The Full Wiki

More info on Denmark

Denmark: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Denmark

Include this on your site/blog:






















Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kingdom of Denmark
Kongeriget Danmark
Flag Coat of arms
Mottonone
(Royal motto: Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke
"God's Help, the People's Love, Denmark's Strength")
AnthemDer er et yndigt land (national)
Royal anthemKong Christian stod ved højen mast (royal and national)
Location of  Denmark  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Copenhagen
55°43′N 12°34′E / 55.717°N 12.567°E / 55.717; 12.567
Official language(s) Danish1
Ethnic groups  90.5% Danish, 9.5% other groups (Germans, Swedes, Norwegians, Bosnians, Turks, Arabs, Pakistanis, Dutch, Kurds)[1]
Demonym Danish or Dane/Danes
Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  Queen Margrethe II
 -  Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen
 -  Folketing Speaker Thor Pedersen
 -  Current coalition VK Coalition
Consolidation 8th century 
EU accession 1 January 1973 (7th)
Area
 -  Total 43,098.31 km2 (134th²)
16,640 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.64²
Population
 -  1 October 2009 estimate 5,534,738 (108th)
 -  Density 127.9/km2 (78th²)
331.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $204.269 billion[2] (49th)
 -  Per capita $37,304[2] (16th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $340.029 billion[2] (27th)
 -  Per capita $62,097[2] (5th)
Gini (2009) 24.7 (low) (1st)
HDI (2007) 0.955[3] (very high) (16th)
Currency Danish krone (DKK)
Time zone CET² (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST² (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .dk2,3
Calling code 454
1 Co-official with Faroese in the Faroe Islands. German is recognised as a protected minority language in the South Jutland (Sønderjylland) area of Denmark. .Danish is recognised as a protected minority language in the Schleswig-Holstein region of Germany.^ The peninsula is divided between Denmark and Germany (Schleswig- Holstein ).

^ Schleswig was recognized as a Danish fief , in contradistinction to Holstein, which owed vassalage to the Empire.


² For Denmark excluding the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
³ .The TLD .eu is shared with other European Union countries.^ Such rules have existed earlier in legal systems in other European countries.
  • Sofian Azzabi - Signature Electronique et Droit de la Preuve 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.signelec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


4 The Faroe Islands use +298 and Greenland uses +299.
.Denmark (pronounced /ˈdɛnmɑrk/ ( listen); Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊], archaic: [ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊]) is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe and the senior member of the Kingdom of Denmark.^ DENMARK ( Danmark ), a small kingdom of Europe , occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.

^ Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, two members of the Danish parliament, are "offended" by our article "Muslim Extremism: Denmark's had Enough" (Aug.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Yet, while Sweden was surely ripening into the dominating power of northern Europe, Denmark had as surely entered upon a period of uninterrupted and apparently incurable decline.

.It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany.^ This system is also in use on the line which runs south fromRoskilde to the island of Falster, from the southernmost point of which, Gjedser, ferrysteamers taking railway cars serve Warnemunde in Germany.

.Denmark borders both the Baltic and the North Sea.^ DENMARK ( Danmark ), a small kingdom of Europe , occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.

.The country consists of a large peninsula, Jutland (Jylland) and many islands, most notably Zealand (Sjælland), Funen (Fyn), Vendsyssel-Thy, Lolland, Falster and Bornholm, as well as hundreds of minor islands often referred to as the Danish Archipelago.^ The islands may be divided into two groups, consisting of the two principal islands Fiinen and Zealand , and the lesser islands attendant on each.

^ The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden .

^ The upheaval of the country, a movement common to a large part of the Scandinavian peninsula, still continues, though slowly, north-east of a line drawn in a south-easterly direction from Nissumfjord on the west coast of Jutland, across the island of Fyen, a little south of the town of Nyborg.

Denmark has long controlled the approach to the Baltic Sea; before the digging of the Kiel Canal water passage to the Baltic was possible only through the three channels known as the "Danish straits".
.Denmark is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government.^ Thus the ancient constitution was transformed; and Denmark became a monarchy hereditary in Frederick III. and his posterity.

Denmark has a state-level government and local governments in 98 municipalities. Denmark has been a member of the European Union since 1973, although it has not joined the Eurozone. Denmark is a founding member of NATO and the OECD.
Denmark, with a mixed market capitalist economy and a large welfare state,[4] ranks as having the world's highest level of income equality. Denmark has the best business climate in the world, according to the U.S. business magazine Forbes.[5] .From 2006 to 2008, surveys[6] ranked Denmark as "the happiest place in the world," based on standards of health, welfare, and education.^ The educational system of Denmark is maintained at a high standard.

The 2009 Global Peace Index survey ranks Denmark as the second most peaceful country in the world, after New Zealand.[7] Denmark was ranked as the least corrupt country in the world in the 2008 Corruption Perceptions Index,[8] sharing a top position with Sweden and New Zealand.
.The national language, Danish, is close to Swedish and Norwegian, with which it shares strong cultural and historical ties.^ The unit of the Danish monetarysystem, as of the Swedish and Norwegian, is the krone (crown), equal to is.

^ It was now essential that every performance should be national, and in the Danish language.

.82.0% of the inhabitants of Denmark and 90.3% of the ethnic Danes are members of the Lutheran state church.^ The national or state church of Denmark is officially styled " Evangelically Reformed," but is popularly described as Lutheran.

As of 2009, 526,000 persons (9.5 % of the Danish population) were either immigrants or descendants of recent immigrants. Most of these (54%) have their origins in Scandinavia or elsewhere in Europe, while the remainder originate mainly from a wide range of Asian countries.

Contents

Etymology

.The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a single Kingdom, is a subject that attracts some debate.^ Arild Huitfeld wrote Chronicle of the Kingdom of Denmark, printed in ten volumes, between 1595 and 1604.

^ Nor do we find anywhere in their written records legends which tell of their subjection to slavery in Britain or in some other island, or of their redemption by a certain man at the cost of a single horse.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A considerable proportion of Denmark's large commercial fleet is engaged in the carrying trade between foreign, especially British, ports.

[9][10] The debate is centered primarily around the prefix 'Dan' and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -mark ending. .The issue is further complicated by a number of references to various Dani people in Scandinavia or other places in Europe in ancient Greek and Roman accounts (like Ptolemy, Jordanes, and Gregory of Tours), as well as some medieval literature (like Adam of Bremen, Beowulf, Widsith, and Poetic Edda).^ I have included the (Roman) chapter and (arabic) section numbers to facilitate specific citation (or to find a specific reference; these numbers may be found in Mierow's translation as well, though the section numbers are in his margins) and have added internal links for purposes of navigation.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Now when the Goths saw the Gepidae defending for themselves the territory of the Huns and the people of the Huns dwelling again in their ancient abodes, they preferred to ask for lands from the Roman Empire, rather than invade the lands of others with danger to themselves.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Oysters are found in some places, but have disappeared from many localities, where their abundance in ancient times is proved by their shell moulds on the coast.

.Most handbooks derive[11] the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave", Sanskrit dhánuṣ- (धनुस्; "desert").^ I mean to say the first is called Ravenna and the most distant part Classis; while midway between the city and the sea is Caesarea, full of luxury.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Now in regard to the name, though I have said they were called Parthi because they were deserters, some have traced the derivation of the word otherwise, saying that they were called Parthi because they fled from their kinsmen.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ On the north it is bounded by the same vast unnavigable Ocean, from which by means of a sort of projecting arm of land a bay is cut off and forms the German Sea.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland (see marches), with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig,[12] maybe similar to Finnmark, Telemark, or Dithmarschen.[13]
In Old Norse, the land was called Danmerkr.

Mythological explanations

.Some of the earliest descriptions of the origin of the word 'Denmark', describing a territory, are found in the Chronicon Lethrense (12th century), Svend Aagesen (late 12th century), Saxo Grammaticus (early 13th century), and the Ballad of Eric (mid 15th century).^ Under the auspices of Archbishop Absalon the monks of Sorb began to compile the annals of Denmark, and at the end of the 12th century Svend Aagesen, a cleric of Lund, compiled from Icelandic sources and oral tradition his Compendiosa historic regum Daniae.

^ The language in which we receive these ballads , however, is as late as the 16th or even the 17th century, but it is believed that they have become gradually modernized in the course of oral tradition.

^ The great powers of the late 16th and early 17th centuries were to be the strong, highly centralized, hereditary monarchies, like France , Spain and Sweden.

.There are, however, many more Danish annuals and yearbooks containing various other details, similar tales in other variations, other names or spelling variations.^ There are also many almshouses and similar institutions.

^ During the 19th century, however, several commercial treaties were concluded between Denmark and the other powers of Europe, which made the Danish tariff more regular and liberal.

^ Now in the island of Scandza, whereof I speak, there dwell many and divers nations, though Ptolemaeus mentions the names of but seven of them.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

The Chronicon Lethrense explains that when the Roman Emperor Augustus went against Denmark in the time of David,[14] Denmark consisted of seven territories Jutland, Funen, Zealand, Møn, Falster, Lolland and Skåne which were governed by King Ypper of Uppsala. He had three sons, Nori, Østen, and Dan. Dan was sent to govern Zealand, Møn, Falster, and Lolland, which became known jointly as Videslev. .When the Jutes were fighting Emperor Augustus they called upon Dan to help them.^ The former service of the Allies under the Emperor Constantine was now renewed and they were again called Allies.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ They fight not only on horseback or on foot, but even with scythed two-horse chariots, which they commonly call essedae.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Upon victory, they made him king of Jutland, Funen, Videslev, and Skåne.^ So in the dead of night, while they were asleep, he made an unexpected attack upon them, near Lake Pelso.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Now the race of the Gepidae was moved with envy when they saw them laden with booty and so suddenly victorious everywhere, and made war on their kinsmen.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ VI (47) This was the region where the Goths dwelt when Vesosis, king of the Egyptians, made war upon them.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.A council decided to call this new united land Danmark (Dania) (English: Denmark) after their new king, Dan.^ Rates and taxes on land are mostly levied according to a uniform system of assessment , the unit of which is called a Tonde Hartkorn.

.Saxo relates that it is the legendary Danish King Dan, son of Humbli, who gave the name to the Danish people, though he does not expressly state that he is also the origin of the word "Denmark". Rather he tells that England ultimately derives its name from Dan’s brother Angel.^ We now have the names of several kings, Heiligo, Olaph (of Swedish origin), and his sons Chnob and Gurth.

^ The next kings mentioned are Sigaf rid and Halfdane, who were sons of the great Viking leader Ragnarr Loobrok.

^ For the sons of Attila, who through the license of his lust formed almost a people of themselves, were clamoring that the nations should be divided among them equally and that warlike kings with their peoples should be apportioned to them by lot like a family estate.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

Earliest occurrences

The Jelling Stones, commonly referred to as Denmark's "birth certificate", seen from the north with "Gorm's Mound" in the background.
.The earliest mention of a territory called "Denmark" is found in King Alfred the Great's modified translation into Old English of Paulus Orosius' Seven Books of History Against The Pagans ("Historiarum adversum Paganos Libri Septem"), written by Alfred when king of Wessex in the years 871–899. In a passage introduced to the text by Alfred, we read about Ohthere of Hålogaland’s travels in the Nordic region, during which 'Denmark [Denamearc] was on his port side...^ The next kings mentioned are Sigaf rid and Halfdane, who were sons of the great Viking leader Ragnarr Loobrok.

^ Now Dio, the historian and diligent investigator of ancient times, who gave to his work the title "Getica" (and the Getae we have proved in a previous passage to be Goths, on the testimony of Orosius Paulus)--this Dio, I say, makes mention of a later king of theirs named Telefus.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ During these and the next few years there is mention of more than one king of the names Sigefridus and Godefridus: the most important event associated with their names is that two kings Sigefridus and Godefridus fell in the great battle on the Dyle in 891.

And then for two days he had on his [port side] the islands which belong to Denmark'.[15]
.The first recorded use of the word "Denmark" within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are rune stones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old (c.^ This is the first recorded use of the name " Danes."

955) and Harald Bluetooth (c. 965). .The larger stone of the two is often cited as Denmark's birth certificate, though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative "tanmaurk" (Danish pronunciation: [danmɒrk]) on the large stone, and genitive "tanmarkar" (pronounced [danmarkaɽ]) on the small stone.^ The oak and ash are now rare, though in ancient times both were abundant in the Danish islands.

^ The surface in Denmark is almost everywhere formed by the so-called Boulder Clay and what the Danish geologists call the Boulder Sand.

[16] The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "tani" ([danɪ]), or "Danes", in the accusative.
.In The Song of Roland, estimated to have been written between 1040 and 1115, the first mention of the legendary Danish hero Holger Danske appears; he is mentioned several times as "Holger of Denmark" (Ogier de Denemarche).^ The first edition of a Danish Reineke Fuchs, by Herman Weigere, appeared at Lubeck in 1555, and the first authorized Psalter in 1559.

^ The first royal edict written in Danish is dated 1386; and the Act of Union at Kalmar, written in 1397, is the most important piece of the vernacular of the 14th century.

^ Sweden's appropriation of Danish soil had begun, and at the same time Denmark's power of resisting the encroachments of Sweden was correspondingly reduced.

History

Hankehøj, by Johan Lundbye. A Danish down. Note the glacial character of the terrain and the burial mound of an early chief in the centre

prehistory

The earliest, and sexiest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to 130,000–110,000 BC in the Eem interglacial period.[17] .Denmark has been inhabited since about 12,500 BC, and agriculture has been evident since 3,900 BC.[18] The Nordic Bronze Age (1,800–600 BC) in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot.^ The main source of wealth in Denmark is agriculture , which employs about two-fifths of the entire population.

^ Never before, since the age of Margaret, had Denmark been so well governed, never before had she possessed so many political celebrities nobly emulous for the common good.

.During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC  – 1 AD), native groups began migrating south, although[18] the first Danish people came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age,[19] in the Roman Iron schlong Age (1–400 AD).^ The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden .

^ The influence of Low German first, and High German afterwards, has had the effect of drawing modern Danish constantly farther from this early type.

^ During these years the relations between Denmark and the German empire improved, and in the country itself the cause of social democracy made great progress.

.The Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and Roman coins have been found in Denmark.^ Here also are those who send through innumerable other tribes the sappherine skins to trade for Roman use.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Evidence of strong Nigel Frank cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of northwest Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron.^ Yet, while Sweden was surely ripening into the dominating power of northern Europe, Denmark had as surely entered upon a period of uninterrupted and apparently incurable decline.

^ The Danish forest is almost exclusively made up of beech, a tree which thrives better in Denmark than in any other country of Europe.

^ Frederick V. A little later on, the German poet Klopstock settled in Copenhagen, bringing with him the prestige of his great reputation, and he had a strong influence in Germanizing Denmark.

.
The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot
.Historians believe that before the arrival of the precursors to the Danes, who came from the east Danish islands (Zealand) and Skåne and spoke an early form of north Germanic, most of Jutland and some islands were settled by Jutes.^ From the frontier a line runs east by Fredericia , across the island of Flinen by Odense and Nyborg, to Korsiir on Zealand, and thence by Roskilde to Copenhagen.

^ The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden .

^ Besides the numerous steam-ferries which connect island and island, and Jutland with the islands, and the Gjedser-Warnemiinde route, a favourite passenger line from Germany is that between Kiel and KorsOr, while most of the German Baltic ports have direct connexion with Copenhagen.

.They were later invited to Great Britain as mercenaries by Brythonic King Vortigern and were granted the south-eastern territories of Kent, the Isle of Wight, among other areas, where they settled.^ When the Goths saw this, they rejoiced with joy unspeakable, because by this great slaughter of their foes they had avenged the blood of Valamir their king and the injury done themselves.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Frederick V. A little later on, the German poet Klopstock settled in Copenhagen, bringing with him the prestige of his great reputation, and he had a strong influence in Germanizing Denmark.

^ On the south likewise is the Po itself, which they call the King of the rivers of Italy; and it has also the name Eridanus.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

They were later absorbed or ethnically cleansed by the invading Angles and Saxons, who formed the Anglo-Saxons. The remaining population in Jutland assimilated in with the Danes.
.A short note[20] about the Dani in "Getica" by historian Jordanes is believed by some to be an early mention of the Danes,[21] one of the ethnic groups from whom the modern Danish people are descended.^ From 777-798 we have mention of a certain Sigifridus as king of the Danes, and then in 804 his name is replaced by that of one Godefridus.

^ The influence of Low German first, and High German afterwards, has had the effect of drawing modern Danish constantly farther from this early type.

^ Adam of Bremen , from whom these details come, was himself uncertain whether " so many kings or rather tyrants of the Danes ruled together or succeeded one another at short intervals."

.The Danevirke defense structures were built in phases from the 3rd century forward,[22] and the sheer size of the construction efforts in 737 are attributed to the emergence of a Danish king.^ We have mention at the beginning of the 8th century of a Danish king Ongendus (cf.

[22] .The new runic alphabet was first used around the same time, and Ribe, the oldest town of Denmark, was founded about 700. Dan has a small beverage.^ At the same time, the legislation must ensure that the liability is clear when as a sender you use and as a recipient you trust a qualified certificate.
  • Sofian Azzabi - Signature Electronique et Droit de la Preuve 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.signelec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The paper also serves to ensure that there will be no doubt later about the contents of the document used at the time of conclusion of the agreement.
  • Sofian Azzabi - Signature Electronique et Droit de la Preuve 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.signelec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, if Denmark had emerged from the war with her honour and dignity unimpaired, she had at the same time tacitly surrendered the dominion of the North to her Scandinavian rival.

"WAR TORN SIGFRIED~!!!"

Viking Age

The Ladby ship, the largest ship burial found in Denmark
.During the 8th–11th centuries, the Danish people were amongst those known as Vikings.^ From the middle of the 6th to the beginning of the 8th century we know practically nothing of Danish history.

^ This period of aristocratic rule, which dates practically from the accession of Frederick I. (1523), and lasted for nearly a century and a half, is known in Danish history as Adelsvaelde, or rule of the nobles.

^ We have mention at the beginning of the 8th century of a Danish king Ongendus (cf.

Viking explorers first discovered and settled Iceland in the 9th century, on their way toward the Faroe Islands. From there, Greenland and Vinland (probably Newfoundland) were also settled. .Utilising their great skills in shipbuilding they raided and conquered parts of France and the British Isles.^ And because of the great victory they had won in this region, they thereafter called their leaders, by whose good fortune they seemed to have conquered, not mere men, but demigods, that is Ansis.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.But they also excelled in trading along the coasts and rivers of Europe, running trade routes from Greenland in the north to Constantinople in the south via Russian rivers.^ DENMARK ( Danmark ), a small kingdom of Europe , occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.

^ So they received Pannonia, which stretches in a long plain, being bounded on the east by Upper Moesia, on the south by Dalmatia, on the west by Noricum and on the north by the Danube.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ They dwelt at that time along a bend of Lake Maeotis, from the river Borysthenes, which the natives call the Danaper, to the stream of the Tanais.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The Danish Vikings were most active in Britain, Ireland and France, and they raided, conquered and settled parts of England (their earliest settlements included sites in the Danelaw, Ireland, and Normandy).^ Equally short-lived was the Danish dominion in England, which originated in a great Viking expedition of King Sweyn I .

In the early 8th century, Charlemagne's Christian empire had expanded to the southern border of the Danes, and Frankish sources (e.g. Notker of St Gall) provide the earliest historical evidence of the Danes. .These report a King Gudfred, who appeared in present day Holstein with a navy in 804 where diplomacy took place with the Franks; In 808, King Gudfred attacked the Obotrite and conquered the city of Reric whose population was displaced or abducted to Hedeby.^ He was succeeded by Agil, who holds the kingdom to the present day.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Into a place thus fortified King Thiudimer led his army in the winter-time and conquered, plundered and almost subdued the race of the Suavi as well as the Alamanni, who were mutually banded together.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A great battle took place in which both claimants were slain, but the party of Anulo (0.N. Ali) were victorious and appointed as kings Anulo's brothers Herioldus and Reginfridus.

.In 809, King Godfred and emissaries of Charlemagne failed to negotiate peace, and the next year King Godfred attacked the Frisians with 200 ships.^ They kept this command fully so long as Athalaric their king and his mother lived, and ruled in peace for almost eight years.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

The oldest parts of the defensive works of Danevirke near Hedeby at least date from the summer of 755 and were expanded with large works in the 10th century. .The size and amount of troops needed to man it indicates a quite powerful ruler in the area, which might be consistent with the kings the Frankish sources.^ The king shares his power with the parliament ( Rigsdag ), which consists of two chambers, the Landsthing and the Folkething, but the constitution contains no indication of any difference in their attributes.

.In 815 AD, Emperor penguins attacked Jutland apparently in support of a contender to the throne, perhaps Harald Klak, but was turned back by the sons of Godfred, who most likely were the sons of the above mentioned Godfred.^ Thus it was the desire to secure his Jutish kingdom which induced Harold Klak, in 826, to sail up the Rhine to Ingelheim , and there accept baptism , with his wife, his son Godfred and 400 of his suite , acknowledging the emperor as his overlord, and taking back with him to Denmark the missionary monk Ansgar.

^ The next kings mentioned are Sigaf rid and Halfdane, who were sons of the great Viking leader Ragnarr Loobrok.

