Day of Ashura: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
Shi'a Muslims in Bahrain strike their chests during the mourning
Official name Arabic: عاشوراء (ʻĀshūrā’)
Also called Hosay, Tabuik, Tabot
Observed by Shi'a Muslims, Sunni Muslims
Type Islamic and national (In some countries such as Iran and Lebanon
Significance Shi'a Muslims: marks the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali;
Date 10 Muharram
2009 date January 8 and December 27
2010 date December 16
Observances Mourn and derive messages from Husayn's Sacrifice; In addition Sunni: Prayer, Fasting

A series of articles on

Husayn callig.gif
Imam of Islam
Husayn


Life
Family tree · Battle of Karbala


Remembrance
Maqtal Al-Husayn · Mourning of Muharram · Day of Ashura · Arba'een · Imam Husayn Shrine · Hussainia · Majlis-e-Aza · Marsia · Noha · Soaz · Ta'zieh · Tabuik · Hosay · Chehel Minbari


Perspectives
The Twelve Imams · The Fourteen Infallibles

The Day of Ashura (عاشوراء (ʻĀshūrā’, Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.

It is commemorated by Shia Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (October 02, 680 AD[1]). According to Sunni Muslim tradition, the Prophet Muhammad fasted on this day and asked other people to fast.[2][3]; Sunni Muslims also celebrate the day claiming that Moses fasted on that day to express gratitude to God for liberating the Israelites from Egypt.

In some Shia countries and regions such as Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Lebanon, Bahrain, Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a national holiday and most ethnic and religious communities participate in it. Even in Sunni dominated Muslim community of India, Ashura (often called Moharram) is a public holiday.

Contents

Etymology of Ashura

The word ashura simply means tenth in Arabic language; hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means "the tenth day". The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that the Islamic scholars have a difference of opinion as to why this day is known as Ashura, with some scholars suggesting that this day is the tenth most important day that God has blessed Muslims with.

Commemoration of the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali

Mourning of Muharram
Events
Figures
Places
Times
Customs
Advertisements

History of the commemoration by Shi'a

This day is well-known because of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad and the third Shia Imam, along with members of his family and close friends at the Battle of Karbala in the year 61 AH (AD 680). Yazid I was in power then and wanted the Bay'ah (allegiance) of Husayn ibn Ali. Many Muslims believe Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam in public and changing the sunnah of Muhammad.[4][5][6]

Husayn in his path toward Kufa encountered the army of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa. On October 10, 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH), he and his small group of companions and family members, who were between 72 and 100 men, [7][8] fought with a large army of perhaps more than 100,000 men under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad, son of the founder of Kufa. Husayn and all of his men were killed. Some of the bodies of the dead, including that of Husayn, were then mutilated.[1]

Commemoration for Husayn ibn Ali began after the Battle of Karbala. After the massacre, the Umayyad army looted Husayn's camp and set off with his women and children for the court of Ibn Ziyad. A moving oration delivered by Zaynab in Kufa is recorded in some sources. The prisoners were next sent to the court of Yazid, Umayyad caliph, in Damascus, where one of his Syrian followers asked for Husayn's daughter Faṭimah al-Kubra, and once again it was Zaynab who came to the rescue and protected her honour. The family remained in Yazid's prison for a time. The first assembly (majlis) of Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, too, she is reported to have delivered a poignant oration. The prison sentence ended when Imam Hussain(a.s)'s 4 year old daughter,Janabe Sakina died in captivity, a young girl who would stand at the window of the prison and tell the ladies who would gather outside about the tragedy that befell her family. Her death caused an uproar in the city, and Yazid - fearful of a revolution that may have begun as a result - freed the captives.[9]

"Zaynab bint Ali quoted as she passed the prostrate body of her brother, Husayn. " O Muhammad! O Muhammad! May the angels of heaven bless you. Here is Husayn in the open, stained with blood and with limbs torn off. O Muhammad! Your daughters are prisoners, your progeny are killed, and the east wind blows dust over them." By God! She made every enemy and friend weep."
Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings, Volume XIX The Caliphate of Yazid.[10]

