The Full Wiki

Demographics of Mumbai: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Mumbai article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mumbai (मुंबई)
Bombay
Skyscrapers lit up at night. A clock tower with a square base and an octagonal top. A wide building with central and surrounding domes. Wide skyscrapers at night. A brown arch with boats nearby.
Clockwise from top: Skyline at Cuffe Parade, the Rajabai Clock Tower, the Taj Mahal Hotel, Nariman Point and Gateway of India
Mumbai is on the west coast of India, about one third of the way down to the southern tip. It is in the northwest of the Maharashtra province, which covers roughly the second quarter of the west coast (counting from the north), and heads inland roughly twice as far as its coastline.
Mumbai (मुंबई)
Location of Mumbai (मुंबई)
in Maharashtra and India
Coordinates 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.975°N 72.82583°E / 18.975; 72.82583
Country  India
State Maharashtra
District(s) Mumbai City
Mumbai Suburban
Municipal commissioner Swadhin Kshatriya
Mayor Shraddha Jadhav
Population
Density
Metro
13,830,884[1] (1st) (2010)
22,922 /km2 (59,368 /sq mi)
21,900,967[2] (1st) (2010)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area
Elevation
603.4 km2 (233 sq mi)
14 m (46 ft)
Website www.mcgm.gov.in
Quartered shield. Upper left in red has a gateway. Upper right in black has a factory in a cog wheel. Lower left in black has three ships. Lower right in red has a building. The base of the shield reads "यतो धर्मस्ततो जय". Below the shield is a blooming lotus; above is a lion.
Seal of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai

Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई, Mumbaī, IPA:Mumbai_pronunciation.ogg [ˈmʊm.bəi] ), formerly called Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Mumbai, the most populous city in India, is the second most populous city in the world, with a population of approximately 14 million.[1] Along with the neighbouring urban areas, which includes cities of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world.[3] Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. As of 2009, Mumbai was named an Alpha world city.[4] Mumbai is also the richest city in India.[5]

The seven islands that came to constitute Bombay were home to communities of fishing colonies. For centuries, the islands came under the control of successive kingdoms and indigenous empires before being ceded to Portuguese settlers and subsequently to the British East India Company. During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the British with large-scale civil engineering projects, aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass[6], and emerged as a significant trading town. Economic and educational development characterised the city during the 19th century. It became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the early 20th century. When India became independent in 1947, the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. It was renamed Mumbai in 1995.[7]

Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment centre of India, generating 5% of India's GDP,[8] and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 40% of maritime trade, and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy.[9] Mumbai is home to important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. The city also houses India's Hindi film and television industry, known as Bollywood. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India and, in turn, make the city a potpourri of many communities and cultures.

Contents

Toponymy

The name Mumbai is an eponym, etymologically derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba—the name of the Koli goddess Mumbadevi—and Aai, "mother" in Marathi.[10] The former name Bombay had its origins in the 16th century when the Portuguese arrived in the area and called it by various names, which finally took the written form Bombaim, still common in current Portuguese use.[11] After the British gained possession of the city in the 17th century, it was believed to be anglicised to Bombay from the Portuguese Bombaim.[12] The city was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi speakers, and as Bambai in Hindi, Persian, and Urdu. It is sometimes still referred to by its older names, such as Kakamuchee and Galajunkja.[13][14] The name was officially changed to its Marathi pronunciation of Mumbai in November 1995.[15] This came at the insistence of the Hindu nationalist Shiv Sena party, that had just won the Maharashtra state elections and mirrored similar name changes across the country. However, the city is still commonly referred to as Bombay by many of its residents and Indians from other regions as well.[16]

The temple of local Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, after which the city of Mumbai derives its name

A widespread explanation of the origin of the traditional English name Bombay holds that it was derived from a Portuguese name meaning "good bay". This is based on the fact that bom (masc.) is Portuguese for "good" whereas the English word "bay" is similar to the Portuguese baía (fem., bahia in old spelling). The normal Portuguese rendering of "good bay" would have been boa bahia rather than the grammatically incorrect bom bahia. However, it is possible to find the form baim (masc.) for "little bay" in 16th-century Portuguese.[17] Portuguese scholar José Pedro Machado in his Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa (Portuguese Dictionary of Onomastics and Etymology), seems to reject the "Bom Bahia" hypothesis, asserting that Portuguese records mentioning the presence of a bay at the place led the English to assume that the noun (bahia, "bay") was an integral part of the Portuguese toponym, hence the English version Bombay, adapted from Portuguese.[18]

Mirat-i-Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai in 1507.[19] The earliest Portuguese writer to refer to the city as Bombaim was Gaspar Correia in 1508, as recorded in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India").[20][21] Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa mentions a reference to the city in a complex form, as Tana-Maiambu or Benamajambu in 1516.Tana appears to refer to the name of the adjoining town of Thane, and Maiambu seems to refer to Mumba-Devi, the Hindu goddess after which the place is named in Marathi.[22] Other variations of the name recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries are, Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), and Boon Bay (1690).[11][23]

History

A white Buddhist stupa
Kanheri Caves served as a centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient times

Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba).[24] Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai by archaeologist Todd in 1939 suggest that these islands were inhabited since the Stone Age.[25] It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. Perhaps at the beginning of the Common era (2000 years ago), or even possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.[26] In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha.[27] The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated in the mid-third century BCE,[28] and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient times.[29] The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE.[30]

Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Kshatrapas, Abhiras, Vakatakas, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas,[31] before being ruled by the Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260.[32] Some of the oldest edifice in the city built during this period are, Jogeshwari Caves (520 to 525),[33] Elephanta Caves (sixth to seventh century),[34] Walkeshwar Temple (10th century),[35] and Banganga Tank (twelfth century).[36] King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the 12th or 13th century, and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim).[37] The Pathare Prabhus, one of the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat by Bhimdev.[38] The Muslim rulers of Gujarat annexed the islands in 1348.[39] They were later governed by the Gujarat Sultanate from 1391 to 1534. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431.[40] From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan.[41][42] In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahamani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands, but was defeated.[43]

A white building with one minaret on an island seen at sunset
The Haji Ali Dargarh was built in 1431, when Mumbai was under the Gujarat Sultanate

The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century.[44] Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with Portuguese settlers on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the seven islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535.[45] The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay.[46] Some of the oldest Catholic churches in the city such as the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534),[47] St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579),[48] St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580),[49] and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632),[50] date from the Portuguese era. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the British Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles.[51] However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the British managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.[52]

These islands were in turn leased to the British East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum by the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668.[53] The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675.[54] The islands were subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan, the Siddi admiral of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672,[55] Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on 20 February 1673,[56] and Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673.[55] In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency.[57] Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's establishments in India.[58] Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90.[59] The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739.[60] By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India.[61] Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. With the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War.[62] The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas through the Treaty of Purandar (1776),[63] and later through the Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.[64]

Ships in Bombay Harbour (c. 1731). Bombay emerged as a significant trading town during the mid-18th century

From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as the Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1784.[6] In 1817, the British East India Company under Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in the Battle of Kirkee.[65] Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came under British suzerainty, and were incorporated in Bombay Presidency. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan witnessed the freedom of Bombay from all attacks by native powers.[66] By 1845, the seven islands were coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project.[67] On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thane.[68] During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.[69] The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea.[70] In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week.[71] About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected.[72] As the capital of the Bombay Presidency, it witnessed the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement in 1942 and the The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.[73][74] After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into Bombay State. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State.[75] On April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District and Bombay City to form Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.[76] The geographical limits of revenue district of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of city of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form 2 revenue districts namely, Mumbai City & Mumbai Suburban, though they are administered by same Municipal Administration.[77]

A stone statue of torch-bearers as seen at night. A fountain with a white base is in the background
The Hutatma Chowk memorial, built to honour the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement. (Flora Fountain is on its left in the background)

