million (flyaway cost, 2008)[1]

The Dassault Rafale (English: Squall)[2] is a French twin-engined delta-wing agile multi-role 4.5th-generation jet fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Introduced in 2000, the Rafale is being produced both for land-based use with the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations with the French Navy. It has also been marketed for export to several countries but has not yet received orders.

Contents

Development

The logo of the Dassault Rafale program.

In the mid-1970s, both the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) and Navy (Aéronavale) had a requirement (the Navy's being rather more pressing) to find a new generation of fighter (principally to replace AdlA SEPECAT Jaguars and Aéronavale F-8 Crusaders), and their requirements were similar enough to be merged into one project.[3] In 1983, France awarded Dassault a contract for two Avion de Combat eXpérimental (ACX) demonstrators. European nations, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom agreed to jointly develop a new fighter in the early 1980s. However, disagreement over the fighter's size and project leadership led France and the other nations to split in 1985.[4][5] France developed the smaller Rafale, while the other nations developed what would later be named the Eurofighter Typhoon.[6][7]

Prototype Dassault Rafale A

The Rafale A technology demonstrator was rolled out in late 1985 and made its maiden flight on 4 July 1986. The SNECMA M88 engine was being developed and was not considered sufficiently mature for the initial trials programme, so the demonstrator flew with General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofans as used on the F/A-18 Hornet.[2] Production orders were placed in 1988.

Further testing continued, including carrier touch-and-go landings and test-flying early M88 engines, before the Rafale A was retired in 1994. Though the Rafale A and British Aerospace EAP were broadly comparable, when the first Eurofighter made its maiden flight in March 1994, pre-series Rafales had been flight-testing for three years, including carrier trials (Rafale C01, Rafale M01, and Rafale B01 first flew in May 1991, December 1991, and April 1993 respectively).

Three versions of Rafale were in the initial production order:

  • Rafale C (Chasseur) Single-seat fighter for the AdA (Armée de l'Air, French Air Force)
  • Rafale B (Biplace) Two-seat fighter for the AdA
  • Rafale M (Marine) Single-seat carrier fighter for the Aéronavale

The prototype Rafale C flew in 1991, the first of two Rafale M prototypes flew later that year. The prototype Rafale B flew in early 1993, and the second Rafale M prototype flew later that year.[8] Catapult trials were initially carried out between July 13 and August 23, 1992 at NAS Lakehurst in New Jersey, USA and NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, USA, as France had no land-based catapult test facility. The aircraft then undertook trials aboard the carrier FS Foch.

A French Navy Rafale M performing a touch and go on the deck of the carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74).

Initially the Rafale B was to be just a trainer, but Gulf War and Kosovo experience showed that a second crew member is invaluable on strike and reconnaissance missions, and therefore more Rafale Bs were ordered, replacing some Rafale Cs. 60% of the aircraft will be two seaters.[9] The navy investigated a naval version of the two-seat version. However, no production or prototypes were built.

Political and economic uncertainty meant that it was not until 1999 that a production Rafale M flew.[9]

The French forces were expected to order 294 Rafales: 234 for the Air Force and 60 for the Navy.[8] To date 120 Rafales have been officially ordered.[10] These are being delivered in three separate batches, the most recent being the December 2004 order for 59 Rafales.[11]

The marine version has priority since the aircraft it is replacing are much older F-8E(FN) Crusader fighters.[12] Service deliveries began in 2001 and the type "entered service" on 4 December 2000, though the first squadron, Flotille 12, did not actually reform until 18 May 2001. The unit embarked on the Charles de Gaulle in 2002, becoming fully operational on 25 June 2004, following an extended operational evaluation that included flying limited escort and tanker missions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom over Afghanistan.

