Demographics of Vojvodina: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Demographic history of Vojvodina article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vojvodina's demographic history reflects its rich history and its former location at the border of the Ottoman and Habsburg empires and at the confluence of various peoples, making it a hotbed of invasion, colonization, and assimilation processes. Currently there are more than 25 ethnic groups living in Vojvodina and six official languages.

Contents

Demographic history

The area of Vojvodina had been inhabited since the Paleolithic period. Indo-European peoples moved into this area during three migration waves, which are dated in 4200 BC, 3300 BC, and 2800 BC respectively. Before the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC, Indo-European peoples of Illyrian, Thracian and Celtic origin inhabited the region.

During the Roman rule, original inhabitants were heavily Romanized, later to become known by the name of Vlachs. After the end of the Roman rule, the Romanized inhabitants of the area escaped to Balkanic mountains (where they mixed with South Slavic Serbs and Croats) as well as to the Transylvanian mountains (where they later were known as Romanians).[1]

Vojvodina was invaded by Turanic nomads such as the Huns and Avars, as well as Germanic Gepids and Langobards, but after their military defeat, they were quickly absorbed by the local population, without leaving much ethnic traces in population of the region.

During the early medieval migrations, Slavs (Severans, Abodrites, Braničevci, Timočani and Serbs) settled today's Vojvodina in the 6th and 7th centuries,[2] but pockets of Romanised population remained in the area. Until the Hungarian conquest in the 10th century, the region had dominant Slavic population.

The region was conquered by the Hungarian Principality (later Hungarian Kingdom) in the 10th century, and Hungarians started to settle in the area. Hungarians mainly settled in northern part of the region, where they lived mixed with Slavs. Until the late 12th and early 13th century, the region was mainly populated by Slavs, after which the ethnic relations changed in favour of Hungarians. The presence of Slavs in the area increased again in the 14th century with the arrival of many Serbs from the south. The larger number of Hungarians settled in the region since the 13th century. During the Hungarian rule, much of the native local Slavs were Hungarized. By the opinion of some researchers, the non-Hungarized descendants of these local Slavs are present-day Šokci.[3]

Though Serbs were part of the aboriginal Slavic population in the territory of Vojvodina (especially in Srem), an increasing number of Serbs began settling from the 14th century onward.

The Ottoman Empire took control of Vojvodina in the 16th century, and this caused a massive depopulation of the region. Most of the Hungarians and many local Slavs fled from the region and escaped to the north. The majority of those who left in the region were Serbs, mainly now engaging either in farming either in Ottoman military service.

Under Ottoman policy, many Serbs were newly settled in the region. During the Ottoman rule, most of the inhabitants of the Vojvodina region were Serbs. In that time, villages were mostly populated with Serbs, while cities were populated by Muslims and Serbs.

The Habsburg Monarchy took control of Vojvodina among other lands by the treaties of Karlovci (1699) and Požarevac (1718). Following the establishment of the Habsburg rule, the Muslim population fled from the region. During the Habsburg administration, many new Serb settlers from the Ottoman Empire immigrated to the region. In 1687, the northern parts of the region were settled by ethnic Bunjevci.

Many other non-Serb colonists also settled in the territory of present day Vojvodina during the 18th and 19th century. They were mainly Germans and Hungarians, but also Rusyns, Slovaks, Romanians, and others. Because of this colonization, Serbs lost the absolute ethnic majority in the region, and Vojvodina became one of the most ethnically diverse regions of Europe.

Still, Serbs remained the largest ethnic group in the region. According to 1910 census, Serbs comprised 33.8% of the population in the territory of present day Vojvodina. After Serbs, the most numerous ethnic groups were Hungarians (28.1%) and Germans (21.4%).

In 1918, Vojvodina became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and new Serb settlers started to come to the region. As the consequence of the Second World War events, 450,000 members of German population and 40,000 members of Hungarian population [1] are deported or transferred from the region after this war and they were replaced with Serb and Montenegrin colonists. According to the 1948 census, Serbs were absolute majority in Vojvodina again (51%), and this percent rose to 65% in 2002 census. The multiethnic character of the region is also preserved.