In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state.[78] In 1956, the States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for MaharashtraGujarat with Bombay as its capital. Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group comprising of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status.[79] In the 1957 elections, the Samyukta Maharashtra movement opposed these proposals, and insisted that Bombay be declared the capital of Maharashtra.[80] Following protests by the movement in which 105 people were killed by police at Flora Fountain, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960.[81] Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat.[82] Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them.[83] As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square), and a memorial was erected.[84]

The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed.[85] The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was set up on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region.[86] In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population.[87] The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55–60% of India's containerized cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city.[88]

The past two decades have seen an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed.[89] On 12 March 1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries.[90] In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains.[91] In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to a couple of heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels.[92] Today, Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub.[93] For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment.[94] From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia's largest city and home of the world's most prolific film industry.[95]

Geography

Mumbai is on a narrow peninsula on the southwest of Salsette Island, which lies between the Arabian Sea to the west, Thane Creek to the east, and Vasai Creek to the north. Mumbai's suburban district occupies most of the island. Navi Mumbai is east of Thane Creek, and the Thane District is north of Vasai Creek.
Map of Mumbai

Mumbai is located at 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.9750°N 72.8258°E / 18.9750; 72.8258 in the Indian state of Maharashtra.[96] Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban District, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra.[97] The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City.[98] The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi),[99] , with the area of 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi), the Island City spanning 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi) and the suburban district spanning 370 km2 (143 sq mi), coming under the administration of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation(BMC) while remaining area belongs to Defence, Mumbai Port Trust, Atomic Energy Commision and Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the BMC.[100]

Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. It sits on Salsette Island, partially shared with the Thane district.[101] Mumbai is surrounded by the Arabian Sea to the west.[102] Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft);[103] the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft).[104] Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly,[105] and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai-Kanheri ranges.[106] Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivili National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).[107]

Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai.[108] Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city's limits.[109] The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes.[110] Three small rivers, the Dahisar River, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes.[111] The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from Thane creek on the eastern to Madh Marve on the western front.[112] The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.[113]

Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy.[114] The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras.[115] Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity.[116] The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region,[117] which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.[118]

Climate

The average temperature ranges between 23°C in January to 30°C in May. Rainfall is at or near zero from November through May, then quickly rises to a peak of about 600 mm in July, falling back more gradually.
Average temperature and precipitation in Mumbai

Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July.[119] The cold season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.[120] Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 millimetres (135.9 in) in 1954.[121] The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 millimetres (37.17 in) on 26 July 2005.[122] The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 millimetres (84.51 in) in the Island City, and 2,457 millimetres (96.73 in) in the suburbs.[121]

The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81.0 °F), and the average annual precipitation is 216.7 centimetres (85.31 in).[123] In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88.2 °F), while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (74.7 °F). In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) to 33.3 °C (91.9 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) to 26.2 °C (79.2 °F).[121] The record high is 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) on 28 March 1982,[124] and the record low is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F) on 27 January 1962.[125]

Economy

A skyscraper with curved walls and glass panes. A round building and a tree seen on its right side
The Bombay Stock Exchange is the oldest stock exchange in Asia

Mumbai is India's largest city and is considered the financial capital of the country as it generates 5% of the total GDP.[8][93] It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and Rs. 40 billion (US$ 880 million) in corporate taxes.[127] Mumbai's GDP is Rs 200,483 crore (US$ 43.91 billion),[128] and its per-capita income is Rs. 128,000 (US$ 2,800)[5], which is almost three times the national average.[67] Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen and Toubro, Reserve Bank of India, State Bank of India, LIC, Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance),[93] and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai.[129] Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have branches in this area,[93] with the World Trade Centre being the most prominent one.[130] Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology.[131] As of 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities.[132]

India's 300 million strong middle-class population is growing at an annual rate of 5%.[133] Shown here is an upmarket residential area of Mumbai.

State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India.[134] In Dharavi, in central Mumbai, there is an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.[135]

Most of India's major television and satellite networks, as well as its major publishing houses, are headquartered in Mumbai. The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood, is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest in the world.[136][137] Along with the rest of India, Mumbai, its commercial capital, has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in 2000s.[138] Mumbai has been ranked 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008.[139] In April 2008, Mumbai was ranked seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes magazine,[140] and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth.[141]

Civic administration

A brown building with a central tower and sloping roofs surrounded by trees. A grassy ground and a coconut tree are in front of it.
The Bombay High Court exercises jurisdiction over Maharashtra, Goa, Daman and Diu, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli

In the context of the Indian Constitution, local government bodies are the subject of the State List and are thereby governed by State Statutes.

Mumbai, extending from Colaba in the south to Mulund, Mankhurd, and Dahisar in the north, is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation)[102]. The BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis.[142] the Mayor in the Municipal Corporation is usually chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years. The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.[143]

The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector.[144] The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.[145]

The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an IPS officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry.[146] The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones,[100] each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police.[147] The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers.[100]

Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[148] Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.[149] Mumbai also has a special TADA (Terrorist and Disruptive Activities) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.[150]

Politics

Men in traditional Indian dresses posing for a photograph
First session of the Indian National Congress in Bombay (28–31 December 1885)

Mumbai has been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party.[151] The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885.[152] The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century.[153] The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Maharashtra.[154] The party headed a campaign to expel South Indian and North Indian migrants by force.[155] The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay municipal corporation elections.[156] In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly elections. In 1999, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) separated from the Congress, but later allied with the Congress, to form a joint venture known as the Democratic Front.[157] Currently, other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city.[158]

In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: Mumbai North, Mumbai North West, Mumbai North East, Mumbai North Central, Mumbai South Central, and Mumbai South.[159] A Member of Parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies. In the 2009 national elections, out of the six parliamentary constituencies, five were won by the Congress, and one by the NCP.[160] In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.[161][162] A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies. In the 2009 state assembly elections, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 17 were won by the Congress, 6 by the MNS, 5 by the BJP, 4 by the Shiv Sena, and 1 by SP.[163] Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the BMC.[164] The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a Mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial.[165][166][167] In the 2007 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 111 seats, holding power in the BMC, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 85 seats.[168] The tenure of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.[169]

Transport

Advertisements

Public Transport

Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008.[170] Black and yellow metered taxis traverse most of the metropolis. Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai.[171] Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on Compressed Natural Gas,[172] and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.[171] Mumbai had about 1.53 million vehicles in 2008,[173] 56,459 black and yellow taxis, and 1,02,224 auto rickshaws, as of 2005.[174] Navi Mumbai's NMMT also operate its Volvo buses in Mumbai. The buses operate from Navi Mumbai to Bandra, Dindoshi & Borivali.[175]

Road

A red bus on a road. Blue letters are seen on its side
A Modern BEST bus (Starbus). BEST buses carry a total of 4.5 million passengers daily

Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4 and National Highway 8 of India's National Highways system.[176] The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India,[177] while the Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway is under construction.[178] Recently, the Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge was opened, which along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs.[179] The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane,the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Borivali.[180]

Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008.[170] Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane.[181] Buses are generally favored for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.[182] The BEST operates a total of 4,013 buses[183] with CCTV Camera installed[184], ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily[170] over 390 routes.[185] Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant Compressed Natural Gas powered buses.[183] Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) buses provide intercity transport and connect Mumbai with other major cities of Maharashtra and India.[186][187] The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai.[188] Mumbai BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai, with buses running on seven routes as of March 2009.[189] Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion.[190] Mumbai's transport system has been categorized as one of the most congested in the world.[191]

Due to further aggravation of congestion on roads due to hawkers and parked vehicles, MMRDA has initiated the Mumbai Skywalks project to provide quick and safe pedestrian dispersal from highly congested areas such as Mumbai Suburban Railway stations to heavily targeted destinations.[192]