The Armee de l'Air received its first three Rafale Bs (to F2 standards) in late December 2004. They went to the Centre d'Expériences Aériennes Militaires (CEAM) at Mont-de-Marsan for operational evaluation and associated pilot conversion training.[8]

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Costs

The total programme cost, as of 2008, is around 39.6 billion, which translates to a unit programme cost of approximately €138.5 million. The unit flyaway price as of 2008 is €64 million for C version (Air Force), and €70 million for the Navy version.[1]

Programme milestones

Rafale.ogg
Rafale video

Important dates from the Rafale programme include:

  • 1985 France formally withdraws from Eurofighter programme, committing to Rafale project.
  • 1986 July 4: First flight of Rafale A; December: Development of SNECMA M88 engines commences
  • 1988 April: First order signed (for Rafale C prototype).
  • 1990 February: Flight tests of M88 begin
  • 1991 May 19: First flight of Armée de l'Air single seat prototype (Rafale C); December 12: First flight of Aéronavale prototype (Rafale M)
  • 1992 Rafale M carrier trials programme begins
  • 1993 March: First contract for production aircraft signed. April: Start of carrier compatibility trials with Foch. April 30: First flight of Armée de l'Air twin seat prototype (Rafale B)
  • 1995 June: First MICA fired from Rafale in self guided mode. July: OSF system and helmet-mounted sight/display installed and tested. September: Rafale M tested on board carrier (4th series). November: First non-stop long-range flight by Rafale B01 (3,020 nm in under 6 hours 30 minutes). October: Final land-based carrier test series of Rafale M in the USA. December: First production model fuselage assembly.
  • 1996 March: M88 engine "flightworthiness" qualified. April: Production suspended, restarted in January 1997 following cost reductions. May: Low level tests with digital terrain database. July: Spectra electronic warfare system integration tests in anechoic chamber. November: Spectra flight tested. December: First deliveries of production standard engines.
  • 1997 February: Rafale B01 flight tested in heavyweight configuration (2 Apache ASMs, three 2,000l drop tanks, two Magic and two MICA AAMs). May: First inertially-guided MICA firing. June: Flight testing of Spectra countermeasures system. October: First production RBE2 radar flown for the first time. November: Inertially-guided firing of missiles against two targets, with aircraft-to-missile link, with countermeasures.
  • 1998 June: Qualification of MICA fire control system. Proposed initial operational capability evaluated by Navy and Air Force pilots flying Rafale B01 and M02 development aircraft. November 24: First flight of production Rafale (a Rafale B)
  • 1999 May: First test launch of SCALP EG cruise missile. July 6: First deck landing of Charles de Gaulle afgan. July 7: First flight of production Rafale M
  • 2000 July 20: First Rafale M delivered to Flotille 12F
  • 2002 Rafale M entered service with 12F (Aeronavale, evaluation)
  • 2004 Full service entry with 12F (Navy); September 9: First Meteor GHTM (General Handling Training Missiles) carriage trials by Rafale M from CEV Istres; June:December: Three Rafale Bs delivered to CEAM, Mont de Marsan
  • 2005 September 11: First Meteor GHTM carriage trials by Rafale M from the carrier Charles de Gaulle.
  • 2006 Summer: Formation of EC 1/7 with 8–10 aircraft
  • 2007 Full service entry (Air Force) expected with EC7; First landing of Rafale M on US Navy carrier USS Enterprise
  • 2008 Rafale qualified to full F3 standard[13]

Design

Aerodynamics

The Rafale features a delta wing combined with active integrated (Close-coupled) canard to maximize maneuverability (withstanding +9 g or -3 g) while maintaining stability in flight, a maximum of 11 g can be reached in case of emergency. The canard also reduces landing speed to 115 knots. According to internal sources (Les essais en vol du Rafale) low speed limit is 100 kt but 80 kt is sometimes demonstrated during airshows by pilots willing to underline low speed qualities of the aircraft." "A minimum of 15 kt have been reached during simulated combat vs a Mirage 2000 by an aggressive pilot." The aircraft can operate from 400 meter runways.[14]

Combat systems

Weapon complement of the Rafale.