^ Many sent ambassadors to the Roman territory, where they were most graciously received by Marcian, who was then emperor, and took the abodes allotted them to dwell in.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

At the same time Saint Ansgar traveled to Hedeby and started the Catholic Christianization of Scandinavia.
Map showing Danevirke and Hærvejen
The Danes were united and officially Christianised in 965 AD by Harald Blåtand, the story of which is recorded on the Jelling stones. .The extent of Harald's Danish Kingdom is unknown, although it is reasonable to believe that it stretched from the defensive line of Dannevirke, including the Viking city of Hedeby, across Jutland, the Danish isles and into southern present day Sweden; Scania and perhaps Halland and Blekinge.^ In his time it is said that the land was divided into four kingdoms - Skaane, Zealand, Fyen and Jutland.

^ He was succeeded by Agil, who holds the kingdom to the present day.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He also won Skaane, including the modern provinces of Halland, Kristianstad , MalmOhus and Blekinge, and these remained part of Denmark until the middle of the 17th century.

Furthermore, the Jelling stones attest that Harald had also "won" Norway. In retaliation for the St. Brice's Day massacre of Danes in England, the son of Harald, Sweyn Forkbeard mounted a series of wars of conquest against England, which was completed by Svend's son Canute the Great by the middle of the 11th century.[23]
.Following the death of Canute the Great, Denmark and England were divided.^ The period between the death of Canute the Great and the accession of Valdemar I .

.Sweyn Estridsen's son, Canute IV, raided England for the last time in 1085. He planned another invasion to take the throne of England from an aging William I.^ Frederick II. was succeeded by his son Christian IV. (April 4, 1588), who attained his majority on the 17th of August 1596, at the age of nineteen.

.He called up a fleet of 1,000 Danish ships, 60 Norwegian long boats, with plans to meet with another 600 ships under Duke Robert of Flanders in the summer of 1086. Canute, however, was beginning to realise that the imposition of the tithe on Danish peasants and nobles to fund the expansion of monasteries and churches and a new head tax (Danish:nefgjald) had brought his people to the verge of rebellion.^ Thus the number of men maintained under arms (without calling up the reserves) is as high as 75,000 during certain periods of the year and averages nearly 60,000.

^ It is clear that the majority of the Norwegian people hoped that the revolution would give them an administration independent of the Danish government; but these expectations were not realised.

^ GStish (loosely called Danish) fleet into the Netherlands ( c.

Canute took weeks to arrive at Struer where the fleet had assembled, but he found only the Norwegians still there.
.Canute thanked the Norwegians for their patience and then went from assembly to assembly (Danish:landsting) outlawing any sailor, captain, or soldier who refused to pay a fine which amounted to more than a years harvest for most farmers.^ He gave Vitiges the title of Patrician and took him to Constantinople, where he dwelt for more than two years, bound by ties of affection to the Emperor, and then departed this life.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who quote "If you can't convince them, confuse them" are more dangerous than the suicide bombers.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ During these and the next few years there is mention of more than one king of the names Sigefridus and Godefridus: the most important event associated with their names is that two kings Sigefridus and Godefridus fell in the great battle on the Dyle in 891.

Canute and his housecarls fled south with a growing army of rebels on his heels. Canute fled to the royal property outside the town of Odense on Funen with his two brothers. After several attempts to break in and then bloody hand to hand fighting in the church, Benedict was cut down and Canute struck in the head by a large stone and then speared from the front. He died at the base of the main altar 10 July 1086, where he was buried by the Benedictines. When Queen Edele came to take Canute's body to Flanders, a light allegedly shone around the church and it was taken as a sign that Canute should remain where he was.
The death of St. Canute marks the end of the Viking Age. Never again would massive flotillas of Scandinavians meet each year to ravage the rest of Christian Europe.

Medieval Denmark

.From the Viking age towards the end of the 13th century, the kingdom of Denmark consisted of Jutland, north from the Eider River and the islands of Zealand, Funen, Bornholm, Skåne, Halland and Blekinge.^ DENMARK ( Danmark ), a small kingdom of Europe , occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.

^ In his time it is said that the land was divided into four kingdoms - Skaane, Zealand, Fyen and Jutland.

^ The islands may be divided into two groups, consisting of the two principal islands Fiinen and Zealand , and the lesser islands attendant on each.

.The lands between the Eider and the Kongeåen were separated from the kingdom as two vassal duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.^ Between these two rivers is a vast land filled with forests and treacherous swamps.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The peninsula is divided between Denmark and Germany (Schleswig- Holstein ).

.Following the end of the 11th century, Denmark underwent a transition from a patchwork of regional chiefs (Danish:jarls) with a weak and semi-elected royal institution, into a realm which more reflected European feudalism, with a powerful king ruling through an influential nobility.^ This period of aristocratic rule, which dates practically from the accession of Frederick I. (1523), and lasted for nearly a century and a half, is known in Danish history as Adelsvaelde, or rule of the nobles.

^ The vexed question, of many centuries' standing, concerning the claim of Denmark to levy dues on vessels passing through the Sound , was settled by the abolition of the dues in 1857.

^ During the 19th century, however, several commercial treaties were concluded between Denmark and the other powers of Europe, which made the Danish tariff more regular and liberal.

.The period is marked by internal strife and the generally weak geopolitical position of the realm, which for long stretches fell under German influence.^ In the third period, 1400-1530, the influence of German upon the language is supreme, and culminates in the Reformation.

.The period also featured the first of large stone buildings (mostly churches), a deep penetration by the Christian religion, the appearance of monastic orders in Denmark and the first written historical works such as the Gesta Danorum ("Deeds of the Danes").^ At first sight it seems curious that Christianity should have been so slow to reach Denmark.

^ The earliest work known to have been written in Denmark was a Latin biography of Knud the Saint, written by an English monk iElnoth, who was attached to the church of St Alban in Odense where King Knud was murdered.

.German political as well as religious influence firmly ended in the last decades of the 12th century under the rule of King Valdemar the Great and his foster brother Absalon Hvide, Archbishop of Lund; through successful wars against Wend peoples of northeast Germany and the German Empire.^ Then the people were divided under ruling families.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the auspices of Archbishop Absalon the monks of Sorb began to compile the annals of Denmark, and at the end of the 12th century Svend Aagesen, a cleric of Lund, compiled from Icelandic sources and oral tradition his Compendiosa historic regum Daniae.

^ And later, after the death of Vinitharius, Hunimund ruled them, the son of Hermanaric, a mighty king of yore; a man fierce in war and of famous personal beauty, who afterwards fought successfully against the race of the Suavi.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

The tomb of Margrethe I in Roskilde Cathedral
.A high point was reached during the reign of Valdemar II, who led the formation of a Danish "Baltic Sea Empire", which by 1221 extended control from Estonia in the east to Norway in the north.^ DENMARK ( Danmark ), a small kingdom of Europe , occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.

^ But these consultative assemblies were regarded as insufficient by the Danish Liberals, and during the last years of Frederick VI. and the whole reign of his successor, Christian VIII .

^ The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden .

.In this period several of the "regional" law codes were given; notably the Code of Jutland from 1241, which asserted several modern concepts like right of property; "that the king cannot rule without and beyond the law"; "and that all men are equal to the law". Following the death of Valdemar II in 1241 and to the ascension of Valdemar IV in 1340, the kingdom was in general decline because of internal strife and the rise of the Hanseatic League.^ Frederick II ., in his later years (1571-1588), aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he was able to enforce the rule that all foreign ships should strike their topsails to Danish men-of-war as a token of his right to rule the northern seas.

^ Before his death he summoned the band of his sons and ordained that there should be no strife among them because of desire for the kingdom, but that each should reign in his own rank and order as he survived the others; that is, the next younger should succeed his elder brother, and he in turn should be followed by his junior.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ These and various other matters Dicineus taught the Goths in his wisdom and gained marvellous repute among them, so that he ruled not only the common men but their kings.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The competition between the sons of Valdemar II had the longterm result that the southern parts of Jutland were separated from the kingdom of Denmark and became semi-independent vassal duchies/counties.^ The " kingdom " stretched as far as Kolding and Skedborg, where the " duchy " began; and this duchy since its amalgamation with Holstein by means of a common Landtag, and especially since the union of the dual duchy with the kingdom on almost equal terms in 1533, was, in most respects, a semi-independent state.

^ DENMARK ( Danmark ), a small kingdom of Europe , occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.

^ Arild Huitfeld wrote Chronicle of the Kingdom of Denmark, printed in ten volumes, between 1595 and 1604.

Kalmar Union

.During the reign of Valdemar IV and his daughter Margrethe I, the realm was re-invigorated; following the Battle of Falköping, Margrethe I had her sister's son, Eric of Pomerania crowned King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden after the signing of the union charter of Kalmar, Trinity Sunday 1397.[24] United under a single crown it was thought that the new kingdom would create a great power in the north.^ Part of Norway was first seized after the united Danes and Swedes had defeated and slain King Olaf Trygvesson at the battle of Svolde (1000); and between 1028 and 1035 Canute the Great added the whole kingdom to his own; but the union did not long survive him.

^ Possibly a still earlier king of Denmark was Sigarr or Sigehere, who has won lasting fame from the story of his daughter Signy and her lover Hagbar5r.

^ Thus at the peace of Fontainebleau (September 2, 1679) Denmark, which had borne the brunt of the struggle in the Baltic, was compelled by the inexorable French king to make full restitution to Sweden, the treaty between the two northern powers being signed at Lund on the 26th of September.

[25] The three countries were to be treated as equals in the union. .However, even from the start Margrethe of Denmark may not have been so idealistic—treating Denmark as the clear "senior" partner of the union.^ Denmark, however, is nowhere low in the sense in which Holland is; the country is pleasantly diversified, and rises a little at the coast even though it remains flat inland.

[25] .Thus, much of the next 125 years of Scandinavian history revolves around this union, with Sweden breaking off and being re-conquered repeatedly.^ Even thus I have not included all that is written or told about them, nor spoken so much to their praise as to the glory of him who conquered them.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The issue was for practical purposes resolved on 17 June 1523, as Swedish King Gustav Vasa conquered the city of Stockholm.^ Resolved to conquer the Netherlands, the French king proceeded, first of all, to isolate her by dissolving the Triple Alliance.

Denmark and Norway, however, remained in a personal union until the Congress of Vienna in 1814.

Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation came to Scandinavia in 1520s. On Easter Sunday 1525, Hans Tausen, a monk in the Order of St John's Hospitalers, proclaimed aloud the need for Martin Luther's reforms in the Catholic Church. His sermon was the beginning of a ten year struggle which would change Denmark forever. .Tausen was hustled off to a monastery in Viborg in northern Jutland where he would be isolated and away from Copenhagen and the court.^ There are two intermediary Courts of Appeal ( Overret ), one in Copenhagen, another in Viborg; the Supreme Court of Appeal ( Hojesteret ) sits at Copenhagen.

Tausen simply preached through the window of his locked chamber. At first curious Danes came to hear the strange new ideas that Tausen was preaching. Within weeks Tausen was freed by his loyal followers, and then a Franciscan abbey church was broken open so Viborgers could hear God's word under a roof. Luther's ideas were accepted so rapidly that the local bishop and other churchmen in Viborg were unable to cope. In many churches the mass was celebrated alongside Lutheran sermons, and then Tausen's version of Luther's teachings began to spread to other parts of Jutland. Within a year Tausen was the personal chaplain of King Frederik I. .Frederik tried to balance the old and new ideas insisting that they coexist; it lasted only as long as Frederik did.^ Martin Frederik Arendt (1773-1823), the botanist and archaeologist, did much for the study of old Scandinavian records.

^ They distrusted the good fortune of their own king, inasmuch as Alaric did not live long after the sack of Rome, but straightway departed this life.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

A mob stormed Our Lady Church in Copenhagen in 1531 tearing down statues, destroying side altars, artwork, and relics that had accumulated through its long history. Similar events happened through the country, although for the most part the change was peaceful. The majority of common people saw the reduced influence and wealth of the church as a liberating thing, but their new found influence did not last long.
.At the death of Frederick I in 1533, two claimants to the throne—one backed by Protestant Lũbeck and the other by Catholic nobles—caused a civil war known as the Count's Feud (Danish: Grevens Fejde) (1534–1536).^ The Kongelov is dated and subscribed the 14th of November 1665, but was kept a profound secret, only two initiated persons knowing of its existence until after the death of Frederick III., one of them being Kristoffer Gabel , the king's chief intermediary during the revolution, and the other the author and custodian of the Kongelov, Secretary Peder Schumacher, better known as Griffenfeldt.

^ The inevitable ecclesiastical crisis was still further postponed by the superior stress of two urgent political events - Christian II.'s invasion of Norway (1531) and the outbreak, in 1533, of " Grevens fejde," or " The Count's War " (1534-36), The the count in question being Christopher of Oldenburg , count's great-nephew of King Christian I., whom Lubeck and War, her allies, on the death of Frederick I ., raised up 1533= against Frederick's son Christian III .

^ By giving heed to this command they ruled their kingdom in happiness for the space of many years and were not disgraced by civil war, as is usual among other nations; one after the other receiving the kingdom and ruling the people in peace.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

[26] The massacre of Skipper Clement's peasant army at Aalborg in December 1534 brought an end to the war and left the pro-Lutheran party firmly in charge.[27] .Denmark became officially Lutheran in 1536. Denmark's Catholic bishops were arrested and imprisoned.^ The national or state church of Denmark is officially styled " Evangelically Reformed," but is popularly described as Lutheran.

.Abbeys, nunneries, monasteries, and other church properties were confiscated by local nobility and the crown.^ Before the Reformation the annual revenue from land averaged 400,000 bushels of corn ; after the confiscations of Church property it averaged 1,200,000 bushels.

^ The enormous increase of the royal revenue consequent upon the confiscation of the property of the Church could not fail to increase the financial stability of the monarchy.

Monks, nuns, and clergy lost their livelihood. The bishops who agreed to marry and not stir up trouble were given former church lands as personal estates.[28]
Catholic influence remained longest in Viborg and the nearby area, where change permeated slowly, although the reformation originally began there.[29]

Modern history

For most of its history the attention of Denmark had been directed to the south. .The Germans in the form of either the Hanseatic League or in the form of the rebellious minority population of the province of Slesvig had been demanding all the attention of the Danish Kingdom for centuries.^ But it would not have terminated advantageously for them at all, had not the powerful and highly efficient Danish fleet effectually prevented the Swedish government from succouring its distressed German provinces, and finally swept the Swedish fleets out of the northern waters.

^ Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula , and the other Scandinavian kingdoms.

However, by 1500, the Hanseatic League was in considerable decline.[30] .The rise of the Dutch nation as a sea power and its unrestricted trade with Scandinavia broke the monopoly of the Hansa.^ The power of the Hansa had gone; the Dutch were enfeebled by their contest with Spain ; England's sea-power was yet in the making; Spain , still the greatest of the maritime nations, was exhausting her resources in the vain effort to conquer the Dutch.

[31] .By 1614, 60% of all shipping passing through the sound between Denmark and Sweden was Dutch shipping.^ With Sweden communications are established by ferries across the Sound between Copenhagen and Malmo and Landskrona , and between Elsinore (Helsingor) and Helsingborg .

^ The vexed question, of many centuries' standing, concerning the claim of Denmark to levy dues on vessels passing through the Sound , was settled by the abolition of the dues in 1857.

^ Napoleon had determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's mediation , Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her.

[32] The problem of Slesvig was not so much resolved as it was over-shadowed by a larger problem, the rising power of Sweden.[33] Indeed, the religious Peace of Augsburg in 1555 served as a watershed in the history of Denmark.[34] Instead of looking south to Germany as a threat, Denmark began to look to the north—toward Sweden as a worse threat. .Like Denmark, most of northern Germany began to be deeply concerned about the military threat posed by a strong Sweden.^ By this treaty Treaty of Sweden gave back the province of Trondhjem and the T Copen= isle of Bornholm and released Denmark from the most hagen , onerous of the obligations of the treaty of Roskilde.

^ By the peace of Fontainebleau Denmark had been sacrificed to the interests of France and Sweden; forty-one years later she was sacrificed to the interests of Hanover and Prussia by the peace of Copenhagen (1720), which ended the Northern War so far as the German powers were concerned.

^ Yet, while Sweden was surely ripening into the dominating power of northern Europe, Denmark had as surely entered upon a period of uninterrupted and apparently incurable decline.

.Thus, the various German states began to worry less about supporting the German minority population in Slesvig and began to concentrate on the Swedish threat.^ A notable movement of the population to the towns began about the middle of the 19th century, and increased until very near its end.

Accordingly, Denmark was free to turn her attentions to Sweden as well.
.After Sweden permanently broke away from the Kalmar Union in 1523, Denmark tried on two occasions to reassert control over Sweden.^ Clearly it was Denmark's wisest policy to seek a close alliance with Sweden in their common interests, and after the conclusion of the " Kalmar War " the two countries did remain at peace for the next thirty-one years.

.The first was in the Northern Seven Years War which lasted from 1563 until 1570. The second occasion was the Kalmar War when King Christian IV attacked Sweden in 1611 but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing Sweden to return to the union with Denmark.^ Sweden from the effects F IV rederick 1699 ., of the Great Northern War.

^ The last ten years of the reign of Christian V.'s successor, Frederick IV .

^ Twice during this period Denmark and Sweden measured their strength in the open field, on the first occasion in the " Scandinavian Seven Years' War " (1562-70), on the second in the " Kalmar War " (1611-13), and on both occasions Denmark prevailed, though the temporary advantage she gained was more than neutralized by the intense feeling of hostility which the unnatural wars, between the two kindred peoples of Scandinavia, left behind them.

.The war led to no territorial changes, but Sweden was forced to pay a war indemnity of 1 million silver riksdaler to Denmark, an amount known as the Älvsborg ransom.^ Denmark was offered an alliance, the complete restitution of her fleet after the war, a guarantee of all her possessions, compensation for all expenses, and even territorial aggrandizement.

^ Moreover, this defeat led to a successful rebellion in Sweden, and a long and ruinous war with Lubeck , terminated by the peace of Malmo, 151 2.

^ Napoleon had determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's mediation , Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her.

[35] .King Christian used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably Glückstadt (founded as a rival to Hamburg), Christiania (following a fire destroying the original city of Oslo), Christianshavn, Christianstad, and Christiansand.^ The harbours of Copenhagen, Elsinore and other towns were enlarged; many decaying towns were abolished and many new ones built under more promising conditions, including Christiania , which was founded in August 1624, on the ruins of the ancient city of Oslo.

^ The young king, a man Christian of character andenius had wide views and original IL, 1513= g 1523.

.Christian also constructed a number of buildings, most notably Børsen, Rundetårn, Nyboder, Rosenborg, a silver mine and a copper mill.^ There is complete religious toleration , but though most of the important Christian communities are represented their numbers are very small.

Inspired by the Dutch East India Company, he founded a similar Danish company and planned to claim Sri Lanka as a colony, but the company only managed to acquire Tranquebar on India's Coromandel Coast.
.In the Thirty Year's War, Christian tried to become the leader of the Lutheran states in Germany but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter.^ But the antagonistic interests of the two countries in Germany during the Thirty Years' War precipitated a fourth contest between them (1643-45), in which Denmark would have been utterly ruined but for the heroism of King Christian IV. and his command of the sea during the crisis of the struggle.

^ The elections of 1898 were a fresh defeat for the Conservatives, and in the autumn session of the same year, the Folketing, by a crushing majority of 85 to 12, rejected the military budget.

[36] .The result was that the Catholic army under Albrecht von Wallenstein was able to invade, occupy and pillage Jutland,[37] forcing Denmark to withdraw from the war.^ Napoleon had determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's mediation , Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her.

^ Continental Denmark is confined wholly to Jutland, the geographical description of which is given under that heading.

^ No conifer grows in Denmark except under careful cultivation, which, however, is largely practised in Jutland .

.Denmark managed to avoid territorial concessions, but Gustavus Adolphus' intervention in Germany was seen as a sign that the military power of Sweden was on the rise while Denmark's influence in the region was declining.^ Yet, while Sweden was surely ripening into the dominating power of northern Europe, Denmark had as surely entered upon a period of uninterrupted and apparently incurable decline.

^ Sweden's appropriation of Danish soil had begun, and at the same time Denmark's power of resisting the encroachments of Sweden was correspondingly reduced.

^ While Sweden, even after the advent of Gustavus Vasa , was still of but small account in Europe, Denmark easily held her own in Germany and elsewhere, even against Charles V ., and was important enough, in 1553, to mediate a peace between the emperor and Saxony .

.Swedish armies invaded Jutland in 1643 and claimed Skåne in 1644. In the 1645 Treaty of Brømsebro, Denmark surrendered Halland, Gotland, the last parts of Danish Estonia, and several provinces in Norway.^ Even so, by the peace of Bromsebro (February 8, 1645) Denmark surrendered the islands of Oesel and Gotland and the provinces of Jemteland and Herjedal (in Norway) definitively, and Halland for thirty years.

^ By this treaty Treaty of Sweden gave back the province of Trondhjem and the T Copen= isle of Bornholm and released Denmark from the most hagen , onerous of the obligations of the treaty of Roskilde.

^ Eastern Denmark was in the hands of one magnate ; another magnate held Jutland and Fiinen in pawn ; the dukes of Schleswig were practically independent of the Danish crown; the Scandian provinces had (1332) surrendered themselves to Sweden.

