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Demographics of Ukraine
Population of Ukraine v.2.PNG
Population of Ukraine (in millions) from 1950-2010.
Population: 45,962,900 (1 January 2010)
Growth rate: -4.2 persons/1,000 population (2009)
Birth rate: 11.1 births/1,000 population (2009)
Death rate: 15.3 deaths/1,000 population (2009)
Life expectancy: 68.08 years (2008 est.)
–male: 62.24 years
–female: 74.24 years
Fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 9.3 deaths/1,000 infants (2009)
Net migration rate: 0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 13.9% (male 3,277,905/female 3,106,012)
15-64 years: 70% (male 15,443,818/female 16,767,931)
65-over: 16.1% (male 2,489,235/female 4,909,386) (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65-over: 0.51 male(s)/female
Nationality:
Nationality: noun: Ukrainian(s) adjective: Ukrainian
Major ethnic: Ukrainians (77.8%)
Minor ethnic: Russians (17.3%)
Language:
Official: Ukrainian
Spoken: Russian, Ukrainian, others

The Demographics of Ukraine is about the demographic features of the population of Ukraine, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

The data in this article are based on the most recent Ukrainian Census, which was carried out in 2001,[1] the CIA World Factbook, and the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine.

Contents

Demographic statistics

Natural population growth of Ukraine since 1950.[2][3][4]      Birth rate      Death rate      Natural growth rate

Population

45,962,900 (January 2010)[5]

Age structure

  • 0–14 years: 13.9% (male 3,277,905/female 3,106,012)
  • 15–64 years: 70% (male 15,443,818/female 16,767,931)
  • 65 years and over: 16.1% (male 2,489,235/female 4,909,386) (2008 est.)

Median age

  • total: 39.4 years
  • male: 36.1 years
  • female: 42.5 years (2008 est.)

Population growth rate

-4.2 persons/1,000 population (2009)[6]

Birth rate

11.1 births/1,000 population (2009)[6]

Death rate

15.3 deaths/1,000 population (2009)[6]

Net migration rate

0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008)[7]

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • 15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
  • total population: 0.8375 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate

  • 9.3 deaths/1,000 infants (2009)[6]

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 68.06 years
  • male: 62.24 years
  • female: 74.24 years (2008 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.25 children born/woman (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

1.46% (2006 est.)[8]

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

377,600 (2006 est.)[8]

HIV/AIDS - deaths

20,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality

  • noun: Ukrainian(s)
  • adjective: Ukrainian

Ethnic groups

National structure of the population of Ukraine (2001).
     Ukrainians      Russians      Others

Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Romanian 0.8% (including Moldovan 0.5%), Belarusian 0.6%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, Greeks 0.2% and other 1.6% (including Albanians, otherwise known as Torbesh, old communities of Armenians living on the Sea of Azov, and a microcosm of Gotlander Swedes of Gammalsvenskby).[9]

Religions

Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy 50.4%, Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) 26.1%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church 8%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church 7.2%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Protestant 2.2%, Islam 0.65%, Jewish 0.6%, other 2.55% (2008 est.)[10]

Languages

Ukrainian 67%, Russian 30%, Crimean Tatar, Bulgarian-, Romanian-, Polish-, Hungarian-, Rusyn-speaking minorities and small remnants of a Yiddish speaking group among the local Jews.

Literacy

  • definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  • total population: 99.4%
  • male: 99.7%
  • female: 99.2% (2001 census)

Historical Data

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1897 23,430,407
1905 30,837,300 31.6%
1926 26,020,300 −15.6%
1931[11] 23,263,000 −10.6%
1939 40,469,000 74.0%
1959[12] 41,869,046 3.5%
1965 45,132,800 7.8%
1970 47,126,517 4.4%
1975 48,880,500 3.7%
1979 49,609,333 1.5%
1984 50,678,600 2.2%
1989 51,452,034 1.5%
1995 51,728,400 0.5%
2001 48,457,000 −6.3%
2005 47,280,817 −2.4%
2009 46,115,941 −2.5%