The Rafale carries an integrated electronic survival system named SPECTRA which features a software-based virtual stealth technology. The most important sensor is the Thales RBE2 passive electronically scanned multi-mode radar. Thales claims to have achieved unprecedented levels of situational awareness through the earlier detection and tracking of multiple air targets for close combat and long-range interception, as well as real time generation of three-dimensional maps for terrain-following and the real time generation of high resolution ground maps for navigation and targeting.[15]

However, in those circumstances when signature management is required, the Rafale can use several passive sensor systems. The front-sector electro-optical system or Optronique Secteur Frontal (OSF), developed by Thales, is completely integrated within the aircraft and can operate both in the visible and infrared wavelengths.

The SPECTRA electronic warfare system, jointly developed by Thales and EADS France, provides the aircraft with the highest survivability assets against airborne and ground threats.[16] The real-time data link allows communication not only with other aircraft, but also with fixed and mobile command and control centres. For those missions requiring it, the Rafale will also eventually use the Damoclès electro-optical/laser designation pod that brings full day and night LGB capability, though the Armée de l'Air's current plans call for Rafale to use stand off weapons, and for the LGB role to be handled by Mirage 2000s.

The Rafale core systems employ an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA), called MDPU (Modular Data Processing Unit). This architecture hosts all the core functions of the aircraft as Flight management system, Data Fusion, Fire Control, Man-Machine Interface, etc.[17]

The total value of the radar, electronic communications and self-protection equipment is about 30% of the cost of the entire plane[18].

The Rafale's ground attack capability is limited by the lack of an advanced targeting pod,[19] but this will be rectified with the addition of Thales Optronique's Reco NG/Areos reconnaissance and Damocles targeting pods on the F-3 standard.[20]

AESA Radar

While the first 100 or so Rafales were fitted with the early Thales RBE2 radar. The most important sensor of the next generation Rafale will be the new Thales RBE2 AA active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, which will replace the passive array of the RBE2.

Thales completed its first active phased array, comprising 1,000 gallium-arsenide Transmit/Receive modules, in 2006. In late April this year, the company said the RBE2 AA had successfully completed a new series of tests on Rafale, carried out jointly with the French DGA defense procurement agency, at the Cazaux flight-test center.

"This milestone marks the latest step toward qualifying the RBE2 AESA radars this year in readiness for delivery of the first two units to Dassault Aviation during the first quarter of 2010," Thales stated. "The radars will be installed on the aircraft in 2011 for delivery to the French Air Force early in 2012."[21]

Cockpit

The cockpit uses a Martin-Baker Mark 16F "zero-zero” ejection seat, i.e., capable of being used at zero speed and zero altitude. The seat is inclined 29 degrees backwards to improve G force tolerance. The canopy hinges open to the right. An on-board oxygen generating system is provided to eliminate the need for multiple oxygen canisters.[22]

The cockpit includes a wide-angle holographic head-up display (HUD), two head-down flat-panel colour multi-function displays (MFDs) and a center collimated display. Display interaction is by means of touch input for which the pilot wears silk-lined leather gloves. In addition, in full development, the pilot will have a head-mounted display (HMD).[23]

The pilot flies the aircraft with a side-stick controller mounted on his right and a throttle on his left. These incorporate multiple hands on throttle and stick (HOTAS) controls. The Rafale cockpit is also planned to include Direct Voice Input (DVI), allowing for pilot action by voice commands.

Radar signature reduction features

Although not a true stealth aircraft, the Rafale has reduced radar signature according to Dassault, while most of the stealth design features are classified, extensive use of composite materials and serrated patterns on the trailing edges of the wings and canards help to reduce the radar cross section.[24]

Standards

Initial deliveries of the Rafale M were to the F1 ("France 1") standard. This meant that the aircraft was suitable for air-to-air combat, replacing the obsolescent F-8 Crusader as the Aviation Navale's carrier-based fighter, but not equipped or armed for air-to-ground operations. Actual deliveries (to Flotille 11 some time after 2007) are to the "F2" standard, giving air-to-ground capability, and replacing the Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard in the ground attack role and the Dassault Étendard IVP in the reconnaissance role. This will leave the Rafale M as the only fixed-wing combat aircraft flown by the Aviation Navale, and plans are to upgrade all airframes to the "F3" standard, with terrain-following 3D radar and nuclear capability, from early in the decade following 2010.[25] However this upgrade has been brought forwards to 2010 for the first 10 French Navy Rafale F-1’s.[26]

The first Rafale C delivered to the Armée de l'Air, in June 2005, was to the "F2" standard, and it is anticipated that upgrades similar to those of the navy will take place in the future. The Rafale replaces the SEPECAT Jaguar, Mirage F1 and the Mirage 2000 in the Armée de l'Air.

