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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Declaration of Independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. Not all declarations of independence were successful and resulted in independence for these regions.

Such declarations are typically made without the consent of the parent state, and hence are sometimes called unilateral declarations of independence (UDI), particularly by those who question the declarations' validity.

Region Declaration Date Year Parent Signatories First recognising state
Albania Albanian Declaration of Independence November 28 1912 Ottoman Empire
United Provinces of South America
(Argentina)
Argentine Declaration of Independence July 9 1816 Spain Congress of Tucumán
Armenia Democratic Republic of Armenia May 28 1918 Ottoman Empire Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF Dashnak) Russia
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan May 28 1918 Russian Empire Ottoman Empire
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence March 26 1971 Pakistan Bhutan
Belarus Belavezha Accords December 8 1991 Soviet Union Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus Turkey
Belgium Belgian Declaration of Independence October 4 1830 Netherlands Provisional Government of Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Declaration of Independence March 01 1992 Yugoslavia Bulgaria
Brazil Brazilian Declaration of Independence September 7 1822 Portugal Pedro I of Brazil United States
Bulgaria Bulgarian Declaration of Independence September 22 1908 Ottoman Empire Ferdinand of Bulgaria and the Government of Bulgaria Russian Empire (5 February 1909)
Republic of Carpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia Declaration of Independence October 25 2008 Ukraine Congress Of Carpathian Ruthenians
Central America Central American Declaration of Independence September 15 1821 Spain
Chile Chilean Declaration of Independence February 12 1818 Spain National Congress Portugal
Colombia Colombian Declaration of Independence July 20 1810 Spain
Croatia Croatian Declaration of Independence June 25 1991 Yugoslavia Iceland
Dominican Republic Dominican Declaration of Independence February 27 1844 Haiti
East Timor East Timorese Declaration of Independence November 28 1975 Portugal Morocco
Estonia Estonian Declaration of Independence February 24 1918 Russia Salvation Committee Russian SFSR
Estonia Estonian Reconfirmation of Independence August 20 1991 Soviet Union Congress of Estonia Iceland (reconfirmed earlier recognition)
Finland Finland's Declaration of Independence December 6 1917 Russia Parliament of Finland
Georgia (country) Georgia's Declaration of Independence April 9 1991 Soviet Union Germany
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia's secession declaration January 29 1861 United States
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Declaration of Independence September 24 1973 Portugal
Haiti Haitian Declaration of Independence January 1 1804 France Jean-Jacques Dessalines
Hungary Hungarian Declaration of Independence April 17 1848 Austrian Empire
Iceland Icelandic Declaration of Independence June 17 1944 Denmark
India Indian Declaration of Independence August 14 1947 United Kingdom United Kingdom
Iraq Iraq Declaration of Independence October 3 1932 United Kingdom United Kingdom
Indonesia Indonesian Declaration of Independence August 17 1945 Netherlands Sukarno & Mohammad Hatta Egypt
Ireland Proclamation of the Irish Republic April 24 1916 United Kingdom Irish Volunteers
Irish Citizen Army
Irish Republic Irish Declaration of Independence January 21 1919 United Kingdom Dáil Éireann Russian SFSR
Israel Israeli Declaration of Independence May 14 1948 United Kingdom Jewish People's Council United States
Katanga Katangan Declaration of Independence 1960 Congo (Léopoldville)
Korea Korean Declaration of Independence March 1 1919 Japan
Kosovo 1990 Kosovo declaration of independence ? 1990 Serbia Albania
Kosovo Kosovo declaration of Independence February 17 2008 Serbia Assembly of Kosovo Afghanistan
Republic of Lakotah Republic of Lakotah declaration of independence December 19 2007 United States of America Lakota Freedom Delegation
Latvia On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia May 4 1990 Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR Iceland
Lithuania Act of Independence of Lithuania February 16 1918 Germany, Russia Council of Lithuania Germany
Lithuania Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania March 11 1990 Soviet Union Supreme Council of Lithuania Iceland
Republic of Macedonia Independence of the Republic of Macedonia September 8 1991 Yugoslavia Bulgaria
Mississippi A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union January 9 1861 United States
Moldova Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova August 27 1991 Soviet Union Parliament of the Republic of Moldova Romania
Montenegro Montenegro declaration of independence June 3 2006 Serbia and Montenegro Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro Iceland
Moskitia Moskitia declaration of independence August 2009 Nicaragua
Netherlands Act of Abjuration July 26 1581 Habsburg Empire Union of Utrecht
New Zealand Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand October 28 1835 United Kingdom Māori chiefs
Northern America
(Mexico)
Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America November 6 1813 Spain Congress of Anáhuac
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus November 15 1983 Cyprus Turkey
Norway Constitution of Norway May 17 1814 Union according to Treaty of Kiel Constitutional assembly
Palestine Palestinian Declaration of Independence November 15 1988 Palestinian territories Palestinian National Council Arab League
Papua New Guinea Independence Day September 16 1975 Australia/United Kingdom First Prime Minister: Michael Somare
Peru Act of the Declaration of Independence of Peru July 28 1821 Spain José de San Martín
Philippines Philippine Declaration of Independence June 12 1898 Spain Emilio Aguinaldo, Katipunan United States
Rhodesia Rhodesian Unilateral Declaration of Independence November 11 1965 United Kingdom Ian Smith and the rest of the Cabinet none
Romania Romanian Declaration of Independence May 22 1877 Ottoman Empire King Carol I
Russia Belavezha Accords (de-facto)
Officially never declared "independence", to become successor to the Soviet Union.
December 8 1991 Soviet Union Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
Kingdom of Scotland Declaration of Arbroath April 6 1320 Kingdom of England Scottish leaders
Serbia The Proclamation (Proglašenije/Πρоглашеније) February 1809 Ottoman Empire Karađorđe Petrović and Serbian MPs
Singapore Proclamation of Singapore[1] August 9 1965 Malaysia Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore
Slovenia Slovenian Declaration of Independence June 25 1991 Yugoslavia Croatia
Somaliland Somaliland Declaration of Independence May 18 1991 Somalia none
South Carolina Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union December 24 1860 United States South Carolinians in Charleston
Southern Cameroons Southern Cameroons Declaration of Independence December 31 1999 Cameroon none
Texas Texas Declaration of Independence March 2 1836 Mexico France
Texas A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union February 1 1861 United States Texas Legislature
Tibet Tibet's Declaration of Independence   1913 China 13th Dalai Lama
Ukraine Declaration of Independence of Ukraine August 24 1991 Soviet Union Verkhovna Rada Poland
United States United States Declaration of Independence July 4 1776 Great Britain Second Continental Congress France
Uzbekistan Declaration of Independence August 31 1991 Soviet Union Supreme Council of Uzbekistan Turkey
Venezuela Venezuelan Declaration of Independence July 5 1811 Kingdom of Spain Representatives of the States of Venezuela
Vietnam Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam September 2 1945 Japan Hồ Chí Minh Soviet Union