The historical information is taken out of Demoscope.ru. Please, note that territory of the modern Ukraine at the times listed above varied greatly. The western regions of Ukraine, west of Zbruch river, until 1939 for most of time were part of the Kingdom Galicia and later the Polish Republic. The detailed information for those territories is missing, for more information see Demographics of Poland. The Crimean peninsula was changing hands as well, in 1897 it was a part of the Taurida Governorate, but after the October Revolution became part of the Russian SFSR, and later was turned under the administration of the Ukrainian SSR. The territory of Budjak (southern Bessarabia) became a part of the Ukrainian SSR in June 1940. The censuses of 1926 through 1989 were taken in the Ukrainian SSR. The census of 1897 is taken with the correspondence to nine gubernias that included in the territory of today's Ukraine. The statistics of 1905 records are taken from www.statoids.com which provides a broad degree of historical explanation on the situation in the Imperial Russia. The census statistics of 1931 was estimated by the professor Zenon Kuzela of Berlin. His calculations are as of January 1, 1931. This ethnograph is mentioned in the encyclopedia of Ukraine as one of the sources only available due to lack of the official census[13][14].The 2001 census was the first official census of the independent republic of Ukraine. The 2009 stats were taken from the official web-site of www.ukrstat.gov.ua and represent the data as of February, 2009.

Regional Differences in Demographic Changes

Between the Soviet census of 1989 and the Ukrainian census of 2001, Ukraine's population declined from 51,706,600 to 48,457,020 [15], a loss of 2,926,700 people or 5.7% of the 1989 population. However, this trend has been quite uneven and varied regionally. Two regions in western Ukraine — Rivne and Zakarpattia, saw slight population increases of .3% and .5% respectively. A third western Ukrainian region, Volyn, lost less than .1% of its population between 1989 and 2001.[15] Collectively, between 1989 and 2001 the seven westernmost regions of Ukraine lost 167,500 people or 1.7% of their 1989 population. The total population of these regions in 2001 was 9,593,800.[15]

Natural population growth rates by oblast (2008)

Between 1989 and 2001, the population of Kiev City increased by .3% [15] due to positive net-migration.[citation needed] Outside the capital, the central, southern and eastern regions experienced a severe decline in population. Between 1989 and 2001, the Donetsk region lost 491,300 people or 9.2% of its 1989 population, and neighbouring Luhansk region lost 11% of its population.[15] Chernihiv region, in central Ukraine northeast of Kiev, lost 170,600 people or 12% of its 1989 population, the highest percentage loss in of any region in Ukraine. In southern Ukraine, Odessa region lost 173,600 people, or 6.6% of its 1989 population. By 2001, Crimea's population declined by 29,900 people, representing only 1.4% of the 1989 population. [15] However, this was due to the influx of approximately 200,000 Crimean Tatars - a number eqivalent to approximately 10% of Crimea's 1989 population - who arrived in Crimea after 1989 and whose population in that region increased by a factor of 6.4 from 38,000 to 243,400 between 1989 and 2001. [16]. Collectively, the net population loss in the regions of Ukraine outside the westernmost regions was 2,759,200 people or 6.6% of the 1989 population. The total population of these regions in 2001 was 39,186,100. [15]

Thus, from 1989-2001 the pattern of population change was one of slight growth in Kiev, slight declines in western Ukraine, large declines in eastern, central and southern Ukraine and slight decline in Crimea due to a large influx of Crimean tatars.

Ukraine's ovrall birthrate is the lowest in Europe. [17] However, significant regional differences in birth rates may account for some of the demographic differences. In the third quarter of 2007, for instance, the highest birth rate among Ukrainian regions occurred in Volyn Oblast, with a birth rate of 13.4/1,000 people, compared to the Ukrainian country-wide average of 9.6/1,000 people,[18] which is the lowest in Europe. Volyn's birthrate is higher than the average birth rate of any European country with the exceptions of Iceland and Albania.[19] In 2007, for the first time since 1990, five Ukrainian regions (Zakarpattia Oblast, Rivne Oblast,Volyn Oblast, Lviv Oblast, and Kiev Oblast) experienced more births than deaths.[20] This demonstrates a positive trend of increasing birthrates in the last couple of years throughout Ukraine. The ratio of births to deaths in those regions in 2007 was 119%, 117%, 110%, 100.7%, and 108%, respectively.[20] With the exception of Kiev region, all of the regions with more births than deaths were in the less industrially developed regions of western Ukraine. According to a spokesperson for Ukraine's Ministry of Justice, the overall ratio of births to deaths in Ukraine had improved from 1 to 1.7 in 2004-2005 to 1 to 1.4 in 2008. However, the worst birth to death ratios in the country were in the eastern and central oblasts of Donetsk, Luhansk, Cherkasy and Poltava. In these regions, for every birth there were 2.1 deaths. [21]

