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Deduction: Wikis

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Deduction may refer to:

in logic:

  • Deductive reasoning, inference in which the conclusion is of no greater generality than the premises
  • Natural deduction, an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it "naturally" occurs

in taxation:

  • Tax deduction, variable amounts that you can subtract, or deduct, from your gross income.
  • Itemized deduction, eligible expense that individual taxpayers in the United States can report on their Federal income tax returns
  • Standard deduction, dollar amount that non-itemizers may subtract from their income

Other uses:

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DEDUCTION (from Lat. deducere, to take or lead from or out of, derive), a term used in common parlance for the process of taking away from, or subtracting (as in mathematics), and specially for the argumentative process of arriving at a conclusion from evidence, i.e. for any kind of inference.' In this sense it includes both arguments from particular facts and those from general laws to particular cases. In logic it is generally used in contradiction to "induct:on" for a kind of mediate inference, in which a conclusion (often itself called the deduction) is regarded as following necessarily under certain fixed laws from premises. This, the most common, form of deduction is the syllogism (q.v.; see also Logic), which consists in taking a general principle and deriving from it facts which are necessarily involved in it. This use of deduction is of comparatively modern origin; it was originally used as the equivalent of Aristotle's arra-ywyr t (see Prior Analytics, B xxv.). The modern use of deduction is practically identical with the Aristotelian cuXXoyurpos.

1 Two forms of the verb are used, "deduce" and "deduct"; originally synonymous, they are now distinguished, "deduce" being confined to arguments, "deduct" to quantities.


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Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Deduction can mean:

  • Deductive reasoning, inference in which the conclusion is of no greater generality than the premises
  • Natural deduction, an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it "naturally" occurs
  • Thinking from general rules to particular events. The general rule is one; the particular events are many. If one knows the general rule, it is easy to think of particular events. Example: general rule, "Where there is smoke, there is fire." Particular events: a barbecue, cigarette smoking, a forest fire. Also and most basic, if one sees smoke one will think fire.

Relating to taxation:

  • Itemized deductions
  • Standard deduction

Other pages


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