Delhi Sultanate: Wikis

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دلی سلطنت
दिल्ली सलतनत
Delhi Sultanate

1206–1527
Historical map of the Delhi sultanate
Capital Delhi
Religion Sunni Islam Hanafi Fiqh
Government Monarchy
Sultan
 - 1206–1210 Qutub-ud-din Aybak
 - 1517–1526 Ibrahim Lodi
Historical era Late Medieval
 - Established 1206
 - Disestablished 1527
History of South Asia
History of India
Stone Age before 3300 BCE
- Mehrgarh Culture 7000–3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
- Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
Islamic Rulers 1206–1707 CE
- Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526 CE
- Deccan Sultanates 1490–1596 CE
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646 CE
Mughal Empire 1526–1707 CE
Maratha Empire 1674–1818 CE
Durrani Empire 1747–1823 CE
Sikh Empire 1799–1849 CE
Company rule in India 1757–1858 CE
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Partition of India 1947 CE
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During the Delhi Sultanate, several Turkic and Afghan dynasties ruled from Delhi, including the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1413), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate was absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire.

Contents

Dynasties

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Mumluk

The Qutab Minar was constructed during the period.

The second Muslim invader, Muhammad of Ghor, had political ambitions. He fought the two Battles of Tarain with Prithviraj Chauhan and by winning the second battle, and by killing Prithviraj, established control. He appointed Qutubuddin Aibak, his slave, as his governor, who started independent rule after the death of his master. The Mamluk dynasty is also known as the Slave Dynasty as most of the rulers were former slaves of Muhammad Ghori. Aibak began the construction of Qutub Minar, which was completed by Iltutmish, his successor & son-in-law. Aibek's actual successor was his son Aramshah, but the nobles preferred Iltutmish, the Subedar of Badaun. Iltutmish was followed by Razia Sultana, his daughter, who was a good administrator and the first female ruler from the Muslim world. But she died in a war, after 3 and half years. Balban succeeded her and ruled until 1286 AD. Many infamous and inefficient rulers followed. Faced with revolts by conquered territories and rival families, the Mamluk dynasty came to an end in 1290.

Khalji

The Khalji or Khilji dynasty were Turko-Afghan, who had established themselves as rulers of Bengal in the time of Muhammad Ghori, took control of the empire in a coup which eliminated the last of the Mamluks. The Khaljis conquered Gujarat and Malwa, and sent the first expeditions south of the Narmada River, as far south as Tamil Nadu. The Delhi Sultanate rule continued to extend into southern India, first by the Delhi Sultans, then by the breakaway Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga, and, after the breakup of the Bahmani state in 1518, by the five independent Deccan Sultanates. The kingdom of Vijayanagar united southern India and arrested the Delhi Sultanate's expansion for a time, until its eventual fall to the Deccan Sultanates in 1565.

Tughluq

The Tughlaq Dynasty lasted for close to a hundred years. It produced two powerful Sultans- Muhammad-Bin Tughlaq and Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Ghias-ud-din Tughlaq (1320–1325) was the first ruler of the dynasty. He was an efficient military commander. He was succeeded by Jauna Khan, who took the title of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. He was a very powerful ruler. He thought of many ambitious schemes and unique experiments, but could not implement his ideas properly. He shifted his capital in 1327, but that was a failure. So were the ideas of introduction of token currency, the Qarachil expedition, taxation in the Do-ab, and the Khurasan expedition. He became very unpopular because of his schemes. He lost control over the empire and died in 1351. He was succeeded by Firoz shah Tughlaq (1351–1388). He was very successful as a reformer. After his death, a war of succession took place. Soon the region was reduced to just Delhi and its surrounding areas. In 1398, Timur invaded Delhi, massacred and looted the city. Before leaving Delhi, he appointed Khizr Khan as his deputy, who became the first Sayyid ruler.

Sayyid

The Sayyid dynasty ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1414 to 1451, succeeding the Tughlaq dynasty. The dynasty was established by Khizr Khan, who was deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan (Punjab). Khizr Khan took Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi on May 28, 1414 and founded the Sayyid dynasty.

Lodi

Lodi Dynasty was a Ghilzai (Khilji) Afghan dynasty, who ruled over the Delhi Sultanate during its last phase, displacing the Sayyid dynasty. Founded by Bahlul Lodi, it ruled from 1451 to 1526. The last ruler of this dynasty, Ibrahim Lodi, was defeated and killed by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526. Sikander Lodi is considered the greatest rule of the dynasty.

Monetary system

A coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq

In the first half of the 14th century, the Sultanate introduced a monetary economy in the provinces (sarkars) and districts (parganas) that had been established and founded a network of market centers through which the traditional village economies were both exploited and stimulated and drawn into the wider culture. State revenues remained based on successful agriculture, which induced Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–51) to have village wells dug, to offer seed to the peasants, and to encourage cash crops like sugarcane (Braudel 1984, pp 96f, 512ff).

