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Delaware Water Gap

The Delaware Water Gap from Kittatinny (I-80 on the left)
Elevation 335 feet (102 m)[1]
Traversed by Interstate 80
Location
Location New Jersey/Pennsylvania,  United States
Range Blue Mountains/Kittatinny Ridge
Coordinates 40°58′3″N 75°7′20″W / 40.9675°N 75.12222°W / 40.9675; -75.12222[1]
Topo map Portland, Stroudsburg

The Delaware Water Gap is on the border of New Jersey and Pennsylvania where the Delaware River traverses a large ridge of the Appalachian Mountains. A water gap is a geological feature where a river cuts through a mountain ridge.

The Delaware Water Gap is the site of the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, which is used primarily for recreational purposes, such as rafting, canoeing, swimming, fishing, hiking and rock climbing. With a fishing license, one can fish in the Delaware for carp, shad and other fish.

Contents

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Geology

Worthington State Forest, from a campsite

The Delaware Water gap was created four hundred million years ago when quartz pebbles were deposited in a shallow sea, on top of the Ordovician Martinsburg shale. The Martinsburg shale was created when a chain of volcanic islands collided with proto North America around four hundred fifty million years ago. These islands went over the North American plate. This collision deposited rock on top of the North American plate. This is how the Highlands and Kittatinny Valley was created.

Then around four hundred million years ago a small continent that was thin and long, then collided with proto North America. Geologic pressure twisted the Silurian Shawangunk Conglomerate, therefore breaking or shattering the gray quartzite. Pressure from this continental strike, compressed the bed rock of the quartzite, created heat, allowed the quartzite to bend and melt silica to bond the quartz pebbles and other conglomerate together. Geologic pressure forced the quartzite up, and the Delaware River slowly cut its path through the shattered quartzite. Otherwise the river may not have been able to cut its path. As one can see the top ridge of the Kittatinny, is offset from the top of Blue Mountain.

Millions of years of rain, ice, snow and wind erosion shaped the area. The Wisconsin glacier which occurred between 21,000 BC to 13,000 BC, covered the entire Kittatinny Ridge and ended near Belvidere. This was the final touch to the Gap's look.

The mountain is of the Silurian Shawangunk conglomerate. This is a gray quartzite, which makes the mountain highly resistant to weathering. The Silurian High Fall formation of sandstone is on the western side of the gap near the base. The eastern side of the Mountain has the Ordovician Martinsburg shale. Sedimentary rock is along the river. The Bloomsburg Red Beds which is a red shale is at the Gap under Dunsfield Creek.

The width at the base of the Gap is about 300 meters at River level and 1400 meters at the top. The river at this spot is 283 feet above sea level. The ridge of the Appalachians that the Delaware crosses is called the Blue Mountains in Pennsylvania and the Kittatinny Ridge in New Jersey. This is the first major ridge of the Appalachian mountains. The New Jersey mountain is Mount Tammany;named after the Native American Chief Tamanend. The Pennsylvania mountain is Mount Minsi, named after the Native American Tribe of the area. The summit of Tammany is 1,540 ft (470 m) above the river.

Dunfield Creek drains the Mountain and flows into the Delaware River.

The Appalachian Trail threads the gap, and climbs the Kittatinnies alongside Dunnfield Creek and after a 3 mile hike can reach Sunfish Pond. Dunfield Creek drains the Mt Tammany side of the Gap. The trail continues along the Kittatinny Ridge to Stokes State Forest and then to the New York State line.

To the east of the Gap is the Great Kittatinny Valley which is wide, and goes northeast along the Kittatinny Mountain. The Paulinskill River drains the valley in this area.

Flora and Fauna

The forest is a deciduous forest comprising various oaks, hickories, maples, as well as other hardwood species such as ash, elm, cherry, walnut, birch, sycamore and beech. Black bear, whitetailed deer, gray squirrels, raccoons, gray fox and chipmunks are some of the forest species of the area. Shad migrate up the river through the gap in the spring. Other fish include bass, trout, carp and walleye.