Rail

A brown building with clock towers, domes and pyramidal tops. A wide street in front of it
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus, is the headquarters of the Central Railway and a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Mumbai is the headquarters of two of Indian Railways' zones: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate.[193] The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, consists of three separate rail networks: Central, Western, and Harbour Line, running the length of the city, in the north-south direction.[194] Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007,[195] which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily carrying capacity. Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actualy carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours.[196]

Mumbai Metro is an underground and elevated rapid transit system currently under construction.[197] The Mumbai Monorail, currently under construction, will eventually run from Jacob Circle to Wadala.[198]

Mumbai is well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Dadar Station, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central Station, Bandra Terminus and Andheri.[199]

Air

The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the busiest airport in India.[200] In 2007, it catered to over 25 million passengers. An upgrade plan initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually by 2010, is expected to be completed on time.[201]

The Juhu aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport.[202]

The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.[203]

Sea

Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust.[204] Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities.[205] Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India.[206] It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerized cargo.[207]

Mumbai is the headquarters of the Western Naval Command, and also an important base for the Indian Navy.[102]

Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.[208]

Utility services

A brown building with three domes and a triangular facade. A tree and a bus on either side of it
BMC headquarters

Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai. Many localities have been named after them. The BMC supplies potable water to the city from six lakes,[209][210] most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes.[109] The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway.[211] The water is filtered at Bhandup,[211] which is Asia's largest water filtration plant.[212] India's first underground water tunnel is being built in Mumbai.[213] About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai.[214] Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste,[215] is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and Deonar in the east.[216] Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli and Bandra, and disposed off by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.[217]

Electricity is distributed by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd) in the suburbs.[218] Consumption of electricity is growing faster than production capacity.[219] The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.[220] Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, BPL group, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city.[221] MTNL and Airtel also provide broadband internet service.[222][223]

Demographics

According to the 2001 census, the population of Mumbai was 11,914,398,[225] According to extrapolations carried out by the World Gazetteer in 2008, Mumbai has a population of 13,662,885[226] and the Mumbai Metropolitan Area has a population of 21,347,412.[227] The population density is estimated to be about 22,000 persons per square kilometre. Per 2001 census, Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of BMC, has literacy rate of 77.45%,[228] higher than the national average of 64.8%.[229] The sex ratio was 774 (females per 1,000 males) in the island city, 826 in the suburbs, and 811 as a whole in Greater Mumbai,[228] all numbers lower than the national average of 933 females per 1,000 males.[230] The low sex ratio is due to a large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.[231] In 2008 crime rate increased by 5.4 per cent. Mumbai has registered the poorest conviction rate in the country during 2008. More frequent crimes included murder, attempt to murder, culpable homicide, dowry deaths, abduction, kidnapping, rape, arson, riots, dacoity and robbery.[232]

View of downtown Mumbai at night

The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (67.39%), Muslims (18.56%), Buddhists (5.22%), Jains (3.99%), Christians (3.72%), Sikhs (0.58%), with Parsis and Jews making up the rest of the population.[233] The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (39%), Gujaratis (22%), North Indians (25%) and South Indians making up the rest.[234] The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Khojas, and Konkani Muslims.[235] Native Christians include East Indian Catholics who were converted by the Portuguese, during the 16th century.[236] The city also has a small native Bene Israeli Jewish community, who migrated from the Persian Gulf or Yemen, probably 1600 years ago.[237] Parsis migrated to India from Persia. Today, there are about 80,000 Parsis in Mumbai.[238]

Residents of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar, Mumbaite or Bombayite. Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any other metropolitan city of India. Sixteen major languages of India are spoken in Mumbai, the most common being Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati and English.[239] English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya—a blend of Marathi, Hindi, Indian English and some invented words—is spoken on the streets.[240]

People walking on a narrow street. Shops and a stall are seen nearby.
A street in Dharavi, one of the largest slums in Asia

Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. With available space at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district.[241] About 60% of Mumbai's population lives in slums.[242] Dharavi, Asia's second largest slum[243] is located in central Mumbai and houses 800,000 people.[244] The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.[245] In 2007, the crime rate (crimes booked under Indian Penal Code) in Mumbai was 186.2 per 100,000 people, which was slightly higher than the national average of 175.1, but much lower than the average crime rate of 312.3 in cities with more than one million people in the country.[246] The city's main and oldest jail is the Arthur Road Jail.[247]

Culture

A white building with a triangular facade and wide stairs
Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city

Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music, and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions and cuisines coexisting in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period.[248]

Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema[249]Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century.[250] Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The world's largest IMAX dome theatre is in the Wadala neighbourhood.[251] The Mumbai International Film Festival[252] and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai.[253] Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.[254][255]

Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city.[256] The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.[257] Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden.[258] The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga. Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters.[259]

A brownish stone three-headed statue carved with ornaments
The Elephanta Caves, UNESCO World Heritage Site, feature rock-cut Shaivistic statues.

The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles.[260] Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style.[261] Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features.[262] There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India.[263] Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan.[264] Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami.[260] In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009.[265] The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures.[260] Mumbai has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Elephanta Caves.[266] Popular tourist attractions in the city are Nariman Point, Girgaum Chowpatti, Juhu Beach, and Marine Drive. Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach,[267] and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.[268]

A sitting elephant-headed, man statue with garlands and gold ornaments.
Ganesh Chaturthi, a popular festival in Mumbai involves worship of idols of Ganesha.

Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theater, and films.[269] A week long fair known as Bandra Fair is celebrated by people of all faiths.[270] The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai.[271] The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the Elephanta Islands—is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country.[272] Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on May 1, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960.[273][274]

Sister cities

Mumbai has sister city agreements with the following cities:[142]

Media

Bollywood is based in Mumbai

Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include the Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times, DNA, and Indian Express. Popular Marathi language newspapers are Navakal, Maharashtra Times, Loksatta, Lokmat and Sakaal. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages.[279] Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822.[280] Bombay Durpan the first Marathi newspaper was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.[281]

Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels,[282] while three main cable networks serve most households.[283] The wide range of cable channels available includes ESPN, Star Sports, Zee Marathi, ETV Marathi, DD Sahyadri, Mee Marathi, Zee Talkies, Zee TV,ETV Urdu, STAR Plus and news channels such as Star Majha. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs.[284] Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV and Tata Sky.[285] There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.[286] Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as WorldSpace, Sirius and XM.[287] The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.[288]

Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year.[289] The name Bollywood is a portmanteau of Bombay and Hollywood.[290] The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation.[291] Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets.[292] The Marathi film industry is also based in Mumbai.[293]

Education

Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (mostly one-teacher schools run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government.[294] The schools are affiliated either with the Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE), the all-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) boards.[295] Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction.[296] The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.[297]

Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll for two years in Junior College, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science.[298] This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine.[299] Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.[300] The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay),[301] Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI),[302], University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT)[303] and K. J. Somaiya Institute Of Engineering & Information Technology(KJSIEIT) which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, and SNDT Women's University are the other autonomous universities in Mumbai.[304] Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research,Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS) and several other management schools.[305] Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai.[306][307] The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution.[308]

Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).[309] The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.[310]

Sports

A grassy ground with skyscrapers behind it
Brabourne Stadium, one of the oldest cricket stadiums in the country.