Imam Hussain(a.s)'s grave became a pilgrimage site among Shi'a only a few years after his death. A tradition of pilgrimage to the Imam Husayn Shrine and the other Karbala martyrs quickly developed, which is known as Ziarat Ashura.[11] The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs tried to prevent construction of the shrines and discouraged pilgrimage to the sites.[12] The tomb and its annexes were destroyed by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil in 850-851 and Shi'a pilgrimage was prohibited, but shrines in Karbala and Najaf were built by the Buwayhid emir 'Adud al-Daula in 979-80.[13]

It did not take long for public rites of remembrance for Husayn's martyrdom to develop from the early pilgrimages. Under the Buyid dynasty, Mu'izz ad-Dawla officiated at public commemoration of Ashura in Baghdad. These commemorations were also encouraged in Egypt by the Fatimid caliph al-'Aziz. From Seljuq times, Ashura rituals began to attract many participants from a variety of backgrounds, including Sunnis. With the recognition of Twelvers as the official religion by the Safavids, Mourning of Muharram extended throughout the first ten days of Muharram.[11]

Significance of Ashura for Shi'a Muslims

Shi'a devotees congregate outside the Sydney Opera House, Australia to commemorate Imam Hussein.

This day is of particular significance to Shi'a Muslims, who consider Hussein (the grandson of the Prophet Muhamad) Ahl al-Bayt the third Imam and the rightful successor of Muhammad. Many Shi'as make pilgrimages on Ashura, as they do forty days later on Arba'een, to the Mashhad al-Husayn, the shrine in Karbala, Iraq that is traditionally held to be Imam Hussein's tomb. On this day Shi'a are in remembrance, and mourning attire is worn. They refrain from music, since Arabic culture generally considers music impolite during death rituals. It is a time for sorrow and respect of the person's passing, and it is also a time for self-reflection, when one commits oneself to the mourning of the Imam Hussein completely. Weddings and parties are also never planned on this date by Shi'as. Shi'as also express mourning by crying and listening to poems about the tragedy and sermons on how Hussein and his family were martyred. This is intended to connect them with Hussein's suffering and martyrdom, and the sacrifices he made to keep Islam alive. Hussein's martyrdom is widely interpreted by Shi'a as a symbol of the struggle against injustice, tyranny, and oppression.[14]

Shi'a Muslims in Malir, Pakistan performing zanjeer--ritual flagellation.

Shi'as believe the Battle of Karbala was between the forces of good and evil. Imam Hussain represented good while Yazid represented evil. Shi'as also believe the Battle of Karbala was fought to keep the Muslim religion untainted of any corruptions and they believed the path that Yazid was directing Islam was definitely for his own personal greed.[citation needed]

Shia Imams strongly insist that the day of Ashura should not be taken as a day of joy and festivity. According to a hadith which is reported from Ali some people fabricated a hadith claiming it was on that day the God forgave Adam, Noah's Ark rested on dry land, The Israelites were saved from Pharaoh's army, etc. The day of Ashura, according to Eighth Shia Imam, Ali al-Rida, must be observed as a day of inactivity, sorrow and total disregard of worldly cares. [15]


Many of the events associated with Ashura are held in special congregation halls known as "Imambargah" and Hussainia.[citation needed]

As suffering and cutting the body with knives or chains (matam) have been prohibited by many Shi'a marjas like Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran,[16] some Shi'a observe mourning with blood donation which is called "Qame Zani"[16] and flailing[17]. Yet some Shi'ite men and boys, considered heretics by groups such as al Qaeda, slash themselves with razors or swords and allow their blood to run freely.[18]

Certain rituals like the traditional flagellation ritual called zanjeer zani or zanjeer matam, involving the use of a zanjeer (a chain with blades) are also performed[19]. These are religious customs that show solidarity with Imam Hussain and his family. People mourn the fact that they were not present at the battle to fight and save Hussain and his family.[20][21]

At least many Shia believe that taking part in Ashura is to be absolved of sin. A popular Shia saying has it that, `a single tear shed for Hussain washes away a hundred sins.`[22]

Popular customs

Indian Shia Muslims take out a Ta'ziya procession on day of Ashura in Barabanki, India, Jan, 2009.
Shia Muslims take out a Al'am procession on day of Ashura in Barabanki, India, Jan, 2009.