Paleo Indians and Native Americans

Paleo Indians were north of the Gap at Paraquarry, as found at the Harry's Farm Site. Charcoal from this place has been dated at 5430 BC + or - 120 years. However Caribou bones found at the Dutchess Quarry Cave near Florida, NY, has the bones dated at 10,580 BC + or - 370 years. So that would place early man at 10,210 BC to 10,950 BC in Florida , New York. Another site located in Pennsylvania along the Delaware just north of the Gap, has carbon dating of charcoal at 8900BC. Most likely Paleo Indians were at the Gap around 10500 BC.

The Lenni Lenape, Native Americans, inhabited the area for several thousand years. They hunted, fished and trapped, in this area. Later came the Dutch and other European settlers to the area in the very late 1600's. The rocks of the Gap were steep along the rivers edge on both sides of the river. Foot travel was not possible along the river through the Gap.

Transportation

Foot travel was not possible though the Gap on the New Jersey side or Pennsylvania side as steep rock walls went into the river. In 1793 a road was built on the Pennsylvania side of the river. In 1830 a road was built on the New Jersey side through the Gap and north toward Paraquarry. Interstate 80 passes through the gap on the New Jersey side via the Delaware Water Gap Toll Bridge, while the New Jersey Cut-Off mainline of the old Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad—now owned by the Pennsylvania Northeast Regional Rail Authority and operated by the Delaware-Lackawanna Railroad—passes through on the Pennsylvania side. Pennsylvania Route 611, which is adjacent to the railroad for most of way through the Gap, occupies the right-of-way of a former trolley line. Interstate 80 occupies the former right-of-way of the New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway.

National Park Service

The Delaware Water Gap from Knowlton Township in New Jersey.

The Delaware Water Gap Recreation Area was created in 1965 by President Johnson. There are two offices, one located in New Jersey near the Delaware River and the other in Pennsylvania, north of the Gap.

Hiking Trails

The Red Dot Trail provides a path to the top of the Kittatinny Ridge, which has views of the entire area. This is roughly a one hour hike, traversing over 600 vertical feet. The Gray Dot Trail is a very steep, climber's trail that goes from I-80 to the top of the gap along the top of the big wall. This trail intersects with the blue dot and red dot trail at the top. The blue dot also goes to the top but is about a 3 mile hike that is less steep than the red dot. The Appalachan Trail crosses the Delaware River on the Route 80 Bridge and goes up Dunfield Creek to Sunfish Pond and continues northeast to Stokes State Forest and then though high Point State Park where the trail turns east and eventually goes into New York State.

Rock Climbing

Rock climbing at the Gap is the premier place to climb in New Jersey. The climbs are one hundred fifty feet to three hundred feet, climbing on Silurian Shawagunk Conglomerate which is quartzite, with bands of shale from a half inch to four inches thick. Most cracks are horizontal, flaring out near the edge. Adjustable cams are probably the best for climbers to use. Most climbing is done on the New Jersey side due to easier access. Climbers can walk along the cement wall along I-80 until they pass the big wall on I-80 and then go up a path that follows the base of the big wall.

There are about one hundred climbs. This is truly multi pitch climbing due to the height of the wall. Once at the top of the wall, one can rappel down, climb down in the big chimney, or follow the gray dot trail back to Route 80. Hanging belays also occur on the wall depending on the climbing route. Climbs on the wall range from 5.1 to 5.13 on the Yosemite scale of climbing. Lunch on the wall is spectacular.

The path that follows the base of the big wall is steep, with poison ivy in the spring and summer and occasionally falling rock. The wall also has poison ivy growing on it. The sun shines on the wall from 10am to 3pm. The sound of Route 80 can be heard while climbing and is somewhat loud in nature. This can severely affect communication between lead climber and belayer. This is why most lead climbers do not go to far from the belayer. The lead climber then sets up protection to belay the second.

Tock's Island Dam

In the 1962, Congress authorized the building of the Tock's Island Dam. This was due to control the flooding of the Delaware River due to hurricanes passing through the area. The dam was planned upstream of the water gap at Tocks Island, but was never built, although the land for the proposed reservoir had already been purchased. The Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was created from the land acquired for the planned reservoir.

Boy Scout Camp

Pahaquarra Boy Scout Camp was located on the Old Mine Road on the New Jersey side of the river. The camp served Boy Scouts from the George Washington Council. Camp Weygadt was located at the base of Mount Tammany. It served Boy Scouts from the Delaware Valley Council.

References

External links


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