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David Crockett


Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 9th district
In office
1827–1831
Preceded by Adam Rankin Alexander
Succeeded by William Fitzgerald

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 12th district
In office
1833–1835
Preceded by (none)
Succeeded by Adam Huntsman

Born August 17, 1786(1786-08-17)
Greene County, Tennessee
Died March 6, 1836 (aged 49)
Alamo Mission, San Antonio, Republic of Texas
Political party Anti-Jacksonian
Spouse(s) Polly Finley (1806 - 1815) her death
Elizabeth Patton (1815-1836) his death
Occupation Pioneer, Soldier, Trapper, Explorer, State Assembly man, Congressman
Religion Christian

David Crockett (August 17, 1786 – March 6, 1836) was a celebrated 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician; referred to in popular culture as Davy Crockett and often by the epithetKing of the Wild Frontier.” He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives, served in the Texas Revolution, and died at the Battle of the Alamo.

Crockett grew up in the hills and river valleys of East Tennessee, where he gained a reputation for hunting and storytelling. After rising to the rank of colonel in the Lawrence County, Tennessee, militia, Crockett was elected to the Tennessee state legislature in 1821. In 1826, Crockett was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time. As a congressman, Crockett vehemently opposed many of the policies of President Andrew Jackson, most notably the Indian Removal Act. Crockett's opposition to Jackson's policies led to his defeat in the 1834 elections, prompting his angry departure to Texas shortly thereafter. In early 1836, Crockett joined the Texas Revolution and died at the Battle of the Alamo in March of the same year.

During his lifetime, Crockett became famous for larger-than-life exploits popularized by stage plays and almanacs. After his death he continued to be credited with brazen acts of mythical proportion, which continued into the 20th century with television and movie portrayals, and he grew to become one of the most well-known folk heroes in American history.[1][2]

Contents

Ancestry and birth

Crockett was born on August 17, 1786, near the Nolichucky River in what is now Greene County, Tennessee.[3] A re-creation of his birthplace cabin stands in Davy Crockett Birthplace State Park along the Nolichucky near Limestone, Tennessee.[4] The Crocketts were descendants of Monsieur de la Croquetagne, captain in the Royal Guard of the king of France, Louis XIV.[5] As a Huguenot, de la Croquetagne or his descendants eventually fled France in the 17th century and migrated to Ireland. Tradition has it that David Crockett's father was born on this family's migrational voyage to America from Ireland, but, in fact, it is his great-grandfather, William David Crockett, who was registered as being born in New Rochelle in 1709.[6]

Commemorative stone

David Crockett was the fifth of nine children of John and Rebecca Hawkins Crockett. He was named after his paternal grandfather, who was killed at his home near the site of present-day Rogersville, Tennessee, by followers of Dragging Canoe in 1777.[7] His father, John, was one of the Overmountain Men who fought in the American Revolutionary War at the Battle of Kings Mountain. The Crocketts moved to Morristown, Tennessee, sometime during the 1790s and built a tavern. A museum now stands on this site and is a reconstruction of that tavern.[8]

Childhood

Replica cabin at Crockett birthsite

According to Crockett's autobiography, his early years were filled with adventure, hardship, and travelling. In 1794, he told his father he wanted to hunt with a rifle. John Crockett said he could not afford to waste rifle balls on "a boy's missed shots". David promised to make every shot count, and began to hunt with his older brothers. Shortly after being sent to school, he dropped out to run away from home and avoid an unfair beating at the hands of his father. According to Crockett, he apparently had "whupped the tar" out of a school bully who had embarrassed him on his first day in school and, to avoid a whipping at the hands of the school teacher, began skipping school. After several weeks, the teacher wrote to Crockett's father asking why his son was not attending class. When questioned, Crockett explained the situation to his father, who apparently was angered that family trade goods exchanged for his son's education had gone to waste and refused to listen to his son's side of the story. Crockett ran away from home to avoid the expected beating and spent three years roaming from town to town. During this period, Crockett reports that he visited most of the towns and villages throughout Tennessee and learned the majority of his skills as a backwoodsman, hunter and trapper.

Around his 15th birthday, Crockett returned home unannounced. During the years he was away, his father had opened a tavern and Crockett had stopped in for a meal. He was unnoticed by most of his family, but his older sister, Betsy, recognized him and cried, "Here is my lost brother! Look! He is home!" Much to Crockett's surprise, the entire family (including his father) were more than happy to see him and he was welcomed back into the family. His father owed money, so he hired Crockett out to John Kennedy, a farmer. During this time, David fell in love with Kennedy's niece, who was already married.

Contract of marriage for October 21, 1805

Shortly afterwards, Crockett became engaged to Margaret Elder and, although the marriage never took place, the contract of marriage (dated October 21, 1805) has been preserved by the Dandridge, Tennessee, courthouse. It is well documented that Crockett's bride-to-be changed her mind and married someone else. Heartbroken at age 19, Crockett decided he was "only born for hardships, misery, and disappointment."[9]

On August 16, 1806, one day before his 20th birthday, Crockett married Mary (Polly) Finley in Jefferson County, Tennessee.[10] They had two sons: John Wesley Crockett was born July 10, 1807, followed by William Finley Crockett (born 1809). They also had a daughter, Margaret Finley (Polly) Crockett in 1812. After his wife Polly's death, Crockett married a widow named Elizabeth Patton in 1815; they had three children: Robert, Rebecca and Matilda.

Tennessee Militia

On September 24, 1813, Crockett joined the Second Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Riflemen for an initial term of sixty days and served under Colonel John Coffee in the Creek War, marching south into present day Alabama and taking an active part in the fighting. He was eventually discharged from service on March 27, 1814. Crockett was elected Lieutenant Colonel of the Fifty-seventh Regiment of Tennessee Militia on March 27, 1818.