Independence without a declaration

In many cases, independence is achieved without a declaration of independence but instead occurs by bilateral agreement. An example of this is the independence of many components of the British Empire, most parts of which achieved independence through negotiation with the United Kingdom government and legislation by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Australia and Canada, for example, achieved full independence through a series of acts of their respective national governments and parliaments and the British government and parliament.

On the other hand, regions often achieve de facto independence, but do not make a formal declaration. Notable examples include Taiwan, which China has threatened to invade should it officially declare independence. Iraqi Kurdistan was de facto independent from the central Iraqi government between the Persian Gulf War and the Iraq War, but could not declare statehood out of fear of losing international support. Such regions often refer to themselves as autonomous regions, with or without the assent of the central government.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Singapore was forced out of Malaysia by the Malaysian parliament, and the proclamations were then agreed by the two governments. See the Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965 (1985 Rev. Ed.).
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Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Declaration of Independence
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, in United States history, the act (or document) by which the thirteen original states of the Union broke their colonial allegiance to Great Britain. in 1776. The controversy preceding the war (see American Independence, War Of) gradually shifted from one primarily upon economic policy to one upon issues of pure politics and sovereignty, and the acts of Congress, as viewed to-day, seem to have been carrying it, from the beginning, inevitably into revolution; but there was apparently no general and conscious drift toward independence until near the close of 1775. The first colony to give official countenance to separation as a solution of colonial grievances was North Carolina, which, on the 12th of April 1776, authorized its delegates in Congress to join with others in a declaration to that end. The first colony to instruct its delegates to take the actual initiative was Virginia, in accordance with whose instructions - voted on the 15th of May - Richard Henry Lee, on the 7th of June, moved a resolution "that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States." John Adams of Massachusetts seconded the motion. The conservatives could only plead the unpreparedness of public opinion, and the radicals conceded delay on condition that a committee be meanwhile at work on a declaration "to the effect of the said. .. resolution," to serve as a preamble thereto when adopted. This committee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston. To Jefferson the committee entrusted the actual preparation of the paper. On the and of July, by a vote of 12 states-10 voting unanimously, New York not voting, and Pennsylvania and Delaware casting divided ballots (3 votes in the negative) - Congress adopted the resolution of independence; and on the 4th, Jefferson's "Declaration." The 4th has always been the day celebrated; 1 the decisive act of the and being quite forgotten in the memory of the day on which that act was published to the world. It should also be noted that as Congress had already, on the 6th of December 1775, formally disavowed allegiance to parliament, the Declaration recites its array of grievances against the crown, and breaks allegiance to the crown. Moreover, on the 10th of May 1776, Congress had recommended to the people of the colonies that they form such new governments as their representatives should deem desirable; and in the accompanying statement of causes, formulated on the 15th of May, had declared it to be "absolutely irreconcilable to reason and good conscience for the people of these colonies now to take the oaths and affirmations necessary for the support of any government under the crown of Great Britain," whose authority ought to be "totally suppressed" and taken over by the people - a determination which, as John Adams said, inevitably involved a struggle for absolute independence, involving as it did the extinguishment of all authority, whether of crown, parliament or nation.