For Shi'as, commemoration of Ashura is not a festival, but rather a sad event, while Sunni Muslims view it as a victory God (Allah) has given to his prophet, Musa. This victory is the very reason, as Sunni Muslims believe, Muhammad mentioned when recommending fasting on this day. For Shi'as, it is a period of intense grief and mourning. Mourners, congregate at a Mosque for sorrowful, poetic recitations such as marsiya, noha, latmiya and soaz performed in memory of the martyrdom of Hussein, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Hussain." Also Ulamas give sermons with themes of Hussein's personality and position in Islam, and the history of his uprising. The Sheikh of the mosque retells the Battle of Karbala to allow the listeners to relive the pain and sorrow endured by Hussein and his family. In Arab countries like Iraq and Lebanon they read Maqtal Al-Husayn. In some places, such as Iran, Iraq and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Ta'zieh, passion plays, are also performed reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and martyrdom of Hussein at the hands of Yazid.[citation needed]

Tabuiks being lowered in to the sea in Pariaman, Indonesia, by Shia Muslims.

For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques and some people to provide free meals (Niazz) on certain nights of the month to all people. Many people donate food and Middle Eastern sweets to the mosque. These meals are viewed as being special and holy, as they have been consecrated in the name of Husayn, and thus partaking of them is considered an act of communion with God, Hussain, and humanity.[citation needed]

Many participants congregate together in public processions for ceremonial chest beating (matham/latmiya) as a display of their devotion to Husayn, in remembrance of his suffering and to preach that oppression will not last in the face of truth and justice[23]. Others pay tribute to the time period by holding a Majilis, Surahs from the Quran and Maqtal Al-Husayn are read.

Today in Indonesia, the event is known as Tabuik (Minangkabau language) or Tabut/Tabot (Indonesian). Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Shi'a Muslim Remembrance of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, particularly in the city of Pariaman. The festival includes reenactments of the Battle of Karbala, and the playing of tassa and dhol drums.[citation needed]

In countries like Turkey, there is the custom of eating Noah's Pudding Ashure as this day in Turkish is known as Aşure.

Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali by non-Muslims

A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s

In some countries other religious communities commemorate this event.

In Trinidad and Tobago[24] and Jamaica[25] all ethnic and religious communities participate in this event, locally known as "Hosay" or "Hussay", from "Husayn".

Significance of Ashura for Sunni Muslims

According to Hadith record in Sahih Bukhari, Ashura was already known as a commemorative day during which some Meccans used to observe customary fasting. In hijrah event when Muhammad led his followers to Medina, he found the Jews of that area likewise observing fasts on the day of Ashura. At this, Muhammad affirmed the Islamic claim to the fast, and from then the Muslims have fasted on combinations of two or three consecutive days including the 10th of Muharram (e.g. 9th and 10th or 10th and 11th)[2][26].

A companion of the Prophet Muhammed, Ibn Abas reports that Prophet Muhammed went to Medina and found the Jews fasting on the tenth of Muharram. Prophet Muhammed inquired of them, "What is the significance of this day on which you fast?" They replied, "This is a good day, the day on which God rescued the children of Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day." Muhammad said, "We have more claim over Moses than you." And the Prophet Muhammed fasted on that day and ordered the Muslims to fast on that day.[27]

The Ashura is commemorated for the following occasions which may have occurred on the 10th Day of the Muharram in different years:

  • God had mercy on Prophet Adam[28]
  • The deliverance of Prophet Noah from the flood[citation needed]
  • Prophet Abraham was saved from Nimrod's fire[citation needed]
  • Prophet Ya'qub's (Jacob) blindness was healed after Yusuf's shirt was brought to him on this day (Quran)
  • Prophet Ayyub (Job) was healed from his illness[citation needed]
  • The Israelites were saved from Pharaoh's army.[29]
  • Prophet Jesus was brought up to heaven after attempts by the Romans to capture and crucify him failed.[citation needed]

Not all of the above incidents are confirmed to have taken place on Ashura in the Quran, nor by any strong Hadith. These have been reported in the weaker Hadith, but are nevertheless regarded possible by some of the Sunni Muslims. However many Islamic scholars like Mufti Taqi Uthmani rebuke such beliefs saying that "there are some legends and misconceptions with regard to 'Ashura' that have managed to find their way into the minds of the ignorant, but have no support of authentic Islamic sources". [30]

The narrations of the Prophet mentioning the Children of Israel being saved from Pharaoh are indeed confimed by authentic hadith in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

Today, Sunnis regard fasting during Ashura as recommended, though not obligatory, having been superseded by the Ramadan fast.[31]

Sunnis in Egypt customarily eat a pudding (also known as Ashura) after dinner on the Day of Ashura; it is a wheat pudding with nuts, raisins, and rose water, and it is also known in Turkish as Aşure.