Political career

On September 17, 1821, Crockett was elected to the Committee of Propositions and Grievances. He lost his first run for Congress in 1824, but ran again in the next election. In 1826 he was elected to the United States House of Representatives. As a Congressman, Crockett supported the rights of squatters, who were barred from buying land in the West without already owning property. He also opposed President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act, and his opposition to Jackson caused his defeat when he ran for re-election in 1830; however, he won when he ran again in 1832. As he explained, "I bark at no man's bid. I will never come and go, and fetch and carry, at the whistle of the great man in the White House no matter who he is."[11]

Under the date of November 26, 1833, John Quincy Adams records in his diary an encounter with Crockett, whom he quotes as saying that he (Crockett) "had taken for lodgings two rooms on the first floor of a boarding-house, where he expected to pass the winter and to have for a fellow-lodger Major Jack Downing, the only person in whom he had any confidence for information of what the Government was doing."[12]

In an 1884 book written by dime novelist[13] and non-fiction author[14] Edward S. Ellis, Crockett is recorded as giving a speech (the "Not Yours to Give" speech) critical of his Congressional colleagues who were willing to spend taxpayer dollars to help a widow of a US Navy man who had lived beyond his naval service, but would not contribute their own salary for a week to the cause.[15] Ellis describes how the once popular proposal died in the Congress largely as a result of the speech. The authenticity of this speech is questioned, however, since the Register of Debates and the Congressional Globe do not contain transcripts of speeches made on the House floor, there is no way to know whether the speech is authentic. Crockett is on record opposing a similar bill and offering personal support to the family of a General Brown in April 1828.[16]

In 1834, his autobiography titled A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett. Written by Himself was published.[17] Crockett went east to promote the book and was narrowly defeated for re-election. In 1834, he suffered yet another defeat. He said, "I told the people of my district that I would serve them as faithfully as I had done; but if not ... you may all go to hell, and I will go to Texas." Following his defeat, he did just that.

Texas Revolution

By December, 1834, Crockett was writing to friends about moving to Texas if Van Buren were elected President. The next year he discussed with his friend Benjamin McCulloch raising a company of volunteers to take to Texas in the expectation that a revolution was imminent.[18] After the election results became known in August, his departure to Texas was delayed by a court appearance in the last week of October as co-executor of his deceased father-in-law’s estate, and he finally left his home near Rutherford in West Tennessee on Nov. 1, 1835, with three other men to explore Texas. [19] His youngest child, Matilda, later wrote that she distinctly remembered the last time she saw her father: “He was dressed in his hunting suit, wearing a coonskin cap, and carried a fine rifle presented to him by friends in Philadelphia . . . He seemed very confident the morning he went away that he would soon have us all to join him in Texas.” [20]

From his home he traveled to Jackson, arriving there with 30 well-armed men, where he gave a speech from the steps of the Madison County courthouse, and then rode southwest to Bolivar, where he spent the night at residence of Dr. Calvin Jones, once again drawing crowds who sent him off the next morning.[21] He arrived in Memphis in the second week of November with a much-diminished company, and ferried over the Mississippi River the next day and continued his journey on horseback through Arkansas.[22]

On Nov. 12, 1835, Crockett and his entourage arrived in Little Rock, Arkansas. The local newspapers reported that hundreds of people swarmed into town to get a look at Crockett, and a group of leading citizens put on a dinner in his honor that night at the Jeffries Hotel. Crockett spoke “mainly to the subject of Texan independence,” as well as Washington politics.[23]

He arrived in Nacogdoches, Texas, in early January 1836. On January 14, 1836, Crockett and 65 other men signed an oath before Judge John Forbes to the Provisional Government of Texas for six months: "I have taken the oath of government and have enrolled my name as a volunteer and will set out for the Rio Grande in a few days with the volunteers from the United States." Each man was promised about 4,600 acres (19 km²) of land as payment. He also sold two rifles to Colonel O'Neal for $60. (After his death there was a claim for his heirs for $57.50. In 1854 his widow received a payment certificate for $24.00 from Texas.) On February 6, Crockett and about five other men rode into San Antonio de Bexar and camped just outside the town. They were later greeted by James Bowie and Antonio Menchaca, and taken to the home of Don Erasmo Seguin.

Crockett arrived at the Alamo on February 8.[24] To the surprise of the men garrisoned in the Alamo, on February 23, a Mexican army, led by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, arrived. The Mexican soldiers immediately initiated a siege.[25][26] Santa Anna ordered his artillery to keep up a near-constant bombardment. The guns were moved closer to the Alamo each day, increasing their effectiveness. On February 25, 200–300 Mexican soldiers crossed the San Antonio River and took cover in abandoned shacks approximately 90 yards (82 m) to 100 yards (91 m) from the Alamo walls.[27][28] The soldiers intended to use the huts as cover to establish another artillery position, although many Texians assumed that they actually were launching an assault on the fort.[29] Several men volunteered to burn the huts.[30] To provide cover, the Alamo cannons fired grapeshot at the Mexican soldiers, and Crockett and his men fired rifles, while other defenders reloaded extra weapons for them to use in maintaining a steady fire. Within two hours, the battle was over,[29] and the Mexican soldiers retreated.[31] Inside the Alamo, the stores of powder and shot were limited. On February 26, Travis ordered the artillery to stop returning fire so as to conserve precious ammunition. Crockett and his men were encouraged to keep shooting, as they were unusually effective.[32]

As the siege progressed, Alamo commander William Barret Travis sent many messages asking for reinforcements. Several messengers were sent to James Fannin, who commanded the only other official group of Texian soldiers. Fannin and several hundred Texians occupied Presidio La Bahia at Goliad. Although Fannin ultimately decided it was too risky to attempt to reinforce the Alamo, historian Thomas Ricks Lindley concludes that up to 50 of Fannin's men left his command to go to Bexar.[33] These men would have reached Cibolo Creek, 35 miles (56 km) from the Alamo, on the afternoon of March 3. There they joined another group of men who also planned to join the garrison.[34]

That same night, outside the Alamo, there was a skirmish between Mexican and Texian troops.[35] Several historians, including Walter Lord, speculated that the Texians were creating a diversion to allow their last courier, John Smith, to evade Mexican pickets.[36] However, in 1876, Alamo survivor Susannah Dickinson said that Travis sent three men out shortly after dark on March 3, probably a response to the arrival of Mexican reinforcements. The three men, who included Crockett, Dickinson believed, were sent to find Fannin.[37] Lindley stated that just before midnight, Crockett and one of the other men found the force of Texians waiting along Cibolo Creek, who had advanced to within 20 miles (32 km) of the Alamo. Just before daylight on March 4, part of the Texian force managed to break through the Mexican lines and enter the Alamo. A second group was driven across the prairie by Mexican cavalry.[38]

The Fall of the Alamo by Robert Jenkins Onderdonk depicts Davy Crockett swinging his rifle at Mexican troops who have breached the south gate of the mission.