Operational history

France

A Rafale M landing on an aircraft carrier.

The Rafale is now in service in the trials and training role with the French Air Force (CEAM/EC 5/330) and EC 1/7 at Saint-Dizier is expected to receive a nucleus of 8–10 Rafale F2s during the Summer of 2006, and it looks set to enter full operational service (with robust air-to-air and stand off air-to-ground precision attack capabilities) during mid-2007 (when EC 1/7 will have about 20 aircraft, 15 two-seaters and 5 single-seaters).[27] The aircraft is already in limited operational service with the French Navy (Flotille 12F) in the air-to-air role, and has undertaken a great deal of air-to-ground trials and evaluation work.

The Rafale is fully compatible with US Navy aircraft carriers and some French Navy pilots have qualified to fly the aircraft from US Navy flight decks.[28]

The first Rafale deployed in a combat zone were those of the French Navy during Opération Héraclès, the French participation in Operation Enduring Freedom. They flew from the Charles de Gaulle over Afghanistan as early as 2002, but the F1 standard precluded air-to-ground missions and the Rafale did not see any action.

In 2007, after a "crash program" enhancement six Rafales were given the ability to drop laser-guided bombs, in view of engaging them in Afghanistan. Three of these aircraft belonging to the Air Force were deployed to Dushanbe in Tadjikistan, while the three others were Rafale Marines of the Navy on board the Charles De Gaulle.[29] The first mission occurred on March 12, and the first GBU-12 was launched on March 28 in support of embattled Dutch troops in Southern Afghanistan, marking the operational début of the Rafale.[30] However, they still have to rely on Mirage 2000Ds and Super Étendards carrying laser designation pods to designate their targets.[31]

The Rafale is planned to be the French Air Force's primary combat aircraft until 2040 or later.[32]

In November 2009 the French government ordered an additional 60 aircraft to take the total order for the French Air Force and Navy to 180.[33]

In November and December 2009, the Rafale took part in the Air Tactical Leadership Course in UAE.

Export

Several countries have shown interest in purchasing the Rafale. The Rafale is one of the six fighter jets competing for India's tender for 126 multi-role fighters. In April 2009, news reports stated the Dassault Rafale has been disqualified from the competition for not meeting minimum performance requirements of the Indian Air Force[34][35] and that other competing aircraft, namely Mikoyan MiG-35, F-16, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, JAS 39 Gripen and Eurofighter Typhoon, qualified for the next round of evaluation.[36] However, the Indian Defense Ministry denied this report; an IAF spokesman stated, "we have not ruled anyone out yet in the MMRCA competition".[37]

In January 2006, the French newspaper Journal du Dimanche reported that Libya wanted to order 13–18 Rafales "in a deal worth as much as $3.24 billion".[38] In December 2007, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi openly declared the Libyan interest in the Rafale.[39] Greece has also expressed an interest in the French fighter, possibly in exchange for its own fleet of Mirages.[40]

In 2006 the British Royal Navy considered the Rafale as an alternative to the F-35 JSF but decided to proceed with the F-35.[41][42] Reports have subsequently circulated in the British media that due to issues regarding transfer of F-35 technology, the Rafale may again come into contention as a possible alternative for the Royal Navy.