.In 1657, King Frederick III declared war on Sweden and marched on Bremen-Verden.^ The apparently insuperable difficulties of Sweden in Poland was the feather that turned the scale; on the 1st of June 1657, Frederick III. signed the manifesto justifying a war which was never formally declared and brought Denmark to the very verge of ruin.

^ Napoleon had determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's mediation , Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her.

.This led to a massive Danish defeat, and the armies of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden conquered Jutland, Funen, and much of Zealand before signing the Peace of Roskilde in February 1658 which gave Sweden control of Skåne, Blekinge, Trøndelag and the island of Bornholm.^ Even so, by the peace of Bromsebro (February 8, 1645) Denmark surrendered the islands of Oesel and Gotland and the provinces of Jemteland and Herjedal (in Norway) definitively, and Halland for thirty years.

^ The extraordinary details of this dramatic struggle will be found elsewhere (see FREDERICK III., king of Denmark, and Charles X ., king of Sweden); suffice it to say that by the peace of Roskilde (February 26, 1658), Denmark consented to cede the three Scanian provinces, the island of Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Baahus and Trondhjem ; to renounce all anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish [[Viii.

^ By this treaty Treaty of Sweden gave back the province of Trondhjem and the T Copen= isle of Bornholm and released Denmark from the most hagen , onerous of the obligations of the treaty of Roskilde.

.Charles X Gustav quickly regretted not having destroyed Denmark completely; in August 1658 he began a two-year long siege of Copenhagen but failed to take the capital.^ These terrible losses were somewhat retrieved by the subsequent treaty of Copenhagen (May 27, 1660) concluded by the Swedish regency with Frederick III. after the failure of Charles X.'s second war against Denmark, a failure chiefly owing to the heroic defence of the Danish capital (1658-60).

^ Taking this to be tantamount to a declaration of war, on the 16th of August the British army landed at Vedback; and shortly afterwards the Danish capital was invested.

.In the following peace settlement, Denmark managed to maintain its independence and regain control of Trøndelag and Bornholm.^ Functions and missions The functions and missions of the Danish police are set out in the Administration of Justice Act and in the Act on Police Activities as follows: “The purpose of the police is to maintain safety, security, peace and order in society.
  • POLIS - Policing Profiles of Participating and Partner States 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC polis.osce.org [Source type: News]

^ "Thanks to their attitude on renewable energy and sustainability, Denmark has managed to attain total energy independence, an incredibly important achievement."
  • FOXNews.com - Denmark Points Way in Alternative Energy Sources - Science News | Science & Technology | Technology News 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

Den Grundlovsgivende Rigsforsamling (The Constitutional Assembly. The Assembly created The Danish constitution), 1860–1864 painting by Constantin Hansen
.Denmark tried to regain control of Skåne in the Scanian War (1675–79), but it ended in failure.^ After this Denmark, unwisely, but not unnaturally, threw herself into the arms of Napoleon and continued to be his faithful ally till the end of the war.

.Following the Great Northern War (1700–21), Denmark managed to restore control of the parts of Schleswig and Holstein ruled by the house of Holstein-Gottorp in 1721 and 1773, respectively.^ On the following day, when a great part of the morning was spent, the royal attendants suspected some ill and, after a great uproar, broke in the doors.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Sweden from the effects F IV rederick 1699 ., of the Great Northern War.

^ The peninsula is divided between Denmark and Germany (Schleswig- Holstein ).

.Denmark prospered greatly in the last decades of the 18th century because its neutral status allowed it to trade with both sides in the many contemporary wars.^ But in the last decade it greatly diminished.

^ A fresh and fruitful period of reform now began, lasting till nearly the end of the century, and interrupted only by the brief but costly war with Sweden in 1788.

^ During the last forty years of the 19th century dairy -farming was greatly developed in Denmark, and brought to a high degree of perfection by the application of scientific methods and the best machinery, as well as by the establishment of joint dairies.

.In the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark originally tried to pursue a policy of neutrality to continue the lucrative trade with both France and the United Kingdom and joined the League of Armed Neutrality with Russian Empire, Sweden, and Kingdom of Prussia.^ Till the cessation of the Union in 1814, Copenhagen continued to be the headquarters of the Norwegian administration; both kingdoms had common departments of state; and the common chancery continued to be called the Danish chancery .

^ Clearly it was Denmark's wisest policy to seek a close alliance with Sweden in their common interests, and after the conclusion of the " Kalmar War " the two countries did remain at peace for the next thirty-one years.

^ Napoleon had determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's mediation , Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her.

.The British considered this a hostile act and attacked Copenhagen in both 1801 and 1807, in one case carrying off the Danish fleet and burning large parts of the Danish capital.^ Taking this to be tantamount to a declaration of war, on the 16th of August the British army landed at Vedback; and shortly afterwards the Danish capital was invested.

^ Till the cessation of the Union in 1814, Copenhagen continued to be the headquarters of the Norwegian administration; both kingdoms had common departments of state; and the common chancery continued to be called the Danish chancery .

^ While he was celebrating his new marriage and holding court at Ravenna, the imperial army advanced from Rome and attacked the strongholds in both parts of Tuscany.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

These events mark the end of the prosperous Florissant Age and resulted in the Dano-British Gunboat War. .British control over the waterways between Denmark and Norway proved disastrous to the union's economy; in 1813 Denmark-Norway went bankrupt.^ A considerable proportion of Denmark's large commercial fleet is engaged in the carrying trade between foreign, especially British, ports.

.The post-Napoleonic Congress of Vienna demanded the dissolution of the Dano-Norwegian union, and this was confirmed by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. Denmark-Norway had briefly hoped to restore the Scandinavian union in 1809, but these hopes were dashed when the estates of Sweden rejected a proposal to let Frederick VI of Denmark succeed the deposed Gustav IV Adolf and instead gave the crown to Charles XIII.^ Fear and hatred of Sweden, and the never abandoned hope of recovering the lost provinces, animated king and people alike; but it was Denmark's crowning misfortune that she possessed at this difficult crisis no statesman of the first rank, no one even approximately comparable with such competitors as Charles X. of Sweden or the " Great Elector " Frederick William of Brandenburg .

^ Such then, briefly, was the condition of things in Denmark when, in 1588, Christian IV. ascended the throne.

^ By this treaty Treaty of Sweden gave back the province of Trondhjem and the T Copen= isle of Bornholm and released Denmark from the most hagen , onerous of the obligations of the treaty of Roskilde.

.Norway entered a new union with Sweden which lasted until 1905. Denmark kept the colonies of Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland.^ Yet, while Sweden was surely ripening into the dominating power of northern Europe, Denmark had as surely entered upon a period of uninterrupted and apparently incurable decline.

^ The Faeroe islands, which form an integral part of the kingdom of Denmark in the wider sense, are represented in the Danish parliament, but not the other dependencies of the Danish crown , namely Iceland , Greenland and the West Indian islands of St Thomas , St John and St Croix.

^ In both Norway and Sweden, therefore, the Union was highly unpopular.

Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark ruled over Danish India from 1620 to 1869, the Danish Gold Coast from 1658 to 1850, and the Danish West Indies from 1671 to 1917.
.The Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and after the European Revolutions of 1848 Denmark peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. After the Second War of Schleswig (Danish: Slesvig) in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia, in a defeat that left deep marks on the Danish national identity.^ The reformation movement in Denmark was further promoted by Schleswig-Holstein influence.

^ The events that followed; the occupation of the duchies by Austria and Prussia, the war of 1864, gallantly fought by the Danes against overwhelming odds, and the astute diplomacy by which Bismarck succeeded in ultimately gaining for Prussia the seaboard so essential for her maritime power, are dealt with elsewhere (see Schleswig-Holstein Question ).

^ The rising national feeling in Germany also stimulated the separatist tendencies of the of the duchies; and "Schleswig-Holsteinism," as it now began to be called, evoked in Denmark the counter -movement known as Eiderdansk-politik, i.e.

.After these events, Denmark returned to its traditional policy of neutrality, also keeping Denmark neutral in World War I.^ XXI (110) After these events, the Goths had already returned home when they were summoned at the request of the Emperor Maximian to aid the Romans against the Parthians.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In these circumstances it was as difficult for Denmark to remain neutral as it was dangerous for her to make a choice.

20th and 21st centuries

Denmark is a member of the European Union and in 1993 signed the Maastricht Treaty.
.Following the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark.^ The peninsula is divided between Denmark and Germany (Schleswig- Holstein ).

^ The rising national feeling in Germany also stimulated the separatist tendencies of the of the duchies; and "Schleswig-Holsteinism," as it now began to be called, evoked in Denmark the counter -movement known as Eiderdansk-politik, i.e.

^ The reformation movement in Denmark was further promoted by Schleswig-Holstein influence.

.Fearing German irredentism, Denmark refused to consider the return of the area and insisted on a plebiscite concerning the return of Schleswig.^ Denmark to the Eider and obliterating German Schleswig, in order to save Schleswig from being absorbed by Germany.

The two Schleswig Plebiscites took place on 10 February and 14 March, respectively. .On 10 July 1920 after the plebiscite and the king's signature (6 July) on the reunion document, King Christian X rode across the old border on a white horse, and Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding 163,600 inhabitants and 3,984 km².^ In this battle, as King Valamir rode on his horse before the line to encourage his men, the horse was wounded and fell, overthrowing its rider.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The reunion day (Genforeningsdag) is celebrated every year 15 June on Valdemarsdag.^ Midsummer's Night Throughout Denmark : June 21 The longest day of the year is reason to celebrate with bonfires and parties al ...more Helpful Information: Denmark .
  • Denmark Hostels - youth hostels in Denmark - EuropeanHostels.com 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.europeanhostels.com [Source type: News]

^ From 28 June – 17 August the Zoo is open until 9 pm every day.
  • ShowDenmark.com - Travel to Denmark 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.showdenmark.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a gorgeous place to spend money and see one way traditional Copenhagen celebrates every single day.
  • ShowDenmark.com - Travel to Denmark 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.showdenmark.com [Source type: General]

.Germany's invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940—code named Operation Weserübung—met only two hours of military resistance before the Danish government surrendered.^ Sweden's appropriation of Danish soil had begun, and at the same time Denmark's power of resisting the encroachments of Sweden was correspondingly reduced.

^ But the British government did not consider Denmark strong enough to resist France, and Canning had private trustworthy information of the designs of Napoleon, upon which he was bound to act.

^ Never before, since the age of Margaret, had Denmark been so well governed, never before had she possessed so many political celebrities nobly emulous for the common good.

.Economic co-operation between Germany and Denmark continued until 1943, when the Danish government refused further co-operation and its navy sank most of its ships and sent as many of their officers as they could to Sweden.^ The peninsula is divided between Denmark and Germany (Schleswig- Holstein ).

^ While Sweden, even after the advent of Gustavus Vasa , was still of but small account in Europe, Denmark easily held her own in Germany and elsewhere, even against Charles V ., and was important enough, in 1553, to mediate a peace between the emperor and Saxony .

^ Many sent ambassadors to the Roman territory, where they were most graciously received by Marcian, who was then emperor, and took the abodes allotted them to dwell in.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.During the war, the government was helpful towards the Danish Jewish minority, and the Danish resistance performed a rescue operation that managed to get most of them to Sweden and safety shortly before the Germans planned to round up the Danish Jews.^ Taking this to be tantamount to a declaration of war, on the 16th of August the British army landed at Vedback; and shortly afterwards the Danish capital was invested.

^ Both MPs may not believe Danish Jews are threatened but the Jewish population itself believes it is under siege.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden .

.Denmark led many "inside operations" or sabotage against the German facilities.^ Denmark has been a member of NATO since 1948 and has carried out many peace keeping operations.
  • Denmark - Facts about Denmark - Denmark History - Copenhagen Portal 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC copenhagenet.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Denmark has consistently led an active role in the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) regarding the promotion and protection of national minorities.
  • Denmark : 2.4.1 Overview of main structures and trends : Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.culturalpolicies.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its 11 members were teenage boys who performed acts of sabotage against the Germans.

Iceland severed ties to Denmark and became an independent republic, and in 1948, the Faroe Islands gained home rule.
.After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of the United Nations and NATO, and in 1973, along with Britain and Ireland, joined the European Economic Community (now the European Union) after a public referendum.^ Napoleon had determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's mediation , Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her.

^ The theory of the physiocrats now found powerful advocates in Denmark; and after 1755, when the press censorship was abolished so far as regarded political economy and agriculture, a thorough discussion of the whole agrarian question became possible.

The Maastricht treaty was ratified after a further referendum in 1993 and the subsequent addition of concessions for Denmark under the Edinburgh Agreement. Greenland gained home rule in 1979 and was awarded self-determination in 2009. Neither Greenland nor the Faroe Islands are members of the European Union, the Faroese declining membership in EEC from 1973 and Greenland from 1986, in both cases because of fisheries policies.
Despite its modest size, Denmark has been participating in major military and humanitarian operations, most notably the UN and NATO led operations on Cyprus and in Bosnia, Korea, Croatia, Kosovo, Ethiopia, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia.

Geography

Map of Denmark
Denmark shares a border of 68 kilometres with Germany to the south and is otherwise surrounded by 7,314 kilometres of coastline. It occupies 43,094 square kilometres. Since 2000 Denmark has been connected by the Øresund Bridge to southern Sweden.
.Denmark's northernmost point is Skagens point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7" northern latitude; the southernmost is Gedser point (the southern tip of Falster) at 54° 33' 35" northern latitude; the westernmost point is Blåvandshuk at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude; and the easternmost point is Østerskær at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude.^ Skagen, or the Skaw, a long, low, sandy point, stretches far into the northern sea, dividing the Skagerrack from the Cattegat.

^ On Falster is the port of NykjObing , and from Gjedser, the extreme southern point of Denmark, communication is maintained with Warnemiinde in Germany (29 m.

^ This system is also in use on the line which runs south fromRoskilde to the island of Falster, from the southernmost point of which, Gjedser, ferrysteamers taking railway cars serve Warnemunde in Germany.

This is in the archipelago Ertholmene 18 kilometres northeast of Bornholm. .The distance from east to west is 452 kilometres (281 mi), from north to south 368 kilometres (229 mi).^ The distance from east to west is 452 km (over 280 mi), from north to south 368 km (228 mi).
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Danmark - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Danmark Peninsula and islands in northern Europe, bounded to the north by the Skagerrak arm of the North Sea, east by the Kattegat strait, south by Germany, and west by the North Sea.
  • danmark - Results By Free Genealogy Search 12 September 2009 10:56 UTC www.genealogylocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So they received Pannonia, which stretches in a long plain, being bounded on the east by Upper Moesia, on the south by Dalmatia, on the west by Noricum and on the north by the Danube.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Denmark consists of the peninsula of Jutland (Jylland) and 443 named islands (1,419 islands above 100 m² in total).^ DENMARK ( Danmark ), a small kingdom of Europe , occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.

^ Our earliest knowledge of Denmark is derived from Pliny , who speaks of three islands named " Skandiai," a name which is also applied to Sweden.

[38] Of these, 72 are inhabited,[39] with the largest being Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn). .The island of Bornholm is located east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea.^ DENMARK ( Danmark ), a small kingdom of Europe , occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.

^ The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden .

^ Moreover they locate the islands interspersed amid the waves, both the greater and also the lesser islands, called Cyclades or Sporades, as situated in the vast flood of the Great Sea.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden; the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand; and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. Main cities are the capital Copenhagen on Zealand; Århus, Aalborg and Esbjerg in Jutland; and Odense on Funen.
Windmills and yellow brick houses accent the gently rolling meadowlands of Karlebo, in North Zealand.
The country is flat with little elevation; having an average height above sea level of 31 metres (102 ft). The highest natural point is Møllehøj, at 170.86 metres (560.56 ft). Other hills in the same area southwest of Århus are Yding Skovhøj at 170.77 metres (560.27 ft) and Ejer Bavnehøj at 170.35 metres (558.89 ft).[40] The area of inland water is: (eastern Denmark) 210 km2 (81 sq mi); (western D.) 490 km2 (189 sq mi).
A forest burial ground in Yding Skovhøj, one of Denmark's highest points
Denmark's coastline is, 7,314 km (4,545 mi).[41] .No location in Denmark is further from the coast than 52 km (32 mi).^ The further assumption that more than half of all rapists in Denmark are Muslims is without any basis in fact, as criminal registers do not record religion.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

.The size of the land area of Denmark cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation projects (to counter erosion).^ On the north it is bounded by the same vast unnavigable Ocean, from which by means of a sort of projecting arm of land a bay is cut off and forms the German Sea.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

On the southwest coast of Jutland, the tide is between 1 and 2 m (3.28 and 6.56 ft), and the tideline moves outward and inward on a 10 km (6.2 mi) stretch.[42]
Phytogeographically, Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands) belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Arctic, Atlantic European and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region. .According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Denmark can be subdivided into two ecoregions: the Atlantic mixed forests and Baltic mixed forests.^ While the territorial expansion of Sweden in the near future was a matter of necessity, Denmark had not only attained, but even exceeded, her natural limits.

The Faroe Islands are covered by the Faroe Islands boreal grasslands, while Greenland hosts the ecoregions of Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra and Kalaallit Nunaat low arctic tundra.
Denmark seen from space
The climate is in the temperate zone. .The winters are not particularly cold, with mean temperatures in January and February of 0.0 °C, and the summers are cool, with a mean temperature in August of 15.7 °C.[43] Denmark has an average of 121 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of 712 mm per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest.^ Frost occurs on an average on twenty days in each of the four winter months, but only on two days in either October or May.

^ During thirty years the annual mean temperature varied from 43.88° F. to 46 22° in different years and different localities, the mean average for the whole country being 45.14°.

^ More than half the rainfall occurs from July to November, the wettest month being September, with an average of 2.95 in.; the driest month is April, with an average of 1 14 in.

[43]
Grenen near Skagen, Denmark's northmost point
Because of Denmark's northern location, the length of the day with sunlight varies greatly. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 9:00 a.m. and sunset 4:30 p.m., as well as long summer days with sunrise at 4:00 a.m. and sunset at 10 p.m.[44] .The shortest and longest days of the year have traditionally been celebrated.^ The shortest and longest days of the year have traditionally been celebrated.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The celebration for the shortest day corresponds roughly with Christmas (Danish: jul) and modern celebrations concentrate on Christmas Eve, 24 December.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every year the constitution day - Grundlovsdag - is celebrated with many arrangements and meetings, by all of the democratic- and freedom-loving Danes.
  • Denmark - Facts about Denmark - Denmark History - Copenhagen Portal 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC copenhagenet.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The celebration for the shortest day corresponds roughly with Christmas (Danish: jul), and modern celebrations concentrate on Christmas Eve, 24 December. .The Norse word jól is a plural, indicating that pre-Christian society celebrated a season with multiple feasts.^ The Norse word jól is a plural, indicating that pre-Christian society celebrated a season with multiple feasts.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christianity introduced the celebration of Christmas, resulting in the use of the Norse name also for the Christian celebration.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Celebrations of Midsummer have taken place since pre-Christian times.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .Christianity introduced the celebration of Christmas, resulting in the use of the Norse name also for the Christian celebration.^ Christianity introduced the celebration of Christmas, resulting in the use of the Norse name also for the Christian celebration.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Norse word jól is a plural, indicating that pre-Christian society celebrated a season with multiple feasts.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Efforts by the Catholic Church to replace this name with kristmesse were unsuccessful.^ Efforts by the Catholic Church to replace this name with kristmesse were unsuccessful.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The celebration for the longest day is Midsummer Day, which is known in Denmark as sankthansaften (St. John's evening).[46] .Celebrations of Midsummer have taken place since pre-Christian times.^ Celebrations of Midsummer have taken place since pre-Christian times.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Norse word jól is a plural, indicating that pre-Christian society celebrated a season with multiple feasts.
  • DENMARK 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC ithelp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is manifest that no literature proper could exist in Denmark in pre-Christian times.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Denmark 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[47]

Environment

Denmark is ranked 10th for the greenest countries to live in the world.[48]
Denmark has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation; in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and was the first country in the world to implement an environmental law in 1973.
.To mitigate environmental degradation and global warming the Danish Government has signed the following international agreements: Antarctic Treaty; Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol; Endangered Species Act [49] These agreements have helped in the reduction in CO2 emissions by Denmark.^ It is clear that the majority of the Norwegian people hoped that the revolution would give them an administration independent of the Danish government; but these expectations were not realised.

Copenhagen is recognised as one of the most environmentally friendly cities in the world.[50] Much of the city's success can be attributed to a strong municipal policy combined with a sound national policy, in 2006 Copenhagen Municipality received the European Environmental Management Award.[51] The award was given for long-term holistic environmental planning. Recently many of Denmarks smaller Municipalities such as Lolland and Bornholm have also become environmental leaders. Denmark is home to five of the worlds ten largest central solar heating plants (CSHP). The worlds largest CSHP is situated in the small community of Marstal on the island of Ærø.
Copenhagen is the spearhead of the bright green environmental movement in Denmark. In 2008, Copenhagen was mentioned by Clean Edge as one of the key cleantech clusters to watch in the book The Cleantech Revolution. The city is the focal point for more than half of Denmark's 700 cleantech companies and draws on some 46 research institutions. The cluster employs more than 60,000 people and is characterised by a close collaboration between universities, business, and governing institutions. The capital's most important cleantech research institutions are the University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Business School,[52] Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, and the Technical University of Denmark which Risø is now part of. Leading up to the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference the University of Copenhagen held the Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions conference where the need for comprehensive action to mitigate climate change was stressed by the international scientific community. Notable figures such as Rajendra K. Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC, Professor Nicholas Stern, author of the Stern Report, and Professor Daniel Kammen all emphasised the good example set by Copenhagen and Denmark in capitalising on cleantech and achieving economic growth while stabilising carbon emissions.

