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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dead space may refer to:

  • Dead space (physiology) in physiology refers to air that is inhaled but does not play a role in gas exchange
  • Dead space ventilation in physiology refers to air exchange
  • Deadspace (in breathing apparatus), excess space which the flow of air or breathing gas must pass through and back again as the user breathes in and out, increasing the necessary respiratory effort to get the same amount of usable air or breathing gas
  • The Dead Space franchise:
    • Dead Space (video game), a third-person survival horror video game released in 2008.
    • Dead Space: Extraction, a 2009 first-person on-rails shooter that is a prequel to the above game, for the Nintendo Wii video game console.
    • Dead Space (comics), a 2008 comic book prequel to the game.
    • Dead Space: Downfall, an animated movie prequel released in 2008.
    • Dead Space 2, a sequel to the video game that is currently in development.
  • Dead Space (film), a science-fiction film released in 1991
  • Dead Space (album), a 1994 album released by Slowdown Virginia
  • Dead Space Recording, a recording studio in Lincoln, Nebraska

Dead space may refer to:

  • Dead space (physiology) in physiology refers to air that is inhaled but does not play a role in gas exchange
  • Dead space ventilation in physiology refers to air exchange
  • Deadspace (in breathing apparatus), excess space which the flow of air or breathing gas must pass through and back again as the user breathes in and out, increasing the necessary respiratory effort to get the same amount of usable air or breathing gas

=The videogame

=

Other entertainment


Template:Other uses In physiology, dead space is air that is inhaled by the body in breathing, but does not take part in gas exchange.

In adults, it is usually in the range of 150 mL.[1]

Contents

Understanding dead space

Not all the air in each breath is able to be used for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. About a third of every resting breath is exhaled exactly as it came into the body.

Because of dead space, taking deep breaths more slowly (e.g. ten 500 mL breaths per minute) is more effective than taking shallow breaths quickly (e.g. twenty 250 mL breaths per minute). Although the amount of gas per minute is the same (5 L/min), a large proportion of the shallow breaths is dead space, and does not allow oxygen to get into the blood.

Dead space can be enlarged (and better envisaged) by breathing into a long tube. Even though one end of the tube is open to the air, when one inhales, it is mostly the carbon dioxide from expiration. Using a snorkel increases a diver's dead space in the airways.

Components

Physiological Dead Space

Total dead space (aka "Physiological" dead space) can be divided into Anatomical dead space and Alveolar dead space.

Anatomical Dead Space

Anatomical dead space is the gas in the conducting areas of the respiratory system, such as the mouth and trachea, where air does not come into contact with the alveoli of the lungs.

It is normally equal in milliliters to your body weight in pounds. A 150 lb (68 kg) male would have an anatomical dead space of about 150 mL. 1 mL per lb or 2.2 mL per kilogram of body weight. This is the same conversion of kilograms to pounds, except the final unit is in mL. This is about a third of the resting tidal volume (450-500 mL).

Anatomic dead space is the volume of the conducting airways. It may be measured by Fowler's method, a nitrogen washout technique.[2][3][4]

Alveolar Dead Space

Alveolar dead space is caused by air contacting alveoli without bloodflow in their adjacent pulmonary capillaries. As a result, no gas exchange can occur.[5] Alveolar dead space is negligible in healthy individuals, but can increase dramatically in some lung diseases.

Calculating the Dead Space

Overview

The Physiological and Alveolar dead space can both be measured using Bohr's method.[6][7] Formally, Bohr's method is used to calculate former. In practice, it is more commonly used to calculate the latter.

Bohr's equation states that the dead space (Vd) is calculated as follows: Vd/Vt = (PaCO2 − PeCO2) / PaCO2
Where: Vd = Dead space volume, Vt = Tidal volume, PaCO2 = Arterial carbon dioxide, PeCO2 = Expired carbon dioxide

Whether this equation gives the Physiological or Alveolar dead space depends on how the expired CO2 is measured.

a. Done formally, a large plastic bag (ie. a Douglas bag) is used to collect all of the patients expired gas, and the total exhaled CO2 (PeCO2) is measured as a fraction of total exhaled gas.
-Measuring the formal PeCO2 in this manner allows a calculation of the Physiological dead space

b. More commonly, the end-tidal CO2 on capnography (PetCO2) is used as a surrogate for the PeCO2.
-If the PetCO2 is used in Bohr's equation, it gives a calculation of the Alveolar dead space.

