Numeral systems by culture  

HinduArabic numerals  
Eastern Arabic Indian family Khmer 
Mongolian Thai Western Arabic 
East Asian numerals  
Chinese Counting rods Japanese 
Korean Suzhou Vietnamese 
Alphabetic numerals  
Abjad Armenian Āryabhaṭa Cyrillic 
Ge'ez Greek (Ionian) Hebrew 
Other systems  
Attic Babylonian Brahmi Egyptian Etruscan Inuit 
Mayan Quipu Roman Urnfield 
List of numeral system topics  
Positional systems by base  
Decimal (10)  
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 16, 20, 60 more…  
The decimal numeral system (also called base ten or occasionally denary) has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations.^{[1]}^{[2]}
Decimal notation often refers to the base10 positional notation such as the HinduArabic numeral system, however it can also be used more generally to refer to nonpositional systems such as Roman or Chinese numerals which are still based on powers of ten.
In some contexts, especially mathematics education, the term decimal can refer specifically to decimal fractions, described below. In such cases, a single decimal fraction is called a "decimal", and nonfractional numbers, even when written in base 10, are not considered "decimals".
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Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in a base10 numeral system. Examples are Roman numerals, Brahmi numerals, and Chinese numerals, as well as the HinduArabic numerals used by speakers of English. Roman numerals have symbols for the decimal powers (1, 10, 100, 1000) and secondary symbols for half these values (5, 50, 500). Brahmi numerals had symbols for the nine numbers 1–9, the nine decades 10–90, plus a symbol for 100 and another for 1000. Chinese has symbols for 1–9, and fourteen additional symbols for higher powers of 10, which in modern usage reach 10^{44}.
However, when people who use HinduArabic numerals speak of decimal notation, they often mean not just decimal numeration, as above, but also decimal fractions, all conveyed as part of a positional system. Positional decimal systems include a zero and use symbols (called digits) for the ten values (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) to represent any number, no matter how large or how small. These digits are often used with a decimal separator which indicates the start of a fractional part, and with a symbol such as the plus sign + (for positive) or minus sign − (for negative) adjacent to the numeral to indicate its polarity.
Positional notation uses positions for each power of ten: units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. The position of each digit within a number denotes the multiplier (power of ten) multiplied with that digit—each position has a value ten times that of the position to its right. There were two independent sources of positional decimal systems in ancient civilization: the Chinese counting rod system and the HinduArabic numeral system, which descended from Brahmi numerals.
Ten is the number which is the count of fingers and thumbs on both hands (or toes on the feet). In many languages the word digit or its translation is also the anatomical term referring to fingers and toes. In English, decimal (decimus < Lat.) means tenth, decimate means reduce by a tenth, and denary (denarius < Lat.) means the unit of ten. The symbols for the digits in common use around the globe today are called Arabic numerals by Europeans and Indian numerals by Arabs, the two groups' terms both referring to the culture from which they learned the system. However, the symbols used in different areas are not identical; for instance, Western Arabic numerals (from which the European numerals are derived) differ from the forms used by other Arab cultures.
A decimal fraction is a fraction where the denominator is a power of ten.
Decimal fractions are commonly expressed without a denominator, the decimal separator being inserted into the numerator (with leading zeros added if needed), at the position from the right corresponding to the power of ten of the denominator. e.g., 8/10, 83/100, 83/1000, and 8/10000 are expressed as: 0.8, 0.83, 0.083, and 0.0008. In Englishspeaking and many Asian countries, a period (.) or raised period (•) is used as the decimal separator; in many other countries, a comma is used.
The integer part or integral part of a decimal number is the part to the left of the decimal separator (see also floor function). The part from the decimal separator to the right is the fractional part; if considered as a separate number, a zero is often written in front. Especially for negative numbers, we have to distinguish between the fractional part of the notation and the fractional part of the number itself, because the latter gets its own minus sign. It is usual for a decimal number whose absolute value is less than one to have a leading zero.
Trailing zeros after the decimal point are not necessary, although in science, engineering and statistics they can be retained to indicate a required precision or to show a level of confidence in the accuracy of the number: Whereas 0.080 and 0.08 are numerically equal, in engineering 0.080 suggests a measurement with an error of up to 1 part in two thousand (±0.0005), while 0.08 suggests a measurement with an error of up to 1 in two hundred (see Significant figures).
Any rational number which cannot be expressed as a finite decimal fraction has a unique infinite decimal expansion ending with recurring decimals.
The decimal fractions are those with denominator divisible by only 2 and or 5.
1001=99=9×11
10001=9×111=27×37
also:
Other prime factors in the denominator will give longer recurring sequences, see for instance 7, 13.
That a rational number must have a finite or recurring decimal expansion can be seen to be a consequence of the long division algorithm, in that there are only q1 possible nonzero remainders on division by q, so that the recurring pattern will have a period less than q. For instance to find 3/7 by long division:
0.4 2 8 5 7 1 4 ... 7 ) 3.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 30/7 = 4 r 2 2 0 1 4 20/7 = 2 r 6 6 0 5 6 60/7 = 8 r 4 4 0 3 5 40/7 = 5 r 5 5 0 4 9 50/7 = 7 r 1 1 0 7 10/7 = 1 r 3 3 0 2 8 30/7 = 4 r 2 2 0 etc
The converse to this observation is that every recurring decimal represents a rational number p/q. This is a consequence of the fact the recurring part of a decimal representation is, in fact, an infinite geometric series which will sum to a rational number. For instance,
Every real number has a (possibly infinite) decimal representation, i.e., it can be written as
where
Such a sum converges as i decreases, even if there are infinitely many nonzero a_{i}.