In February 2007, it was reported that Switzerland was considering the Rafale and other fighters to replace its F-5 Tiger IIs.[43] The one month evaluation started in October 2008 at Emmen Airforce Base consisting of approx. 30 evaluation flights. The Rafale is one of three candidates (together with the Saab Gripen and the Eurofighter) to be evaluated.[44]

In September 2007, La Tribune reported that a sale to Morocco had fallen through, the government selecting Lockheed Martin's F-16 instead.[45] In October 2007, La Tribune's earlier report appeared to have been confirmed that the Rafale would not be bought.[46]

In January 2008, O Estado de São Paulo reported that the Brazilian Defence Minister visited France to discuss the possibility of acquiring Rafale fighters for the F-X2 program. In June 2008, the Brazilian Air Force divulged a Request For Information to the following companies and their aircraft: Boeing (F/A-18E/F Super Hornet) and Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, Dassault Rafale, Sukhoi Su-35, Saab Gripen NG and Eurofighter Typhoon.[47] In October 2008, it was reported that Brazilian Air Force had selected three finalists for F-X2; Dassault Rafale, Saab Gripen NG and Boeing F/A-18E/F.[48] On 7 September 2009, during a visit by French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Brazil announced a pact with France and that the nations are in contract negotiations to buy 36 Rafales.[49][50][51][52] On 8 September 2009, Brazilian lawmakers claimed that Defense Minister Nelson Jobim said that the agreement had not yet been closed.[53] The crash of 2 Rafales in the Mediterranian off Perpignan on 24 September 2009 after a mid-air collision, comes at a delicate time for the Brazil-France negotiations.[54]On 5 January 2010, it was reported in the media that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air Force placed the Gripen ahead of the other two contenders. The decisive factor was apparently the overall cost of the new fighters, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and maintenance costs.[55][56]

In February 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced that Kuwait was considering buying up to 28 Rafale jets, but with no firm order in place as of that date.[57] The same month, France offered Rafales to Oman to replace its ageing fleet of SEPECAT Jaguars.[58] In August 2009, Dassault offered the Rafale to Polish Air Force to replace its ageing fleet of Mikoyan MiG-29 Fulcrums and Sukhoi Su-22 Fitters.[citation needed]

The UAE is interested in a version of the Rafale that is upgraded with more powerful engines and radar and advanced air to air missiles.[59]

Variants

Dassault Rafale M.
Rafale B at the Paris Air Show 2007
Rafale A
A technology demonstrator that first flew in 1986. It has now been retired.
Rafale D
Dassault used this designation (D for discret or stealthy) in the early 1990s for the production versions for the Armée de l'Air, to emphasise the new semi-stealthy features they had added to the design.
Rafale B
This is the two-seater version for the Armée de l'Air; delivered to EC 330 in 2004.
Rafale C
This is the single-seat version for the Armée de l'Air; delivered to EC 330 in June 2004.
Rafale M
This is the carrier-borne version for the Aéronavale, which entered service in 2002. The Rafale M weighs about 500 kg (1,100 lb) more than the Rafale C. Very similar to the Rafale C in appearance, the M differs in the following respects:
  • Strengthened to withstand the rigors of carrier-based aviation
  • Stronger landing gear
  • Longer nose gear leg to provide a more nose-up attitude for catapult launches
  • Deleted front centre pylon (to give space for the longer gear)
  • Large stinger-type tailhook between the engines
  • Built-in power operated boarding ladder
  • Carrier microwave landing system
  • "Telemir" inertial reference platform that can receive updates from the carrier systems.
Rafale N
The Rafale N, originally called the Rafale BM, was planned to be a two-seater version for the Aéronavale. Budget constraints and the cost of training extra crew members have been cited as the grounds for its cancellation.

Operators

 France
180 ordered,[33] 68 delivered as of June 2009[1]

Accidents

  • On 6 December 2007 a French Air Force twin-seat aircraft with a single occupant, on a training flight from the Saint-Dizier base, crashed in an uninhabited part of the Neuvic commune in the Correze area, with the loss of its pilot. This was the first loss of a Rafale. On 10 January 2008, on RTL, Minister of Defence Hervé Morin stated that the cause of the crash was "pilot disorientation".[60]
  • On 24 September 2009 two French Navy Rafales crashed into each other off Perpignan during exercises on the Charles de Gaulle.[54][61]

Specifications

A Rafale M flies above the aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis.