Socio-political aspects

Commemoration of Ashura has great socio-political value for the Shi'a, who have been a minority throughout their history. "Al-Amd" asserts that the Shi'a transference of Al-Husayn and Karbala ' from the framework of history to the domain of ideology and everlasting legend reflects their marginal and dissenting status in Arab-Islamic society.[citation needed] According to the prevailing conditions at the time of the commemoration, such reminiscences may become a framework for implicit dissent or explicit protest. It was, for instance, used during the Islamic Revolution of Iran , the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese resistance against the Israeli occupation and in the 1990s Uprising in Bahrain. Sometimes the `Ashura' celebrations associate the memory of Al-Husayn's martyrdom with the conditions of Islam and Muslims in reference[citation needed] to Imam Hussain's famous quote on the day of Ashura: "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala".[32]

From the period of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution (1905-11) onward, mourning gatherings increasingly assumed a political aspect. Following an old established tradition, preachers compared the oppressors of the time with Imam Hosayn's enemies, the umayyads.[33]

The political function of commemoration was very marked in the years leading up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978-79, as well as during the revolution itself. In addition, the implicit self-identification of the Muslim revolutionaries with Imam Hosayn led to a blossoming of the cult of the martyr, expressed most vividly, perhaps, in the vast cemetery of Behesht-e Zahra, to the south of Tehran, where the martyrs of the revolution and the war against Iraq are buried.[33]

On the other hand some governments have banned this commemoration. In 1930s Reza Shah forbade it in Iran. The regime of Saddam Hussein saw this as a potential threat and banned Ashura commemorations for many years. In the 1884 Hosay Massacre, 22 people were killed in Trinidad and Tobago when civilians attempted to carry out the Ashura rites, locally known as Hosay, in defiance of the British colonial authorities.

Violence during Ashura

The Sunni and Shi'a schism is highlighted by the difference in observance by Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. The violence is perpetrated by extremists. In countries that have significant populations of both sects, there is often violence during the holiday.

On June 20, 1994 the explosion of a bomb in a prayer hall of Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad[34] killed at least 25 people.[35] The Iranian government officially blamed Mujahedin-e-Khalq for the incident to avoid sectarian conflict between Shias and Sunnis.[36] However, the Pakistani daily The News International reported on March 27, 1995, "Pakistani investigators have identified a 24-year-old religious fanatic Abdul Shakoor residing in Lyari in Karachi, as an important Pakistani associate of Ramzi Yousef. Abdul Shakoor had intimate contacts with Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and was responsible for the June 20, 1994, massive bomb explosion at the shrine Imam Ali Reza in Mashhad."[37]

The 2004 (1425 AH) Shi'a pilgrimage to Karbala, the first since Saddam Hussein was removed from power in Iraq, was marred by bomb attacks, which killed and wounded hundreds despite tight security.

On January 19, 2008, 7 million Iraqi Shia pilgrims marched through Karbala city, Iraq to commemorate Ashura. 20,000 Iraqi troops and police guarded the event amid tensions due to clashes between Iraqi troops and members of a Shia cult, the Soldiers of Heaven, which left around 263 people dead (in Basra and Nasiriya).[38]

On December 27, 2009, tens of thousands of opposition protesters in Iran demonstrated in conjunction with the day of Ashura. Clashes between anti-riot forces and demonstrators occurred in several Iranian cities. Among others, the nephew of the opposition leader Mir-Hossein Mousavi was killed.[39]

On December 28, 2009, Tens of people were martyred and hundreds injured (including both Shia and Sunni commemorators) during the Ashura procession when a massive bomb exploded at the procession in Karachi,Pakistan. Reuters[40]

Ashura in the Gregorian calendar

While Ashura is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year due to differences between the two calendars, since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. Furthermore, the method used to determine when each Islamic month begins varies from country to country.