The siege ended on March 6, when the Mexican army attacked just before dawn while the defenders were sleeping. The daily bombardment by artillery had been suspended, perhaps a ploy to encourage the natural human reaction to a cessation of constant strain. But, the garrison awakened, the final fight began. Meanwhile, most of the noncombatants gathered in the church sacristy for safety. According to Susana Dickinson, before running to his post, Crockett paused briefly in the chapel to pray.[39] When the Mexican soldiers breached the north outer walls of the Alamo complex, most of the Texians fell back to the barracks and the chapel, as previously planned.[40] Crockett and his men were too far from the barracks to be able to take shelter.[41] and were the last remaining group within the mission to be in the open. The men defended the low wall in front of the church, using their rifles as clubs and relying on knives, as action became too furious to allow reloading their weapons. After a volley of fire and a charge with bayonets, Mexican soldiers pushed the few remaining Texians back toward the church.[42] The Battle of the Alamo lasted almost 90 minutes.[43]

Once all of the defenders were dead, Santa Anna ordered his men to take the bodies of the Texans to a nearby stand of trees where they were stacked together and wood piled on top of them.[44] That evening, a fire was lit, and the bodies of the defenders were burned to ashes.[45]

A coffin in the San Fernando Cathedral purports to hold the ashes of the Alamo defenders. Historians believe it more likely that the ashes were buried near the Alamo.

The ashes were left undisturbed until February 1837, when Juan Seguin and many members of his cavalry returned to Bexar to examine the remains. A local carpenter created a simple coffin, and ashes from the funeral pyres were placed inside. The names Travis, Crockett, and Bowie were inscribed on the lid.[46] The box is thought to have been buried in a peach tree grove, but the spot was not marked and cannot now be identified.[47]

Death and controversy

All that is certain about the fate of David Crockett is that he died at the Alamo on March 6. According to many accounts of the battle, between five and seven Texians surrendered during the battle, possibly to General Castrillon.[48][49] Incensed that his orders had been ignored, Santa Anna demanded the immediate execution of the survivors. Although Castrillon and several other officers refused to do so, staff officers who had not participated in the fighting drew their swords and killed the unarmed Texians.[50] Weeks after the battle, stories began to circulate that Crockett was among those who surrendered and were executed.[49] However, Ben, a former American slave who acted as cook for one of Santa Anna's officers, maintained that Crockett's body was found in the barracks surrounded by "no less than sixteen Mexican corpses", with Crockett's knife buried in one of them.[51] Historians disagree on which story is accurate. According to Petite, "every account of the Crockett surrender-execution story comes from an avowed antagonist (either on political or military grounds) of Santa Anna's. It is believed that many stories, such as the surrender and execution of Crockett, were created and spread in order to discredit Santa Anna and add to his role as villain."[52]

In 1955 Jesús Sánchez Garza self-published a book called La Rebelión de Texas—Manuscrito Inédito de 1836 por un Ofical de Santa Anna purporting to be memoirs of José Enrique de la Peña, a Mexican officer present at the Battle of the Alamo. In 1975 the Texas A&M University Press published an English translation of the book, called With Santa Anna in Texas: A Personal Narrative of the Revolution. The English publication caused a scandal within the United States as it asserted that Crockett did not die in battle.[53] Historians disagree on whether any or all of the book has been faked.[53][54] Because the original book was self-published, no editor or publisher ever vetted its authenticity.[55] Garza never explained how he gained custody of the documents or where they were stored after de la Peña's death.[56]

Some historians, including Bill Groneman, found it suspicious that Garza's compilation was published in 1955, at the height of interest in Crockett and the Alamo caused by Walt Disney's television miniseries about Crockett's life, Davy Crockett. Groneman also points out that the journals are made up of several different types of paper from several different paper manufacturers, all cut down to fit.[56] Historian Joseph Musso also questions the validity, also basing his suspicions on the timing of the diaries' release. However, James Crisp, a history professor from North Carolina State University, has studied the papers and is convinced they are genuine.

In de la Peña's narrative, he adds a footnote which may align both versions. He states that "All of the enemy perished, there remaining alive only an elderly lady and a Negro slave, whom the soldiers spared out of mercy and because we had established that only force had kept them in danger." (Perry 1975) This implies that the summary execution of the survivors may have occurred prior to the releasing of Dickinson and Joe, so that they observed Crockett as dead, lending credence to their testimony. De la Peña describes the disposal of the dead and wounded as an ongoing process that took some time.

However, critics now tend to discount this on three key points. First, no other accounts of Crockett surviving the Alamo have surfaced besides de la Peña's diary. No documentation in the archives of the Mexican government, nor any of the personal records of others present at the Battle of the Alamo, give any hint of survivors amongst the defenders, much less any claiming Crockett as a survivor. Secondly, there is some speculation that de la Peña's account may have been a deliberate fabrication, with the intention of presenting Santa Anna in a far more diabolical light than American (and especially Texan) historians have given him since the fall of the Alamo. Finally, it is highly dubious that the Mexican soldiers – ripped and torn as they were in breaching the walls of the Alamo, filled with the blood-lust that battle generates, furious at seeing their friends killed or wounded beside them – and with explicit orders to give "no quarter" would have had the slightest intention to spare the lives of any obvious Texan combatants.

The written account by de la Peña, even if a legitimate writing, has also been questioned in that many doubt his abilities to identify any of the Alamo defenders by name. It is a popular belief by many historians that de la Peña may have witnessed or been told about executions of some Alamo survivors, but in fact neither he nor his comrades would have known who these men were. Part of the reason that de la Peña's memoirs are questioned comes from his detailed account of Col. William Travis' death in "With Santa Anna in Texas". In that account, he describes with detail how Travis was heroic in his final moments, turning straight into the Mexican soldiers and facing his death with honor. The problem with this, is how de la Peña would have been able to distinguish Travis from any of the other defenders of the Alamo. The freed former slave to Travis, Joe, claimed Travis died early on in the battle, on the north wall. In addition to this, the Mexican Army had not breached the walls of the Alamo when Travis was killed, therefore they would have been seeing him from an area below the walls, while being fired down upon by the defenders. To add to this, Travis was killed before daybreak, meaning it was still dark. Therefore, it is believed that de la Peña either created the scenario of Travis' death, or he saw another of the defenders after breaching the walls, and took him to be Travis.[57]

Legacy

One tale tells how Crockett greeted a crowd on his way to Congress. He bragged, "I'm that same David Crockett, fresh from the backwoods, half-horse, half-alligator, a little touched with the snapping turtle; can wade the Mississippi, leap the Ohio, ride upon a streak of lightning, and slip without a scratch down a honey locust [tree]."

