David II of Scotland: Wikis

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David II
Posthumous drawing of David II by Sylvester Harding (published in 1797) —[1] There is no evidence that suggests he actually looked like this.
King of Scots
Reign 7 June 1329 – 22 February 1371
Predecessor Robert I
Successor Robert II
Earl of Carrick
Spouse Joan of England
Margaret Drummond
Full name
David Bruce
House House of Bruce
Father Robert I of Scotland
Mother Elizabeth de Burgh
Born 5 March 1324(1324-03-05)
Dunfermline
Died 22 February 1371 (aged 46)
Dundonald
Burial Holyrood Abbey

David II (Medieval Gaelic: Daibhidh a Briuis, Modern Gaelic: Dàibhidh Bruis) (5 March 1324 – 22 February 1371) was King of Scotland from 7 June 1329 until 22 February 1371.

Contents

Early life

Dunfermline Palace, just visible to the right, birthplace of David Bruce.

David II was the elder and only surviving son of Robert I of Scotland and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. He was born on 5 March 1324 at Dunfermline Palace, Fife. His mother died in 1327.[2] In accordance with the Treaty of Northampton's terms, David was married on 17 July 1328 to Joan of the Tower, daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France, at Berwick-upon-Tweed. They had no issue.[3]

Reign

David became king of Scotland upon the death of his father on 7 June 1329, aged 5 years, 3 months, and 3 days. David and his Queen were crowned at Scone on 24 November 1331.[4]

During David's minority, Sir Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray was appointed Guardian of Scotland by the Act of Settlement of 1318. After Moray's death, on 20 July 1332, he was replaced by Donald, Earl of Mar, elected by an assembly of the magnates of Scotland at Perth, 2 August 1332. Only ten days later Mar fell at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell, who was married to Christian (or Christina), the sister of King Robert I (her third husband), was chosen as the new Guardian. He was taken prisoner by the English at Roxburgh in April 1333 and was thence replaced as Guardian by Sir Archibald Douglas who fell at Halidon Hill that July.[5]

Meanwhile, on 24 September 1332, following the Scots' defeat at Dupplin, Edward Balliol a protégé of Edward III of England, was crowned King of the Scots at Scone by the English and his Scots adherents. By December, however, Balliol was forced to flee to England but returned the following year as part of an invasion force led by the English king.[6] Following the victory of this force at the Battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333, David and his Queen were sent for safety into France, reaching Boulogne on 14 May 1334,[7] and being received very graciously by the French king, Philip VI. Little is known about the life of the Scottish king in France, except that Château-Gaillard was given to him for a residence, and that he was present at the bloodless meeting of the English and French armies in October 1339 at Vironfosse, now known as Buironfosse, in the Arrondissement of Vervins.

Joan & David II with Philip VI of France.

Meanwhile David's representatives had once again obtained the upper hand in Scotland, and the king was able to return to his kingdom, landing at Inverbervie in Kincardineshire on 2 June 1341, when he took the reins of government into his own hands.

In 1346 under the terms of the Auld Alliance, he invaded England in the interests of France, but was defeated and taken prisoner by John Coupeland at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346,[8] and taken to London. He was then transferred to Windsor Castle in Berkshire before he and his household were moved to Odiham Castle in Hampshire. His imprisonment was not a rigorous one, although he remained in England for eleven years.

On 3 October 1357, after several protracted negotiations, a treaty was signed at Berwick-upon-Tweed under which Scotland's nobility agreed to pay 100,000 marks as a ransom for their king. This was ratified by the Scottish Parliament at Scone on 6 November 1357.

David returned at once to Scotland; but owing to the poverty of the kingdom it was found impossible to raise the ransom. A few instalments were paid, but the king sought to get rid of the liability by offering to make Edward III, or one of his sons, his successor in Scotland. In 1364 the Scottish parliament indignantly rejected a proposal to make Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the next king; but David negotiated secretly with Edward III over this matter, after he had suppressed a rising of some of his unruly nobles.