Data from Dassault Rafale characteristics,[62] Superfighters,[63] French Navy page[64]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1–2
  • Length: 15.27 m (50.1 ft)
  • Wingspan: 10.80 m (35.4 ft)
  • Height: 5.34 m (17.5 ft)
  • Wing area: 45.7 m² (492 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 9,500 kg (C), 9,770 kg (B),[64] 10,196 kg (M) ()
  • Max takeoff weight: 24,500 kg (C/D), 22,200 kg (M)[65] (54,000 lb)
  • Powerplant:Snecma M88-2 turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 50.04 kN (11,250 lbf) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 75.62 kN with M88-Eco >90 kN after 2010 (17,000 lbf) each

Performance

Armament

Avionics

See also

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Projet de loi de finances pour 2009 : Défense - Equipement des forces". Sénat of France. 2008. http://www.senat.fr/rap/a08-102-5/a08-102-516.html#toc236.  (english translation)
  2. ^ a b Spick 2000, p. 433.
  3. ^ "Omnirole by design". Dassault Aviation. 2006. http://www.dassault-aviation.com/en/defense/rafale/omnirole-by-design.html?L=1. 
  4. ^ Lewis, Paul (3 August 1985). "3 European Countries plan Jet Fighter Project". The New York Times: p. 31. 
  5. ^ Donne, Michael (3 August 1985). "Why three into one will go; Europe's new combat aircraft". Financial Times. 
  6. ^ Spick 2000, pp. 432, 436.
  7. ^ Williams 2002, pp. 50, 92.
  8. ^ a b c http://www.avions-militaires.net/rafale/programme.php
  9. ^ a b The Dassault Rafale. Vectorsite.net, 1 June 2009.
  10. ^ http://www.defense.gouv.fr/air/decouverte/les_materiels/les_aeronefs/chasse_bombardement_reconnaissance/rafale
  11. ^ Rafale Multi-Role Combat Fighter. Air Force Technology
  12. ^ http://www.vectorsite.net/avcrus_1.html
  13. ^ France Qualifies Rafale to Full F3 Standard. Defense News
  14. ^ Rafale page, Federation of American Scientists site, accessed August 8, 2008.
  15. ^ Dassault Rafale omnirole fighter
  16. ^ http://www.military-heat.com/85/dassault-rafale-omnirole-fighter/
  17. ^ "RAFALE". Dassault Aviation. 2005-06-12. http://www.dassault-aviation.com/fileadmin/user_upload/redacteur/presse/Backgrounders/RAFALE_EN.doc. Retrieved 2008-02-09. "The core of the enhanced capabilities of the RAFALE lies in a new Modular Data Processing Unit (MDPU). It is composed of up to 18 flight line-replaceable modules, each with a processing power 50 times higher than that of the 2084 XRI type computer fitted on the early versions of Mirage 2000-5." 
  18. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/06/10/327206/paris-air-show-rafales-fighting-chance.html
  19. ^ Jet, set, go!
  20. ^ PARIS AIR SHOW: Rafale's fighting chance
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Dassault Rafale. Vectorsite.net, 1 June 2009
  23. ^ Rafale Au coeur du cockpit (French). avions-militaires.net english translation
  24. ^ Optimized airframe
  25. ^ Rafale F3 Multiyear Procurement Contract Awarded
  26. ^ France to upgrade Naval Rafales to F3 standard
  27. ^ http://www.dassault-aviation.com/fileadmin/user_upload/redacteur/AUTRES_DOCS/Fox_three/Fox_Three_nr_8.pdf
  28. ^ French Sailors Experience Flight Operations Aboard Roosevelt, US Navy Press Release, July 22, 2008
  29. ^ "Paris engage des Rafale en Afghanistan(French)". Le Figaro. 2007-03-15. http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/20070315.FIG000000217_paris_engage_des_rafale_en_afghanistan.html. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
  30. ^ "Le Rafale, bon pour le bombardement(French)". Midi Libre. 2007-04-02. http://www.midilibre.com/actuv2/article.php?num=1175451787. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
  31. ^ Goebel, Greg. "Rafale into service(2007-04-01)". www.vectorsite.net. http://www.vectorsite.net/avrafa.html#m3. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