Davy Crockett’s Almanac, of Wild Sports in the West, Life in the Backwoods, & Sketches of Texas, a jest book, printed the text of a speech Crockett supposedly made to Congress. While there is no evidence whatever that the speech is authentic, it suggests the image of Crockett promoted by the "Crockett Alamanacs," published annually for years after his death

"Mr. Speaker.

"Who-Who-Whoop — Bow-Wow-Wow-Yough. I say, Mr. Speaker; I ve had a speech in soak this six months, and it has swelled me like a drowned horse; if I don’t deliver it I shall burst and smash the windows. The gentleman from Massachusetts [Mr. Everett] talks of summing up the merits of the question, but I’ll sum up my own. In one word I’m a screamer, and have got the roughest racking horse, the prettiest sister, the surest rifle and the ugliest dog in the district. I’m a leetle the savagest crittur you ever did see. My father can whip any man in Kentucky, and I can lick my father. I can outspeak any man on this floor, and give him two hours start. I can run faster, dive deeper, stay longer under, and come out drier, than any chap this side the big Swamp. I can outlook a panther and outstare a flash of lightning, tote a steamboat on my back and play at rough and tumble with a lion, and an occasional kick from a zebra.

"To sum up all in one word I’m a horse. Goliah was a pretty hard colt but I could choke him. I can take the rag off-frighten the old folks-astonish the natives-and beat the Dutch all to smash-make nothing of sleeping under a blanket of snow and don’t mind being frozen more than a rotten apple.

"Congress allows lemonade to the members and has it charged under the head of stationery-I move also that whiskey be allowed under the item of fuel. For bitters I can suck away at a noggin of aquafortis, sweetened with brimstone, stirred with a lightning rod, and skimmed with a hurricane. I’ve soaked my head and shoulders in Salt River, so much that I’m always corned. I can walk like an ox, run like a fox, swim like an eel, yell like an Indian, fight like a devil, spout like an earthquake, make love like a mad bull, and swallow a Mexican whole without choking if you butter his head and pin his ears back."

One of Crockett's sayings, which were published in almanacs between 1835 and 1856 (along with those of Daniel Boone and Kit Carson), was:

Always be sure you are right, then go ahead

In 1838, Robert Patton Crockett went to Texas to administer his father's land claim. In 1854, Elizabeth Crockett finally came to Texas to live, dying in 1860. Crockett's son John Wesley Crockett was a U.S. Congressman from Tennessee, serving two terms between 1837 and 1841.

A section of U.S. Route 64 between Winchester, Tennessee and Lawrenceburg, Tennessee is signed as David Crockett Memorial Highway.

By the late 19th century, Crockett was largely forgotten. His legend was reborn in a 1950s TV show by Walt Disney, which also introduced his legendary coonskin cap. In 1948, Disney told columnist Hedda Hopper that it was "time to get acquainted, or renew acquaintance with, the robust, cheerful, energetic and representative folk heroes".[58] As part of a deal that allowed him to build a theme park, Disneyland, Disney would produce weekly one-hour television programs for ABC.[59] Disney wished to highlight historical figures and his company developed three episodes on Crockett—Davy Crockett, Indian Fighter, Davy Crockett Goes to Congress, and Davy Crockett at the Alamo— starring Fess Parker as Crockett. According to historians Randy Roberts and James Olson, "by the end of the three shows, Fess Parker would be very well known, the power of television would be fully recognized, and Davy Crockett would be the most famous frontiersman in American history."[60] The shows sparked heated debate, with many questioning whether Crockett was really deserving of the amount of attention he was now receiving. Letter writers also questioned the series' historical accuracy.[61] Nevertheless, the shows proved very popular. They were combined into a feature-length movie in the summer of 1955, and Parker and his co-star Buddy Ebsen toured the United States, Europe, and Japan. By the end of 1955, Americans had purchased over $300 million worth of Davy Crockett merchandise ($2 billion by 2001).[62] The television series also introduced a new song, "The Ballad of Davy Crockett". Four different versions of the song hit the Billboard Best Sellers pop chart in 1955. The versions by Bill Hayes, TV series star Fess Parker, and Tennessee Ernie Ford charted in the Top 10 simultaneously, with Hayes' version hitting #1.

The shows were repeated on NBC in the 1960s after Disney had moved his program to that network. The 1960 repeats marked the first time that the programs had actually been shown in color on TV. Davy Crockett made a return with Disney in two further adventures: Davy Crockett's Keelboat Race and Davy Crockett and the River Pirates. In these two episodes Crockett faced off against Mike Fink, another early American legend. A three-episode 1988-89 revival was made entitled The New Adventures of Davy Crockett, in which Tim Dunigan took over Fess Parker's famous role. Johnny Cash played an older Davy in a few scenes set before he went to Texas.

The fad eventually waned, but Crockett was often a prominent role in movies about the Alamo. In the 1960 film The Alamo, John Wayne portrayed Crockett. More recently was the John Lee Hancock version of The Alamo (2004). This Crockett, played by Billy Bob Thornton, is portrayed as a man trying to downplay his legend, but in the end unable to escape it. This is epitomized in a scene where Crockett, speaking to Bowie says, "If it was just me, simple old David from Tennessee, I might drop over that wall some night, take my chances. But that Davy Crockett feller...they're all watchin' him."

A seventh-season episode of the Discovery Channel series MythBusters explored a story of Crockett's backwoods exploits: that he could stick an axe into a tree trunk, fire his musket from 40 yards away, and hit the edge so precisely that the bullet would split in two. After some practice, Tory Belleci was able to duplicate the feat from 20 yards with the gun resting on sandbags and declared the myth "Confirmed," reasoning that Crockett could have consistently made the 40-yard shot with enough experience.