Cricket is the most popular sport in the city (and the country). Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as galli cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is also home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).[311] The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 39 titles, the most by any team.[312] The city is also represented by the Mumbai Indians in the Indian Premier League and by the Mumbai Champs in the Indian Cricket League. The city has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium.[313] The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far was the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy final which was played at the Brabourne Stadium.[314] Eminent cricketers from Mumbai include Sachin Tendulkar[315] and Sunil Gavaskar.[316]

Football (soccer) is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely.[317] In the I-League, Mumbai is represented by three teams, Mumbai FC,[318] Mahindra United[319] and Air-India.[320] Field hockey has declined in popularity, due to the rise of cricket. Mumbai is home to the Maratha Warriors, the only team from Maharashtra competing in the Premier Hockey League (PHL).[321] Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf club in Mumbai.[322] Interest in Formula One racing has been rising in recent years,[323] and in 2008, the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in Mumbai.[324] In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship.[325] In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established in a bid to bring the sports discipline to the Indian public.[326] Mumbai has also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.[327]

Citations

  1. ^ a b "World: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population (2009)". World Gazetteer. http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&des=wg&srt=npan&col=abcdefghinoq&msz=1500&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  2. ^ "India: metropolitan areas". World Gazetteer. http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=80&geo=-104&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&msz=1500&va=&pt=a. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  3. ^ "Population of urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more in 2007 (thousands) 1950-2025 (India)". Department of Economic and Social Affairs (United Nations). http://esa.un.org/unup/index.asp?panel=2. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  4. ^ http://www.diserio.com/gawc-world-cities.html
  5. ^ a b http://www.livemint.com/2009/08/03224002/India-needs-cities-network-for.html
  6. ^ a b Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 28
  7. ^ "Bombay: History of a City". British Library. http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/trading/bombay/history.html. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  8. ^ a b "Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). http://mmrdamumbai.org/projects_muip.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  9. ^ "Navi Mumbai International Airport" (JPG). City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). http://img214.imageshack.us/img214/2299/dscn7619ql4.jpg. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  10. ^ Chittar 1973, p. 6
  11. ^ a b Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 103
  12. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 6
  13. ^ Patel & Masselos 2003, p. 4
  14. ^ Mehta 2004, p. 130
  15. ^ Hansen 2001, p. 1
  16. ^ "Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra". Fodor's. http://www.fodors.com/world/asia/india/mumbai-bombay-and-maharashtra/more.html. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 
  17. ^ Shirodkar 1998, p. 7
  18. ^ Machado 1984, pp. 265–266
  19. ^ Shirodkar 1998, p. 3
  20. ^ Shirodkar 1998, pp. 4–5
  21. ^ Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 102
  22. ^ Shirodkar 1998, p. 2
  23. ^ Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 104
  24. ^ Farooqui 2006, p. 1
  25. ^ Ghosh 1990, p. 25
  26. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 5
  27. ^ David 1995, p. 5
  28. ^ "Kanheri Caves". Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_tktd_maha_kanhericaves.asp. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  29. ^ Kumari 1990, p. 37
  30. ^ David 1973, p. 8
  31. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, pp. 127–150
  32. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 79
  33. ^ "The Slum and the Sacred Cave" (PDF). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (Columbia University). p. 5. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/eesj/gradpubs/GeneralMags/Patel_Archaeology_SlumandSacredCave_0607.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-12. 
  34. ^ "World Heritage Sites — Elephanta Caves". Archaeological Survey of India. http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_whs_elephanta.asp. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  35. ^ Dwivedi, Sharada (2007-09-26). "The Legends of Walkeshwar". Mumbai Newsline. Express Group. http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=101117. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  36. ^ Agarwal, Lekha (2007-06-02). "What about Gateway of India, Banganga Tank?". Mumbai Newsline. Express Group. http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=239318. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  37. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 51
  38. ^ Maharashtra 2004, p. 1703
  39. ^ David 1973, p. 14
  40. ^ Khalidi 2006, p. 24
  41. ^ Misra 1982, p. 193
  42. ^ Misra 1982, p. 222
  43. ^ David 1973, p. 16
  44. ^ "Mughal Empire". Department of Social Sciences (University of California). http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Mughals/mughals.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  45. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 166
  46. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 169
  47. ^ David 1995, p. 19
  48. ^ Shukla, Ashutosh (2008-05-12). "Relishing a Sunday feast, but only once in a year". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report_relishing-a-sunday-feast-but-only-once-in-a-year_1163869. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  49. ^ D'Mello, Ashley (2008-06-09). "New life for old church records". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Mumbai/New_life_for_old_church_records/articleshow/3112498.cms. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  50. ^ "Glorious past". Express India. 2008-10-28. http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/glorious-past/233152/. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  51. ^ "Catherine of Bragança (1638 - 1705)". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2998461. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  52. ^ The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island 1978, p. 54
  53. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 20
  54. ^ David 1973, p. 410
  55. ^ a b Yimene 2004, p. 94
  56. ^ Ganley, Colin C. (2007) (PDF, 113 KB). Security, the central component of an early modern institutional matrix; 17th century Bombay's Economic Growth. International Society for New Institutional Economics (ISNIE). p. 13. http://www.isnie.org/assets/files/papers2007/ganley.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  57. ^ Carsten 1961, p. 427
  58. ^ David 1973, p. 179
  59. ^ Nandgaonkar, Satish (2003-03-22). "Mazgaon fort was blown to pieces – 313 years ago". Indian Express (Express Group). http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=47106. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  60. ^ History of Midieval India, p. 126
  61. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 32
  62. ^ Fortescue 2008, p. 145
  63. ^ Naravane 2007, p. 56
  64. ^ Naravane 2007, p. 63
  65. ^ Naravane 2007, pp. 80–82
  66. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 233
  67. ^ a b "Maharashtra — trivia". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. http://www.maharashtratourism.gov.in/MTDC/HTML/MaharashtraTourism/Default.aspx?strpage=../MaharashtraTourism/Trivia.html. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  68. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 127
  69. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 343
  70. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 88
  71. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 74
  72. ^ "Rat Trap". Time out (Mumbai) (Time Out) (6). 2008-11-14. http://www.timeoutmumbai.net/aroundtown/aroundtown_preview_details.asp?code=45. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  73. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 345
  74. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 293
  75. ^ Census of India 1961, p. 23
  76. ^ "Administration". Mumbai Suburban District. http://mumbaisuburban.gov.in/html/administrative_setup.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  77. ^ "Profile". Mumbai Suburban District. http://mumbaisuburban.gov.in/html/profile.htm. 
  78. ^ Guha, Ramachandra (2003-04-13). "The battle for Bombay". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mag/2003/04/13/stories/2003041300240300.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  79. ^ Guha 2007, pp. 197–8
  80. ^ "Samyukta Maharashtra". Government of Maharashtra. http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/english/community/community_samyuktaShow.php. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  81. ^ "Sons of soil: born, reborn". Indian Express Newspapers (Mumbai). 2008-02-06. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/sons-of-soil-born-reborn/269628/.  Retrieved on 2008-11-12.
  82. ^ "Gujarat". Government of India. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/st_gujurat.php. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  83. ^ "Maharashtra". Government of India. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/st_maharashtra.php. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  84. ^ Desai, Geeta (2008-05-13). "BMC will give jobs to kin of Samyukta Maharashtra martyrs". Mumbai Mirror. http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Repository/ml.asp?Ref=TU1JUi8yMDA4LzA1LzEzI0FyMDA1MDA=&Mode=HTML&Locale=english-skin-custom. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  85. ^ Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 306