Death rates also vary widely by region; Eastern and southern Ukraine have the highest death rates in the country, and the life expectancy for children born in Chernigov, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kherson, Kirovograd, Lugansk, Nikolaev, and Odessa regions is 1.5 years lower than the national average. [22] Ukraine had a suicide rate of 29.6 per 100,000 population in 1998, a significant increase from the suicide rate of 19 per 100,000 in 1988. Suicides are more frequent in the industrially developed regions and in the rural areas of the country than in the cities; In western Ukraine, the suicide rate was lower than the national average at 11.1 per 100,000. [23] Donetsk and Dniproptrovsk oblasts in eastern and central Ukraine also have the country's highest rate of abortions.[24].

The Southern and eastern Ukrainian regions also suffer from the highest rates of HIV and AIDS, which impacts life expectancy. In late 2000, 60% of all AIDS cases in Ukraine were concentrated in the Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk, and Donetsk regions.[25] A major reason for this is the fact that the urbanized and industrialized regions in the East and South of Ukraine suffered most from the economic crisis in the 90s, which in turn led to the spread of unemployment, alcoholism, and drug abuse, thus setting the conditions for wider spread of the epidemic.[26]

Migration

Ukraine is the major source of migrants in many of the European Union Member States. During the 1990s and early 2000s, Ukraine's sputtering economy and political instability contributed to rising emigration, especially to nearby Poland and Hungary, but also to other States such as Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Israel, Russia and Canada. Although estimates vary, approximately two to three million Ukrainian citizens are currently working abroad, most of them illegally, in construction, service, housekeeping, and agriculture industries.

Between 1991 and 2004, the government counted 2,537,400 individuals who emigrated; 1,897,500 moved to other post-Soviet states, and 639,900 moved to other, mainly Western, states.[27]

By the early 2000s, Ukrainian embassies reported that 300,000 Ukrainian citizens were working in Poland, 200,000 in Italy, approximately 200,000 in the Czech Republic, 150,000 in Portugal, 100,000 in Spain, 35,000 in Turkey, 20,000 in the United States and small significant numbers in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The largest number of Ukrainian workers abroad, about one million, are in the Russian Federation. Since 1992, 232,072 persons born in Ukraine have emigrated to the US.

From the point of view of the economic impact on natives, more appropriate than the absolute numbers is the volume of immigration as a proportion of the native population. Portugal and the Czech Republic have the highest rate of Ukrainian emigrants as a proportion of the native population.

Ethnic Groups

COB data Ukraine.PNG
Ethnic Ukrainians in Ukraine by oblast (2001)

The below table gives the total population of various ethnic groups in Ukraine and the primary language, according to the 2000 census.[9]

Group Pop Native Ukrainian Russian Other
Ukrainians 37541693 31970728 x 5544729 532
Russians 8334141 7993832 328152 x 402
Belarusians 275763 54573 48202 172251 x
Moldavians 258619 181124 27775 45607 22
Crimean Tatars 248193 228373 184 15208 43
Bulgarians 204574 131237 10277 62067 9
Hungarians 156566 149431 5367 1513 14
Romanians 150989 138522 9367 2297 4
Poles 144130 18660 102268 22495 390
Jews 103591 3213 13924 85964 16
Armenians 99894 50363 5798 43105 11
Greeks 91548 5829 4359 80992 9
Tatars 73304 25770 3310 43060 6
Roma people (Gypsies) 47587 21266 10039 6378 6
Azerbaijanis 45176 23958 3224 16968 36
Georgians 34199 12539 2818 18589 15
Germans 33302 4056 7360 21549 20
Gagauzs 31923 22822 1102 7232 2
Koreans 12711 2223 700 9662 0
Uzbeks 12353 3604 1818 5996 0
Chuvashs 10593 2268 564 7636 1
Mordvinians 9331 1473 646 7168 0
Turks 8844 7923 133 567 0
Lithuanians 7207 1932 1029 4182 4
Arabs 6575 4071 897 1235 0
Slovaks 6397 2633 2665 335 0
Czechs 5917 1190 2503 2144 2
Kazakhs 5526 1041 822 3470 11
Latvians 5079 957 872 3188 1
Ossetians 4834 1150 401 3110 4
Udmurts 4712 729 380 3515 0
Lezghinians 4349 1507 330 2341 4
Tadjiks 4255 1521 488 1983 0
Bashkirs 4253 843 336 2920 0
Mari people 4130 1059 264 2758 7
Vietnamese 3850 3641 29 164 0
Turkmens 3709 719 1079 1392 0
Albanians 3308 1740 301 1181 0
Assyrians 3143 883 408 1730 0
Chechens 2877 1581 212 977 0
Estonians 2868 416 321 2107 4
Chinese people 2213 1817 73 307 0
Kurds 2088 1173 236 396 0
Darghins 1610 409 199 955 0
Komis 1545 330 127 1046 0
Karelians 1522 96 145 1244 1
Avars 1496 582 121 761 0
Indo-Pakistanis 1483 1092 26 192 0
Abkhazians 1458 317 268 797 0
Karaites 1196 72 160 931 0
Komi-Permians 1165 160 79 898 1
Kyrgyz people 1128 208 221 617 19
Laks 1019 199 271 514 13
Afghanis 1008 551 60 213 0
other 3228 1027 144 790 0
NA 188639 0 1108 1844 1

