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The Demographics of Virginia are studied by various government and non-government organizations. Virginia is the 12th-most populous state in the U.S. with over 7.7 million residents and the 35th largest in area.[1]



Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 691,737
1800 807,557 16.7%
1810 877,683 8.7%
1820 938,261 6.9%
1830 1,044,054 11.3%
1840 1,025,227 −1.8%
1850 1,119,348 9.2%
1860 1,219,630 9.0%
1870 1,225,163 0.5%
1880 1,512,565 23.5%
1890 1,655,980 9.5%
1900 1,854,184 12.0%
1910 2,061,612 11.2%
1920 2,309,187 12.0%
1930 2,421,851 4.9%
1940 2,677,773 10.6%
1950 3,318,680 23.9%
1960 3,966,949 19.5%
1970 4,648,494 17.2%
1980 5,346,818 15.0%
1990 6,187,358 15.7%
2000 7,078,515 14.4%

As of 2006, Virginia had an estimated population of 7,642,884, which is an increase of 78,557, or 1.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 563,854, or 8.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 276,039 people (that is 633,794 births minus 357,755 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 276,292 people into the commonwealth. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 151,748 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 124,544 people. The commonwealth has 940,899 residents who were born outside the United States (8.14% of the population), while 99,104 were born in a different state. Also in 2006, 6.58% of Virginia's population were reported as under five years old, 24.6% under eighteen, and 11.2% were senior citizens-65+.[2] The center of population of Virginia is located in Goochland County.[3]


English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia.[4] English is the only language spoken by 6,245,517 (86.7%) Virginians, though it is spoken "very well" by an additional 570,638 (7.9%) for a total of 94.6% of the Commonwealth. Among speakers of other languages Spanish is the most common with 424,381 (5.9%). 226,911 (3.2%) speak Asian and Pacific Islander languages, including Vietnamese and Filipino.[5]

The Piedmont region is known for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English. While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including the Tidewater accent, the Old Virginia accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island.[6][7]


Demographics of Virginia (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 75.70% 20.54% 0.76% 4.32% 0.15%
2000 (Hispanic only) 4.17% 0.42% 0.09% 0.07% 0.02%
2005 (total population) 74.94% 20.65% 0.74% 5.20% 0.16%
2005 (Hispanic only) 5.44% 0.46% 0.10% 0.09% 0.03%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 5.84% 7.49% 4.61% 28.64% 17.09%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 3.87% 7.27% 2.22% 28.47% 15.73%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 39.60% 18.30% 22.10% 38.58% 24.16%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Top Ancestries by County
Virginia counties colored either red, blue, yellow, green, or purple based on the populations most common ancestry. The south-east is predominately purple for African American, while the west is mostly red for American. The north has yellow for German, with two small areas green for Irish. Yellow is also found in spots in the west. A strip in the middle is blue for English.
African American
U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.  American Factfinder provides census data and maps.   

The five largest reported ancestry groups in Virginia are: African (19.6%), German (11.7%), unspecified American (11.4%), English (11.1%), and Irish (9.8%).[8] Many of Virginia's African population are descended from enslaved Africans who worked its tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations. Initially, these slaves were imported from west central Africa, primarily Angola. During the eighteenth century, however, about half of them were derived from various ethnicities located in the Niger Delta region of modern day Nigeria.[9] They contributed strongly to the development of Southern foodways, music, vernacular architecture, and religion. With continued immigration to Virginia of other European groups and the 19th century sales of tens of thousands of enslaved African Americans from Virginia to the Deep South, the percent of enslaved African Americans fell from once being half of the total population. By 1860 slaves comprised 31% of the state's population of 1.6 million.[10]

In colonial Virginia the majority of free people of color were descended from marriages or relationships of white women (servants or free) and black men (slave, servant or free), reflecting the fluid relationships among working people. Many free black families were well-established and headed by landowners by the Revolution.[11] From 1782 to 1818, a wave of slaveholders inspired by the Revolutionary ideals of equality freed slaves, until the legislature made manumissions more difficult. Some African Americans freed were those whose fathers were white masters, while others were freed for service.[12] By 1860 there were 58,042 free people of color (black or mulatto, as classified in the census) in Virginia.[10] Over the decades, many had gathered in the cities of Richmond and Petersburg where there were more job opportunities. Others were landowners who had working farms, or found acceptance from neighbors in the frontier areas of Virginia.[11]

The twentieth century Great Migration of blacks from the rural South to the urban North reduced Virginia's black population to about 20%.[2] Today, African-Americans are concentrated in the eastern and southern Tidewater and Piedmont regions where plantation agriculture was the most dominant.[13] The western mountains were settled primarily by people of heavily Scots-Irish ancestry.[14] There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley.[15]

Because of immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century, there are rapidly growing populations of Hispanics (particularly Central Americans) and Asians in the Northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, DC. As of 2005, 6.1% of Virginians are Hispanic and 5.2% are Asian.[2] Northern Virginia has the largest Vietnamese population on the East Coast, with about 48,000 Vietnamese statewide as of 2007.[16] Their major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War.[17] Hampton Roads has a sizable Filipino population with about 45,000 in the area, many of whom have ties to the U.S. Navy.[18] Virginia also continues to be home to eight Native American tribes recognized by the state, though all lack federal recognition status. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region.[19]