Results of different censuses in Vojvodina between 1880 and 2002

Advertisements

1880 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 416,116 35.5
Germans 285,920 24.4
Hungarians 265,287 22.6
Croats, Bunjevci & Šokci 72,486 6.2
Romanians 69,668 5.9
Slovaks 43,318 3.7
Rusyns & Ukrainians 9,299 0.8
Others 10,635 0.9
TOTAL 1,172,729 100

1890 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 457,873 34.4
Hungarians 324,430 24.4
Germans 321,563 24.2
Croats, Bunjevci & Šokci 80,404 6
Romanians 73,492 5.5
Slovaks 49,834 3.7
Rusyns & Ukrainians 11,022 0.8
Others 12,525 1
TOTAL 1,331,143 100

1900 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 483,176 33.7
Hungarians 378,634 26.4
Germans 336,430 23.5
Croats, Bunjevci & Šokci 80,901 5.6
Romanians 74,718 5.2
Slovaks 53,832 3.8
Rusyns & Ukrainians 12,663 0.9
Others 12,394 0.9
TOTAL 1,432,748 100

1910 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 510,186 33.8
Hungarians 424,555 28.1
Germans 323,779 21.4
Romanians 75,223 5
Slovaks 56,689 3.7
Croats 34,089 2.3
Rusyns 13,479 0.9
Others 72,804 4.8

1921 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 526,134 34.7
Hungarians 370,040 24.4
Germans 333,272 22
Croats 122,684 8.1
Romanians 65,197 4.3
Slovaks 58,273 3.8
Rusyns 13,664 0.9
Others 25,182 1.7

1931 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 528,000 33
Hungarians 413,000 26
Germans 343,000 21
Croats 120,000 7
Romanians 78,000 5
Slovaks & Czechs 67,000 4
Rusyns 21,000 1
Jews 21,000 1
Others 37,000 2

1941 census

Note: 1941 census data for Bačka was combined with 1931 census data for Banat and Srem.

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 577,067 35.3
Hungarians 465,920 28.5
Germans 318,259 19.4
Croats 105,810 6.5
Others 169,311 10.3

1948 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 841,246 50.6
Hungarians 428,932 25.8
Croats 134,232 8.1
Slovaks 72,032 4.3
Romanians 59,263 3.6
Germans 31,821 1.9
Montenegrins 30,589 1.9
Rusyns and Ukrainians 22,083 1.3
Macedonians 9,090 0.5
Roma 7,585 0.4
Slovenes 7,223 0.4
Russians 5,148 0.3
Czechs 3,976 0.3
Bulgarians 3,501 0.2
Yugoslavs 1,050 0.1
Others 5,441 0.3

1953 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 865,538 50.9
Hungarians 435,179 25.6
Croats 127,027 7.5
Slovaks 71,153 4.2
Romanians 57,218 3.4
Montenegrins 30,516 1.8
Rusyns 23,038 1.4
Macedonians 11,622 0.7
Others 78,254 4.6

1961 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 1,017,713 54.9
Hungarians 442,560 23.9
Croats 145,341 7.8
Slovaks 73,830 4
Romanians 57,259 3.1
Montenegrins 34,782 1.9
Rusyns 23,038 1.4
Macedonians 11,622 0.7
Others 83,480 4.4

1971 census

TOTAL 1,952,533 100
Serbs 1,089,132 55.8
Hungarians 423,866 21.7
Croats 138,561 7.1
Slovaks 72,795 3.7
Romanians 52,987 2.7
Montenegrins 36,416 1.9
Rusyns 20,109 1
Macedonians 16,527 0.8
Germans 7,243 0.4
Others 94,897 4.9

1981 census

Ethnicity Number %
Serbs 1,107,375 54.4
Hungarians 385,356 18.9
Croats 119,157 5.9
Slovaks 69,549 3.4
Romanians 47,289 2.3
Montenegrins 43,304 2.1
Rusyns & Ukrainians 24,306 1.2
Germans 3,808 0.2
Others 234,628 11.6