Denmark's GDP per emissions

.Denmark's green house gas emissions per dollar of value produced has been for the most part unstable since 1990, seeing sudden growths and falls.^ The writings of this man are the deepest and most serious which Denmark had produced, and at his best he yields to no one in choice and skilful use of expression.

Overall though, there has been a reduction in gas emissions per dollar value added to its market.[53] It is comparable to countries such as Germany,[54] but lagging behind other Scandinavian countries such as Norway[55] and Sweden.[56]

Government and politics

The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. As stipulated in the Danish Constitution, the monarch is not answerable for their actions, and their person is sacrosanct. The monarch formally appoints and dismisses the prime minister and other ministers. The prime minister is customarily chosen through negotiation between the parliament party leaders.
.Before being validated through royal assent, all bills and important government measures must be discussed in Statsrådet, a privy council headed by the monarch.^ He rejoiced at this gift and, being ambitious, thought he had been appointed ruler of the whole world, and that through the sword of Mars supremacy in all wars was assured to him."
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor was this all, for Zeno set up before the royal palace an equestrian statue to the glory of this great man.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

The Danish privy council's protocols are secret. Although the monarch is formally given executive power this power is strictly ceremonial. The monarch is expected to be entirely apolitical and refrain from influencing the government. .For example, members of the royal family do not cast their votes in elections and referendums even though they have the right.^ Muslim immigrants do not receive 40% of those allocations even though they represent a substantial part of the clients.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Yet even to-day, though it is happily situated near the royal city, it still shows some traces of its ruin as a witness to posterity.
  • THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS 15 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.acs.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

Denmark and its dependencies
Legislative authority is vested in the executive (Prime Minister) and the Danish parliament conjointly. .Judicial authority lies with the courts of justice.^ Judicial power lies with the courts of justice.
  • Culture of Denmark - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, wedding, tribe, population 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The judicial power lies with the courts of justice.
  • GlobaLex - Researching Danish Law 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislative power is jointly vested in the King and the Parliament.  The executive power is vested in the King.  The judicial power is vested in the courts of justice.
  • ICL - Denmark - Constitution 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

Executive authority is exercised on behalf of the monarch by the prime minister and other cabinet ministers who head departments. .The cabinet, prime minister, and other ministers collectively make up the government.^ Other Europeans (such as the late Pim Fortuyn in Holland) have also grown alarmed about these issues, but Danes were the first to make them the basis for a change in government.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

These ministers are responsible to Folketinget (the Danish Parliament), the legislative body, which is traditionally considered to be supreme (that is, able to legislate on any matter and not bound by decisions of its predecessors).
The Folketing is the national legislature. It has the ultimate legislative authority according to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, however questions over sovereignty have been brought forward because of Denmark’s entry into the European Union. In theory the doctrine prevails. .Parliament consists of 175 members elected by proportional majority, plus two members each from Greenland and Faroe Islands.^ Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, two members of the Danish parliament, are "offended" by our article "Muslim Extremism: Denmark's had Enough" (Aug.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the prime minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the parliament may force a single minister or the entire government to resign.
.The Danish political system has traditionally generated coalitions.^ However, to be eligible to have your Danish credits counted, you must have earned at least six credits (generally one and one-half years of work) under the U.S. system.
  • Description of the U.S.-Denmark Social Security Agreement 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.socialsecurity.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Aspects of the Electoral System The Political Parties Online Resources .
  • Election Resources on the Internet: Elections to the Danish Folketing 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC electionresources.org [Source type: Original source]

Most Danish post-war governments have been minority coalitions ruling with the support of non-government parties.[57]
Prime Minister of Denmark: Lars Løkke Rasmussen
.Anders Fogh Rasmussen from the Venstre party, a center-right liberal party was prime minister from November 2001 to April 2009. His government was a coalition consisting of Venstre and the Conservative People's Party, with parliamentary support from the Danish People's Party (Dansk Folkeparti).^ In a momentous election last November, a center-right coalition came to power that - for the first time since 1929 - excluded the socialists.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Most Canadian readers may not realize that both writers are politicians belonging to the Socialist-Radical Liberal government that was defeated last November—indeed, Ms. Nielsen was its minister of culture.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The three parties obtained a parliamentary majority in the 2001 election and maintained it virtually unchanged in the 2005 election. .On October 24, 2007, an early election was called by the Prime Minister for 13 November.^ Feb 24, 2007 13:54 .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Following the election the Danish People's party was strengthened while Anders Fogh Rasmussen's Venstre lost 6 seats and the Conservative Party retained the same number of seats in Parliament as prior to the election. The result ensured that Anders Fogh Rasmussen could continue as prime minister for a third term.
From the fall of 2008 rumours persisted that Anders Fogh Rasmussen aspired to head NATO. On April 4, 2009, during a NATO summit in Strasbourg, Rasmussen confirmed these speculations. Opposition within NATO, especially from Turkey, was overcome, and Rasmussen was appointed Secretary General of NATO.
On April 5, 2009, Rasmussen resigned, leaving minister of finance and vice president of Venstre Lars Løkke Rasmussen to be the new prime minister.

Civil rights

Denmark, like many other countries, maintains a non-disclosed blacklist of hostnames which is used to censor DNS request by most internet service providers. In effect, trying to view certain web sites will instead result in a message that this site is blocked for the majority of Danish citizens.[58][59]. In conjunction with a liberalization of the gambling market non-licensed internet gambling websites will be subject to a similar DNS blocking. [60]

Regions and municipalities

For the administrative divisions used until 2006, see Counties of Denmark.
Denmark is divided into five regions (Danish: regioner, singular: region) and a total of 98 municipalities. The regions were created on 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform to replace the country's traditional thirteen counties (amter). .At the same time, smaller municipalities (kommuner) were merged into larger units, cutting the number of municipalities from 270 to 98. The most important area of responsibility for the new regions is the national health service.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, and the health service is primarily financed by a national 8% (sundhedsbidrag) tax combined with funds from both government and municipalities. .Each Regional Council consists of 41 elected politicians elected as part of the 2005 Danish municipal elections.^ Local government is exercised by elected county and municipal councils.
  • Fossadal.com - History of Denmark 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.fossadal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief official of the Amt, the county mayor (Amts-borgmester), is elected by the county council from among its members, according to the municipal reform of 1970.
  • Map Zones : Denmark Map 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 1989, immigrants without Danish nationality have been allowed to vote and be elected in local elections.
  • Culture of Denmark - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, wedding, tribe, population 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most of the new municipalities have a population of at least 20,000 people, although a few exceptions were made to this rule.
The Ertholmene archipelago (96 inhabitants (2008)) is neither part of a municipality nor a region but belongs to the Ministry of Defence.[61]
Greenland and the Faroe Islands have autonomous status and are largely self-governing; each are represented by two seats in the parliament.
Country Population Area
(km²)
Density
(pop per km²)
Denmark Denmark 5,534,738 43,094 128
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 48,797 1,399 35
Greenland Greenland 57,564 2,175,600 0.026
Denmark Kingdom of Denmark 5,641,099 2,220,093 2.5

Economy

Denmark's mixed economy features efficient markets, above average European living standards,[62][63] and high amount of free trade. Denmark rank 16th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita and rank 5th in nominal GDP per capita.
According to World Bank Group, Denmark has the most flexible labor market in Europe; the policy is called flexicurity. It is easy to hire, fire, and find a job. Denmark has a labor force of about 2.9 million. Denmark has the fourth highest ratio of tertiary degree holders in the world.[64] GDP per hour worked was the 10th highest in 2007. Denmark has the world's lowest level of income inequality, according to the UN, and the world's highest minimum wage, according to the IMF. As of June 2009 the unemployment rate is at 6.3%, which is below the EU average of 8.9%.[65]
Denmark is one of the most competitive economies in the world according to World Economic Forum 2008 report, IMD, and The Economist.[66] According to rankings by OECD, Denmark has the most free financial markets in EU-15 and also one of the most free product markets.
Denmark has a company tax rate of 25% and a special time limited tax regime for expatriates.[67] The Danish taxation system is both broad based (25% VAT, not including excise, duty and tax) and has the world's highest income tax.
Denmark's national currency, the krone (plural: kroner), is de facto linked to the Euro through ERM.[68] The exchange rate is pegged at approx. 7.45 kroner per euro. The government has met the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (the common European currency—the Euro) of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), but Denmark, in a September 2000 referendum, rejected The Monetary Union. .The Government of Fogh Rasmussen, re-elected in November 2007, announced a new referendum on the euro for 2008 or 2009 at the latest.^ Wednesday 14 November 2007 The centre-right bloc of Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen has won Tuesday's national election.

^ CREATIVITY, November 2008 FINAL TOUCHES TO FUGLSANG. Architects' Journal, November 8, 2007 STALLION OF THE SEA. dig, November 2008 No results found.
  • Denmark -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Head of government : Lars Lokke Rasmussen, since April 2009.
  • Denmark country profile — EU Business News - EUbusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.eubusiness.com [Source type: News]

[69]
.Denmark is known from the Danish cooperative movement within among others farming, the food industry (Danish Crown), dairy production (Arla Foods), retailing (Brugsen), wind turbine cooperatives, and co-housing associations.^ Less well known is that this is just one problem associated with Denmark's approximately 200,000 Muslim immigrants.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Support for free trade is high—in a recent poll 76% responded that globalisation is a good thing.[70] 70% of trade flows are inside the European Union. Denmark has the 9th highest export per capita in the world. Main exports include: machinery, animals and foodstuff, chemicals and oil and gas.[71] Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has for a number of years had a balance of payments surplus while battling an equivalent of approximately 39% of GNP foreign debt or more than 300 billion DKK.[72] .Also of importance is the sea territory of more than 105,000 km² (40,000+ sq mi).^ Also of importance is the sea territory of more than 105,000 km² (40,000+ sq mi).
  • Top20Denmark.com - Your Top20 Guide to Denmark! 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.top20denmark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chamber's more than 4,000 member companies represent a total turnover of some DKK 500 billion and approximately 350,000-400,000 employees.
  • Working Abroad Career Guide for Denmark 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.overseasdigest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Tuesday, voters among Greenland's 57,000 residents voted by more than 75 per cent for self-rule in a referendum.

Denmark has ranked as the world's 11th most free economy, of 162 countries, in an index created by the Wall Street Journal and Heritage Foundation, the Index of Economic Freedom 2008. The Index has been categorised as using inappropriately weighted indicators for economic freedom, leading to wealthy and/or conservative countries with barriers to trade placing high on the list, while poor and/or socialist countries with fewer restrictions on trade place low.[73] The Index has only a 10% statistical correlation with a standard measure of economic growth at GDP per capita.[74] Neither does the Index account for the actions of governments to nurture business[75] in the manner of the Japanese Zaibatsus during the late 20th century that helped lead to the Japanese economic miracle.
StatBank is the name of a large statistical database maintained by the central authority of statistics in Denmark. .Online distribution of statistics has been a part of the dissemination strategy in Denmark since 1985. By this service, Denmark is a leading country in the world regarding electronic dissemination of statistics.^ Statistics Denmark does, however, produce numbers on immigrants from Third World countries and their descendants, which it reports makes up 5% of the population; and it is known that Muslims make up four-fifths of this element.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

There are about 2 million hits every year.

Energy

Offshore wind turbines near Copenhagen
Denmark has considerable sources of oil and natural gas in the North Sea and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil.[76] Most electricity is produced from coal, but Denmark also has a high share of windpower.
To encourage investment in wind power, families were offered a tax exemption for generating their own electricity within their own or an adjoining commune. While this could involve purchasing a turbine outright, more often families purchased shares in wind turbine cooperatives which in turn invested in community wind turbines. By 2004 over 150,000 Danes were either members of cooperatives or owned turbines, and about 5,500 turbines had been installed, although with greater private sector involvement the proportion owned by cooperatives had fallen to 75%. Wind turbines produce 16–19% of electricity demand.[77] Denmark is connected by transmission lines to other European countries.
Because of energy taxes, Denmark has the highest household electricity prices in the world,[78] while industries pay just below EU average.[77]

Transport

Øresund Bridge from Denmark to Sweden. On the right is the artificial Peberholm island, and on the left Saltholm.
Significant investment has been made in recent decades in building road and rail links between Copenhagen and Malmö, Sweden (the Øresund Bridge), and between Zealand and Funen (the Great Belt Fixed Link). The Copenhagen Malmö Port was also formed between the two cities as the common port for the cities of both nations.
The main railway operator is Danske Statsbaner (Danish State Railways) for passenger services and DB Schenker Rail for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark. Copenhagen has a small Metro system, and the greater Copenhagen area has an extensive electrified suburban railway network.
Denmark's national airline (together with Norway and Sweden) is Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), and Copenhagen Airport is the country's largest airport and also the biggest hub in Scandinavia.
A ferry link to the Faroe Islands is maintained by Smyril Line. Other international ferry services are mainly operated by DFDS (to Norway and the UK). Scandlines (to Germany and Sweden), Stena Line (to Norway and Sweden), Color Line (to Norway) and FjordLine (to Norway).
Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transportation. Because of the high registration tax (180%) and VAT (25%), and the world's highest income tax rate, new cars are very expensive. The purpose of the tax is to discourage car ownership. Whether a smaller fleet of aging cars is better than a larger fleet of modern cars is a matter for debate, however as the car fleet has increased by 45% over the last 30 years the effect of high taxation on the fleet size seems small.
In 2007, an attempt was made by the government to favor environmentally friendly cars by slightly reducing taxes on high mileage vehicles. However, this has had little effect, and in 2008 Denmark experienced an increase in the import of fuel inefficient old cars (mostly older than 10 years), primarily from Germany as their costs including taxes keeps these cars within the budget of many Danes.
Denmark is in a strong position in terms of integrating fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources such as wind power in the grid. It is this knowledge that Denmark now aims to exploit in the transport sector by focusing on intelligent battery systems (V2G) and plug-in vehicles.[79][80]

Public policy

After deregulating the labor market in the 1990s, Denmark has one of the most free labor markets in European countries. According to World Bank labor market rankings, the labor market flexibility is at the same levels as the United States. Around 80% of employees belong to unions and the unemployment funds that are attached to them, but the percentage is falling. Labor market policies is mainly determined in negotiations between the worker unions and employer unions, and the government only interferes if labor strikes extend for too long.
Despite the success of the labor unions, a growing number of people make contracts individually rather than collectively, and many (four out of ten employees) are contemplating dropping especially unemployment fund but occasionally even union membership altogether. The average employee receives a benefit at 47% of their wage level if they have to claim benefits when unemployed. With low unemployment, very few expect to be claiming benefits at all. .The only reason then to pay the earmarked money to the unemployment fund would be to retire early and receive early retirement pay (efterløn), which is possible from the age of 60 provided an additional earmarked contribution is paid to the unemployment fund.^ We include not only unemployment benefits and social security but also substantial allocations to housing, transport, homecare, early retirement, protected workplaces, daycare and other smaller schemes.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

[81]
The unemployment rate for December 2007 was 2.7%, for a total of 74,900 persons, a reduction by 112,800 persons—2,400 per month—or 60% since December 2003.[82] The Eurostat unemployment number for August 2008 is 2.9%. This has been achieved by employing more than 38% (800,000 people)[83] of the total workforce in public sector jobs. Another measure of the situation on the labour market is the employment rate, that is the percentage of people aged 15 to 64 in employment out of the total number of people aged 15 to 64. The employment rate for Denmark in 2007 was 77.1% according to Eurostat. Of all countries in the world, only Switzerland with 78.% and Iceland with 85.1% had a higher employment rate.
.In December 2008, Statistics Denmark reported that 100,000 Danes were affected by unemployment in the third quarter of 2008. Of these, 62% received a job within two months, and 6% had been unemployed for two years or more.^ Statistics Denmark does, however, produce numbers on immigrants from Third World countries and their descendants, which it reports makes up 5% of the population; and it is known that Muslims make up four-fifths of this element.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ During the coming decade, Denmark will need 100,000 new pairs of hands in the workforce.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The number of unemployed is forecast to be 65,000 in 2015. The number of people in the working age group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and jobs by 70,000 to 2,790,000;[84] part time jobs are included.[85] Because of the present high demand and short supply of skilled labour, for instance for factory and service jobs, including hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average working hours have risen, especially compared with the economic downturn 1987–1993.[86] Increasingly, service workers of all kinds are in demand, i.e. in the postal services and as bus drivers, and academics.[87] In the fall of 2007, more than 250,000 foreigners are working in the country, of which 23,000 still reside in Germany or Sweden.[88] According to a sampling survey of over 14,000 enterprises from December 2007 to April 2008 39,000 jobs were not filled, a number much lower than earlier surveys, confirming a downturn in the economic cycle.[89]
The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment (the maximum benefit is at 90% of the wage) and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always—but need not be—administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. However, the largest share of the financing is still carried by the central government and is financed by general taxation, and only to a minor degree from earmarked contributions. There is no taxation, however, on proceeds gained from selling one´s home (provided there was any home equity (da:friværdi)), as the marginal tax rate on capital income from housing savings is around 0 percent.[90]
The Danish welfare model is accompanied by a taxation system that is both broad based (25% VAT, not including excise, duty and tax) and with a progressive income tax model, meaning the more money that is earned, the higher income tax percentage that gets paid (minimum tax rate for adults is 42% scaling to over 60%, except for the residents of Ertholmene that escape the otherwise ubiquitous 8% healthcare tax fraction of the income taxes[91][92]). .Other taxes include the registration tax on private vehicles, at a rate of 180%, on top of VAT. Lately (July, 2007) this has been changed slightly in an attempt to favor more fuel efficient cars but maintaining the average taxation level more or less unchanged.^ Other Europeans (such as the late Pim Fortuyn in Holland) have also grown alarmed about these issues, but Danes were the first to make them the basis for a change in government.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

[93]

Demographics

According to figures from Statistics Denmark, in 2009, 90.5% of Denmark’s population of over 5.4 million was of Danish descent.[1] Many of the remaining 9.5% were immigrants, or descendants of recent immigrants, from Bosnia, neighbouring countries, South Asia and Western Asia, many having arrived since an "Alien law" (Udlændingeloven) was enacted in 1983 allowing the immigration of family members of those who had already arrived. There are also small groups of Inuit from Greenland and Faroese. During recent years, anti-mass immigration sentiment has resulted in some of the toughest immigration laws in the European Union.[94][95] Nevertheless, the number of residence permits granted related to labour and to people from within the EU/EEA has increased since implementation of new immigration laws in 2001. However, the number of immigrants allowed into Denmark for family reunification decreased 70% between 2001 and 2006 to 4,198. During the same period the number of asylum permits granted has decreased by 82.5% to 1,095, reflecting a 84% decrease in asylum seekers to 1,960.[96]
Denmark’s population is 5,475,791, giving Denmark a population density of 129.16 inhabitants per km2 (334.53 inh/sq mi).[97] .As in most countries, the population is not distributed evenly.^ As in most countries, the population is not distributed evenly.
  • Top20Denmark.com - Your Top20 Guide to Denmark! 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.top20denmark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the Jewish population (including refugees from other countries) escaped, with Danish help, to Sweden.
  • Denmark Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Denmark 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the land area east of the Great Belt only makes up 9,622 km² (3,715 sq mi), 22.7% of Denmark's land area, it has 45% (2,465,348) of the population.^ Engaging in crime: Muslims are only 4 percent of Denmark's 5.4 million people but make up a majority of the country's convicted rapists, an especially combustible issue given that practically all the female victims are non-Muslim.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Statistics Denmark does, however, produce numbers on immigrants from Third World countries and their descendants, which it reports makes up 5% of the population; and it is known that Muslims make up four-fifths of this element.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The average population density of this area is 256.2 inhabitants per km² (663.6 per sq mi). The average density in the west of the country (32,772 km²/12,653 sq mi) is 91.86/km² (237.91 per sq mi) (3,010,443 people) (2008).
The median age is 39.8 years with 0.98 males per female. .98.2% of the population is literate (age 15 and up).^ We know from official population accounts that the foreign immigrants have percentage in fertile ages of 10-15 p.c.
  • 2006 maj 19 « Danmark 12 September 2009 10:56 UTC danmark.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The birth rate is 1.74 children born per woman (2006 est.), which will be reflected in a drop in the ratio of workers to pensioners. Despite the low birth rate, the population is still growing at an average annual rate of 0.33%.[49] International studies show that the population of Denmark is the happiest of any country in the world.[98]
Danish is the official language and is spoken throughout the country. English and German are the most widely spoken foreign languages.
A total of 1,516,126 Americans reported Danish ancestry in the 2006 American Community Survey.[99] According to the 2006 Census, there were 200,035 Canadians with Danish background.[100]

Religion

Church of Denmark
year population members percentage
1984 5.113.500 4.684.060 91,6%
1990 5.135.409 4.584.450 89,3%
2000 5.330.500 4.536.422 85,1%
2005 5.413.600 4.498.703 83,3%
2007 5.447.100 4.499.343 82,6%
2008 5.475.791 4.494.589 82,1%
2009 5.511.451 4.492.121 81,5%
statistical data 1984–2002[101] and 1990–2009[102] Source Kirkeministeriet
.According to official statistics from January 2009, 81,5%[103] of the population of Denmark are members of the Lutheran state church, the Danish National Church (Den Danske Folkekirke) down 0.6 % compared to the year earlier, which is established by the Constitution.^ Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, two members of the Danish parliament, are "offended" by our article "Muslim Extremism: Denmark's had Enough" (Aug.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ From: Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, Members of the Danish Parliament National Post September 6, 2002 Letters .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