Mongol invasion

Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its temporary success in insulating the subcontinent from the potential devastation of the Mongol invasion from Central Asia in the thirteenth century. However, the invasion of Timur in 1398 significantly weakened the Delhi Sultanate. The Delhi Sultanate revived briefly under the Lodis before it was conquered by the Mughal emperor Babur in 1526.

Fall of Sultanate

The mausoleum of Qutub ud Din Aibak in Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.
Babur as Emperor

The last Lodi ruler, Ibrahim Lodi was greatly disliked in his court and subjects alike, being considered overly ambitious. Daulat Khan, the governor of Punjab and Alam Khan, his uncle, sent an invitation to conquer Delhi to Babur, the ruler of Kabul.

The first Battle of Panipat (April 1526) was fought between the forces of Babur and the Delhi Sultanate. Ibrahim Lodi was killed on the battleground. By way of superior generalship, vast experience in warfare, effective strategy, and appropriate use of artillery, Babur won the First battle of Panipat and subsequently occupied Agra and Delhi. The new Mughal dynasty was to rule India for another 300 years.

Cultural aspects

The Sultans of Delhi enjoyed cordial, if superficial, relations with other Muslim rulers in the Near East but owed them no allegiance. The Sultans based their laws on the Qur'an and the sharia, and permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their own religion if they paid jizya, or head tax. The Sultans ruled from urban center, while military camps and trading posts provided the nuclei for towns that sprang up in the countryside.

Legacy

The Sultanate ushered in a period of cultural renaissance. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion left lasting monuments in architecture, music, literature, and religion. Due to the sacking of Delhi in 1398 by Timur (Tamerlane), other independent Sultanates were established in Awadh, Bengal, Jaunpur, Gujarat and Malwa.

See also

References

Literature

External links


Simple English

The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) are the Afghan dynasties that were controlling India from 1210 to 1526. Many of these dynasties ruled from Delhi. This includes the Slave dynasty (1206-90), the Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), the Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and the Lodi (1451-1526).

Contents

Sultans of Delhi

Slave Dynasty (1206 - 1290)

  • Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206 - 1210)
  • Aram Shah (1210 - 1211)
  • Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (1211 - 1236)
  • Rukn ud din Firuz (1236)
  • Raziyyat ud din Sultana (1236 - 1240)
  • Muiz ud din Bahram (1240 - 1242)
  • Ala ud din Masud (1242 - 1246)
  • Nasir ud din Mahmud (1246 - 1266)
  • Ghiyas ud din Balban (1266 - 1286)
  • Muiz ud din Qaiqabad (1286 - 1290)
  • Kayumars (1290)

Khilji (Khalji) Dynasty (1290 - 1321)

  • Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji (1290 - 1294)
  • Ala ud din Khilji (1294 - 1316)
  • Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah (1316 - 1321)

Tughlaq Dynasty (1321 - 1398)

  • Ghiyas ud din Tughluq Shah I (1321 - 1325)
  • Muhammad Shah II (1325 - 1351)
  • Mahmud Ibn Muhammad ( March 1351)
  • Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351 - 1388)
  • Ghiyas ud din Tughluq II (1388 - 1389)
  • Abu Baker (1389 - 1390)
  • Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III (1390 - 1393)
  • Sikander Shah I ( March - April 1393)
  • Mahmud Nasir ud din (Sultan Mahmud II) at Delhi (1393 - 1394)
  • Nusrat Shah at Firuzabad (1394 - 1398)

Sayyid (Syed) Dynasty (1414 - 1451)

  • Khidr Khan (1414 - 1421)
  • Mubarrak Shah II (1421 - 1435)
  • Muhammad Shah IV (1435 - 1445)
  • Aladdin Alam Shah (1445 - 1451)

Lodhi (Lodi) Dynasty (1451 - 1526)

  • Bahlul Khan Lodi (1451-1489)
  • Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517)
  • Ibrahim II (1517-1526)

1526-1540: Mughal rule

Suri Dynasty (1540 - 1555)

  • Sher Shah (1540 - 1545)
  • Islam Shah (1545 - 1553)
  • Muhammad V (1553 - 1554)
  • Firuz ( 29 April - 2 May 1554)
  • Ibrahim III (1554 - 1554/5)
  • Sikander Shah (1554/5 - 1555)

of the History of South Asia series) has more information at Islamic Empires in India#Delhi Sultanate

  • List of Indian monarchs

References

  • Template:Loc - Pakistan
  • Braudel, Fernand, The perspective of the World, vol III of Civilization and Capitalism 1984 (original French ed. 1979)

Literature

  • Elliot and Dowson: The History of India as told by its own Historians, (New Delhi) reprint, 1990.
  • Peter Jackson The Delhi Sultanate. A Political and Military History (Cambridge) 1999
  • Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate, (Bombay) 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, (Bombay) 1973.
  • Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad Some Aspects of Religion and Politics in India in the Thirteenth Century (Delhi) 1961 (Revised Edition Delhi 2002)

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