  86. ^ "About Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority. http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  87. ^ "About Navi Mumbai (History)". Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC). http://www.nmmconline.com/english/aboutUs/about_history_Show.php. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  88. ^ "Profile of Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House (Nhava Sheva)". Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House. http://www.jawaharcustoms.gov.in/jnch/others/profile.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  89. ^ Kaur, Naunidhi (July 05–18, 2003). "Mumbai: A decade after riots". Frontline 20 (14). http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2014/stories/20030718002704100.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  90. ^ "1993: Bombay hit by devastating bombs". BBC News. 1993-03-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/12/newsid_4272000/4272943.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  91. ^ "Special Report: Mumbai Train Attacks". BBC News. 2006-09-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/south_asia/2006/mumbai_train_attacks/default.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  92. ^ Press Information Bureau (Government of India) (2008-12-11). "HM announces measures to enhance security". Press release. http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=45446. Retrieved 2008-12-14. 
  93. ^ a b c d Thomas, T. (2007-04-27). "Mumbai a global financial centre? Of course!". New Delhi: Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/money/2007/apr/27mumbai.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  94. ^ Shaw, Annapurna (1999). "Emerging Patterns of Urban Growth in India". Economic and Political Weekly 34 (16/17): 969–978. doi:10.2307/4407880 (inactive 2009-09-20). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4407880. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  95. ^ Brunn, Williams & Zeigler 2003, pp. 353–354
  96. ^ "Mumbai, India Page". Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/16/Mumbai.html. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  97. ^ "Mumbai Suburban" (PDF). National Informatics Centre (Mahrashtra State Centre). http://www.maharashtra.nic.in/htmldocs/Activity/mumbai_sub.pdf. Retrieved 2009-15-31. 
  98. ^ "MMRDA Projects". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/projects_muip.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  99. ^ "Area and Density – Metropolitan Cities" (PDF, 111 KB). Ministry of Urban Development (Government of India). p. 33. Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. http://webcitation.org/5gOCPonTE. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  100. ^ a b c Mumbai Plan, 1.2 Area and Divisions
  101. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 2
  102. ^ a b c Mumbai Plan, 1.1 Location
  103. ^ Krishnamoorthy, p. 218
  104. ^ "Mumbai, India". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=030034&refer=. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  105. ^ Mumbai Plan, 1.3.2.2 Salsette Island
  106. ^ Srinivasu, T.; Pardeshi, Satish. "Floristic Survey of Institute of Science, Mumbai, Maharashta State". Government of Maharashtra. http://iscmumbai.maharashtra.gov.in/floristic%20survey.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  107. ^ Bapat 2005, pp. 111–112
  108. ^ "Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai Water Sector Initiatives" (PPT). Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (Government of India). p. 6. http://darpg.nic.in/arpg-website/Conference/Pune/water%20supply%20initiatives.ppt. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  109. ^ a b Bavadam, Lyla (February 15–28, 2003). "Encroaching on a lifeline". Frontline (The Hindu). http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2004/stories/20030228002609200.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  110. ^ "Salient Features of Powai Lake" (PPT, 1.6 MB). Department of Environment (Government of Maharashtra). http://envis.maharashtra.gov.in/envis_data/pps/pawai2.ppt. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  111. ^ Mumbai Plan, 1.7 Water Supply and Sanitation
  112. ^ Sen, Somit (2008-12-13). "Security web for city coastline". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Security_web_for_city_coastline/articleshow/3830390.cms. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  113. ^ Patil 1957, pp. 45–49
  114. ^ Mumbai Plan, 1.3.1 Soil
  115. ^ Mumbai Plan, 1.3.2 Geology and Geomorphology
  116. ^ Kanth, S. T. G. Raghu; Iyenagar, R. N. (2006-12-10). "Seismic Hazard estimation for Mumbai City". Current Science (Current Science Association) 91 (11): 1486. http://www.scribd.com/doc/10026629/Earthquake-Hazard-Computation-for-Mumbai-Bombay-City. Retrieved 2009-09-03. "This is used to compute the probability of ground motion that can be induced by each of the twenty-three known faults that exist around the city.". 
  117. ^ India Meteorological Department. Seismic Zoning Map [map]. Retrieved on 2008-07-20.
  118. ^ "The Seismic Environment of Mumbai". Department of Theoretical Physics (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research). http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/physical/fault.html. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  119. ^ Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 1999, p. 210
  120. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 84
  121. ^ a b c Mumbai Plan, 1.4 Climate and Rainfall
  122. ^ Kishwar, Madhu Purnima (2006-07-03). "Three drown as heavy rain lashes Mumbai for the 3rd day". Mumbai: Daily News and Analysis (DNA). http://www.dnaindia.com/report.asp?NewsID=1039257. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  123. ^ Rohli & Vega 2007, p. 267
  124. ^ WMO bulletin 2000, p. 346, "Bombay recorded a maximum temperature of 40.2°C on 28 March 1982, the highest since 1955."
  125. ^ "Mumbai still cold at 8.6 degree C". The Times of India. 2008-02-09. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2770007.cms. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  126. ^ "Historical Weather for Mumbai, India". Weather Underground. http://www.wunderground.com/NORMS/DisplayIntlNORMS.asp?CityCode=42182&Units=both. Retrieved November 27, 2008. 
  127. ^ Swaminathan & Goyal 2006, p. 51
  128. ^ "GDP growth: Surat fastest, Mumbai largest". The Financial Express. 2008-01-29. http://www.financialexpress.com/news/gdp-growth-surat-fastest-mumbai-largest/266636/. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  129. ^ "Fortune Global 500". Fortune. CNN. 2008-07-21. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2008/countries/India.html. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  130. ^ "Welcome To World Trade Centre, Mumbai". WTC Mumbai. http://www.wtcmumbai.org/. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  131. ^ Swaminathan & Goyal 2006, p. 52
  132. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Loughborough University. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  133. ^ Keillor 2007, p. 83
  134. ^ "Indian Ports Association, Operational Details". Indian Ports Association. http://www.ipa.nic.in/oper.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  135. ^ McDougall, Dan (2007-03-04). "Waste not, want not in the £700m slum". The Observer (Guardian News and Media Limited). http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/mar/04/india.recycling. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  136. ^ Wasko 2003, p. 185
  137. ^ Jha 2005, p. 1970
  138. ^ Kelsey 2008, p. 208
  139. ^ "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008" (PDF). MasterCard. p. 21. http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/insights/pdfs/2008/MCWW_WCoC-Report_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  140. ^ "In Pictures: The Top 10 Cities For Billionaires". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/04/30/billionaires-london-moscow-biz-billies-cz_cv_0430billiecities_slide_5.html?thisSpeed=15000. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  141. ^ Vorasarun, Chaniga (2008-04-30). "Cities Of The Billionaires". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/04/30/billionaires-london-moscow-biz-billies-cz_cv_0430billiecities.html. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  142. ^ a b "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai". Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. http://www.mcgm.gov.in/. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  143. ^ "Commissioner System". http://www.citymayors.com/government/india_government.html. 
  144. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, General Administration (Introduction)
  145. ^ http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/english/gazetteer/greater_bombay/generaladmin.html#6 Collector
  146. ^ Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, p. 2
  147. ^ Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, pp. 7–8
  148. ^ "About Bombay High Court". Bombay High Court. http://bombayhighcourt.nic.in/. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  149. ^ Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, Judiciary
  150. ^ Fuller & Bénéï 2001, p. 47
  151. ^ 100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, p. 4, "The centenary of the Indian National Congress, which is being celebrated at its birthplace Bombay, is a unique event."
  152. ^ "Congress foundation day celebrated". The Hindu. 2006-12-29. http://www.hindu.com/2006/12/29/stories/2006122906471500.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  153. ^ David 1995, p. 215
  154. ^ "Sena fate: From roar to meow". The Times of India. 2005-11-29. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-1311115,prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  155. ^ "Maharashtra government ‘soft’ on Raj Thackeray’s outfit, says BJP". The Hindu. 2008-02-13. http://www.thehindu.com/2008/02/13/stories/2008021354841200.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  156. ^ Phadnis, pp. 86–87
  157. ^ Rana 2006, pp. 315–316