If immigrants and descendants of immigrants are excluded from the statistics, the member rate is even higher, approximately 90,3%[citation needed]. According to article 6 of the Constitution, the Royal Family must belong to this Church, though the rest of the population is free to adhere to other faiths.
.Denmark's Muslims make up 2% of the population and is the country's second largest religious community.^ Engaging in crime: Muslims are only 4 percent of Denmark's 5.4 million people but make up a majority of the country's convicted rapists, an especially combustible issue given that practically all the female victims are non-Muslim.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Seeking Islamic law: Muslim leaders openly declare their goal of introducing Islamic law once Denmark's Muslim population grows large enough - a not-that-remote prospect.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Statistics Denmark does, however, produce numbers on immigrants from Third World countries and their descendants, which it reports makes up 5% of the population; and it is known that Muslims make up four-fifths of this element.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

[104]
.For more than a hundred years after the Reformation, Lutheranism was the only legal religion in Denmark, but in 1682 the state recognised three other faiths: Roman Catholicism, the Reformed Church, and Judaism.^ The next nine months did witness some fine-tuning of procedures: Immigrants now must live seven years in Denmark (rather than three) to become permanent residents.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ The further assumption that more than half of all rapists in Denmark are Muslims is without any basis in fact, as criminal registers do not record religion.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Until the recent immigration of Muslims, these three were practically the only non-Lutheran religions practiced in Denmark.
Forn Siðr (English: The Old Way), based on the much older, native religion, is one of the most recently recognised by the state, gaining official recognition in November 2003.[105]
.Religious societies and churches do not need to be state-recognised in Denmark and can be granted the right to perform weddings and other ceremonies without this recognition.^ Separation of church (mosque) and state is necessary to protect women's rights and block Islamization [289 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[106] 31% of Danish citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 49% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 19% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". According to a 2005 study by Zuckerman, Denmark has the third highest proportion of atheists and agnostics in the world, estimated to be between 43% and 80%.[107][108]

Education

Rundetårn (Round Tower), an old observatory in the University of Copenhagen, Denmark's oldest and largest university
The Danish education system provides access to primary school, secondary school, and most kinds of higher education. Attendance at "Folkeskole" or equivalent education is compulsory for a minimum of 9 years. .Equivalent education could be in private schools or classes attended at home.^ Jewish parents were told by one school principal that she could not guarantee their children's safety and were advised to attend another institution.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

About 99% of students attend elementary school, 86% attend secondary school, and 41% pursue further education. All college education in Denmark is free; there are no tuition fees to enroll in courses. Students in secondary school or higher may apply for Student Support which provides fixed financial support, disbursed monthly.
Primary school in Denmark is called "den Danske Folkeskole" ("Danish Public School"). It runs from the introductory "kindergarten class"/0'th grade ("børnehaveklasse"/ "0. Klasse") to 10th grade, though 10th grade is optional. Students can alternatively attend "free schools" ("Friskole"), or private schools ("Privatskole"), i.e. schools that are not under the administration of the municipalities, such as christian schools or Waldorf Schools. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranked Denmark's education as the 24th best in the world in 2006, being neither significantly higher nor lower than the OECD average.[109]
Following graduation from Folkeskolen, there are several other educational opportunities, including Gymnasium (academically oriented upper secondary education), Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) (similar to Gymnasium, but one year shorter), Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX) (with focus on Mathematics and engineering), and Higher Commercial Examination Programme (HHX) (with a focus on trade and business), as well as vocational education, training young people for work in specific trades by a combination of teaching and apprenticeship.
Gymnasium, HF, HTX and HHX aim at qualifying students for higher education in universities and colleges.
Denmark has several universities; the largest and oldest are the University of Copenhagen (founded 1479) and University of Aarhus (founded 1928).
Folkehøjskolerne, ("Folk high schools") introduced by politician, clergyman and poet N.F.S. Grundtvig in the 19th century, are social, informal education structures without tests or grades but emphasising communal learning, self-discovery, enlightenment, and learning how to think.[110]

Culture

Ærøskøbing, a traditional Danish village
Hans Christian Andersen is known beyond Denmark for his fairy tales, such as The Emperor's New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, and The Ugly Duckling. Karen Blixen (pen name: Isak Dinesen), Nobel laureate author Henrik Pontoppidan, Nobel laureate physicist Niels Bohr, comedic pianist Victor Borge and philosopher Søren Kierkegaard have also made a name for themselves outside Denmark.
Copenhagen is home to many famous sites and attractions, including Tivoli Gardens, Amalienborg Palace (home of the Danish monarchy), Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen Cathedral, Rosenborg Castle, Opera House, Frederik's Church (Marble Church), Thorvaldsens Museum, Rundetårn, Nyhavn, and The Little Mermaid sculpture.[111] Copenhagen was ranked the most livable city in the world by Monocle magazine.[112]
The second largest city in Denmark is Aarhus. .Aarhus is an old Viking Age city and one of the oldest cities in the country.^ No one can bring into the country an intended spouse under the age of 24.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The largest cathedral in Denmark and the second largest cathedral in Northern Europe is Aarhus Cathedral.
.Historically, Denmark, like its Scandinavian neighbors, has been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world.^ Historically, Denmark, like its Scandinavian neighbors, has been one 1969, Denmark was the first country to legalise pornography.
  • Top20Denmark.com - Your Top20 Guide to Denmark! 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.top20denmark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Queen of Denmark - one of the world's most prominent nicotine addicts.
  • Denmark - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Denmark has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation ; in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and was the first country in the world to implement an environmental law in 1973.
  • Top20Denmark.com - Your Top20 Guide to Denmark! 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.top20denmark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, in 1969, Denmark was the first country to legalise pornography.[113] .And in 1989, Denmark enacted a registered partnership law, becoming the first country in the world to grant same-sex couples nearly all of the rights and responsibilities of marriage.^ The further assumption that more than half of all rapists in Denmark are Muslims is without any basis in fact, as criminal registers do not record religion.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

[114]

Cinema

The three big internationally important waves of Danish cinema have been:
  • The erotic melodrama of the silent era.
  • The increasingly explicit sex films of the 1960s and 1970s.
  • The Dogme95-movement of the late 1990s.
Danish filmmakers of note include:
A locally popular film genre is the charmingly good-natured "folkekomedie" (folk comedy), which originated in the 1930s and gained widespread dominance from the 1950s until the 1970s, usually scorned by critics and loved by the audience. Notable folkekomedie-films include Barken Margrethe (1934), De røde heste (1950), Far til fire (1953) and Olsen-banden (1968).
Since the 1980s, Danish filmmaking has been important to changing governments. The National Film School of Denmark has educated a generation of new award-winning directors. The funds for film project has been administrated by the Danish Film Institute, but their focus on movies that would achieve high tickets-sales locally has been criticized for being both too populist and too narrow-minded, by directors wishing to be artistic or international.
In recent years, Danish cinema has suffered a crisis of limited innovation resulting in very few box office hits, yet Danish films continue to receive many awards at major international film festivals.

Literature

The first known Danish literature is myths and folk stories from the 10th and 11th century. Saxo Grammaticus, normally considered the first Danish writer, worked for bishop Absalon on a chronicle of Danish history (Gesta Danorum). Very little is known of other Danish literature from the Middle Ages. With the Age of Enlightenment came Ludvig Holberg whose comedic plays are still being performed.
Romanticism influenced world famous writer Hans Christian Andersen known for his stories and fairytales and contemporary philosopher Søren Kierkegaard greatly influenced existentialism. In the late 19th century, literature was seen as a way to influence society. Known as the Modern Breakthrough, this movement was championed by Georg Brandes, Henrik Pontoppidan (awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature) and J. P. Jacobsen. In recent history Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was also awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Karen Blixen is famous for her novels and short stories. Other Danish writers of importance are Grundtvig, Gustav Wied, William Heinesen, Martin Andersen Nexø, Hans Scherfig, Tom Kristensen, Dan Turéll, Peter Høeg, and others. In the younger generations Kristian Ditlev Jensen, Lone Hørslev, and Martin Larsen might be noted.

Sports

The most popular sport in Denmark is football. Sailing and other water sports are popular, as are golf and indoor sports such as badminton, handball, and various forms of gymnastics. There is also a small group of people doing motorsport, and with some success. The most successful driver on the 24 Hours of Le Mans race ever, with eight 1st places is Tom Kristensen; in motorcycle speedway Denmark has won several World Championships.
Other notable Danish sportspeople include American football's National Football League all-time leading scorer Morten Andersen, snowboarder Julie Wendel Lundholdt, cyclists Bjarne Riis, Rolf Sørensen, and Michael Rasmussen, badminton-players Peter Gade and Camilla Martin, table tennis-player Michael Maze, poker Hall of Fame player Gus Hansen and Peter Eastgate, football players Michael and Brian Laudrup and Peter Schmeichel. Teenager Caroline Wozniacki is rising up the rankings on the WTA tennis tour. Denmark is also the home and birthplace of former WBA & WBC Super middleweight boxing champion, Mikkel Kessler and European tour golfer Thomas Bjørn who has won several international events.
In 1992, the national football team won the European champions. Remarkably, the team had finished second in their qualifying group behind Yugoslavia and as a result had failed to qualify for the final tournament. They gained their place in the tournament at the last moment when the Yugoslavia national team and local clubs were banned from all international/continental competitions because of the ongoing Yugoslav Wars. The Danes won the finals by defeating reigning 1990 FIFA World Cup champions Germany.

Music

.Denmark has long been a center of cultural innovation.^ Denmark has long been a center of cultural innovation.
  • Top20Denmark.com - Your Top20 Guide to Denmark! 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.top20denmark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Denmark has a long tradition of public support for artistic and cultural activities.

Copenhagen and its multiple outlying islands have a wide range of folk traditions. The Royal Danish Orchestra is among the world's oldest orchestras. Carl Nielsen, with his six imposing symphonies, was the first Danish composer to gain international recognition, while an extensive recording industry has produced pop stars and a host of performers from a multitude of genres. Internationally only a few artists have gained star status. Lars Ulrich from Metallica is from Denmark, along with Mercyful Fate, King Diamond, Whigfield, Michael Learns to Rock, Alphabeat, Infernal, the '90s pop band Aqua, and the alternative rock band Mew.

Food

Danish open sandwich (smørrebrød) on dark rye bread.
The cuisine of Denmark, like that in the other Nordic countries as well as that of northern Germany, consists mainly of meat and fish. .This stems from the country's agricultural past, as well as its geography and climate of long, cold winters.^ Denmark is a flat country with rich agricultural land situated in a temperate climate.

Danish food includes a variety of open rugbrød (Rye-bread) sandwiches or smørrebrød traditionally served for the mid-day meal or frokost (lunch). An ordinary frokost consists just of 2 to 6 pieces of simple smørrebrød prepared during breakfast and packed in a lunch box. A luxury frokost usually starts with fish such as pickled herring, smoked eel or hot fried plaice. Then come meat sandwiches such as cold roast beef with remoulade and fried onions, roast pork and crackling with red cabbage, hot veal medallions, Danish meat balls (frikadeller) or liver paté with bacon and mushrooms. Some typically Danish items are Sol over Gudhjem, literally "sun over God's home" (Gudhjem is a town on Bornholm where a lot of herring is landed and smoked), consisting of smoked herring, chives and with raw egg yolk (the "sun") on top; or Dyrlægens natmad, 'vet's late-night bite', with liver paté, saltmeat (corned veal), onions and jellied consommé. .Finally cheese is served with radishes, nuts or grapes.^ Finally cheese is served with radishes, nuts or grapes.
  • Top20Denmark.com - Your Top20 Guide to Denmark! 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.top20denmark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lager beer accompanied by small glasses of snaps or aquavit are the preferred drinks for a Danish frokost.
Æbleskiver, Danish Christmas pancakes.
The large hot meal of the day is called middag is usually served in the evening. It normally consists of meat (pork, beef, lamb or fish) with gravy and a source of starch (non-sugar carbohydrates) such as boiled potatoes, rice or pasta, sometimes supplemented by salad and/or cabbage. This may be followed by a dessert such as ice cream, mousse or rødgrød. The meal may be preceded by soup or hot porridge. .The most popular porridge is rice porridge (frequently mistranslated as "rice pudding" by linguists more concerned with cultural use than actual meaning), made with milk and served with an eye of butter and topped with cinammon.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Popular meat dishes include pork steak with crispy skin, frikadeller (fried pork meatballs), "chopped beef" (fried lumps of coarsely chopped beef, looks just like frikadeller, but it is 100% pure beef), beef tenderloin, "million-beef" (coarsely chopped beef in gravy), karbonader/krebinetter (breaded and fried minced meat), all kinds of roast etc. Popular combined meat and starch dishes include Spaghetti alla Bolognese, hash etc.
Fish is traditionally more widely eaten on the west coast of Jutland, where fishing is a major industry. Smoked fish dishes (herring, mackerel, eel) from local smoking houses or røgerier, especially on the island of Bornholm, are increasingly popular.

Military

Denmark's armed forces are known as the Danish Defence (Danish: Forsvaret). During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence in Denmark employs around 33,000 in total. The main military branches employ almost 27,000: 15,460 in the Royal Danish Army, 5,300 in the Royal Danish Navy and 6,050 in the Royal Danish Air Force (all including conscripts). The Danish Emergency Management Agency (Danish: Beredskabsstyrelsen) employs 2,000 (including conscripts), and about 4,000 are in non-branch-specific services like the Danish Defence Command, the Danish Defence Research Establishment, and the Danish Defense Intelligence Service. Furthermore around 55,000 serve as volunteers in the Danish Home Guard (Danish: Hjemmeværnet).
The Danish Defence has around 1,400[115] staff in international missions, not including standing contributions to NATO SNMCMG1. The three largest contributions are in Afghanistan (ISAF), Kosovo (KFOR), and Lebanon (UNIFIL). Between 2003 and 2007, there were approximately 450 Danish soldiers in Iraq.[116]

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index[117] 2 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 16 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index 5 out of 133