Example

If a patient's tidal volume is 500 mL, their arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is 42 mmHg (5.6 kPa), and their end-expired carbon dioxide (ETCO2) on capnography is 40 mmHg (5.3 kPa), the Alveolar dead space can be calculated as follows:

Vd = Vt(PaCO2 − PetCO2) / PaCO2

Vd = 500 mL (42mmHg - 40mmHg)/(42mmHg)

= 1000 / 42

= 24 mL (ie. negligible)

See also

References

  1. Wasted Ventilation
  2. http://www.med.mun.ca/surgery/presentations/LungVentilation/LungVentilation.htm#AnatomicDeadSpace
  3. Physiology at MCG 4/4ch3/s4ch3_17
  4. Heller H, Könen-Bergmann M, Schuster K (1999). "An algebraic solution to dead space determination according to Fowler's graphical method". Comput Biomed Res 32 (2): 161–7. doi:10.1006/cbmr.1998.1504. PMID 10337497. 
  5. Physiology at MCG 4/4ch3/s4ch3_20
  6. Physiology at MCG 4/4ch3/s4ch3_18
  7. Klocke R (2006). "Dead space: simplicity to complexity". J Appl Physiol 100 (1): 1–2. doi:10.1152/classicessays.00037.2005. PMID 16357075.  article

External links


Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

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Dead Space
Box artwork for Dead Space.
Developer(s) EA Redwood Shores
Publisher(s) Electronic Arts
Engine Godfather engine
Release date(s)
Steam
 January, 2009
Genre(s) Third-person shooter, survival horror
System(s) PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Windows, Direct2Drive, Steam
Rating(s)
ESRB: Mature
Followed by Dead Space: Extraction
Series Dead Space
This is the first game in the Dead Space series. For other games in the series see the Dead Space category.

Dead Space is a Third-person shooter survival horror-action video game, developed by EA Redwood Shores for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, and Windows and released on October 14, 2008. The player takes on the role of an engineer named Isaac Clarke, who battles a polymorphic, virus-like, alien infestation called the "Corruption", which turns humans into grotesque alien monsters called "Necromorphs", on board a stricken interstellar mining ship.

Story

Set in the distant future, Dead Space revolves around Isaac Clarke, a space engineer who works for the Concordance Extraction Corporation (C.E.C.), a company that operates giant mining ships throughout the galaxy. When the C.E.C. receives a distress call from the USG Ishimura (a “Planet Cracker”-class ship that destroys planets in order to extract valuable ore), Isaac and four other C.E.C. employees set out to rendezvous with the Ishimura. Shortly after crash landing, the crew is attacked by hostile creatures called Necromorphs. Throughout the rest of the game, Isaac is tasked with repairing different areas of the Ishimura while constantly under attack by Necromorphs.

Table of Contents

Getting Started
  1. Chapter 1: New Arrivals
  2. Chapter 2: Intensive Care
  3. Chapter 3: Course Correction
  4. Chapter 4: Obliteration Imminent
  5. Chapter 5: Lethal Devotion
  6. Chapter 6: Environmental Hazard
  7. Chapter 7: Into the Void
  8. Chapter 8: Search and Rescue
  9. Chapter 9: Dead on Arrival
  10. Chapter 10: End of Days
  11. Chapter 11: Alternate Solutions
  12. Chapter 12: Dead Space
Appendices

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Dead Space

Developer(s) EA Redwood Shores
Publisher(s) Electronic Arts
Release date October 28, 2008
Genre Third-person shooter, Survival horror
Mode(s) Single-player
Age rating(s) ESRB: RP
Platform(s) PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Windows
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough


Dead Space is a third-person action video game, being developed by EA Redwood Shores for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and the PC. It is currently scheduled for release in October 2008. The player takes on the role of an engineer named Isaac Clarke, who battles a polymorphic alien species called the 'Necromorphs' on board a stricken interstellar mining ship.