Rational numbers (e.g. p/q) with prime factors in the denominator other than 2 and 5 (when reduced to simplest terms) have a unique recurring decimal representation.
Consider those rational numbers which have only the factors 2 and 5 in the denominator, i.e. which can be written as p/(2^{a}5^{b}). In this case there is a terminating decimal representation. For instance 1/1=1, 1/2=0.5, 3/5=0.6, 3/25=0.12 and 1306/1250=1.0448. Such numbers are the only real numbers which do not have a unique decimal representation, as they can also be written as a representation that has a recurring 9, for instance 1=0.99999…, 1/2=0.499999…, etc.
The number 0=0/1 is special in that it has no representation with recurring 9.
This leaves the irrational numbers. They also have unique infinite decimal representation, and can be characterised as the numbers whose decimal representations neither terminate nor recur.
So in general the decimal representation is unique, if one excludes representations that end in a recurring 9.
The same trichotomy holds for other basen positional numeral systems:
and a version of this even holds for irrationalbase numeration systems, such as golden mean base representation.
The basis for modern decimal notation was first introduced by Simon Stevin.^{[3]}
The modern numeral system format, known as the HinduArabic numeral system, originated in Indian mathematics^{[4]} by the 9th century. Its ideas were transmitted to Chinese mathematics and Islamic mathematics during and after that time.^{[5]} It was notably introduced to the west through Muhammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī's On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals.
Nonpositional decimal numerals were used in China,^{[6]}^{[7]} possibly as early as the 14th century BC. The earliest positional decimal numbers, however, were the Indian numerals developed in India.
According to Joseph Needham, decimal fractions were first developed and used by the Chinese in the 1st century BC, and then spread to the Middle East and from there to Europe.^{[6]} The Chinese decimal fractions were nonpositional, however.^{[6]}^{[7]} The incorporation of decimal fractions into a positional decimal system, namely the Arabic numerals, occurred in the Islamic world. The Persian mathematician Jamshīd alKāshī claimed to have discovered decimal fractions himself in the 15th century, though J. Lennart Berggrenn notes that positional decimal fractions were used five centuries before him by Arab mathematician Abu'lHasan alUqlidisi as early as the 10th century.^{[8]}
A straightforward decimal system, in which 11 is expressed as tenone and 23 as twotenthree, is found in Chinese languages, and in Vietnamese with a few irregularities. Japanese, Korean, and Thai have imported the Chinese decimal system. Many other languages with a decimal system have special words for the numbers between 10 and 20, and decades.
Incan languages such as Quechua and Aymara have an almost straightforward decimal system, in which 11 is expressed as ten with one and 23 as twoten with three.
Some psychologists suggest irregularities of the English names of numerals may hinder children's counting ability.^{[9]}
Some cultures do, or did, use other numeral systems, most notably
In addition, it has been suggested that many other cultures developed alternative numeral systems (although the extent is debated):
Computer hardware and software systems commonly use a binary representation, internally (although a few of the earliest computers, such as ENIAC, did use decimal representation internally). ^{[18]} For external use by computer specialists, this binary representation is sometimes presented in the related octal or hexadecimal systems. For most purposes, however, binary values are converted to the equivalent decimal values for presentation to and manipulation by humans.
Both computer hardware and software also use internal representations which are effectively decimal for storing decimal values and doing arithmetic. Often this arithmetic is done on data which are encoded using some variant of binarycoded decimal,^{[19]} especially in database implementations, but there are other decimal representations in use (such as in the new IEEE 754 Standard for FloatingPoint Arithmetic). ^{[20]}.
Decimal arithmetic is used in computers so that decimal fractional results can be computed exactly, which is not possible using a binary fractional representation. This is often important for financial and other calculations.^{[21]}
The decimal is a way of managing numbers that has ten as a starting point, or base. It is sometimes called the base ten or denary numeral system. The word "decimal" is also used instead of the word "period" to point out the dot that is sometimes used separates the positions of the numbers in this system. Almost everyone uses this nowadays and prefers the convenience of it probably because it shows up most often in calculations in nature and has "one" as another starting point for the system. The number one is usually the easiest to work with in calculations.
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Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in the baseten numeral system, which uses various symbols (called digits) for no more than ten distinct values (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) to represent any numbers, no matter how large. These digits are often used with a decimal separator which indicates the start of a fractional part, and with one of the sign symbols + (positive) or − (negative) in front of the numerals to indicate sign.
There are only two truly positional decimal systems in ancient civilization, the Chinese counting rods system and HinduArabic numeric system, both required no more than ten symbols. Other numeric systems require more symbols.
Any rational number can be expressed as a unique decimal expansion ending with recurring decimals.
Ten is the product of the first and third prime numbers, is one greater than the square of the second prime number, and is one less than the fifth prime number. This leads to plenty of simple decimal fractions:
There follows a chronological list of recorded decimal writers.
A straightforward decimal system, in which 11 is expressed as tenone and 23 as twotenthree, is found in Chinese languages except Wu, and in Vietnamese with a few irregularities. Japanese, Korean, and Thai have imported the Chinese decimal system. Many other languages with a decimal system have special words for teens and decades.
Incan languages such as Quechua and Aymara have an almost straightforward decimal system, in which 11 is expressed as ten with one and 23 as twoten with three.
Some psychologists suggest irregularities of numerals in a language may hinder children's counting ability (Azar 1999).