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Statistics Denmark – Immigrants and their descendants and foreign nationals". Dst.dk. 2009-08-12. http://www.dst.dk/HomeUK/Statistics/focus_on/focus_on_show.aspx?sci=565. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Denmark". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=128&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=49&pr.y=19. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  4. ^ Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  5. ^ "Forbes: Denmark has the best business climate in the world". Copenhagen Capacity. www.copcap.com. http://www.copcap.com/composite-665.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  6. ^ "ABC News: Great Danes: The Geography of Happiness". Abcnews.go.com. http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=4086092&page=1. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  7. ^ Global Peace Index Rankings 2008. Vision of Humanity.
  8. ^ "Transparency International, 2008 Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency.org. http://www.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/cpi2008. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  9. ^ Kristian Andersen Nyrup, Middelalderstudier Bog IX. Kong Gorms Saga
  10. ^ Indvandrerne i Danmarks historie, Bent Østergaard, Syddansk Universitetsforlag 2007, ISBN 978-87-7674-204-1, pp. 19–24
  11. ^ J. de Vries, Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1962, 73; N.Å. Nielsen, Dansk etymologisk ordbog, 1989, 85–96.
  12. ^ Navneforskning, Københavns Universitet Udvalgte stednavnes betydning.
  13. ^ Asernes æt Daner, Danir, Vandfolket
  14. ^ The 'David' referred to here appears to be David, the ancient king of the Israelites: of course this is wildly anachronistic, but it is fairly typical of such sources, which commonly sought to push national or dynastic origins as far back as possible.
  15. ^ Thorpe, B., The Life of Alfred The Great Translated From The German of Dr. R. Pauli To Which Is Appended Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Version of Orosius, Bell, 1900, p. 253.
  16. ^ The dative form tąnmarku (pronounced [danmarkʊ]) is found on the contemporaneous Skivum stone.
  17. ^ Michaelsen (2002), p. 19.
  18. ^ a b Nielsen, Poul Otto (May 2003). "Denmark: History, Prehistory". Royal Danish muffins Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.um.dk/Publikationer/UM/English/Denmark/kap6/6-1.asp. Retrieved 2006-05-01. 
  19. ^ Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 20.
  20. ^ Jordanes; translated by Charles C. Mierow (1997-04-22). "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter III". http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti.html#III. Retrieved 2006-05-01. 
  21. ^ Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 19.
  22. ^ a b Michaelsen (2002), pp. 122–23.
  23. ^ Staff. Saint Brices Day massacre, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  24. ^ Palle Lauring, A History of the Kingdom of Denmark (Host & Son Co.: Copenhagen, 1960) p. 108.
  25. ^ a b Lauring
  26. ^ Lauring, pp. 139–141.
  27. ^ Lauring, pp. 140–141.
  28. ^ Lauring, pp. 142–143.
  29. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913, Wikisource
    Though the Danish Reformation began at Viborg, certain Catholic usages were kept up in its cathedral longer than anywhere else in Denmark. The shrines of St. Kjeld and St. Willehad were removed to the choir of the cathedral in 1538, but Lutheran ministers continued to recite daily the Office of the Dead for the soul of King Eric Glipping (d 1286) from 1560 to 1630. The protestant Bishop Hans Wandal shortened and protestantised the service and entrusted its performance to the senior curate of the cathedral and twelve of the school boys. These all benefited by the endowment, and continued the service until 1684. Of the twelfth-century cathedral nothing remains but the crypt. The upper church built in 1876 contains splendid frescoes by Joachim Skovgaard begun in 1895 and a seven-branched candlestick from 1494. The abbey church of Grinderslev, the church of St Botolph, at Aalborg, and numerous village churches are memorials of the catholic past. At Karup there was a pilgrimage to Our Lady's Well. The chapter of the cathedral of St Mary and St Kjeld was secularised in 1440, after which it consisted of a dean, an archdeacon, a precentor, and twelve secular canons. There were also at Viborg the Benedictine nunnery of St Botolph, a Franciscan friary from 1235, and a Dominican friary from 1246, as well as the hospitals of St Michael and of the Holy Ghost. At Aalborg there were a Benedictine nunnery and a Franciscan friary. The Cistercian Abbey of Vidskild (Vitae Scola) founded in 1158, the Augustinian abbey at Grinderslev founded before 1176, and the Augustinian nunnery of Asmild were all situated in the diocese, as were also the Benedictine (?) nunnery of Sibber, and the hospitals at Tesdrup and Karup. In 1523, there were 236 churches in the Diocese of Viborg. Now (1912) the Camillians have a church and hospital at Aalborg, while Viborg is one of their out-stations.
  30. ^ Robert S. Hoyt & Stanley Chodorow, Europe in the Middle Ages (Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, Inc.: New York, 1976) p. 643.
  31. ^ Hoyt
  32. ^ Thirty Year's War edited by Geoffrey Parker (Routledge Pub.: London, 1997) p. 65.
  33. ^ Lauring, p. 106.
  34. ^ Parker, p. 64.
  35. ^ "Kalmarkriget 1611–1613". Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliotek. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20071011111014/http://smb.nu/svenskakrig/1611.asp. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  36. ^ Parker, pp. 69–70.
  37. ^ Parker, p. 70.
  38. ^ "Landet i tal  — Største øer". National Survey and Cadastre of Denmark. 2003-09-23. http://www2.kms.dk/C1256AED004EA666/(AllDocsByDocId)/1D7EE8822587E667C1256AEF0030ABF6?open&page=strste&omr=KORT_DK_I_TAL. Retrieved 2007-07-14. 
  39. ^ Statistikbanken.dk/bef4
  40. ^ Dahlgaard, Jørgen. "Danmarks nye top" (PDF). Aktuel Naturvidenskab 2005 (1): 2. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20080307040437/http://www.aktuelnat.au.dk/pdf05_1/an1top.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  41. ^ "Nature & Environment". Denmark.dk. Archived from the original on 2007-04-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20070403235436/http://denmark.dk/portal/page?_pageid=374,520337&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  42. ^ Nationalencyklopedin, (1990)
  43. ^ a b "Climate Normals for Denmark". Danish Meteorological Institute. http://www.dmi.dk/dmi/index/danmark/oversigter/klimanormaler.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-28.  Figures, labeled in Danish: First plot is the whole country; Nedbør=Precipitation, Nedbørdage=Precipitation days (>1 mm), (Dag/Middel/Nat)temp.=(Daytime/Average/Nighttime) temperature, Solskinstimer=Hours of sunshine.
  44. ^ "Copenhagen, Denmark  — Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times for the whole year". Gaisma. http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/kobenhavn.html. Retrieved May 2, 2006. 
  45. ^ Store Danske Encyklopædi (2004), CD-ROM edition, entry Jul.
  46. ^ Store Danske Encyklopædi (2004), CD-ROM edition, entry Sankthansaften
  47. ^ Store Danske Encyklopædi (2004), CD-ROM edition, entry Majskikke.
  48. ^ Kahn, Matthew E.. "Living Green: Full Country and City Rankings: Countries Overall | Your America | Reader's Digest". Rd.com. http://www.rd.com/your-america-inspiring-people-and-stories/best-places-to-live-green/article45734.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  49. ^ a b "Denmark". The World Factbook. CIA. 2008-01-23. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/da.html. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  50. ^ "15 green cities". grist. http://www.grist.org/article/cities3/. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  51. ^ "Copenhagen Receives European Environmental Award". grist. http://www.dhigroup.com/News/NewsArchive/2006/CopenhagenReceivesEuropeanEnvironmentalAward.aspx. Retrieved 2009-01-05. 
  52. ^ "The win-win ways of Cleantech business". CBS Observer. March 26, 2009. http://cbsobserver.dk/win-win-ways-cleantech-business. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  53. ^ "Denmark – Wolfram Alpha". 2.wolframalpha.com. http://www02.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=denmark+green+house+gas+emission+per+denmark+gdp. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  54. ^ "Germany – Wolfram Alpha". 2.wolframalpha.com. http://www02.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Germany+green+house+gas+emission+per+Germany+gdp. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  55. ^ "Norway – Wolfram Alpha". 3.wolframalpha.com. http://www03.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=norway+green+house+gas+emission+per+norway+GDP. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  56. ^ "Sweden – Wolfram Alpha". 3.wolframalpha.com. http://www03.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Sweden+green+house+gas+emission+per+Sweden+GDP. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  57. ^ "Radikale ved historisk skillevej". Berlingske Tidende. 2007-06-17. http://www.berlingske.dk/article/20070617/dineord/106171178/. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  58. ^ Danmark beskyldes for censur på internettet, 180 Grader, May 31st, 2009 [1]
  59. ^ "Danmark anklages for censur, Berlingske, may 30, 2009". Berlingske.dk. 2009-07-08. http://www.berlingske.dk/article/20090530/danmark/705300089/. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  60. ^ "Sadan skal ulovlige spil blokeres". comon.dk. http://www.comon.dk/nyheder/Sadan-skal-ulovlige-spil-blokeres-1.307078.html. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  61. ^ Michael Kjær, Jonas (2006-11-15). "Christiansø betaler ikke sundhedsbidrag". dr.dk. http://www.dr.dk/Regioner/Bornholm/Nyheder/Christiansoe/2006/11/15160130.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-12. (Danish)
  62. ^ [2] Human Development Report 2007/2008
  63. ^ List of countries by Human Development IndexList of countries by Human Development Index
  64. ^ UNESCO 2009 Global Education Digest, Shared fourth with Finland at a 30.3% ratio. Graph on p28, table on p194.
  65. ^ Harmonised unemployment rate by gender Totals Eurostat
  66. ^ "In the Media". Investindk.com. http://www.investindk.com/visArtikel.asp?artikelID=14338. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  67. ^ Business Environment, Invest in Denmark
  68. ^ "Denmark and the euro". Danmarks Nationalbank. 2006-11-17. http://www.nationalbanken.dk/DNUK/Euro.nsf/side/Denmark_and_the_euro!OpenDocument. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  69. ^ "Denmark to have second referendum on euro". 2007-11-22. http://euobserver.com/9/25202. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  70. ^ Why Denmark Loves Globalisation, Time Magazine
  71. ^ Danish Exporters (2008). "Danish Export-Import – Denmark’s International Trade and Main Export Markets". Danish Exporters. http://www.danishexporters.dk/scripts/danishexporters/export.asp. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  72. ^ "Statens Gæld og Låntagning". Statistics Denmark. http://www.dSt.dk/aarbogstabel/407. 
  73. ^ Miller, John (2005-01-04). "John Miller, at Dollars & Sense". Dollarsandsense.org. http://www.dollarsandsense.org/archives/2005/0305miller.html. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  74. ^ "Comparisons of Index of Economic Freedom with GDP/capita". Leftbusinessobserver.com. 2005-03-26. http://www.leftbusinessobserver.com/FreedomIndex.html. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  75. ^ Miller, John (2005-01-04). "John Miller at Dollars & Sense". Dollarsandsense.org. http://www.dollarsandsense.org/archives/2005/0305miller.html. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  76. ^ "EIA – International Energy Data and Analysis for Denmark". Tonto.eia.doe.gov. 2009-05-15. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/country/country_energy_data.cfm?fips=DA. Retrieved 2009-05-29. 
  77. ^ a b from www.ens.dk
  78. ^ Electricity Prices for Households Energy information administration
  79. ^ "Plug-in and Electrical Vehicles". EnergyMap.dk. http://www.energymap.dk/Technology-Areas/Intelligent-Energy/Plug-in-and-Electrical-Vehicles. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  80. ^ "The Future High-Efficiency Electric Car, Integrated into the Electricity Supply Network". EnergyMap.dk. http://www.energymap.dk/Profiles/Department-of-Energy-Technology-Aalborg-University/Projects/The-Future-High-Efficiency-Electric-Car--Integrate. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  81. ^ "LO's ugebrev/2008". Ugebreveta4.dk. http://www.ugebreveta4.dk/2008/200826/Baggrundoganalyse/LoenmodtagereKlarTilNyeDagpengeregler.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  82. ^ "Ledigheden faldt til 2,7 pct." (PDF). Statistics Denmark. http://www.dst.dk/pukora/epub/Nyt/2008/NR031.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  83. ^ [3] Beskæftigelsesindikator på grundlag af ATP-indbetalinger. In June 2008 unemployment hit a new low of only 1.6%. This rate has been dropping continuously since December 2003, when 170,700 were unemployed.
  84. ^ Madsen, Bjarne; Svend Lundtorp (2006). Arbejdsmarkedet på Sjælland og øerne i 2015. Akf forlaget. p. 10. ISBN 87-7509-801-6. http://www.akf.dk/udgivelser/2006/pdf/arbejdsmarkedet_sjaelland_oeer.pdf/. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  85. ^ Statistikbanken.dk, tables AB513+ BESK11+12+13.
  86. ^ Nüchel, Jens; Lars Erik Skovgaard (2006-12-13). "Danskere arbejder mere og mere". Business.dk (Berlingske Tidende). Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20071011104002/http://www.business.dk/karriere/artikel:aid=2014652. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  87. ^ Bonde, Annette (2007-09-24). "Virksomheder foretrækker tysk arbejdskraft". Business.dk (Berlingske Tidende). http://www.business.dk/article/20070923/karriere/109231065/. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  88. ^ "Udlændinge passer hvert 10. job" (in (Danish)). Politiken.dk. 2009-06-19. http://politiken.dk/erhverv/article441694.ece. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  89. ^ Arbejdsmarkedets most wanted (11. August 2008)
  90. ^ "Danish Economic Council Spring Report 2008 English Summary,p. 11". Dors.dk. http://www.dors.dk/sw5855.asp. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  91. ^ Skattesatser; bundgrænser, procenter og fradrag
  92. ^ Kommuneskatter 2007, 2008 og 2009
  93. ^ "Registration tax for cars". Skatteministeriet. 2008-03-24. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927035651/http://www.skm.dk/foreign/english/taxindenmark2007/5344/#104. 
  94. ^ "Danes' Anti-Immigrant Backlash Marks Radical Shift". http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6505809. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  95. ^ "Denmark gets tough on immigrants". BBC News. 2001-11-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1679235.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-02. 
  96. ^ "Tal og fakta på udlændingeområdet" (PDF). http://www.nyidanmark.dk/NR/rdonlyres/01D113D6-EA0D-4DB6-B2F9-DA47A6706EFF/0/tal_og_fakta_2006.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  97. ^ (Danish)Nyt fra Danmarks Statistik
  98. ^ "Denmark is the world's happiest country – official – Europe, World". The Independent. 2006-08-01. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/denmark-is-the-worlds-happiest-country--official-410075.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  99. ^ "U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&-_caller=geoselect&-format=. 
  100. ^ "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census". 2.statcan.ca. 2008-04-02. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/pages/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  101. ^ (Danish)Statistics 1984 – 2002 van het Kirkeministeriet
  102. ^ (Danish)Statistics 1990 – 2009 Kirkeministeriet
  103. ^ (Danish) Membership Lutheran state church
  104. ^ Denmark (04/09). U.S. Department of State.
  105. ^ Torben Sørensen (2007-04-19). "Forn Siðr – the Asa and Vane faith religious community in Denmark – Forn Siðr". Fornsidr.dk. http://www.fornsidr.dk/dk/17. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  106. ^ "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  107. ^ Zuckerman, Phil. "The Largest Atheist / Agnostic Populations". http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_atheist.html. 
  108. ^ Martin (ed.), Michael (2005). "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns". The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  109. ^ Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale. [www.oecd.org OECD]. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/8/39700724.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  110. ^ "The Danish Folkehøjskole". www.scandinavica.com. http://www.scandinavica.com/culture/education/hojskole.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  111. ^ "Copenhagen Walking Tours". 2007-05-25. http://www.copenhagen-walkingtours.dk/. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  112. ^ [ Financial Times | A league table of liveable cities]
  113. ^ "Denmark  — An Overview". 2007-09-22. http://www.um.dk/publikationer/um/english/factsheetdenmark/denmarkanoverview/html/chapter05.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  114. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage FAQ". Marriage.about.com. 2003-06-17. http://marriage.about.com/cs/samesexmarriage/a/samesex.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  115. ^ "Forsvarsministerens Verdenskort". Web.archive.org. 2007-12-27. Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20071227125607/http://forsvaret.dk/FMN/Verdenskort/. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  116. ^ "Denmark follows UK Iraq pullout". Al Jazeera English. 2007-02-21. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2007/02/200852514261678446.html. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  117. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

References

  • (Danish) Busck, Steen and Poulsen, Henning (ed.), "Danmarks historie  — i grundtræk", Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2002, ISBN 87-7288-941-1
  • (Danish) Michaelsen, Karsten Kjer, "Politikens bog om Danmarks oldtid", Politikens Forlag (1. bogklubudgave), 2002, ISBN 87-00-69328-6
  • (Swedish) Nationalencyklopedin, vol. 4, Bokförlaget Bra Böcker, 2000, ISBN 91-7024-619-X.

External links

Government
Travel
General information
News and media
Other
  • vifanord – a digital library that provides scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as the Baltic region as a whole

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Scandinavia : Denmark
For other places with the same name, see Denmark (disambiguation).
noframe
Location
Image:LocationDenmark.png
Flag
Image:Da-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Copenhagen
Government Constitutional monarchy
Currency Danish krone (DKK)
Area 43,094 sq km; note: excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Population 5,475,791 (January 2008 est.)
Language Danish
Religion Evangelical Lutheran 82%, Non-religious 13%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, Muslim 2%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +45
Internet TLD .dk
Time Zone UTC+1
Denmark [1] is a country in Scandinavia. The main part of it is Jutland, a peninsula north of Germany, but also with a number of islands, including the two major ones, Zealand and Funen, in Østersøen Sea between Jutland and Sweden.
Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. However, the country has opted out of European Union's Maastricht Treaty, the European monetary system (EMU), and issues concerning certain internal affairs.
Denmark is also the birthplace of one of the world's most popular toys, Lego. There is no other better place in the world where one can buy Lego bricks than at the Legoland theme park in Billund.
“My life is a lovely story, happy and full of incident.” — Hans Christian Andersen
.These days the Danish Vikings have parked their ships in the garage, and put the helmets on the shelves, and along with the other Scandinavian nations, have forged a society that is often seen as a benchmark of civilization; with progressive social policies, a commitment to free speech so strong it put the country at odds with much of the world during the 2006 cartoon crisis, a liberal social-welfare system and, according to The Economist, one the most commercially competitive.^ Living on the dole: Third-world immigrants - most of them Muslims from countries such as Turkey, Somalia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Iraq - constitute 5 percent of the population but consume upwards of 40 percent of the welfare spending.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Denmark has a much broader spectrum of welfare costs than countries in North America.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Top it off with a rich, well-preserved cultural heritage, and the Danes legendary sense of design and architecture, and you have one intriguing holiday destination.

Terrain

Denmark is home to the 'lowest-highest' point in Europe; but what that exactly entails is somewhat uncertain. Ejer Baunehøj, in the Lake District region south-west of Aarhus (Århus), seems to be the highest natural point (171m with a large tower built on top to commemorate the fact), although Yding Skovhøj, some 3km away stands 2m higher owing to an ancient burial mound. Either way, the 213m tall Søsterhøj Transmission Tower (1956), with its top 315m above sea level is technically the highest point in Denmark!

Culture

Sports are popular in Denmark, with football reigning supreme in popularity and counted as the national sport, followed by Gymnastics, Handball and Golf.
Another trait of Danish culture as any tourist pamphlet will tell you, is "Hygge", translating into cosy or snug. .Danes themselves will be quick to point out this is somehow a unique Danish concept, which is hardly in tune with reality, but it does probably take a more prominent place in the culture, than in many other countries.^ On this point, we take inspiration from Canadian society, which is open to other cultures and religions.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

It usually involves low key dinners in peoples home, with long conversations over candlelight and red wine in the company of friends and family, but the word is broadly used for social interactions.
Another important aspect of Danish culture, is understatement and modesty, which not only prominent in the Danish behavioural patterns. It is also very much an important trait in the famous Danish design, which dictates strict minimalism and functionalism over flashiness, something that transfers well to the Danish people as well.
The Danes are a fiercely patriotic bunch, but in a sneakingly low-key kind of way. .They will warmly welcome visitors to show of the country, which they are rightly proud of, but any criticism - however constructive - will not be taken lightly, although most Danes will be happily spend hours to prove you wrong over a Carlsberg beer, rather than becoming hostile - it won't get you far though, and if you manage to convince anyone of any other flaws than the taxes are too high, the weather is too bad or other trivialities, you should immediately return home and run for a political office.^ Those who quote "If you can't convince them, confuse them" are more dangerous than the suicide bombers.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ You're most welcome ("det var så lidt") Danish/American [98 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

.For the same reasons, outsiders on long term stays, are by many viewed with a certain amount of suspicion, as the homogeneous society is often thought to be the key to Denmark's successes, you will often hear resident foreigners complain about a constant pressure to become ever more Danish, and the anti immigrant Danish Peoples Party have seen increasing popularity over the years, taking 13% of the votes at the latest election, making it Denmark's 3rd largest political party.^ When you speak with youth of Muslim background, it's striking that they have difficulties with understanding and respecting Danish society and the soft educational policy that the Copenhagen Municipality is in charge of," says Nicolai Sennels, who developed a method to pressure youth into taking more responsibility for their actions.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ The official Danish population account has been false for 13 years [27 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Looks like you'll have a long wait, Danish American [337 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Environment

Rapeseed fields and windmills is a common sight in the Danish summer, pictured: Ærø
Rapeseed fields and windmills is a common sight in the Danish summer, pictured: Ærø
Denmark is often praised as being the one of the greenest countries in the world, but apart from the ubiquitous bikes, the individual Danes are surprisingly nonchalant about the environment despite their reputation, and actually contribute as many greenhouse emissions as most other nationalities. As with so many other things, it is thought as a collective responsibility, and have safely been played into the hands of the government, which in turn with great success under Social Democratic leadership enacted a series of reforms, mainly green taxation, between 1993-2001, that made Danish society as a whole (especially in industrial production) one of the most energy efficient in the world, as it turned out it was also good business, and green technology has become of the country's largest exports, including fields like thermostats, wind turbines and home insulation. Because of this, green policies enjoys unusually broad support among the people and the entire political spectrum. 20% of energy productions comes from renewable energy, mainly wind power, a feat mainly made possible by the common Nordic energy market and the massive hydro energy resources in Norway and Sweden, which can easily be regulated up and down to balance the unreliable wind production.
All these lofty green visions, does actually have a few tangible implications for travellers:
  • Plastic bags cost money; 1-5 kroner - non refundable, so bring a bag for shopping groceries.
  • Cans and bottles have 1-3 kroner deposit, refundable everywhere that sells the given product.
  • Many toilets have half and full flush buttons, now - you figure out when to use which.
  • There is a roughly 100% (4 kroner) tax on gasoline, the total price usually hovers between 9-11 DKK per litre. ($7-8 per gallon)
  • In many counties you need to sort your waste in two separate 'biological' and 'burnable' containers.

Regions

.Though not immediately obvious on a map, Denmark comprises of more than 400 islands, of which 72 are populated.^ The further assumption that more than half of all rapists in Denmark are Muslims is without any basis in fact, as criminal registers do not record religion.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The peninsular of Jutland and the 3 main islands comprise the regions we use in this guide. .Nearly 40% of the country's population live on the island of Zealand, though it only accounts for ⅙ of the country.^ Living on the dole: Third-world immigrants - most of them Muslims from countries such as Turkey, Somalia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Iraq - constitute 5 percent of the population but consume upwards of 40 percent of the welfare spending.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Regions of Denmark
Regions of Denmark
Jutland
The European mainland
Funen
Homeland of the world famous author H.C. Andersen, and his childhood house in Odense as well as the picturesque island sea.
Zealand
Denmarks largest island, and seat of the capital Copenhagen
Bornholm
The vacation island, also known as the "rock" island, home of the fabled roundhouse churches connected to the crusades, and some excellent beaches.

Cities

These are the nine regional centers in Denmark:
  • Copenhagen (da. København) - Denmark's capital and largest city is a vibrant metropolis with world class attractions.
  • Århus (da. Århus) - The main city of the Jutland peninsular and Denmark's second largest city, with its brilliant historic Open Air Museum of how the city looked in the 1800's.
  • Odense - The main city of the island of Funen, and Denmark's third largest city, known as birthplace of H.C. Andersen, but The Funen Village Open air museum of 18th Century farm buildings, and the Egeskov Castle, one of the best-preserved Renaissance castles in Europe are also good attractions.
  • Aalborg - Home of a historic and picturesque city centre and the rowdy Jomfru Ane Gade, which features some of country's most vibrant night life.
  • Esbjerg - Denmark's centre for the fishing and offshore industry, and a short 15 minute ferry ride away from the cosy island of Fanø.
  • Sønderborg - Discover Danish mentality in a city where Denmark finally conceded its superpower ambitions, and wander through the old castle or the royal palace of Gråsten.
  • Herning - This small but ambitious town is an excellent entry point to the spectucular beaches of Jutlands western coast.
  • Rønne - Capital and entry point for the intriguing holiday island of Bornholm, with its cozy villages, mystic round churches and the spectacular castle ruin of Hammershus.
  • Nykøbing Falster - Nestled by a picturesque fjord, you can explore the old abbey, the castle, or set out to the spectacular chalk cliffs of Møn or the islands good beaches.
The majestic chalk cliffs at Møns Klint
The majestic chalk cliffs at Møns Klint
  • Legoland - Revive your childhood in the fantastic miniature cities or indulge with your kids in the thrill rides of home of the LEGO bricks.
  • Grenen - Discover the mythical light that has inspired a phleora of painters in one of Denmark's sunniest spots, have your feet in two different oceans or chill in the picturesque village of Skagen.
  • Læsø - Get away from it all in this remote island in Denmark's "desert belt", ride through the sand dunes on horseback and see unique farmhouses with seaweed roofs.
  • Møn - Quaint and picturesque country side with viking burial mounds and the dramatic 128 meter white chalk cliffs of Møns Klint.
  • The Lake district - between Silkeborg and Skanderborg is one of the country's most beautiful areas.

Get in

Denmark is not only the the gateway to Scandinavia in cultural terms, but certainly also geographically, and as such the country is well connected with the rest of European continent and to Scandinavia. A pheora of ferries connects Denmark with Europe and Scandinavia, and Copenhagen airport even more so serves as a the main Scandinavian hub, since its southern latitude makes it a natural stopping point for flights between Scandinavia and the rest of Europe.

Visas

Denmark is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. .But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.^ To all Europeans (including to the EU lady), important to read...
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks. .Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks.^ Most non-refugees no longer can collect welfare checks immediately on entering the country.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.
Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
.As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.^ The next nine months did witness some fine-tuning of procedures: Immigrants now must live seven years in Denmark (rather than three) to become permanent residents.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.
Obviously you apply for visa at your local Danish embassy (list), but in many countries where Denmark has no consular representation, other Nordic (Scandinavian) embassies are usually authorized to handle visa applications (see list). Further details are available at the Danish immigration services [2].
.The other nations of the Danish commonwealth, Greenland and the Faroe islands, are not Schengen members, but due to the open border with Denmark, there are effectively no border checks or visa requirements for citizens of the Schengen area, and visa free travel is also applicable to the same nations that are exempt from Schengen visas.^ The military mulls permitting Muslim soldiers in Denmark's volunteer International Brigade to opt out of actions they don't agree with - a privilege granted to members of no other faith.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ From: Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, Members of the Danish Parliament National Post September 6, 2002 Letters .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

For other nationalities the situation is somewhat more complicated, and a visa to Denmark/Schengen does not automatically cover travel to Greenland and the Faroe Islands.

