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Deglobalization, also deglobalisation (chiefly UK/Ireland), refers to a process of diminishing interdependence and integration between certain units around the world, typically nation-states. It stands in contrast to globalization, in which units become increasingly integrated over time, and generally spans the time between periods of globalization.

While as with globalization, it can refer to economic, trade, social, technological, cultural and political dimensions, much of the work that has been conducted in the study of deglobalization refers to the field of international economics. Periods of deglobalization are seen as interesting comparators to other periods, such as 1850-1914 and 1950-2007, in which globalization has been the norm.

Measures of deglobalization

As with globalization, economic deglobalization can be measured in different ways. These centre around the four main economic flows:

  • Goods and services, e.g. exports plus imports as a proportion of national income or per head of population
  • Labour/people, e.g. net migration rates; inward or outward migration flows, weighted by population
  • Capital, e.g. inward or outward direct investment as a proportion of national income or per head of population

It is generally not thought possible to measure deglobalization through lack of flows of technology, the fourth main flow. Those areas that are measurable do suggest other possible measures, including:

  • Average tariffs
  • Border restrictions on labour
  • Restrictions on foreign direct investment or outward direct investment

See also


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