Crockett in films

In films, Crockett has been played by:

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Michael Lofaro, "David Crockett." The Encyclopedia of Appalachia (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 2006), 300-301.
  2. ^ Michael Lofaro, "David "Davy" Crockett." The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 22 May 2008.
  3. ^ Crockett (1834), 17.
  4. ^ Davy Crockett Birthplace State Park
  5. ^ Jean-Baptiste Nadeau, Julie Barlow, The Story of French, p.106, ISBN 0-312-34183-0.
  6. ^ RootsWeb's WorldConnect Project: Sharrow, Charron, Sharon, Carveth, Abbott, Armstrong, Miarecki and other Ancestors
  7. ^ Pat Alderman, The Overmountain Men, 1970:38.
  8. ^ Crockett Tavern Museum
  9. ^ Program #1001. Antiques Roadshow. PBS. Tampa Convention Center. Original broadcast 2006-01-09. and Lofaro, Michael A. "Crockett, David". Handbook of Texas Online. URL accessed 2006-05-30.
  10. ^ Crockett News
  11. ^ Pioneers, Passionate Ladies, and Private Eyes: Dime Novels, Series Books.
  12. ^ Diary (New York: Longmans, Green, 1929), p. 445.
  13. ^ "Ellis, Edward Sylvester." Beadle and Adams Dime Novel Digitization Project. Northern Illinois University. By Larry E. Sullivan, Lydia Cushman. pg 73. 1996 Haworth Press. ISBN 0789000164
  14. ^ Special Collections in Children's Literature: An International Directory, By Dolores Blythe Jones, pg 50.
  15. ^ Ellis, Edward S., The Life of Colonel David Crockett; Porter & Coates, 1884
  16. ^ A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. The Library of Congress, URL accessed 2007-08-01.
  17. ^ Hubbell, Jay B. The South in American Literature: 1607-1900. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1954: 664.
  18. ^ Cobias, 21-22.
  19. ^ Derr, 225-26.
  20. ^ Cobias, 25
  21. ^ Cobias, 28-29
  22. ^ Cobias, 29, 36
  23. ^ Cobias, 40-44
  24. ^ Hardin (1994), p. 117.
  25. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 299.
  26. ^ Todish et al. (1998), p. 40.
  27. ^ <Todish et al. (1998), pp. 42–3.
  28. ^ Tinkle (1985), p. 118.
  29. ^ a b Tinkle (1985), p. 119.
  30. ^ Lord (1961), p. 109.
  31. ^ Nofi (1992), p. 83.
  32. ^ Hardin (1994), p. 132.
  33. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 137.
  34. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 138.
  35. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143.
  36. ^ Lord (1960), p. 143.
  37. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 140.
  38. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 142.
  39. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 363.
  40. ^ Todish et al. (1998), p. 53.
  41. ^ Lord (1961), p. 162.
  42. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 368.
  43. ^ Petite (1998), p. 114.
  44. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 374.
  45. ^ Petite (1998), p. 139.
  46. ^ Petite (1998), p. 131.
  47. ^ Petite (1998), p. 132.
  48. ^ Edmondson (2000), p. 373.
  49. ^ a b Petite (1998), p. 123.
  50. ^ Hardin (1994), p. 148.
  51. ^ Tikle (1985), p. 214.
  52. ^ Petite (1998), p. 124.
  53. ^ a b Todish et al. (1998), p. 120.
  54. ^ Groneman (1999), p. 133.
  55. ^ Groneman (1999), p. 128.
  56. ^ a b Groneman (1999), p. 136.
  57. ^ Michael Lind's, The Death of David Crockett
  58. ^ Roberts and Olson (2001), p. 238.
  59. ^ Roberts and Olson (2001), p. 239.
  60. ^ Roberts and Olson (2001), p. 240.
  61. ^ Roberts and Olson (2001), p. 252–3.
  62. ^ Roberts and Olson (2001), p. 245.

References

  • Cobia, Manley F., Jr. (2003), Journey into the Land of Trials: The Story of Davy Crockett’s Expedition to the Alamo., Franklin, TN: Hillsboro Press, ISBN 1577362683 .
  • Crisp, James E. (2005), Sleuthing the Alamo: Davy Crockett’s Last Stand and Other Mysteries of the Texas Revolution, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195163508 .
  • Crockett, David (1834), A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett (6th ed.), Philadelphia: E. L. Carey and A. Hart, http://books.google.com/books?id=vl2-pBghhEEC&printsec .
  • Edmondson, J.R. (2000), The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts, Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 1-55622-678-0 
  • Groneman, Bill (1999), Death of a Legend: The Myth and Mystery Surrounding the Death of Davy Crockett, Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 9781556226885 
  • Hardin, Stephen L. (1994), Texian Iliad, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-73086-1 
  • Jones, Randell (2006), In the Footsteps of Davy Crockett, Winston-Salem: John F. Blair, ISBN 0895873249 
  • Kilgore, Dan (1978), How Did Davy Die?, College Station and London: Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 0890960496 .
  • Lindley, Thomas Ricks (2003), Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions, Lanham, MD: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 1556229836 
  • Lofaro, Michael A., ed. (1985), Davy Crocket: The Man, The Legend, The Legacy, 1786-1986, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, ISBN 0870494597 .
  • Lord, Walter (1961), A Time to Stand, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0803279027 
  • Nofi, Albert A. (1992), The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, September 30, 1835 to April 21, 1836: Heroes, Myths, and History, Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, Inc., ISBN 0938289101 
  • Petite, Mary Deborah (1999), 1836 Facts about the Alamo and the Texas War for Independence, Mason City, IA: Savas Publishing Company, ISBN 188281035X 
  • Roberts, Randy; Olson, James S. (2001), A Line in the Sand: The Alamo in Blood and Memory, The Free Press, ISBN 0684835444 
  • Scott, Robert (2000), After the Alamo, Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press, ISBN 9781556226915 
  • Shackford, James A. (1956), David Crockett: The Man and the Legend, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press .
  • Tinkle, Lon (1985), 13 Days to Glory: The Siege of the Alamo, College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 0890962383 . Reprint. Originally published: New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958
  • Todish, Timothy J.; Todish, Terry; Spring, Ted (1998), Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution, Austin, TX: Eakin Press, ISBN 9781571681522 

Further reading

  • Crockett, David, A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett of the State of Tennessee; University of Nebraska Press; ISBN 0-8032-6325-2
  • Derr, Mark The Frontiersman. Davy Crockett William Morrow and Co. ISBN 0-688-09656-5
  • Davis, William C., Lone Star Rising-The Revolutionary Birth of the Texas Republic; Free Press; ISBN 0-684-86510-6
  • Davis, William C., Three Roads to the Alamo; Harper Collins; ISBN 0-06-017334-3
  • Levy, Buddy, The Real Life Adventures of David Crockett; Putnam Press; ISBN 0-399-15278-4
  • David Crockett at Project Gutenberg ; written by John S. C. Abbott

External links

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2005-09-23, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Adam Rankin Alexander
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 9th congressional district

1827 – 1831
Succeeded by
William Fitzgerald
Preceded by
(none)
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's 12th congressional district

1833 – 1835
Succeeded by
Adam Huntsman

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I leave this rule for others when I'm dead
Be always sure you're right — THEN GO AHEAD!