By plane

Denmark is served by two major and several minor airports who nearly all offer international connections. Most European airlines offers routes to Copenhagen, and many also to Billund, but SAS Scandinavian Airlines [3] remains the dominant carrier. Key players in the low-cost market include the national Cimber-Sterling [4] or Norwegian [5], Easyjet [6], Transavia [7] and finaly Ryanair [8] which has services only to provincial airports.
  • Copenhagen Airport [9] (IATA: CPH, ICAO: EKCH)is the largest airport in Scandinavia. The airport is located at the town Kastrup on the island Amager, 8 km from central Copenhagen. The airport is connected by train to Copenhagen Central Station and beyond as well as Malmo and other towns in Sweden. One way fare to Copenhagen Central station is 27 Danish kr. and the train leaves every 10 minutes. Buses and taxis are also available.
  • Billund Airport [10] (IATA: BLL, ICAO: EKBI)in South-Central Jutland is Denmark's 2nd largest airport, and the main airport for the entire peninsular. It fields flights to major European hubs; Frankfurt, London and Amsterdam, as well as most western European capitals. Located in the town Billund, 29 km from Vejle, 65 km from Esbjerg, 104 km from Odense, 100 km from Aarhus, 210 km from Aalborg, and 262 km from Copenhagen. The airport is connected by buses to major cities and towns in the region. Taxis are also available.
  • Aarhus Airport [11] (IATA: AAR, ICAO: EKAH)is on the Djursland peninsula 44 km north east of Aarhus, 50 km from Randers, 90 km from Silkeborg, 99 km fra Horsens, 98 km from Viborg and 138 km from Aalborg. An airport shuttlebus connects the airport to Aarhus Central Station from where you can reach the rest of Jutland by Train. Non national carriers serving Århus airport are Ryanair, British Airways and Finnair.
  • Malmö-Sturup Airport [12] (IATA: MMX, ICAO: ESMS)is located 61 km from Copenhagen and offers low-fares flights with Wizzair [13] to Eastern Europe. An Airport shuttlebus connects the airport with Copenhagen central station. FlyBus charges 10 pounds / 100DK for the ride.
Map of train lines in Denmark
Map of train lines in Denmark
  • Rejseplanen travel planner [14]
There are five direct trains per day from Hamburg to Copenhagen, approximately every two to three hours. These trains are loaded onto a ferry for the sea passage from Puttgarten to Rødby, and the total journey time is around 4.5 hours. There are also two train lines to Jutland from Hamburg, one via Padborg and the other via Tønder.
Trains run every twenty minutes from Malmö to Copenhagen. The total journey time is 35 minutes.

By car

Denmark is directly connected to the German Autobahn on route E45 (German route 7), which passes close to Hamburg and runs along the east coast of the Jutland peninsular, all the way to Frederikshavn in the North, passing through Denmark's second city Århus along the way. Many drivers going from Germany to the Danish capital opt for one of the regular car ferries, which shortens the trip by 137km from Hamburg and 309km from Berlin respectively, with a 215 DKK bridge tool, the price of the ferry crossing is nearly offset by extra gas needed to take the long way around.
Visitors without their own wheels coming in from Germany can try their luck with the German Mitfahrgelegenheit a ride-sharing website run in conjugation with the German Automotive organisation, which fairly frequently have rides to Denmark available. It is in German only but pretty self explanatory, if you know Denmark is called Dänemark and International is Ausland in German.
From Sweden catch route E20 from Gothenburg (312km) or E4 from Stockholm (655km) to Malmö and connect with the Øresund bridge [15] (150 DKK). Many Norwegians also opt for this route when going to Copenhagen, but there are several car ferries crossing the strait between the two countries, especially to Hirtshals on the north tip of Jutland, which is connected to the Danish highway network.

By bus

If you are in one of the neighbouring countries, long distance buses offer a good economical alternative to trains. From Germany serveral bus companies operate routes from Hamburg and Berlin to Copenhagen and Århus. A trip from Berlin to Copenhagen can cost as little as 200 DKK, but normally will set you back around 300 DKK (40€) and take around 8 hours, another popular route Hamburg to Århus takes around 5½ hours. .Try to check out the following companies; Berolina [16], Eurolines [17], and Abildskou [18].^ Feb 16, 2006 17:18 .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

For Scandinavia there are three daily connections and a night-bus from Gothenburg (4½ hours) and Oslo (8 hours), and two daily buses from Stockholm (9 hours) divided into a day and a night bus, check out GoByBus [19] and Swebus [20] for prices and schedules - when searching it might be useful to know Copenhagen is Köpenhamn in Swedish.
Due to the Bosnian war in the 1990'ies there are several bus companies serving the Bosnian diaspora, which provide a cheap and clean way of getting to the other side of the European continent. Toptourist [21] and Autoprevoz [22] runs from various destinations in Bosnia and Hercegovina and Serbia to Denmark, Off-season approx 1000 DKK (140€) for a return ticket.

By boat

The fastest way between Norway and the continent are through the Danish highways, this has ensured frequent ferry connections to Norway, with the busiest port being Hirtshals, from where a trip to Norway takes as little as 3½ hours. Other busy routes are the Rødby-Puttgarden ferry - the fastest route between Sweden and Copenhagen to continental Europe - which remains one of the busiest ferry crossings in the world (though a bridge is on the drawing board). And though it has been waning for years, with the ever increasing competition of low cost carriers, Denmark also has the only remaining ferry route between the UK and Scandinavia (Harwich-Esbjerg, 18 hours). Ferries are generally of a very high standard and safety regulations are strictly adhered to.
Ribe is Denmark's oldest city
Ribe is Denmark's oldest city
Long distance train travel is done with DSB, the Danish State Rail system. [32] A number of long distance bus companies also operate. Each region in Denmark has its own local public transportation company. For public transportation (trains, buses and ferries) use the online travel planner Rejseplanen [33]. There are two ways to buy tickets. For local trips you can buy a ticket from the regional transportation company based on a zone system. This ticket is valid on all public transportation including DSB trains for one to two hours (depending on the number of zones you travel). Most public transportation companies offer a number of passes which can save you a substantial amount on transportation. In the greater Copenhagen region, the zone system is complemented by a system of “klippekort”, punch cards. These cards come in a variety of colors where the color signifies the total number of zones one can travel through for each punch. So a two zone card punched once allows one an hour of travel throughout two zones. A two zone card punched twice in the same machine is valid for travel in four zones or from the airport at Kastrup to the main train station in Copenhagen. DSB also uses a similar system of klippekort/punch cards for travel in the Oresund region.
To use a klippekort/punch card, you insert the card, face up, into the yellow machine on the train platform. You will hear a clunk as a punch discard is removed from card. Repeat to add zones. .The machine will also have a zone map and a guide to explain how many punches it takes to travel from where you are to where you want to go.^ How many of you have actually seen them?
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Then how do you explain the following facts [93 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Most regions have their own klippekort but they do not work between regions. Some of the long distance bus companies offer klippekort that are valid for a specific route across regions but these are probably of little use for travelers as they have to be bought on cards of 10 punches(trips).
A good bus stop for warm summer days on Fanø
A good bus stop for warm summer days on Fanø
Long distance bus-service between Jutland and Copenhagen is possible with the company Abildskou (line 888) [34], and while cheaper than the train, the difference is less pronounced than in many other countries, A ticket between the countries two largest cities; Århus-Copenhagen for instance, is DKK 270 One way for adults with Abildskou versus DKK 350 with the train. If you are flexible there is considerable discounts available in certain departures, where tickets can get as low as DKK 180, if you buy your tickets in advance.
See also the overview at: Fjernbusser.dk.

By train

The primary Danish train company is Danish State Railways or DSB [35]. Many feeder lines for the principal train line in eastern Jutland are now operated by British company Arriva. Other small rail lines are operated by other companies. DSB also operates the S-Tog commuter rail system around the greater Copenhagen area. Eurail passes are valid on all DSB trains. Danish trains are very comfortable, very modern and very expensive. Tickets can be purchased in stations, from vending machines in the stations and via DSB's website. In addition to a ticket, some trains require a seat assignment. Most trains have 230V power outlets.
If you are not travelling on a rail pass, try asking for a Orange ticket, these are a limited number of heavily discounted tickets that are available on most departures. They are often sold out way in advance, but it never hurts to ask - and you do need to ask, in order to get the discount. Unfortunately due to worn out rails, the intercity trains are often late, though as many other railways suffer from similar issues, this is of course very relative, and both funding and a comprehensive 36 billion kroner plan to deal with the problem, has passed through parliament, although it will take many years to remedy years of neglect. All trips with trains and local buses can be scheduled electronically through Rejseplanen.dk [36].

By ferry

The only way get to most of the smaller islands, is by ferry. There are 55 domestic ferry routes in the country. The two most impotant ferry companies are Nordic Ferry [37] and Mols Linien [38].
Ferries are the best way to get to Bornholm, a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, although it also can be reached by plane. Since the opening of the bridge to Sweden, the easiest route from Copenhagen to Bornholm is by train and then ferry from Ystad. Through tickets are available from Copenhagen and Ronne - booking is mandatory. There is also a bus that serves this route - Gråhund Bus 886 from Copenhagen to Ystad, where it links with the ferry to Bornholm

By car

Driving in Denmark between cities is very easy, with well-maintained roads everywhere. Danes generally drive by the rules (except for the bicycles) but may not be very helpful to other drivers in ceding right of way, etc. There are no toll-roads except the two big bridges: Storebæltsbroen [39] between Zealand and Funen (DKK 215 one way), and Øresundsbron [40] between Copenhagen and Malmö (DKK 235 one way).
Ease of driving inside cities is a different story. Congestion in and around the major cities, especially during rush hours and especially in Copenhagen, can be hellish. .If you are in your own car, it is wise to park it in a convenient central place and walk or use public transport, bike or taxi to get around.^ Non-Muslim, aren't you insulting your own prophet?
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Many cities and towns require "P-skiver" or parking card, which you place in your front window, with the clock face and hands set to the time you park. In Copenhagen you get tickets from coin machines and stick them in your window. If your stay in Copenhagen is extended, and you are not using a hotel garage, which can be expensive, you can buy daily or weekly tickets from Parkering København, located on Borgergade, near the royal palace.
Marguerite Route sign
Marguerite Route sign
Touring Denmark by car is a wonderful experience and highly recommended. Margueritruten [41] is a 3500 km long connected route of small scenic roads passing 100 important Danish attractions. It is marked by brown signs with the white Marguerite Daisy flower. It is marked on most roadmaps.
Rental cars are available from all the familiar rental companies, with outlets located at airports and downtown. However, renting cars in Denmark is very expensive, even at discounted tourist rates. If you wish to rent a car, your best bet is to rent it out of Malmö, Sweden, just across the Sound from Copenhagen. Car rentals in Sweden are less than half the price of Danish rentals. Be aware that Scandinavia is no exception to the widespread European scam of adding hidden charges to your car rental bill. Also, unlike other goods and services, quoted car rental rates may not include the 25% V.A.T. or sales tax. Carefully read the rental agreement before you accept your car.
If you need auto assistance, you should generally enquire with your insurance company, as they will usually have made arrangements with a local company. If they haven't try one of the following companies:
  • Falck, +45 70 10 20 30, [42].  edit
  • Dansk Autohjælp, +45 70 10 80 90, [43].  edit
There are two ride sharing networks in Denmark; Go More [44] and Turen.dk [45], but unfortunately both have a limited user base, relative to the success enjoyed by similar sites in other European countries, but there are usually a small handful of trips available every week.

Driving laws

Unless otherwise posted, speed limits are 130 kph (80mph) on the motorways, 80 kph (50 mph) outside cities and 50 kph (30 mph) inside cities. Regulations are similar to most other EU countries, but there are some rules that may differ from your native country; It is not only good driving practice, but also mandatory use turn signals when changing lane on motorways and prior to- and after overtaking. It is also compulsory to use dipped headlamps - even by day. It is not permitted to drive while using a handheld mobile phone, and there is a general duty to give way to traffic from the right, unless otherwise indicated by a series of roadway markings of white triangles pointing in the direction of the oncoming vehicle and/or a red and white triangular traffic sign. Watch out for the bicycles in the cities, especially when turning across bicycle lanes; they have right of way. Also, as a special note to North American drivers, it is illegal in Denmark (as in rest of Europe) to turn right on a red light.
Seat belts are compulsory for all front and rear seat occupants if fitted, and children under 135 cm and or under 3 years of age, must use approved safety seating devices adapted to their height and weight. You must always carry your driving licence, vehicle registration document, and certificate of motor insurance in the car. .It is compulsory to have a Warning triangle in the car, and to use it if you experience breakdowns on highways or on regular roads where you are not able to move your car out of the way.^ Are you out of your mind?
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

By bicycle

Biking in Denmark is, in general, safe and easy. Drivers are used to bikes everywhere, and all major cities have dedicated, curbed bike lanes along the main streets. Denmark is quite flat, but can be windy, cold or wet on a bike. Bikes are generally allowed on trains (separate ticket is needed).
Note that biking on the expressways (Da: motorvej) is prohibited, and that this also includes the Great Belt Bridge and the Øresund Bridge. Trains can be used between Nyborg and Korsør and between Copenhagen and Malmö if you need to cross the bridges.
Official marked routes across the country can be found in the guides on this page: [46]

By thumb

It is quite easy to hitchhike in Denmark. People who pick up hitchhikers usually speak English. Destination boards are recommended. It is illegal to hitchhike on the highways, so it is better to use highway-entrances and gas stations. When crossing by ferry, try to get into a car that already paid for the ticket.
If you hitchhike from the southern part of Denmark (direction from Hamburg or Kiel, Germany), and continue in direction to Copenhagen, make sure the driver doesn't stop in Kolding. If he does, ask him to stop at the last gas station before Kolding. On the Kolding highway crossing there is no place to hitchhike and it is one of the worst places in Europe for hitchhikers.
Check out the Tips for hitchhiking article here on wikitravel if you are new to hitchhiking.

By plane

Scandinavian Airlines [47], Norwegian [48] and Cimber Air [49] all operate domestic routes, all of them either from or to Copenhagen Airport, there is no domestic routes between regional airports. Since most of the country's airports were build as military airfields during the second world war, they are often inconveniently located far from town centres, which as a general rule make train travel nearly as fast from town centre to town centre for destinations less than 3 hours by train from Copenhagen. For destinations further afield trains will often get you where you want to go a lot cheaper, albeit competition is heavy, and it is indeed sometimes possible to find plane tickets cheaper than the train, if you book well ahead of your planned departure - this is especially true for the Copenhagen - Aalborg route, where both traffic and competition is heaviest.
Airports with domestic traffic are: Copenhagen, Billund, Århus, Aalborg, Karup, Sønderborg and Bornholm.
.Some of the more remote islands, if there is any such thing in a country as small as Denmark, also sees regular taxi flights from Roskilde airport to their small airfields, on-board small propeller aircraft.^ Sidda, is there such thing as an American illegal immigrant?
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The most traficed route are between Roskilde and the islands of Læsø and Anholt, where there are daily flights bookable on-line or by phone. These flights tend to be fairly expensive though, with the price hovering around 1000 DKK for a one way ticket.

Talk

.Denmark's national language is Danish, a member of the Germanic branch of the group of Indo-European languages, and within that family, part of the North Germanic, East Norse group.^ Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, two members of the Danish parliament, are "offended" by our article "Muslim Extremism: Denmark's had Enough" (Aug.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ From: Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, Members of the Danish Parliament National Post September 6, 2002 Letters .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

It is, in theory, very similar to Norwegian Bokmål and also to Swedish, and is to some extent intelligible to speakers of those languages, especially in written form. However its sound is more influenced by the guttural German language, rather than the lilting languages found to the north and understanding spoken Danish may be a trace more difficult to those who only speak Swedish or Norwegian. It is also more distantly related to Icelandic and Faroese, though spoken Danish is not mutually intelligible with these languages.
English is widely spoken in Denmark, the only partial exception is children or people older than 65. Danish school children start their English lessons in third grade, and regular English lessons continue until students finish high school, furthermore many Danish university courses are fully or partially taught in English. In this regard it is worth noting that Denmark is probably one of very few countries in the world, where you don't get extra points for trying to speak the language, and Danes in general have very little patience with non-fluent speakers. .So except for a few words like Tak (Thank you) or Undskyld mig (Excuse me), English-speakers are much better off just speaking English than fighting their way through a phrasebook.^ To JUSTME, thank you very much [34 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Thank you Daniel [35 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Thanks Lisa, Tak Lisa [142 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

If you do try, and the person you are talking to immediately switches to English, don't feel bad, it is not meant to condescend or belittle. Should you perceive it so, you can take minor comfort when the conversation stops every once in a while as the person you're talking to skims their mental dictionary, looking for an English equivalent of a Danish word. You might also encounter some wacky English grammar once in a while among the very young or the slightly older generation. .Though this generally shouldn't a problem, just keep in mind that enunciating just a tiny bit when speaking will go a long way in abating such situations.^ Though he conducted talks with crime suspects, he thinks he can conclude for young Muslims in general that their cultural background causes discipline problems.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Also of note, the Danish language has no equivalent to the English word "please," so at times it may seem as though Danes are rude when speaking English. This is not their intention, but simply results from them directly translating from Danish to English.
Many Danes also speak German, and it is widely spoken in areas that attract many tourists from Germany, i.e. mainly the Jutland West Coast, the southern part of Funen and nearby islands (e.g. Langeland and Ærø), and also especially in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland / Northern Schleswig). .Elsewhere in the country, many people prefer to avoid speaking it, even when they do have some command of the language, and you'll have a hard time convincing anyone to (outside the tourist industry) otherwise - this has nothing to do with history, but is merely a result of the high fluency in English, making the locals less inclined to struggle through a language they are not entirely comfortable with - in a pinch or emergency though, people will probably step up, and do their best to help.^ Engaging in crime: Muslims are only 4 percent of Denmark's 5.4 million people but make up a majority of the country's convicted rapists, an especially combustible issue given that practically all the female victims are non-Muslim.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Muslim immigrants do not receive 40% of those allocations even though they represent a substantial part of the clients.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

There is a native or indigenous German speaking minority along the the southern border to Germany (Sønderjylland / Northern Schleswig) and vice verse across the frontier there is a small community of Danish speakers to found in Germany. .French is also spoken to some degree, as all Danish students have received at least 3 years of lessons in either German or French, but given the Danes limited contact with the French language, fluency tends to be lagging.^ Bibliography – My Writings on the Danish Cartoon Controversy A French lesson for Tom Harkin .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Denmark's top tourist attractions (2008)
  1. Tivoli, Copenhagen, Amusement park - 3.9 mio.
  2. Dyrehavsbakken, Copenhagen, Amusement park - 2.6 mio.
  3. Legoland, Billund, Amusement park - 1.6 mio.
  4. Copenhagen Zoo, Copenhagen, Zoo - 1.4 mio.
  5. Faarup Sommerland, Blokhus, Amusement park - 0.6 mio,
  6. Louisiana, Humlebæk, Art museum - 0.5 mio.
  7. Djurs Sommerland, East Jutland, Amusement park - 0.5 mio.
  8. BonBon-Land, Køge, Amusement Park - 0.4 mio.
  9. Odense Zoo, Odense, Zoo - 0.4 mio
  10. The National Museum, Copenhagen, Museum - 0.3 mio.

The Danish Islands

Though not well known to casual visitors Denmark is an island nation, with 72 inhabited islands and a further 371 uninhabited ones. Apart from the well known blockbuster Bornholm, with its rich history, mystic round churches and links to the Knights Templer, many of the small islands are rarely visited by tourists, even though they make up for some of the country's most intriguing destinations. .If you have the time consider visiting one of the two remote islands in the Kattegat sea - Læsø and Anholt, which locals jokingly refers to as the "Danish desert belt" since it sees much less rainfall than the rest of the country, and have large swaths of sand dunes covering much of the two islands, peculiar architecture and a laid back vibe.^ Denmark has a much broader spectrum of welfare costs than countries in North America.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Also worth considering is the Island sea south of Funen, one of the country's most beautiful areas, which also includes the larger islands of Langeland and Ærø with some impossibly picturesque villages, lush green and hilly farmland and wild horses. Finaly in South Jutland, the islands of Fanø, Mandø and Rømø are located in the Wadden sea, a intertidal zone forming a shallow body of water with tidal flats and wetlands. It is rich in biological diversity, with seals and an amazing range of birds, but also have some spectacular beaches and cute villages.

Viking heritage

Much have happened since the Danes were wrecking havoc to much of Northern Europe, but the more peaceful modern version of the Danes still take immense pride in their Viking heritage. The most visual heritage is the burial mounds dotting the landscape everywhere in the country, but there are a few attractions for the inclined to visit. Easiest and perhaps most interesting are the two museums near Roskilde, easily reached on a day trip from Copenhagen - the Viking ship museum is extraordinary with some well preserved ships and the Lejre Experimental Centre, a living history museum with a recreated Viking village. Still on Zealand but a further west in Slagelse, is the remains of the once mighty Trelleborg viking ring castle and some reconstructed long houses. In Jutland there is another ring castle ruin near Hobro, Fyrkat, and 9 reconstructed farmhouses. Further south is Jelling, home of a pair of massive carved runestones from the 10th century, one of them celebrating Denmarks conversion to Christianity - the end of the Viking age. The National Museum in Copenhagen, also has a good collection of Viking artefacts.
"Something is rotten in the state of Denmark". There are many fine castles and palaces throughout the country, like Hamlet's Kronborg.
"Something is rotten in the state of Denmark". There are many fine castles and palaces throughout the country, like Hamlet's Kronborg.
.Mainland Denmark has 3 world heritage sites; The Jelling rune stones date back to 900's have been called "Denmark's Birth Certificate", testamenting to Denmark's conversion the Christianity around that time, it was erected by what is considered the first official king of Denmark, Gorm The Old, whose son is buried in another in another of the sights, Roskilde Cathedral, the first Gothic church in Northern Europe build of brick, and the final resting place for most Danish kings and queens ever since.^ In a momentous election last November, a center-right coalition came to power that - for the first time since 1929 - excluded the socialists.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The third, and possibly most famous, is Kronborg castle in Elsinore, home of Shakespeare's Hamlet, prince of Denmark, but also an impressive castle in its own right, guarding the main route to the Baltic sea.
  • Billetnet [50] books larger concerts, theater plays, sporting events etc. You can book online or in any post office. If you book online you can have the tickets mailed to you or you can print out a confirmation and exchange it for a ticket at a BilletNet office or at the scene.
  • NaturNet [51] Lists nature oriented events such as mushroom collection, geology tours, etc. Many of the tours are free.