  • 2009, December 26 - 27
  • 2009, December 28 in India, Pakistan, Iran, N.America, Europe and Middle East and December 29th in Far-East

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "Battle of Karbala". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9044710/Battle-of-Karbala. Retrieved 2007-10-13. 
  2. ^ a b Sahih Bukhari 1900; Sahih Muslim 1130
  3. ^ Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Mizan, The Fast, Al-Mawrid
  4. ^ Al Bidayah wa al-Nihayah [1]
  5. ^ Al Bidayah wa al-Nihayah [2]
  6. ^ Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah [3]
  7. ^ در روز عاشورا چند نفر شهید شدند؟
  8. ^ فهرست اسامي شهداي كربلا
  9. ^ "Zaynab Bint ʿAlĪ". Encyclopedia of Religion. http://www.bookrags.com/Zaynab_bint_Ali. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  10. ^ The history of Al-Tabari, Volume XIX The Caliphate of Yazid, translated by I. K. A. Howard, p:164
  11. ^ al Musawi, 2006, p. 51.
  12. ^ Litvak, 1998, p. 16.
  13. ^ Karbala', an Enduring Paradigm
  14. ^ Ayoub, Shiʻism (1988), pp. 258 and 259
  15. ^ a b ZANJEER OR QAMA ZANI ON ASHURA DURING MUHARRAM
  16. ^ Ashura observed with blood streams to mark Karbala tragedy | Jafariya News Network
  17. ^ http://www.jafariyanews.com/2k5_news/feb/20ashur.htm
  18. ^ New Statesman - Scars on the backs of the young
  19. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article4620487.ece
  20. ^ http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2008/08/27/55577.html
  21. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, 2006, p.50
  22. ^ http://www.ashura.com.au
  23. ^ Korom, Frank J. (2003). Hosay Trinidad: Muharram Performances in an Indo-Caribbean Diaspora. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-3683-1. 
  24. ^ Shankar, Guha (2003) Imagining India(ns): Cultural Performances and Diaspora Politics in Jamaica. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin pdf
  25. ^ Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Mizan, The Fast, Al-Mawrid
  26. ^ Al-Bukhari, [4]
  27. ^ Birundi, Traces of the Past
  28. ^ Al Bukhari,http://www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/hadith/bukhari/031.sbt.html#003.031.222
  29. ^ http://darulihsan.co.za/index.php?view=article&catid=24%3Ageneral&id=955%3A-the-month-of-muharram&format=pdf&option=com_content&Itemid=72
  30. ^ Emmanuel Sivan. "Sunni Radicalism in the Middle East and the Iranian Revolution". International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1. (Feb., 1989), pp. 1-30
  31. ^ IslamOnline - Art & Entertainment Section
  32. ^ a b Calmard, J.. "'AZAÚDAÚRÈ". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v3f2/v3f2a063.html. Retrieved 2008-01-18. 
  33. ^ ABC Evening News for Monday, June 20, 1994 from the Vanderbilt Television News Archive
  34. ^ Explosive circles: Iran. (Mashhad bombing)
  35. ^ Darling, Dan (2004-03-11). "Special Analysis: The Ashura Massacre". http://www.windsofchange.net/archives/004697.php. 
  36. ^ Raman, B. (2002-01-07). "SIPAH-E-SAHABA PAKISTAN, LASHKAR-E-JHANGVI, BIN LADEN & RAMZI YOUSEF". http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers5/paper484.html. 
  37. ^ BBC NEWS, Iraqi Shia pilgrims mark holy day
  38. ^ CNN.com: Several killed, 300 arrested in Tehran protests - Dec. 27, 2009
  39. ^ Reuters News clip

References

  • Litvak, Meir (1998). Shi'i Scholars of Nineteenth-Century Iraq: The Ulama of Najaf and Karbala. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521892961
  • al Musawi, Muhsin (2006). Reading Iraq: Culture and Power and Conflict. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1845110706
  • al Mufid, al-Shaykh Muhammad (Dec 1982(1st ed.)). Kitab Al-Irshad. Tahrike Tarsile Quran. ISBN 0940368129 , ISBN 978-0940368125
  • al-Azdi, abu Mikhnaf, Maqtal al-Husayn. Shia Ithnasheri Community of Middlesex [www.sicm.org.uk/knowledge/Kitab%20Maqtal%20al-Husayn.pdf]

External links

Ashura Australia


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message