David Crockett (17 August 17866 March 1836) usually referred to as Davy Crockett, was an American frontiersman, soldier and politician. After serving as a US Congressman for the state of Tennessee, he joined in the Texas Revolution and died in the Battle of the Alamo.

Contents

Sourced

  • I would rather be beaten and be a man than to be elected and be a little puppy dog. I have always supported measures and principles and not men. I have acted fearless[ly] and independent and I never will regret my course. I would rather be politically buried than to be hypocritically immortalized.
    • In a letter following his defeat in the 1830 elections, as quoted in David Crockett: The Man and the Legend (1994) by James Atkins Shackford, p. 133
I must say as to what I have seen of Texas, it is the garden spot of the world...
  • I am at liberty to vote as my conscience and judgement dictates to be right, without the yoke of any party on me... Look at my arms, you will find no party hand-cuff on them!
    • Letter (28 January 1834)
  • I must say as to what I have seen of Texas, it is the garden spot of the world. The best land & best prospects for health I ever saw is here, and I do believe it is a fortune to any man to come here. There is a world of country to settle.
    • Letter to his children (9 January 1836)
  • I am rejoiced at my fate. I had rather be in my present situation than to be elected to a seat in congress for life. I am in great hopes of making a fortune for myself and family. I hope you will do the best you can and I will do the same. Do not be uneasy about me for I am with my friends.
    • Letter to his children (9 January 1836)
I know not whether, in the eyes of the world, a brilliant death is not preferred to an obscure life of rectitude. Most men are remembered as they died, and not as they lived.
  • Pop, pop, pop! Bom, bom, bom! throughout the day. No time for memorandums now. Go ahead! Liberty and Independence forever.
    • Last entry in his diary, (5 March 1836)
  • I know nothing, by experience, of party discipline. I would rather be a raccoon-dog, and belong to a Negro in the forest, than to belong to any party, further than to do justice to all, and to promote the interests of my country. The time will and must come, when honesty will receive its reward, and when the people of this nation will be brought to a sense of their duty, and will pause and reflect how much it cost us to redeem ourselves from the government of one man.
  • I know not whether, in the eyes of the world, a brilliant death is not preferred to an obscure life of rectitude. Most men are remembered as they died, and not as they lived. We gaze with admiration upon the glories of the setting sun, yet scarcely bestow a passing glance upon its noonday splendor.
    • As quoted in David Crockett : His Life and Adventures (1875) by John Stevens Cabot Abbott, Ch. 11
  • We must not permit our respect for the dead or our sympathy for part of the living to lead us into an act of injustice to the balance of the living.
    • Speech in the US House of Representatives, as quoted in The Life of Colonel David Crockett (1884) by Edward Sylvester Ellis. Though it may have expressed his attitudes on the issue, there has been dispute as to the authenticity of this speech as there is no known record of it prior to this 1884 work.
  • We have the right as individuals, to give away as much of our own money as we please in charity; but as members of Congress we have no right to appropriate a dollar of the public money.
    • Speech in the US House of Representatives, as quoted in The Life of Colonel David Crockett (1884) by Edward Sylvester Ellis.
  • Money with them is nothing but trash when it is to come out of the people. But it is the one great thing for which most of them are striving, and many of them sacrifice honor, integrity, and justice to obtain it.
    • Comment to a friend about the US Congress, as quoted in The Life of Colonel David Crockett (1884) by Edward Sylvester Ellis.
  • Thare is no chance of hurrying bussiness here like in the legeslature of a State thare is such a desposition here to Show Eloquence that this will be a long Session and do no good...
    • On the US Congress, in a letter during his first session as a US Congressman, as quoted in David Crockett: The Man and the Legend (1994) by James Atkins Shackford, p. 89
Although our great man at the head of the nation, has changed his course, I will not change mine.
  • Heaven knows that I have done all that a mortal could do, to save the people, and the failure was not my fault, but the fault of others.
    • As quoted in David Crockett: The Man and the Legend (1994) by James Atkins Shackford, p. 106
  • The party in power, like Jonah's gourd, grew up quickly, and will quickly fall.
    • As quoted in David Crockett: The Man and the Legend (1994) by James Atkins Shackford, p. 107
  • Although our great man at the head of the nation, has changed his course, I will not change mine. ... I was also a supporter of this administration after it came into power, and until the Chief Magistrate changed the principles which he professed before his election. When he quitted those principles, I quit him. I am yet a Jackson man in principles, but not in name... I shall insist upon it that I am still a Jackson man, but General Jackson is not; he has become a Van Buren man.
    • On US President Andrew Jackson, as quoted in David Crockett: The Man and the Legend (1994) by James Atkins Shackford, p. 112

A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett (1834)