  158. ^ "Stage Set for Third Phase Polls in Maharashtra". Outlook. 2009-04-29. http://news.outlookindia.com/item.aspx?659150. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  159. ^ "List Of Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 7. http://eci.nic.in/miscellaneous_statistics/ListofPC.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  160. ^ "Congress wins five seats in Mumbai, NCP wins the sixth seat". Mumbai Mirror. 2009-05-16. http://www.mumbaimirror.com/index.aspx?Page=article&sectname=News%20-%20City&sectid=2&contentid=200905162009051615521355720c4812d. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  161. ^ "List of ACs and PCs". Chief Electoral Officer (Government of Maharashtra). http://ceo.maharashtra.gov.in/acs.php. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  162. ^ "Maharashtra Assemby Election 2009". http://220.225.73.214/pdff/results.pdf. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  163. ^ "Maharashtra 2004 poll outcome". Rediff. 2004-10-16. http://www.rediff.com/election/2004/oct/16kbkmaha.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  164. ^ The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 6
  165. ^ "Corporation". Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous/qlcorporation. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  166. ^ "Mayor - the First Citizen of Mumbai". Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). http://www.mcgm.gov.in/irj/portal/anonymous/qlmayoffice. Retrieved 2009-05-12. "As the presiding authority at the Corporation Meetings, his/her role is confined to the four corners of the Corporation Hall. The decorative role, however, extends far beyond the city and the country to other parts of world" 
  167. ^ The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 3
  168. ^ "Sena's hat-trick in BMC; Congress suffers setback". Rediff. 2007-02-03. http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/feb/02poll.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  169. ^ The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 27
  170. ^ a b c "Development of Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Mumbai" (DOC). Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/docs/BRTS%20Note%20for%20web%20Page.doc. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  171. ^ a b Ghose, Anindita (2005-08-24). "What's Mumbai without the black beetles?". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). http://www.dnaindia.com/speakup/report_what-s-mumbai-without-the-black-beetles_422. Retrieved 2009-08-29. "In Mumbai autos run only in the suburbs up to Mahim creek. This is probably the perfect arrangement because it is not economically viable for autos and taxis to solicit the same passengers. So autos monopolise the suburbs while taxis rule South Mumbai." 
  172. ^ "Taxi, auto fares may dip due to CNG usage". The Times of India. 2004-04-22. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/631726.cms. Retrieved 2009-08-29. 
  173. ^ Vaswani, Karishma (2008-04-07). "Mumbai attempts 'no honking' day". BBC News (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7334628.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-29. 
  174. ^ Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, p. 2–9
  175. ^ [1]
  176. ^ "NH wise Details of NH in respect of Stretches entrusted to NHAI" (PDF, 62.2 KB). National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). http://www.nhai.org/Doc/project-offer/Highways.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  177. ^ Dalal, Sucheta (2000-04-01). "India's first international-class expressway is just a month away". The Indian Express. http://www.indianexpress.com/ie/daily/20000401/ina01059.html. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  178. ^ Kumar, K.P. Narayana; Chandran, Rahul (2008-03-06). "NHAI starts work on Rs 6,672 cr expressway". Mint. http://www.livemint.com/2008/03/06231146/NHAI-starts-work-on-Rs6672-cr.html. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  179. ^ "MSRDC - Project - Bandra Worli Sea Link". Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC). http://www.msrdc.org/projects/bandra_worli.aspx. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  180. ^ Mumbai Plan, 1.10 Transport and Communication Network
  181. ^ "Organisational Setup". Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST). http://bestundertaking.com/trans_func.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  182. ^ Metropolitan planning and management in the developing world 1993, p. 49
  183. ^ a b "Composition of Bus Fleet". Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST). http://www.bestundertaking.com/trans_engg.asp. Retrieved 2006-10-12. 
  184. ^ http://www.screens.tv/article/11738/Mumbai_bus_network_tops_1000,_gets_new_look.html
  185. ^ "Bus Transport Profile". Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST). http://www.bestundertaking.com/trans_botright.asp. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  186. ^ Tembhekar, Chittaranjan (2008-08-04). "MSRTC to make long distance travel easier". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/3322572.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  187. ^ "MSRTC adds Volvo luxury to Mumbai trip". The Times of India. 2002-12-29. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/32792301.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  188. ^ Seth, Urvashi (2009-03-31). "Traffic claims Mumbai darshan hot spots". MiD DAY. http://www.mid-day.com/news/2009/mar/310309-Mumbai-News-Mumbai-Darshan-popular-tourist-spots-traffic-congestion-Tourist.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  189. ^ "Bus Routes Under Bus Rapid Transit System" (PDF). Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST). p. 5. http://www.bestundertaking.com/TravelAsYouLike-Ticket.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  190. ^ Khanna, Gaurav. "7 Questions You Wanted to Ask About the Mumbai Metro". Businessworld. http://www.businessworld.in/index.php/7-Questions-You-Wanted-to-Ask.html. Retrieved 2009-08-28. "Road congestion has worsened, though 88 per cent of journeys are made by public transport." 
  191. ^ Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, p. 2-1: "The 137% increase in cars, a 306% increase in two wheelers, the 420% increase in autos and 128% increase in taxis during 1991-2005 has created a lethal dose of traffic congestion which has catagorised Mumbai as one of the congested cities in the world."
  192. ^ http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/skywalk.htm
  193. ^ Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, p. 2–14
  194. ^ Press Information Bureau (Government of India). "Making Rail Commuting Easier in Mumbai". Press release. http://pib.nic.in/feature/feyr2001/fsep2001/f240920011.html. Retrieved 2009-08-29. 
  195. ^ "Overview of existing Mumbai suburban railway". Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation. http://www.mrvc.indianrail.gov.in/overview.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  196. ^ Environment and urbanization 2002, p. 160
  197. ^ "Mumbai Metro Rail Project". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/projects_metro_rail.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  198. ^ "Mumbai monorail to run in two years". The Times of India. 2007-09-27. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2413046.cms. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 
  199. ^ "Terminal Facilities in Metropolitanc Cities" (PDF). Ministry of Railways (India). p. 14. http://164.100.24.208/ls/CommitteeR/Railways/21streport.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-28. "The port city of Mumbai is served by 5 passenger terminals namely Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal (CST), Mumbai Central, Dadar, Bandra and Lokmanya Tilak Terminal." 
  200. ^ a b "India's 10 longest runways". Rediff News (Rediff). 2008-08-25. http://www.rediff.com/money/2008/aug/25slid8.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  201. ^ http://www.csia.in/masterplan.asp
  202. ^ "MIAL eyes Juhu airport". MiD DAY. 2007-06-07. http://www.mid-day.com/news/2007/jun/194964.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  203. ^ "Work on Navi Mumbai airport may start next year". Business Line (The Hindu). 2006-12-19. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2006/12/19/stories/2006121901370700.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-16. 
  204. ^ Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, p. 2–12
  205. ^ Chittar 1973, p. 65: "The Port is endowed with one of the best natural harbours in the world and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation to meet the normal needs of the city."
  206. ^ Press Information Bureau (Government of India) (2003-01-07). "Laudable Achievement of JNPT". Press release. http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/lyr2003/rjan2003/07012003/r070120037.html. Retrieved 2009-08-29. 
  207. ^ "Our Mission". Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust. http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&safe=off&q=site:jnport.com+55-60%25&btnG=Search&meta=&aq=f&oq=. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  208. ^ Sonawane, Rakshit (2007-05-13). "Cruise terminal plan gets MoU push". Daily News and Analysis. http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=236291. Retrieved 2009-08-27. "While Arthur Bunder is used by small boats and Hay Bunder caters to declining traffic of barges, Ferry Wharf offers services to Mora, Mandva, Rewas and Uran ports." 
  209. ^ "BMC Inc. will now sell bottled water". Express News Service (The Indian Express). 1998-05-21. http://www.indianexpress.com/ie/daily/19980521/14150784.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  210. ^ Sawant, Sanjay (2007-03-23). "It will be years before Mumbai surmounts its water crisis". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report_it-will-be-years-before-mumbai-surmounts-its-water-crisis_1086577. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  211. ^ a b "Tansa water mains to be replaced". The Times of India. 2007-08-01. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-2247432,prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  212. ^ Wajihuddin, Mohammed (2003-05-04). "Make way for Mulund, Mumbai’s newest hotspot". Mumbai Newsline (Indian Express Group). http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=50939. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  213. ^ "Country's first water tunnel to come up in Mumbai". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 2008-02-20. http://www.dnaindia.com/report.asp?NewsID=1151960. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  214. ^ Express News Service (October 22, 2009). "Now, a toll-free helpline to check water leakage, theft". Yahoo India News. http://in.news.yahoo.com/48/20091022/804/tnl-now-a-toll-free-helpline-to-check-wa.html. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 