Contents

Gameplay

The players must fight their way through various levels of a stricken mining ship, which has been infested with an alien species known as the 'Necromorphs'. The game features an 'over the shoulder' third-person perspective, similar to games such as Resident Evil 4 and Gears of War. The interface does not feature a traditional 'heads up display'. Instead, information is relayed to the player via lights, translucent screens which hover over Isaac's weapons and armor, and a lighted display located on the player's spinal column, which indicates health.

The player will encounter weightless and decompressed environments, which Isaac can navigate using a pressurized suit equipped with magnetic boots. Some levels will even lead out onto the surface of the ships hull. Floating debris will present a hazard, and Isaac can lose his footing and simply float off into space.

Combat in the game is complicated by the fact that Necromorphs are not simply rendered 'dead' after a certain number of rounds have been fired at them. Rather, they can adopt new stances and tactics, and even sprout new limbs, based upon where they have been wounded. Hence, the player must find and exploit specific weak points. The game's Executive Producer, Glen Schofield, has said that 'the primary theme of Dead Space is dismemberment', and early previews of the game have noted the high levels of gore.

Plot

The game's plot revolves around Isaac Clarke, a space engineer who works for the Concordance Extraction Corporation (C.E.C), a company that operates "giant mining ships" throughout the galaxy. His company receives a distress call from the USG Ishimura, a “Planet Cracker” class ship that destroys planets in order to extract valuable ore. Assuming that the ship has had a mechanical failure, Isaac and two other C.E.C employees set out to rendezvous with the Ishimura. They soon discover that the ship has been overrun by hostile mutants known as Necromorphs. After boarding the ship, Clarke is separated from his party and must battle his way through various hazardous environments to safety. Based on the two graphic art videos released for the game, it seems that a mysterious "artifact" had been found near one of the colony planets and was brought aboard the Isimura despite the fact that it seemed to make the miners who extracted it go insane. This artifact seems to not only play a large role in the games story but also seems to be closely followed by a cult, known as the Unitologists.

Backstory

The events leading up to the games story are being shown in a series of video comics, mostly featuring a P-SEC operative named Abraham Neumann and a doctor named Tom Shairello.

Development

Electronic Arts first announced Dead Space in September 2007. The game is being developed at their studio in Redwood Shores, California, whose other titles include The Godfather and The Simpsons Game. The game's executive producer, Glen Schofield, said that the team aimed to create something 'darker and creepier' than their previous titles: "We are all such huge fans of the horror and sci-fi genres; we wanted to create the most terrifying game we could, and keep the player on the edge of his seat the entire time." The design team reportedly spent time analyzing a wide variety of horror films in order to find inspiration for in-game scares.

In the gaming press, previews of Dead Space have been very positive. Writing for IGN.com, Hilary Goldstein praised the game's inventive character and weapon design, puzzle anti-gravity sections, and distinctive art direction, even suggesting that it could be 'one of the best games of the year'. For Gamespy.com, Gabe Graziani was also impressed with the anti-gravity sections, saying that the effects of floating debris and gas leaks were 'hauntingly beautiful'. He was also impressed with the game's 'balance between tense build-up moments and gruesomely bloody payoffs'.

Previews of the game have universally drawn attention to the high levels of gore and violence in the game, in particular the tactic of 'strategic dismemberment' when battling the Necromorphs. The aliens cannot be subdued by a single shot, rather they have to be incapacitated by shooting off their tentacles and appendages.

Dead Space is currently scheduled for a Halloween 2008 release in North America and Europe.

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Simple English

Dead space
Developer(s) Visceral Games
Publisher(s) Electronic Arts
Engine Godfather game engine
Platform(s) PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Microsoft Windows
Release date(s) October 14, 2008
Genre(s) horror, third-person shooter
Mode(s) Singleplayer
Rating(s) ESRB: Mature
PEGI: 18+

Dead Space is a third-person horror video game, made by Visceral Games for the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows. The player plays as an engineer named Isaac Clarke, who fights against an alien infestation which turns humans into monsters called "Necromorphs", on a mining ship in space named the USG Ishimura.








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