A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett, of the State of Tennessee (1834) Full text online, and downoadable PDFs
Most of authors seek fame, but I seek for justice — a holier impulse than ever entered into the ambitious struggles of the votaries of that fickle, flirting goddess.
  • I leave this rule for others when I'm dead
    Be always sure you're right — THEN GO AHEAD!
    • Personal motto, on the title page.
    • Variants: Be sure that you are right, and then go ahead.
      • As quoted in David Crockett: His Life and Adventures (1874) by John Stevens Cabot Abbott, who indicates that he also often used simply "Go ahead!" as a battle cry, and general assertion of determination.
      • Unsourced variants: Be always sure you are right — then go ahead.
        Be sure you are right — then go ahead.
        Always be sure you are right — then go ahead.
  • Most of authors seek fame, but I seek for justice — a holier impulse than ever entered into the ambitious struggles of the votaries of that fickle, flirting goddess.
    • Preface (1 February 1834)
  • I know, that obscure as I am, my name is making a considerable deal of fuss in the world. I can't tell why it is, nor in what it is to end. Go where I will, everybody seems anxious to get a peep at me ... There must therefore be something in me, or about me, that attracts attention, which is even mysterious to myself.
    • Preface (1 February 1834)
  • I don't know of any thing in my book to be criticised on by honourable men. Is it on my spelling? — that's not my trade. Is it on my grammar ? — I hadn't time to learn it, and make no pretensions to it. Is it on the order and arrangement of my book ? — I never wrote one before, and never read very many; and, of course, know mighty little about that. Will it be on the authorship of the book? — this I claim, and I hang on to it, like a wax plaster. The whole book is my own, and every sentiment and sentence in it. I would not be such a fool, or knave either, as to deny that I have had it hastily run over by a friend or so, and that some little alterations have been made in the spelling and grammar; and I am not so sure that it is not the worse of even that, for I despise this way of spelling contrary to nature. And as for grammar, it's pretty much a thing of nothing at last, after all the fuss that's made about it. In some places, I wouldn't suffer either the spelling, or grammar, or any thing else to be touch'd; and therefore it will be found in my own way.
    But if any body complains that I have had it looked over, I can only say to him, her, or them — as the case may he — that while critics were learning grammar, and learning to spell, I, and "Doctor Jackson, L.L.D." were fighting in the wars; and if our hooks, and messages, and proclamations, and cabinet writings, and so forth, and so on, should need a little looking over, and a little correcting of the spelling and the grammar to make them fit for use, its just nobody's business. Big men have more important matters to attend to than crossing their ts—, and dotting their i's—, and such like small things.
    • Preface (1 February 1834)
I gave my decisions on the principles of common justice and honesty between man and man, and relied on natural born sense, and not on law, learning to guide me...
  • I gave my decisions on the principles of common justice and honesty between man and man, and relied on natural born sense, and not on law, learning to guide me; for I had never read a page in a law book in all my life.
    • On the basis of his legal decisions, in Ch. 9
  • It was expected of me that I was to bow to the name of Andrew Jackson, and follow him in all his motions, and windings, and turnings, even at the expense of my consciences and judgment. Such a thing was new to me, and a total stranger to my principles. ... His famous, or rather I should say infamous Indian bill was brought forward and, and I opposed it from the purest motives in the world. Several of my colleagues got around me, and told me how well they loved me, and that I was ruining myself. They said it was a favorite measure of the President, and I ought to go for it. I told them I believed it was a wicked unjust measure, and that I should go against it, let the cost to myself be what it might; that I was willing to go with General Jackson in everything that I believed was honest and right; but further than this, I wouldn't go for him, or any other man in the whole creation.

Col. Crockett's Exploits and Adventures in Texas (1836)

A pseudo-autobiography, generally ascribed to Richard Penn Smith. (cf. Sabin. Amer. bibl., v. 20, p. 471; Burton's Gentleman's magazine, Philadelphia, 1839, v. 5, p. 119-121; Dict. Amer. biog.)
  • I have never knew what is was to sacrifice my own judgment to gratify any party and I have no doubt of the time being close at hand when I will be rewarded for letting my tongue speak what my heart thinks. I have suffered myself to be politically sacrificed to save my country from ruin and disgrace and if I am never again elected I will have the gratification to know that I have done my duty.
    • Comments on his final election defeat (11 August 1835) Ch. 2
I concluded my speech by telling them that I was done with politics for the present, and they might all go to hell, and I would go to Texas.
  • I also told them of the manner in which I had been knocked down and dragged out, and that I didn't consider it a fair fight any how they could fix it. I put the ingredients in the cup pretty strong I tell you, and I concluded my speech by telling them that I was done with politics for the present, and they might all go to hell, and I would go to Texas.
    • Comments on his final election defeat (11 August 1835)
    • Variant: Since you have chosen to elect a man with a timber toe to succeed me, you may all go to hell and I will go to Texas.
      • As quoted in David Crockett: The Man and the Legend (1994) by James Atkins Shackford, Introduction, p. xi
  • Sorrow, it is said, will make even an oyster feel poetical. I never tried my hand at that sort of writing but on this particular occasion such was my state of feeling, that I began to fancy myself inspired; so I took pen in hand, and as usual I went ahead.
    • On being inspired to make an attempt at poetry, Ch. 2
In the land of the stranger I rise or I fall.
  • The corn that I planted, the fields that I cleared,
    The flocks that I raised, and the cabin I reared;
    The wife of my bosom — Farewell to ye all!
    In the land of the stranger I rise or I fall.
    • Ch. 2
  • In peace or in war I have stood by thy side —
    My country, for thee I have lived, would have died!
    But I am cast off, my career now is run,
    And I wander abroad like the prodigal son —
    Where the wild savage roves, and the broad prairies spread,
    The fallen — despised — will again go ahead.
    • Ch. 2

Unsourced

  • Let your tongue speak what your heart thinks.
  • There ain't no ticks like poly-ticks. Bloodsuckers all.
  • I want people to be able to get what they need to live: enough food, a place to live, and an education for their children. Government does not provide these as well as private charities and businesses.

Misattributed

  • Fame is like a shaved pig with a greased tail, and it is only after it has slipped through the hands of some thousands, that some fellow, by mere chance, holds on to it!
    • This is from Pickings from the Porfolio of the Reporter of the New Orleans "Picayune" (1846) by Dennis Corcoran; it seems to have become attributed to Crockett in The Dictionary of Biographical Quotation of British and American Subjects (1978) by Richard Kenin and Justin Wintle, p. 206
  • The enemy fought with savage fury, and met death with all its horrours, without shrinking or complaining: not one asked to be spared, but fought as long as they could stand or sit.

Quotes about Crockett

  • He is gone from among us, and is no more to be seen in the walks of men, but in his death like Sampson, he slew more of his enemies than in all his life. Even his most bitter enemies here, I believe, have buried all animosity, and join the general lamentation over his untimely end.
    • John Wesley Crockett, his son, in a letter (9 July 1836), as quoted in David Crockett: Hero of the Common Man (2005) by William Groneman III
  • Though tortured before they were killed, these unfortunates died without complaining and without humiliating themselves before their torturers.

External links

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Simple English

File:Portrait of Davy
Davy Crockett

David Crockett (August 17, 1786March 6, 1836)[1] was an American frontiersman, soldier, politician, and folk hero. He is more often called Davy Crockett. He also has the nickname “King of the Wild Frontier”. He represented the state of Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives. He was part of the Texas Revolution. He died in the Battle of the Alamo.