  215. ^ Nevin, John (2005-08-27). "Plastic ban: 1 lakh to be jobless". Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/money/2005/aug/27plastic.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  216. ^ "How BMC cleans up the city". MiD DAY. 2002-08-26. http://www.mid-day.com/news/2002/aug/29797.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  217. ^ "Bombay Sewage Disposal". The World Bank Group. http://www.worldbank.org.in/external/default/main?pagePK=64027221&piPK=64027220&theSitePK=295584&menuPK=295621&Projectid=P010480. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  218. ^ Dasgupta, Devraj (2007-04-26). "Stay in island city, do biz". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Mumbai/Stay_in_island_city_do_biz/articleshow/1956009.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  219. ^ "NTPC to give Mumbai 350 mw; electricity tariff may go up". The Financial Express (Indian Express Group). 2006-10-21. http://www.financialexpress.com/news/ntpc-to-give-mumbai-350-mw-electricity-tariff-may-go-up/181350/. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  220. ^ Campbell 2008, p. 143
  221. ^ Somayaji, Chitra; Bhatnagar, Shailendra (2009-06-13). "Reliance Offers BlackBerry in India, Vies With Bharti". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601082&sid=a_3Aeo82P.Kg&refer=canada. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  222. ^ "MTNL Launches IPTV Services On Broadband". MTNL TriBand, Mumbai. http://mumbai.mtnl.net.in/triband/voip/faq.html. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  223. ^ "Broadband &Internet". Airtel. http://www.airtel.in/wps/wcm/connect/airtel.in/Airtel.In/Home/ForYou/Broadband+Internet/. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  224. ^ Population and Employement profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, p. 6
  225. ^ Population and Employement profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, p. 13
  226. ^ "India: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". World Gazetteer. http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=80&geo=-104&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&msz=1500&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  227. ^ "India: metropolitan areas". World Gazetteer. http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=80&geo=-104&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&msz=1500&va=&pt=a. Retrieved 2008-01-17. 
  228. ^ a b Population and Employement profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, p. 12
  229. ^ "Number of Literates & Literacy Rate". Census Data 2001: India at a Glance. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/literates1.aspx. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  230. ^ "Sex Ratio". Census Data 2001: India at a Glance. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/fsex.aspx. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  231. ^ "Parsis top literacy, sex-ratio charts in city". The Times of India. 2004-09-08. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/843036.cms. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  232. ^ 11th annual report Crime in Maharashtra 2008:Criminal Investigation Department,Pune
  233. ^ "Census GIS Household". Census of India. Office of the Registrar General. http://www.censusindiamaps.net/page/Religion_WhizMap1/housemap.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  234. ^ Mehta 2004, p. 99: "Maharashtrians now comprise only 39 percent of the city's residents; 19 percent are Gujarati, and the rest are Muslim, North Indian, Sindhi, South Indian..."
  235. ^ Bates 2003, p. 266
  236. ^ Baptista 1967, p. 5
  237. ^ Strizower 1971, p. 15
  238. ^ "The world's successful diasporas". Managementtoday.co.uk.
  239. ^ Pai 2005, p. 1804
  240. ^ O'Brien 2003, p. 141
  241. ^ Datta & Jones 1999, Low-Income Households and the Housing Problem in Mumbai, pp. 158–159
  242. ^ "Slum Cities: A Shifting World". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). 2006-05-07. http://www.cbc.ca/correspondent/060507.html. Retrieved 2008-08-16. 
  243. ^ Jacobson, Marc (May 2007). "Dharavi: Mumbai's Shadow City". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2007/05/dharavi-mumbai-slum/jacobson-text. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  244. ^ Davis 2006, p. 31
  245. ^ "Highlights of Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2005-06" (PDF). Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Planning Department (Government of Maharashtra). p. 2. http://maccia.org.in/ecoSmaha06.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-13. 
  246. ^ National Crime Records Bureau (2007). "Crime in India-2007" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (Government of India). p. 2. http://ncrb.nic.in/cii2007/home.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  247. ^ "Once again, Arthur Road Jail prepares for mother of all trials". The Indian Express. 2009-01-20. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/once-again-arthur-road-jail-prepares-for-mo/412831/. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  248. ^ "Principal Cities". Government of Maharashtra. http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/english/community/community_citiesShow.php. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  249. ^ "Beginners' Bollywood". Sydney: The Age. 2005-09-28. http://www.theage.com.au/news/arts/beginners-bollywood/2005/09/27/1127804471297.html. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  250. ^ Vilanilam 2005, p. 130
  251. ^ Huda 2004, p. 203
  252. ^ Nagarajan, Saraswathy (2006-09-10). "Matchbox journeys". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/mag/2006/09/10/stories/2006091000210500.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  253. ^ "Filmfare Awards gets new sponsor". IndiaTimes Movies (The Times of India). 2006-01-11. http://movies.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-1367349,prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  254. ^ Chaudhuri 2005, pp. 4–6
  255. ^ Gilder, Rosamond (October 1957). "The New Theatre in India: An Impression". Educational Theatre Journal (Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins University Press) 9 (3): 201–204. ISSN 0192-2882. 
  256. ^ David 1995, p. 232
  257. ^ "Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya". Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Mumbai. http://www.bombaymuseum.org/. Retrieved 2007-01-30. 
  258. ^ Sharma, Archana (2003-10-13). "Jijamata Udyan: A zoo without a view". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/html/uncomp/articleshow?msid=230113. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  259. ^ "Sahitya Akademi: awards and fellowships". Sahitya Akademi. 1999. http://www.sahitya-akademi.gov.in/old_version/awa1.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  260. ^ a b c Bavadam, Lyla (June 22 – July 5, 2002). "Mumbai, past in present". Frontline 19 (13). http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1913/19130670.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  261. ^ "Rainswept glory". The Hindu. 2004-07-24. http://www.hindu.com/mag/2004/07/25/stories/2004072500330200.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  262. ^ Morris & Winchester 2005, p. 212
  263. ^ "Mumbai's entrance -the 'Gateway' to be more tourist-friendly". The Hindu. 2007-03-04. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/002200703041014.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  264. ^ Bavadam, Lyla (April 11–24, 2009). "Forgotten classics". Frontline 26 (08). http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2608/stories/20090424260806600.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  265. ^ "Tall Buildings of Mumbai". Emporis. http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/ci/bu/sk/?id=102037. Retrieved August 15, 2009. 
  266. ^ "India: World heritage sites centre". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/in. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  267. ^ "About Essel World". Essel World. http://www.esselworld.com/. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  268. ^ O'Brien 2003, p. 143
  269. ^ "Kala Ghoda Arts Festival". Kala Ghoda Association. http://www.kalaghodaassociation.com/. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  270. ^ Shah, Shika (2008-09-17). "Bandra's spirit captured in cakes, tattoos". MiD DAY. http://www.mid-day.com/whatson/2008/sep/170908-Bandra-Fair-carnival-best-buys.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  271. ^ "The Banganga Festival". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. http://www.maharashtratourism.gov.in/MTDC/HTML/MaharashtraTourism/Default.aspx?strpage=../MaharashtraTourism/MTDC_Festival/Banganga_Festival.html. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  272. ^ "The Elephanta Festival". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. http://www.maharashtratourism.gov.in/MTDC/HTML/MaharashtraTourism/Default.aspx?strpage=../MaharashtraTourism/MTDC_Festival/Elephanta_Festival.html. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  273. ^ "Mumbai celebrates Maharashtra Day". The Times of India. 2009-05-01. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Mumbai-celebrates-Maharashtra-Day/articleshow/4471265.cms. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  274. ^ Krishnan, Ananth (2009-03-24). "‘Vote at Eight’ campaign". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2009/03/24/stories/2009032450711300.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  275. ^ "Yokohama of the World". City of Yokohama. http://www.city.yokohama.jp/ne/info/map/worldE.html. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  276. ^ "Eight Cities/Six Ports: Yokohama's Sister Cities/Sister Ports". Yokohama Convention & Visitiors Bureau. http://www.welcome.city.yokohama.jp/eng/tourism/mame/a3000.html. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  277. ^ "Sister Cities of Los Angeles". Official Website of the City of Los Angeles. http://www.lacity.org/SisterCities/. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  278. ^ "“Stuttgart Meets Mumbai”: 40th Anniversary Celebrations of the Sister City Relationship". The Embassy of India, Berlin. http://www.indianembassy.de/template.php?mnid=104&inclpage=stuttgartmeeting.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  279. ^ Bansal, Shuchi; Mathai, Palakunnathu G. (2005-04-06). "Mumbai's media Mahabharat". Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/cms/print.jsp?docpath=//money/2005/apr/06spec1.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  280. ^ Rao, Subha J. (2004-10-16). "Learn with newspapers". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/yw/2004/10/16/stories/2004101600260300.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  281. ^ Naregal, Veena (2002-02-05). "Privatising emancipation (A Book Review)". Language, Politics, Elites, and the Public Sphere (The Hindu). http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/br/2002/02/05/stories/2002020500040500.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  282. ^ "DD Mumbai bid to boost revenue". Business Line (The Hindu). 2000-07-01. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/businessline/2000/07/01/stories/190102dd.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  283. ^ "IN-fighting among cable operators". The Indian Express. 1999-07-26. http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/ie/daily/19990826/ige26046.html. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  284. ^ "What is CAS? What is DTH?". Rediff News. Rediff. 2006-09-05. http://www.rediff.com/money/2006/sep/05iycu.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  285. ^ "Tata Sky on Insat 4A". LyngSat. http://www.lyngsat.com/packages/tatasky.html. Retrieved 2008-08-10. 
  286. ^ "Radio stations in Maharashtra, India". Asiawaves. http://www.asiawaves.net/india/maharashtra-radio.htm#mumbai-radio. Retrieved 2008-01-18. 
  287. ^ D.S., Madhumathi (2001-12-29). "WorldSpace sees big gains in the long run". Business Line (The Hindu). http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/demo/stories/2001122900810200.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  288. ^ "Few takers for CAS in Mumbai". The Times of India. 2006-12-20. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/856609.cms. Retrieved 2008-01-22. 
  289. ^ Ganti 2004, p. 3
  290. ^ Lundgren, Kari (2008-11-26). "Bollywood Trawls London for Talent as Students Balk at Banking". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601085&sid=a6JQLLVfORXM&refer=europe. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  291. ^ "Bollywood filmmakers experimenting with new genre of films". The Economic Times (The Times of India). 2008-07-17. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/3373564.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  292. ^ Deshpande, Haima (2001-03-05). "Mumbai's Film City may be home to world cinema". The Indian Express. http://www.indianexpress.com/ie/daily/20010305/ina05024.html. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  293. ^ Gupta 2006, p. 70
  294. ^ "City has 43 one-teacher schools". MiD DAY (MiD-Day Infomedia). 2006-09-24. http://www.mid-day.com/news/2006/sep/144108.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  295. ^ Mukherji, Anahita (2009-04-02). "Education board tells schools to get state recognition". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/4346890.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  296. ^ "Now, schools can teach in 2 languages". The Times of India. 2006-05-05. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1516877.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  297. ^ Kak, Subhash (2004-07-13). "Saving India through Its Schools". Rediff News. Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/news/2004/jul/13kak.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  298. ^ "Are you cut out for Arts, Science or Commerce?". Rediff News (Rediff). 2008-06-19. http://www.rediff.com/getahead/2008/jun/19trans.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  299. ^ Sharma, Archana (2004-06-04). "When it comes to courses, MU dishes up a big buffet". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/718303.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  300. ^ "History". University of Mumbai. http://www.mu.ac.in/History.html. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  301. ^ "IIT flights return home". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 2006-12-22. http://www.dnaindia.com/report.asp?NewsID=1070723. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  302. ^ "About the Institute". Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI),. http://www.vjti.ac.in/home_about.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  303. ^ "Admission process for autonomous engg colleges to start today". Indian Express Group. 2008-06-11. http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/admission-process-for-autonomous-engg-colleges-to-start-today/321286/. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  304. ^ "About University". SNDT Women's University. http://sndt.digitaluniversity.ac/Content.aspx?ID=7&ParentMenuID=7. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  305. ^ Bansal, Rashmi (2004-11-08). "Is the 'IIM' brand invincible?". Rediff News (Rediff). http://in.rediff.com/getahead/2004/nov/08rash.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  306. ^ "Sydenham College: Our Profile". Sydenham College. http://www.sydenham.edu/our_profile.html. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  307. ^ "About The Government Law College". Government Law College. http://www.glc.edu/incept.asp. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  308. ^ Martyris, Nina (2002-10-06). "JJ School seeks help from new friends". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/24305727.cms. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  309. ^ "University ties up with renowned institutes". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 2006-11-24. http://www.dnaindia.com/report.asp?NewsID=1065998. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  310. ^ "CIRUS reactor". Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). http://www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/reactors/cirus.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  311. ^ "About BCCI". Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). http://www.bcci.tv/about-bcci.html. Retrieved 2009-05-16. 
  312. ^ Makarand, Waingankar (2009-01-18). "Attacking pattern of play has delivered". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2009/01/18/stories/2009011856451500.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  313. ^ Seth, Ramesh (2006-12-01). "Brabourne — the stadium with a difference". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/yw/2006/12/01/stories/2006120100150200.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  314. ^ "Aussies claim elusive trophy". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/cricket/aussies-claim-elusive-trophy/2006/11/06/1162661575823.html. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  315. ^ Srivastava, Sanjeev (2002-11-05). "Tendulkar serves it up". BBC News (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/south_asia/2404371.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  316. ^ Murali, Kanta (August-September 2002). "Gavaskar: India's Greatest Crickter". Frontline (The Hindu) 19 (18). http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1918/19180820.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  317. ^ Bubna, Shriya (2006-07-07). "Forget cricket, soccer's new media favourite". Rediff News (Rediff). http://www.rediff.com/money/2006/jul/07fifa.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  318. ^ "Mumbai Football Club launched". Rediff News (Rediff). 2007-06-28. http://www.rediff.com/sports/2007/jun/28foot.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  319. ^ Sharma, Amitabha Das (2003-07-07). "Mahindra United in summit clash". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/2003/08/07/stories/2003080705022100.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  320. ^ "I-League: Mahindra United to face Mumbai FC". The Hindu. 2008-10-10. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/007200810101668.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  321. ^ "Stage set for Premier Hockey League". Rediff News (Rediff). 2004-11-17. http://www.rediff.com/sports/2004/nov/17hock.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  322. ^ Pal, Abir (2007-01-17). "Mallya, Diageo fight for McDowell Derby". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1233374.cms. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  323. ^ Pinto, Ashwin (2005-03-05). "ESS plans marketing blitz around F1". Indiantelevision.com. http://www.indiantelevision.com/mam/headlines/y2k5/mar/marmam27.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  324. ^ "Motor racing-Force India F1 team to launch 2008 car in Mumbai". Thomson Reuters (Reuters UK). 2008-01-25. http://uk.reuters.com/article/motorSportsNews/idUKL2521523620080125. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  325. ^ Jore, Dharmendra (2004-11-14). "Formula 1 powerboating swooshes into Mumbai, tourism hope for city". Mumbai Newsline (The Indian Express). http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=68125. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  326. ^ "Mumbai marathon draws all defending champions". The Earth Times. 2007-12-18. http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/160916.html. Retrieved 2009-05-28. 
  327. ^ "Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit". CBS Sports. 2008-05-20. http://www.sportsline.com/tennis/story/10834314. Retrieved 2009-05-28. 

References

Further reading

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-03-12, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles

External links

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message