The Cathedral of the Sacred Heart is located in the Richmond's Fan district.
Religion (2008)
Christian[20] 76%
Baptist 27%
Roman Catholic  11%
Methodist 8%
Lutheran 2%
Other Christian 28%
Judaism 1%
Islam 0.5%
Buddhism 1%
Hinduism 1%
Unaffiliated 18%

Virginia is predominantly Christian and Protestant; Baptists are the largest single group with 27% of the population as of 2008.[20] Baptist denominational groups in Virginia include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention.[21][22]

Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group, and the group which grew the most in the 1990s.[23][24] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest. The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church. The Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia support the various Episcopal churches. In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia over its ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy; these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States. Though Virginia law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claims the secessionist churches' properties. The resulting property law case is a test for Episcopal churches nationwide.[25]

Presbyterians, Pentecostals, Congregationalists, and Episcopalians each composed 1–3% of the population as of 2001.[26] Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1.1% of the population, with 188 congregations in Virginia as of 2008.[27] Fairfax Station is home to the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga Temple. While a small population in terms of the state overall, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah.[28] Muslims are a rapidly growing religious group throughout the state through immigration.[29] Megachurches in the state include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church, and McLean Bible Church.[30]

See also


  1. ^ Martz, Michael (2007-12-28). "Virginia's population tops 7.7 million". Richmond Times Dispatch. Retrieved 2007-12-28.  
  2. ^ a b c "Virginia - ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006". United States Census Bureau. 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-05.  
  3. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State". United States Census Bureau. 2000. Retrieved 2007-11-07.  
  4. ^ Joseph, John Earl (2006). Language and Politics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-7486-2453-8.  
  5. ^ "Virginia Selected Social Characteristics in the United States". United States Census Bureau. 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2009.  
  6. ^ Clay III, Edwin S.; Bangs, Patricia (May 9, 2005). "Virginia's Many Voices". Fairfax County, Virginia. Retrieved November 28, 2007.  
  7. ^ Miller, John J. (August 2, 2005). "Exotic Tangier". National Review. Retrieved October 9, 2008.  
  8. ^ "Virginia - QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000". United States Census Bureau. 2000. Retrieved 2007-12-05.  
  9. ^ Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo (2005). Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  
  10. ^ a b "Census Data for Year 1860". Historical Census Browser. University of Virginia. Retrieved 2007-11-25.  
  11. ^ a b Heinegg, Paul (August 15, 2007). "Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware". Retrieved 2007-11-01.  
  12. ^ Nicholls, Michael; Lenaye Howard (May 15, 2007). "Notes of Manumission: Selected Virginia Counties, ca.1782-1818". Utah State University. Retrieved 2007-11-01.  
  13. ^ "Regional Differences in Race & Ethnicity". University of Virginia. January 8, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-05.  
  14. ^ "Scots-Irish Sites in Virginia". Virginia Is For Lovers. January 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-02.  
  15. ^ Bly, Daniel W. (2002). From the Rhine to the Shenandoah (Volume III ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Gateway Press, Inc..  
  16. ^ "Virginia - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Vietnamese alone)". United States Census Bureau. 2007.;ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201PR:029;ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201T:029;ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201TPR:029&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201TPR&-tree_id=3307&-geo_id=04000US51. Retrieved February 12, 2009.  
  17. ^ Wood, Joseph (January 1997). "Vietnamese American Place Making in Northern Virginia". Geographical Review 87 (1): 58–72. doi:10.2307/215658. Retrieved November 29, 2007.  
  18. ^ Firestone, Nora (June 12, 2008). "Locals celebrate Philippine Independence Day". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved September 30, 2008.  
  19. ^ Schulte, Brigid (November 23, 2007). "As Year's End Nears, Disappointment". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 25, 2008.  
  20. ^ a b "American Religious Identification Survey". Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture. 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008.  
  21. ^ Vegh, Steven G. (November 10, 2006). "2nd Georgia church joins moderate Va. Baptist association". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved December 18, 2007.  
  22. ^ "SBCV passes 500 mark". Baptist Press. November 20, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2007.  
  23. ^ "U.S. Religion Map and Religious Populations" (PDF). The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. September 11, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2008.  
  24. ^ "State Membership Report (1990–2000 Change)". Association of Religion Data Archives. 2000. Retrieved September 29, 2008.  
  25. ^ Boorstein, Michelle (November 14, 2007). "Trial Begins in Clash Over Va. Church Property". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2007.  
  26. ^ CUNY "Key Findings". American Religious Identification Survey. 2001. CUNY. Retrieved October 20, 2008.  
  27. ^ "USA-Virginia". Country Profiles. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2009.  
  28. ^ Olitzky, Kerry M.; Raphael, Marc Lee. The American Synagogue: A Historical Dictionary and Sourcebook, Greenwood Press, June 30, 1996, p. 359.
  29. ^ Alfaham, Sarah (September 11, 2008). "Muslims' visibility in region growing". Richmond Times-Dispatch (Charlottesville Daily Progress). Retrieved May 2, 2009.  
  30. ^ "Megachurch Search Results". Hartford Institute for Religion Research. 2008.*&sb=3&so=descend. Retrieved November 7, 2008.  


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