Contents

Childhood and family

Crockett was born in Tennessee. A replica of the cabin he was born in stands today in Davy Crockett Birthplace State Park in Tennessee.[2] The Crockett family's name comes from the name Monsieur de la Croquetagne.[3] Monsieur de la Croquetagne was a captain in the Royal Guard of French King Louis XIV.[3] The family became Protestants and ran away from France in the 17th century.[3] Crockett did not have an easy childhood. He traveled around a lot, and had a lot of adventures. He started hunting with his brothers before his ninth birthday. A little after he started going to school, he beat up a bully. He stopped going to school so that his teacher would not punish him. His teacher told his father that Crockett was not at school. He then ran away from home so that his father would not beat him.[4] He started moving around Tennessee. This was all according to a book Davy Crockett wrote about himself.[4]

He came back home when he was 15. His family welcomed him back. He married Mary (Polly) Finley a day before his twentieth birthday.[5] They had three children. However, Polly died at a young age. He married another woman named Elizabeth Patton in 1815. They had three children together.[6]

Political career

Crockett served in the Tennessee Militia for a few years, then ran for Congress in 1824. He lost his election, but ran again in the next election. In 1826, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives. As a Congressman, he became angry about President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act, which forced Native Americans to leave their land.[7] He lost his re-election in 1830. However, he ran again in 1832 and won.

In 1834, he wrote a book about himself called A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett. Written by Himself.[8] He lost his re-election to Congress that year, and in 1834, he lost in an election again.

Texas Revolution

Around December 1834, Crockett told some of his friends that he might move to Texas if Martin Van Buren became the next president of the United States. The next year, he talked to his friend Benjamin McCulloch about going to Texas, which belonged to Mexico at that time, with some people to fight in a revolution against Mexico.[9] Van Buren was elected president, so he left Tennessee on Nov. 1, 1835 with three other men to go to Texas, saying, "You may all go to hell and I will go to Texas".[10]

He arrived in Nacogdoches, Texas, in early January 1836. On January 14, 1836, Crockett and 65 other men signed an oath before Judge John Forbes to the Provisional Government of Texas for six months that said "I have taken the oath of government and have enrolled my name as a volunteer and will set out for the Rio Grande in a few days with the volunteers from the United States." Each man was promised about 4,600 acres (19 km²) of land.

He showed up at the Battle of the Alamo on February 8. There were over 100 other men there. On February 23, a Mexican army, led by General Antonio López de Santa Anna, showed up, and the Mexican army surrounded the Alamo, ready to take it over.[11][12] After the Mexican army had been there for eight days, 32 other men showed up to help Crockett and the other men defending the Alamo.[13]

On March 6, after the Mexican army had been there for 12 days, the Mexican army attacked just before dawn while the defenders were sleeping. According to Susana Dickinson, before running to his post, Crockett stopped in the chapel to pray.[14] When the Mexican soldiers made it over the walls of the Alamo, the defenders stayed behind the low wall in front of the church, using their rifles as clubs and using knives because they did not have time to reload their guns. After firing shots and charging with bayonets, Mexican soldiers pushed the few remaining defenders back toward the church.[15] The Battle of the Alamo lasted almost 90 minutes.[16] All of the men defending the Alamo died, including Davy Crockett.[17] That evening, the Mexican army lit a fire and burned the bodies of the men who defended the Alamo to ashes.[18]

Legacy

Even while he was still alive, many books and plays were written about Crockett's life, some of which stretched the truth.[19] Since his death, he has become a popular figure in American folklore. In the 1950s, there was a television show about him, which had a song called "The Ballad of Davy Crockett" which was very popular. Many children wore "coonskin" hats to look like him.

Footnotes

  1. "Davy Crockett (American frontiersman and politician) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143670/Davy-Crockett. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  2. "TN State Parks: Davy Crockett Birthplace State Park". tennessee.gov. http://www.tennessee.gov/environment/parks/DavyCrockettSHP/. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Jean-Baptiste Nadeau, Julie Barlow, The Story of French, p.106, ISBN 0-312-34183-0.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Lofaro, Michael. "The Handbook of Texas Online". http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/CC/fcr24.html. Retrieved 2010-3-18. 
  5. "Crockett News". http://www.discoveret.org/crockett/news.html. Retrieved 2010-3-18. 
  6. Banks 76.
  7. Berry, Christina. "All Things Cherokee: Article - Andrew Jackson - The Worst President The Cherokee Ever Met". allthingscherokee.com. http://www.allthingscherokee.com/articles_culture_events_020201.html. Retrieved April 4, 2010. 
  8. Hubbell, Jay B. The South in American Literature: 1607-1900. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1954: 664. ISBN 0-8223-0091-5
  9. Cobia, 21-22.
  10. "The Burgin-Crockett Connection". http://theburginfamily.org/crockett.html. Retrieved 2010-3-18. 
  11. Edmondson (2000), p. 299.
  12. Todish et al. (1998), p. 40.
  13. "The Alamo.org". http://www.thealamo.org/history.html. Retrieved 2010-3-18. 
  14. Edmondson (2000), p. 363.
  15. Edmondson (2000), p. 368.
  16. Petite (1998), p. 114.
  17. Kubiak, Leonard. "The Battle of the Alamo". http://www.forttumbleweed.net/alamo.html. Retrieved 2010-3-18. 
  18. Petite (1998), p. 139.
  19. Clark, Josh. "HowStuffWorks: Why was Davy Crockett king of the wild frontier?". http://history.howstuffworks.com/american-history/davy-crockett-wild-frontier.htm. Retrieved 2010-4-09. 

References

  • Banks, Herbert (1995). Daughters of Republic of Texas, Volume 1. Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 9781563112140. 
  • Cobia, Manley F., Jr. (2003). Journey into the Land of Trials: The Story of Davy Crockett’s Expedition to the Alamo.. Franklin, TN: Hillsboro Press. ISBN 978-1577362685. 
  • Edmondson, J.R. (2000). The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 978-1556226786. 
  • Hardin, Stephen L. (1994). Texian Iliad. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0292731028. 
  • Petite, Mary Deborah (1999). 1836 Facts about the Alamo and the Texas War for Independence. Mason City, IA: Savas Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1882810352. 
  • Stacy, Lee (2002). Mexico and the United States. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. ISBN 9780761474029. 
  • Todish, Timothy J.; Todish, Terry; Spring, Ted (1998). Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press. ISBN 9780890157572. 

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