See also

References

  1. ^ Population census of Ukraine, 2001
  2. ^ Ukrainian death rates 1950-2008 Demoscope Retrieved on 12-14-09
  3. ^ Ukrainian birth rates 1950-2008 Demoscope Retrieved on 12-14-09, 2009
  4. ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine Retrieved on 12-14-09
  5. ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine - Total population Retrieved on February 25, 2010
  6. ^ a b c d State Statistics Committee of Ukraine - Natural population growth for 2009 Retrieved on February 25, 2010
  7. ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine - Migration Retrieved on March 26, 2009
  8. ^ a b UNAIDS Eastern Europe 2008 report Retrieved on September 6, 2008
  9. ^ a b Population census 2001: Population by nationality
  10. ^ US Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report 2006
  11. ^ The Ukrainian Weekly of November 4, 1933
  12. ^ Demoscope
  13. ^ Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia Vol. 1, Book by Volodymyr Kubiyovych; University of Toronto Press, 1963
  14. ^ Posted availability of the book
  15. ^ a b c d e f g All-Ukrainian Population Census 2001
  16. ^ [http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/eng/results/general/nationality/Crimea/ About number and composition population of AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA by data All-Ukrainian population census]
  17. ^ Рождаемость в Украине самая низкая в Европе, Demoscope.ru, April 16–29, 2007 (Russian)
  18. ^ MIGnews: Volyn Region – Fertility Leader in Ukraine, 10 Oct 2007. Retrieved 19 Oct 2007.
  19. ^ CIA world factbook.
  20. ^ a b Ukrainian News: Birth Rate Exceeds Death Rate in Five Regions of Ukraine First Since 1990s 4th Oct 2007. Retrieved 19 Oct 2007.
  21. ^ Innas Filipeno. The Day. Births and deaths: A record-breaking half million children were born in Ukraine last year. #3. 3 February 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
  22. ^ Unicef. (2004). The Situation of Children and Young People at the Regional Level in Ukraine Prepared by Ukraine Country Statistical Team Co-ordinator: Iryna Kalachova State Statistic Committee, Kiev
  23. ^ Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila; Pilyagina, Galina. (1999). Suicidal behavior in the Ukraine, 1988–1998.. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention. Vol 20(4),1999, 184-190.
  24. ^ World Bank Report, Chapter 3: Demographic Forecast Under the HIV/AIDS Epidemic
  25. ^ The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality of the Kinsey Institute. Tamara V. Hovorun, Ph.D., and Borys M. Vornyk, Ph.D. (Medicine). Rewritten and updated in 2003 by T. V. Hovorun and B. M. Vornyk(2003) Ukraine.
  26. ^ Vulnerability Assessment of People Living With HIV (PLHIV) in Ukraine United Nations Development Programme, page 24 - Retrieved on December 08, 2009
  27. ^ By Olena Malynovska, National Institute for International Security Problems, Kyiv Caught Between East and West, Ukraine Struggles with Its Migration Policy

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