  32. ^ Optimized airframe. Dassault Aviation. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  33. ^ a b Craig Hoyle (13 November 2009). "France approves contract for 60 more Rafales". Flight International. http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/11/13/334811/france-approves-contract-for-60-more-rafales.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  34. ^ "India rejects Dassault Aviation's bid". Wall Street Journal. 16 April 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123988139175724889.html. 
  35. ^ "French fighter jet out of race for biggest IAF deal". Times of India. 17 April 2009. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/French-fighter-jet-out-of-race-for-biggest-IAF-deal/articleshow/4412257.cms. 
  36. ^ Majumdar, Bappa (16 March 2009). "India says France's Dassault out of fighter deal". Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/UK_SMALLCAPSRPT/idUKBOM43260820090416. 
  37. ^ "India denies elimination of Dassault Aviation Rafale". World Aeronautical Press Agency. Avionews. 20 March 2009. http://www.avionews.com/index.php?corpo=see_news_home.php&news_id=1103176&pagina_chiamante=corpo%3Dindex.php. 
  38. ^ "Report: Libya to order 13-18 French Rafale fighter jets in $3.24 b deal". Haaretz. 14 January 2007. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/813144.html. 
  39. ^ "France to sell Libya up to 14 fighter jets - report". Reuters. 5 December 2007. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL0525349320071205. 
  40. ^ "France, Greece arms sale talks go well-French offical". Reuters. 7 June 2008. http://in.reuters.com/article/rbssIndustryMaterialsUtilitiesNews/idINL0770152220080607. 
  41. ^ http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=407244&in_page_id=2
  42. ^ http://aviamagazine.xs4all.nl/news/readnews.aspx?id=164
  43. ^ Le Temps, February 13, 2007
  44. ^ Neue Zuercher Zeitung, 9 October 2008
  45. ^ "Dassault Aviation to lose Rafale order in Morocco to Lockheed Martin". Forbes. 2007-09-21. http://www.forbes.com/afxnewslimited/feeds/afx/2007/09/21/afx4142310.html. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  46. ^ "France to rejig arms sales after Rafale flop". Reuters. 2007-10-24. http://africa.reuters.com/wire/news/usnL24335189.html. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  47. ^ "Jobim discute sistemas militares na França e Rússia". 2008-01-25. http://www.estadao.com.br/nacional/not_nac115010,0.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-25. 
  48. ^ Trimble, Stephen. "Brazil names three finalists for F-X2 contract, rejects three others". Flight International, 6 October 2008.
  49. ^ "Brazil says negotiating for French fighter jets". Forbes, 7 September 2009.
  50. ^ "Brazil and France in jets talks". BBC, 7 September 2009.
  51. ^ http://www.rfi.fr/actuen/articles/117/article_5052.asp
  52. ^ http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/brazil-embarking-upon-f-x2-fighter-program-04179/
  53. ^ After meeting with Jobim, lawmakers say they agreed to buy fighter from France is not closed
  54. ^ a b http://www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2009/09/24/deux-rafale-se-sont-abimes-en-mediterranee_1244917_3224.html
  55. ^ "FAB prefere caça sueco a francês"
  56. ^ "Gripen favorit i Brasilien"
  57. ^ "France to sell military jets, weapons to Kuwait". 2009-02-11. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090211/ap_on_re_mi_ea/ml_kuwait_france_weapons. Retrieved 2009-02-11. 
  58. ^ . http://in.reuters.com/article/asiaCompanyAndMarkets/idINLB71245420090211. 
  59. ^ UAE wants its fighters its own way
  60. ^ L'accident du Rafale dû à une "désorientation spatiale" du pilote, translation
  61. ^ Gust: Sarkozy confirms runway collision
  62. ^ Rafale Aircraft Characteristics, Dassault Aviation
  63. ^ Williams 2002, p. 112.
  64. ^ a b c Rafale M. French navy. (english translation)
  65. ^ http://www.meretmarine.com/article.cfm?id=105033

Bibliography

  • Spick, Mike (2000). The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4. 
  • Williams, Mel ed, "Dassault Rafale". Superfighters, The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. AIRtime, 2002. ISBN 1-880588-53-6.

External links


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