Though the Declaration reads as "In Congress, July 4, 1776. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America," New York's adhesion was in fact not voted until the 9th, nor announced to Congress until the 15th - the Declaration being unanimous, however, when it was ordered, on the 19th, to be engrossed and signed under the above title. 2 Contrary to the inference naturally to be drawn from the form of the document, no signatures were attached on the 4th. As adopted by Congress, the Declaration differs only in details from the draft prepared by Jefferson; censures of the British people and a noble denunciation of slavery were omitted, appeals to Providence were inserted, and verbal improvements made in the interest of terseness and measured statement. The document is full of Jefferson's fervent spirit and personality, and its ideals were those to which his life was consecrated. It is the best known and the noblest of American state papers. Though open to 1 "Independence Day" is a holiday in all the states and territories of the United States.

2 As read before the army meanwhile, it was headed "In Congress, July 4, 1776. A Declaration by the representatives of the United States of America in General Congress assembled." controversy on some issues of historical fact, not flawless in logic, necessarily partisan in tone and purpose, it is a justificatory preamble, a party manifesto and appeal, reasoned enough to carry conviction, fervent enough to inspire enthusiasm. It mingles - as in all the controversy of the time, but with a literary skill and political address elsewhere unrivalled - stale disputation with philosophy. The rights of man lend dignity to the rights of Englishmen, and the broad outlook of a world-wide appeal, and the elevation of noble principles, relieve minute criticisms of an administrative system.

Jefferson's political theory was that of Locke, whose words the Declaration echoes. Uncritical critics have repeated John Adams's assertion that its arguments were hackneyed: so they undoubtedly were - in Congress, and probably little less so without, - but that is certainly pre-eminent among its great merits. As Madison said, "The object was to assert, not to discover truths." Others have echoed Rufus Choate's phrase, that the Declaration is made up of "glittering and sounding generalities of natural right." In truth, its long array of "facts ... submitted to a candid world" had its basis in the whole development of the relations between England and the colonies; every charge had point in a definite reference to historical events, and appealed primarily to men's reason; but the history is to-day forgotten, while the fanciful basis of the "compact" theory does not appeal to a later age. It should be judged, however, by its purpose and success in its own time. The "compact" theory was always primarily a theory of political ethics, a revolutionary theory, and from the early middle ages to the French Revolution it worked with revolutionary power. It held up an ideal. Its ideal of "equality" was not realized in America in 1776 - nor in England in 1688 - but no man knew this better than Jefferson. Locke disclaimed for him in 1690 3 the shallower misunderstandings still daily put upon his words. Both Locke and Jefferson wrote simply of political equality, political freedom. Even within this limitation, the idealistic formulas of both were at variance with the actual conditions of their time. The variance would have been greater had their phrases been applied as humanitarian formulas to industrial and social conditions. The Lockian theory fitted beautifully the question of colonial dependence, and was applied to that by America with inexorable logic; it fitted the question of individual political rights, and was applied to them in 1776, but not in 1690; it did not apply to non-political conditions of individual liberty, a fact realized by many at the time - and it is true that such an application would have been more inconsistent in America in 1776 as regards the negroes than in England in 1690 as regarded freemen. Beyond this, there is no pertinence in the stricture that the Declaration is made up of glittering generalities of natural right. Its influence upon American legal and constitutional development has been profound. Locke, says Leslie Stephen, popularized "a convenient formula for enforcing the responsibility of governors" - but his theories were those of an individual philosopher - while by the Declaration a state, for the first time in history, founded its life on democratic idealism, pronouncing governments to exist for securing the happiness of the people, and to derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. It was a democratic instrument, and the revolution a democratic movement; in South Carolina and the Middle Colonies particularly, the cause of independence was bound up with popular movements against aristocratic elements. Congress was fond of appealing to "the purest maxims of representation"; it sedulously measured public opinion; took no great step without an explanatory address to the country; cast its influence with the people in local struggles as far as it could; appealed to them directly over the heads of conservative assemblies; and in general stirred up democracy. The Declaration gave the people recognition equivalent to promises, which, as fast as new governments were instituted, were converted by written constitutions into rights, which have since then steadily extended.

3 Two Treatises of Government, No. ii. § 54, as to age, abilities, virtue, &c.

Down to the end of the 18th century the former title prevailed in England, though not in America; while since then "Congregationalist" has obtained generally in both. (See CON GREGATIONALISM.)


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Simple English

This article is about declarations of independence in general. For the U.S. Declaration, see United States Declaration of Independence.


A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of an aspiring state or states. Such states are usually formed from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the parent state.

Declarations of independence are typically made without the consent of the parent state, and hence are sometimes called unilateral declarations of independence (UDI), particularly by those who question the validity of the declarations.


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