He remarried about 20 February 1364, Margaret Drummond, widow of Sir John Logie, Knt., and daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond, Knt. He divorced her about 20 March 1370. They had no issue.[3][9] Margaret, however, travelled to Avignon and made a successful appeal to the Pope to reverse the sentence of divorce which had been pronounced against her in Scotland. She was still alive in January 1375.[10]

Death

David II died unexpectedly and at the height of his power in Edinburgh Castle on 22 February 1371. He was buried in Holyrood Abbey.[3][9] At the time of his death, he was planning to marry his mistress, Agnes Dunbar (daughter of Agnes Dunbar, 4th Countess of Moray). He left no children and was succeeded by his nephew, Robert II. He was the last male of the House of Bruce.

Ancestry

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?mkey=mw123890
  2. ^ Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p. 23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7
  3. ^ a b c Richardson (2004) p. 23
  4. ^ Dunbar, Sir Archibald H., Scottish Kings — A Revised Chronology of Scottish History 1005 – 1625, Edinburgh, 1899, pp. 146–7
  5. ^ Dunbar (1899) pp. 147–9
  6. ^ Dunbar (1899) pp. 148–9
  7. ^ Dunbar (1899) p. 150
  8. ^ Dunbar (1899) p. 152
  9. ^ a b Dunbar (1899) p. 154
  10. ^ Dunbar (1899) p. 156.

References

Further reading

  • Michael Brown. (2004). The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland, volume 4. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Ranald Nicholson. (1975)., Scotland. The Later Middle Ages. Edinburgh: Mercat Press.
  • Michael Penman. (2003). David II, 1329–71: The Bruce Dynasty in Scotland. East Linton: Tuckwell Press.
David II of Scotland
Born: 1324 Died: 1371
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Robert
King of Scots
7 June 1329–22 February 1371
Succeeded by
Robert II
Scottish royalty
Preceded by
Robert Stewart
Heir of Scotland
as heir apparent
5 March 1324–7 June 1329
Succeeded by
Robert Stewart
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

David II
King of Scots
Reign June 7, 1329February 22, 1371
Born March 5, 1324
Birthplace Dunfermline
Died February 22, 1371
Place of death Dundonald
Buried Holyrood Abbey
Predecessor Robert I
Successor Robert II
Consort Joan of the Tower
Margaret Drummond
Royal House Bruce
Father Robert I
Mother Elizabeth de Burgh

David II (March 5, 1324February 22, 1371) King of Scots, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. 1327), was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife.

He was married on July 17 1328, aged only four, to Joan of the Tower (d. 1362), daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France.

At the age of five, David became King of Scotland after the death of his father on June 7, 1329. He was crowned at Scone in November 1331.

Edward Balliol, with support from Edward III of England fought against David, so that he could become king. He defeated David at the Battle of Dupplin on 12 August, 1332.[1] Balliol was crowned king, and in July 1333, the nine year old David and his queen were sent to France for their safety. In June 1341 he came back and began to rule. In 1346 he invaded England, but was defeated and taken prisoner at the Battle of Neville's Cross on October 17, 1346, and remained in England for eleven years, living mainly in London and at Odiham in Hampshire. In October 1357 he was allowed to go back to Scotland for a payment of 100,000 marks. The money was never paid completely. In 1371 David died in Edinburgh Castle.

References

  1. "David II" (in English). Undiscovered Scotland. http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usbiography/monarchs/davidii.html. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  • Andrew of Wyntoun, The orygynale cronykil of Scotland, edited by D. Laing (Edinburgh, 1872–1879)
  • John of Fordun, Chronica gentis Scotorum, edited by W. F. Skene (Edinburgh, 1871–1872)
  • J. H. Burton, History of Scotland, vol. ii. (Edinburgh, 1905)
  • Andrew Lang, History of Scotland, vol. i. (Edinburgh, 1900)
  • This article includes text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Please add to the article as needed.

Further reading

  • Michael Brown, The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland, volume 4. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004.
  • Ranald Nicholson, Scotland. The Later Middle Ages. Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 1975.
  • Michael Penman, David II, 1329–71: The Bruce Dynasty in Scotland. East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 2003.
Preceded by
Robert I
King of Scots
13291371
Succeeded by
Robert II

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