1991 census

TOTAL 2,012,517 100
Serbs 1,151,353 57.2
Hungarians 340,946 16.9
Yugoslavs 168,859 8.4
Croats 74,226 3.7
Slovaks 63,941 3.2
Montenegrins 44,721 2.2
Romanians 38,832 1.9
Roma 24,895 1.2
Bunjevci 21,552 1.1
Rusyns 17,889 0.9
Macedonians 16,641 0.8
Muslims 6,079 0.3
Albanians 2,959 0.2
Slovenes 2,563 0.1
Ukrainians 2,057 0.1
Šokci 1,866 0.1
Others 33,140 1.7

2002 census

Number %
TOTAL 2,031,992 100
Serbs 1,321,807 65
Hungarians 290,207 14.5
Slovaks 56,637 2.8
Croats 56,546 2.8
Yugoslavs 49,881 2.4
Montenegrins 35,513 1.6
Romanians 30,419 1.5
Roma 29,057 1.4
Bunjevci 19,766 0.97
Rusyns 15,626 0.77
Macedonians 11,785 0.58
Ukrainians 4,635 0.23
Muslims (by nationality) 3,634 0.18
Germans 3,154 0.16
Slovenes 2,005 0.1
Albanians 1,695 0.08
Bulgarians 1,658 0.08
Czechs 1,648 0.08
Russians 940 0.05
Gorani 606 0.03
Bosniaks 417 0.02
Vlachs 101 0
Others 5,311 0.26
Regional identity 10,154 0.5
Undeclared 55,016 2.71
Unknown 23,774 1.17

Future demographic trends

The general demographic trend in Vojvodina is a low natural increase of population. According to the 1991 census, the average age of the population of the province was 37.7. However, the average age differed among various ethnic groups. The largest ethnic group, Serbs, averaged at 37.4. Other ethnic groups mostly averaged even higher: Romanians 41.9, Hungarians 41.2, Slovaks 40.1, Croats 41, etc. The opposite case were three ethnic groups with younger population: Roma 26, Albanians 29 and Muslims by nationality 29.

According to the 1991 census, the natural increase of Vojvodina's was -1.8% (up from -4% in 1997). Since the percentage needed for the simple maintenance of the existing population size is 2.3, it is expected that Vojvodina will soon have to resort to importing labour.

Knowing the difference between increase/decrease of Serb and Hungarian populations, it is expected that ethnic relations in northern Vojvodina will drastically change in the next 50 years: by 2050, the total number of Hungarians in Vojvodina will decrease to less than 100,000. By 2020, Serbs will replace Hungarians as the largest ethnic group in the municipality of Bečej, by 2030 in the municipalities of Subotica, Bačka Topola, and Čoka, and by 2050 in the municipality of Mali Iđoš. In 2050, the only remaining municipalities with a Hungarian majority in Vojvodina will be Kanjiža, Senta, and Ada.

Maps

See also

References

  1. Dr Dušan J. Popović; Srbi u Vojvodini; knjige 1-3; Novi Sad; 1990.
  2. Dr Branislav Bukurov; Bačka, Banat i Srem; Novi Sad; 1978.
  3. Milan Tutorov; Banatska rapsodija - istorika Zrenjanina i Banata; Novi Sad; 2001.
  4. Borislav Jankulov; Pregled kolonizacije Vojvodine u XVIII i XIX veku; Novi Sad - Pančevo; 2003.
  5. Lazo M. Kostić; Srpska Vojvodina i njene mannine; Novi Sad; 1999.

Notes

  1. ^ Trajan Stojanović, Balkanska civilizacija, Beograd, 1995.
  2. ^ Dr. Drago Njegovan, Prisajedinjenje Vojvodine Srbiji, Novi Sad, 2004.
  3. ^ Mile Nedeljković, Leksikon naroda sveta, Beograd, 2001.

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message