Beaches

With a 7400 kilometre coastline, almost the same as Brazil's and longer than India's, you are never far from a beach in Denmark. And each summer, particularly the west coast of Jutland, is subjected a veritable invasion of more than 13 million German tourists, usually in the many vacation homes dotting the coast from north to south. And while the weather can be tricky in Denmark, the beaches are world class, with unbroken white sand for miles to an end, if you are fortunate enough to run into sunny weather.
Roskilde festival's signature Orange stage
Roskilde festival's signature Orange stage
.Denmark has a long running and proud tradition in music festivals, dating back to the first Woodstock inspired Roskilde festival in 1972, they have become an all important fixture of the Danish summer, and there is one to fit almost every age and music preference going on between June and August, and with very impressive attendances considering the country's size.^ If present trends persist, one sociologist estimates, every third inhabitant of Denmark in 40 years will be Muslim.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Danish authorities consider death threats very serious, but police investigators have so far found no evidence of real threats.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Danish/American and all: Three very simple questions (not regarding Trinity) [469 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

There are actually so many that listing each and everyone of them would be ridiculous, but some of the most important ones are:
.
  • Skive Festival (previously Skive Beach Party) attracts nearly 20,000 spectators to Skive every year, mainly features Danish bands and attracts a mostly local crowd.
  • Roskilde Festival (June/July)[52] - one of the big four rock festivals in Europe, run by non-profit organisation.^ If present trends persist, one sociologist estimates, every third inhabitant of Denmark in 40 years will be Muslim.
    • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

    80,000 tickets sold and more than 110,000 participants in Roskilde.
  • Copenhagen Jazz Festival - (July)[53] - One of the worlds top Jazz Festivals, with small and big concert all over the Copenhagen, attracts over 20,000 spectators.
  • Langelands Festival (July/August)[54] - A family oriented festival on the island of Langeland, 15,000 participants.
  • Skanderborg Festival (August)[55] - the 2nd largest rock festival with 45,000 participants, in a unique location inside a historic forest by the lake shore near Skanderborg.
  • Tønder Festival(August)[56] -A large folk and country music festival held in Tønder in South Jutland.
  • Århus Festuge (August/September)[57] - 10 days of music and cultural events in the city of Århus, with a different theme each year.
As Danish as it gets, Copenhagen's Nyhavn canal build in LEGO bricks in Legoland
As Danish as it gets, Copenhagen's Nyhavn canal build in LEGO bricks in Legoland
Denmark is teeming with amusement parks, and indeed features some of the most famous in world; Copenhagen's Tivoli is one of the oldest of such parks in world, and by Walt Disney's own admission a major source of inspiration for his own Disneyland. Also in Copenhagen, nestled among majestic beech trees Dyrehavsbakken is the worlds oldest operating amusement park, and both of these parks features some of the oldest still operating rollercoasters in the world dating back to 1914 and 1932 respectively, and both receiving the ACE Coaster Classic Award. Just as famous is Legoland in Billund, the largest and the oldest of the now global franchise, with its spectacular miniature LEGO sceneries the star attraction, and a good selection of thrill rides to entertain kids. And while outshined by its world famous rivals, there are four other major amusement parks in the country: Sommerland Sjælland[58], Bonbonland [59], Fårup Sommerland [60], Djurs Sommerland [61], and a host of smaller one.
Currency conversion table (December 2009)
Foreign currency Either one Danish Kroner
€0.13 Euro 1 7.44
£0.12 Pound Sterling 1 8.23
$0.20 US Dollar 1 5.04
$0.22 Australian Dollar 1 4.62
The national currency is the Danish krone (DKK, plural "kroner"). In the more "touristy" shops in Copenhagen, and at the traditional beach resorts along the Jutland West Coast and Bornholm Island it will often be possible to pay in Euro. The Danish krone is pegged to the Euro to an accuracy of 2.25%. In the 12 months from Aug 2005 to Aug 2006 the average exchange rate was 1 EUR = 7.46 DKK. The Kroner comes in 50 øre (½ kroner) copper coins, 1, 2 and 5 kroner silver nickel coins with a hole in the centre, and finally solid 10 and 20 kroner bronze coins. Notes comes in nominations of 50 (Purple), 100 (Orange), 200 (Green) 500 (Blue) and 1000 (Red) kroner. Note that the 1997 series of banknotes are being replaced with a new series, starting with the 50 kroner note in 2009 and ending with the 1000 kroner note in 2011, hence you can expect to see two types of bank notes circulating in the coming years, both are legal tender.
Faroese króna and the coming series of Greenlandic bank notes, while of exactly the same face value, are not legal tender in Denmark (and vice-versa), but can by law be exchanged in any bank free of charge at a 1:1 ratio.
Automatic teller machines are widely available even in small towns, but some ATM's are closed during night time out of security reasons. The Danish word is Dankort-automat, and might be useful to remember as the term ATM is not universally known. Nearly all machines regardless of operator will accept the Danish Dankort, MasterCard, Maestro, Visa, Visa Electron, American Express, JCB og China UnionPay (CUP). While the majority of retailers accept International credit- and debit cards, many still only accept the local Dankort. Virtually everywhere you are required to use a PIN-code with your card, so if this is not common practice in your country, remember to request one from your bank before leaving home. Also beware that many retailers will add a 2%-3% transaction charge (often without warning) if you pay with a credit card.

Prices

You should note that almost everything in Denmark is expensive. All consumer sales include a 25% sales tax (Moms) but displayed prices are legally required to include this, so they are always exact. If you are from outside the EU/Scandinavia you can have some of your sales tax refunded [62] when leaving the country.
The average price of Hotel accommodation was around 900 DKK (€120) according to the annual 2009 Hotels.com price index, a hostel bed hovers around 200 DKK (€26), but can be found cheaper in Copenhagen. While a three course meal at a standard restaurant will usually set you back around 200 DKK (€26), this can be done cheaper if you eat cafés or pizza joints, 40-70 DKK (€5,50-8,50). Sundries like a ½l bottle of Coca Cola costs 15 DKK (€2), while a beer will cost you 8 DKK (€1) in a supermarket, and 40 DKK (€5,50) in bar. If you are a bit careful about your expenses a daily budget of around 700 DKK (€100) per day is not unrealistic.

Tipping

In Denmark service charges are automatically included in the bill at restaurants and hotels, and tips for taxi drivers and the like are included in the fare. So tipping is not expected, nor required, but is a matter of choice. Needless to say, tipping for outstanding service is obviously greatly appreciated.

What to buy

Naturally what to buy remains highly subjective, and in an expensive country like Denmark, also largely depends on the size of your pocket, but here are some suggestions:
  • Designer eyewear by Lindberg [63]
  • Royal Copenhagen porcelain [64]
  • Skagen designer watches [65]
  • LEGO building brick toys [66]
  • Bang & Olufsen electronics [67]
  • Georg Jensen silverware and jewelry [68]
  • Kay Bojesen silverware [69]
  • ECCO shoes [70]
  • Danish Fashion [71]
  • Danish Design [72]
  • Danish Cheese [73]
  • Aalborg Akvavit spirits [74]
Smørrebrød
Popular and traditional choices are:
  • Pickled herring, plain, curry, or with red spices.
  • Liver Paté Sandwich, probably the most popular.
  • Stjerneskud, salad, one fried and one boiled plaice fillet, shrimp and mayonnaise.
  • Røget ål og røræg, smoked eel and scrambled eggs
  • Pariserbøf, beef patty cooked rare with capers, horseradish, raw onions, and a raw egg yolk on top.
  • Dyrlægens natmad, liver pate, slices of corned beef, onion rings and aspic (sky).
  • Beef tartar, raw lean ground beef served with raw egg yolk, onions, horseradish and capers.
  • Flæskesteg, Slices of pork roast with pickled red cabbage.
  • Roastbeef, with remoulade, fried onion, horseradish.
  • Kartoffel, sliced potatoes, tomatoes, crispy fried onions, and mayonnaise.
  • Hakkebøf, pan fried ground beef patty with soft fried onions, a fried egg and pickles.
  • Shrimps, you get a generous portion of just shrimp with a little mayonnaise.
  • Ost, Cheese. Try a very old cheese served with raw onions, egg yolks and rum.
Apart from the ubiquitous kebab shops and pizza stands, dining in Denmark can be fairly expensive, but a worthwhile cost. Traditional Danish fare includes items as pickled herring, fried plaice, and other assorted seafood items. Hearty meat dishes are also prevalent, as seen in items such as frikadeller (pork only or pork and veal meat balls topped by a brown sauce) and "stegt flæsk og persillesovs" (thick pork bacon slices topped by a parsley cream sauce). Many meals are also accompanied by a beer, and shots of aquavit or schnapps, though these are mainly enjoyed when guests are over. Drinking along with meals is encouraged as the foods are enhanced by the drinks, and vice versa. If looking for a quick snack to grab on the go, try the traditional Danish hot dog, served in a bun with a variety of fixings, including pickles, fried or raw onions as well as ketchup, mustard and remoulade (a Danish invention in spite of the French name, consisting of mayonnaise with the addition of chopped cabbage and turmeric for color). For dessert, try either "ris à l'amande" (rice pudding with almonds and cherries, again a French name with no relation to French cuisine) or æbleskiver (ball-shaped cakes similar in texture to American pancakes, served with strawberry jam), both normally only available in November and December. For candy try a bag of "Superpiratos" (hot licorice candy with salmiakki).
.Do avoid touristy places where no Danes are to be found, popularity amongst locals is almost always an indicator of quality.^ For years, Danes lauded multiculturalism and insisted they had no problem with the Muslim customs - until one day they found that they did.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Restaurants offering examples of international cuisine are common, mostly in major cities, especially Italian, Greek and Chinese restaurants, though Japanese, Indian and even Ethiopian restaurants can be found too. .Quality is generally high, as the competition is too sharp for low-quality businesses to survive.^ Racism in Swedish Education system (Offer low quality courses in English but high quality courses in Swedish) [198 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Smørrebrød

The traditional Danish lunch is smørrebrød, open sandwiches usually on rye bread - fish except herring, plaice and mackerel are served on white bread, and many restaurants give you a choice of breads. Smørrebrød served on special occasions, in lunch restaurants, or bought in lunch takeaway stores, are piled higher than the daily fare. The Danish rye bread (rugbrød) is dark, slightly sourish and often wholegrain. It is a must for all visitors to try.

Drink

Danes are rightly famous for their good looks, but unlike most other places, their lucky draw at the gene pool hasn't translated into the self assertion and confidence you normally see. And the Danes have become infamous for being closed and tight lipped, bordering the outright rude. .So while it is by no means impossible, you will still be hard pressed to find a Dane readily engaging in casual conversations with strangers.^ A recent survey finds that only 5 percent of young Muslim immigrants would readily marry a Dane.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

That is, until you hit the country's bars and nightclubs. As any foreigner who has spend time observing the Danes will tell you, alcohol is the fabric that holds Danish society together. And when they are smacked off their faces in the dead of night, they suddenly let their guard down, loosen up, and while a bit pitiful, they somehow transmorph into one of the most likable bunch of people on Earth. Rather than the violence associated with binge drinking elsewhere, because it seems to serve a very important social purpose, the natives get very open, friendly and loving instead. It takes some time getting used to, but if you want to form bonds with the Danes, this is how you do it - God help you if you are abstinent. This also means Danes have a very high tolerance for drunk behavior, provided it takes place in the weekends. Drink a glass or two of wine for dinner during the week, and you can be mistaken for an alcoholic, but down 20 pints on a Saturday night, and puke all over the place, and everything will be in order.
There is no legal drinking age in Denmark, although a legal purchase age of 16 is in effect in shops and supermarkets, and 18 in bars, discos and restaurants. The enforcement of this limitation is somewhat lax in shops and supermarkets, but quite strict in bars and discos, as fines of up to 10,000 kroner and annulment of the license can incur on the vendor. The purchaser is never punished, although some discos enforce a voluntary zero-tolerance policy on underage drinking, where you can get kicked out if caught with no ID and an alcoholic beverage in your hand. Some would claim that the famous Danish tolerance towards underage drinking is waning in light of recent health campaigns targeting the consumption of alcoholic beverages amongst Danes. As adult Danes do not approve of the government interfering with their own drinking habits, the blame is shifted towards adolescents instead, and proposals of increasing the legal purchase age to 18 overall have been drafted, but have yet to pass Parliament, neither is it likely too in the foreseeable future.
Drinking alcoholic beverages in public is considered socially acceptable in Denmark, and having a beer out in a public square is a common warm weather activity there, though local by-laws are increasingly curbing this liberty, as loitering alcoholics are regarded as bad for business. Drinking bans are usually signposted, but not universally obeyed and enforced. In any case, be sure to moderate your public drinking, especially during the daytime. Extreme loudness may in the worst case land you a few hours in jail for public rowdiness (no record will be kept, though). Most police officers will instead ask you to leave and go home, though.
Danish beer is a treat for a beer enthusiast. The largest brewery, Carlsberg (which also owns the Tuborg brand), offers a few choices, as well as a delicious "Christmas beer" in the 6 weeks leading up to the holidays. Other tasty beverages include the Aquavit (Snaps) and Gløgg - a hot wine drink popular in December. Danish beer is mostly limited to lager beer (pilsner), which are good, but not very diverse. However in the last few years Danes have become interested in a wider range of beers, and Danish microbreweries' excellent products are increasingly available. The Danish Beer Enthusiasts [75] maintain a list of bars and restaurants with a good selection of beers as well as a list of stores with a good selection.

Sleep

Due to the compact size and dense population, unlike the other Scandinavian countries, Danes and visitors does not enjoy the Right to access in Denmark, visitors who want to enjoy the outdoors can overnight in one of the more than 500 camping grounds, most are well equipped with up to date facilities. The Danish Camping Board[76] maintains a list of official camping grounds on their website. It is also possible to do wildlife camping in forests or other untouched sights, but only in designated areas (there is about 800 of them). Unfortunately the digitalized information of the locations are in Danish only, but it can be found at the Danish Forest and Nature Agency [77], another option to find these sights are to buy a printed guide book which costs DKK 98, and is available from many tourist informations desks or the Danish Cyclist Union[78]
For Budget accommodation, Danhostel[79] is the national accredited Hostelling International network, and operate 95 hotels throughout the country. Only the country's two largest cities - Copenhagen and Århus, have a few independent youth hostels. It is worth noting that the Danish word for hostel is Vandrerhjem, which also what hostels in Denmark are usually signposted as. .Another option is one of the Hospitality exchange networks, which is enjoying growing popularity among the Danes, with couchsurfing reporting a doubling of available hosts every year.^ If present trends persist, one sociologist estimates, every third inhabitant of Denmark in 40 years will be Muslim.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Hotels are expensive in Denmark, with an average price of a double room hovering around 847 DKK ($158/€113) in 2007, hotels are mostly off limits to shoestring travellers, although cheaper deals can most certainly be found, especially for online bookings done it good time before arriving. National budget hotel chains include Zleep [80] and Cabb-in [81]. Alternatives to hotels include a well developed network of Bed & Breakfasts which are bookable through the national tourism organisation VisitDenmark [82] (Click on Accomodation > Private accomodation) - or in country famous for its bacon, butter and cheese - what better way to dive into Danish culture than on a Farm Holliday? the National organisation [83] maintains an online catalogue of farms offering stays all over the country in both English and German. Another alternative to hotels are the many historic Old inn's - or Kro in Danish - dotting the towns and villages, most of them are organized though a national organisation called Danske Kroer og Hoteller [84].

Stay safe

Generally: Denmark is a very safe country, with almost no risk of natural disasters or animal attacks (there is one rare poisonous snake, the European viper, but its bite is not lethal). .Compared to most other countries crime and traffic are only minor risks, and most crime visitors are likely to encounter is non violent pickpocketing.^ Engaging in crime: Muslims are only 4 percent of Denmark's 5.4 million people but make up a majority of the country's convicted rapists, an especially combustible issue given that practically all the female victims are non-Muslim.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Most non-refugees no longer can collect welfare checks immediately on entering the country.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

  • On foot in cities Danes drive by the rules, and they have every expectation that pedestrians do the same. Therefore, it is important to obey Walk/Don't Walk signals and avoid jaywalking in cities, simply because cars will not slow down since you're not supposed to be there. Also, take good notice of the dedicated bike lanes when crossing any street to avoid dangerous situations as bikers tend to ride fast and have right of way on these lanes.
  • On the beach: Don't bathe alone. Don't get too far away from land. Don't jump head first in shallow water. Swim along the coast rather than away from it. In some areas undertow is a danger, and kills a number of tourists every year, but will mostly be signed at the beach. On many beaches, flags inform of water quality. A blue flag means excellent water quality, green flag means good water quality, red flag means that bathing is not advised. A sign with the text "Badning forbudt" means that bathing is forbidden. Obey these signs, as it often means that the water is polluted with poisonous algae, bacteria, or chemicals, or that there is a dangerous undertow.
  • In the city: A few districts in major cities are probably best avoided at night by the unwary, or by lone women - but reverse of the trends in North America, it is often the ghettos in the suburbs that are unsafe, rather than the downtown areas.
In an emergency dial 112 (medical help/fire brigade/police). This is toll free, and will work even from cell phones even if they have no SIM card. For the police in not-emergencies call 114.

Stay healthy

Health services in Denmark are of a high standard, although waiting times for the emergency department can be quite long for non acute situations - since visitors are prioritized according to their situation. Except for surgical procedures there are no private healthcare system to speak of, all is taken care off by the public healthcare system and general practitioners. All visitors are provided with free emergency care, until you are deemed healthy enough to be transported back to your home country. Citizens from EU countries, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland and certain British dependencies are all entitled to additional basic medical services during their stay, other nationalities should have a valid travel insurance for transportation home and any additional medical care needed after any emergency is dealt with, as this is not provided free of charge. As in the rest of the country, English speakers should not have any trouble communicating with staff in English.
One thing worth noting for several nationalities, is that Danish doctors don't strew out prescriptions or pills out at the rate common in North America, Japan and Southern Europe. There is a general trend of letting the body's own immune system take care of diseases, rather than using medicines. .So if you show up at the local GP with minor illnesses like the common flu, expect to be send back to your bed to rest, rather than receiving any treatment, if you are otherwise of good health.^ You keep on sending your comments [220 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Pharmacies (Danish: Apotek) are usually well stocked, but brand names may differ from those in your own country. Staff is highly trained, and major cities usually have one 24 hour pharmacy. Many drugs that are prescription-free in other countries, require prescription in Denmark, which is not trivial to get (see above), and medicines available in supermarkets and drug stores are very limited; i.e. allergy drugs and light painkillers; Paracetamol based (Panodil, Pamol & Pinex), acetylsalicylic based (Treo, Kodimagnyl & Aspirin) and Ibuprofen based (Ipren)
Dentists are only partly covered by the public healthcare system, and everyone, including Danes pay to visit their dentist. Danes and other Nordic citizens have some of the expenses covered by the public healthcare system, while non Scandinavian visitors, should generally be prepared to foot the entire bill themselves, or forward the expenses to their insurance company. Prices are notoriously high compared to the neighbouring countries, so unless it is urgent to see a dentist, it will probably be more economical to wait until you return home, or pass into Germany or Sweden.
Tap water is potable unless indicated. Restaurants and other places selling food are visited regularly by health inspectors and are awarded points on a 1-4 "smiley scale". The ratings must be prominently displayed, so look out for the happy face when in doubt. While pollution in the major cities can be annoying it doesn't pose any risk to non-residents. Nearly all beaches are fine for bathing - even parts of the Copenhagen harbour recently opened for bathing (read the Stay safe section).

Smoking

As of 15 August 2007 it is not legal to smoke in any public space in Denmark. This includes government buildings with public access (hospitals, universities, etc), all restaurants and bars larger than 40 sq m and all public transport. Also be aware that you have to be at least 18 years old to buy cigarettes in Denmark.

Respect

.In a country which has no direct equivalent to please in their vernacular, where the local version of Mr. and Ms. has all but disappeared from common usage, and where the people can hardly muster a sorry if they bump into you on the streets, you could be forgiven to think they are the rudest people on earth, and you can get away with pretty much anything.^ Justme: Could you please answer..?
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ No one can bring into the country an intended spouse under the age of 24.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Sword..they really DO have no shame, or think we're uncapable of finding the rest of the story [487 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

You'd be wrong, most of the behaviour many tourists consider appalling can be attributed to either the Danes blatant, and when you get to understand it, quite sympathetic disregard for formality, or their unfortunate shyness (see drink section), and there are rules to the madness, way too complex to get into here, but some of the most important ones can be summed up as follows:
Though officially Lutheran, Denmark is largely agnostic. Pictured: Østerlars Church, Bornholm
Though officially Lutheran, Denmark is largely agnostic. Pictured: Østerlars Church, Bornholm
  • It is generally not considered impolite to omit verbal formalities common in other cultures, such as generic compliments or courteous bromides. Likewise, Danes almost never use Sir or Madame to address each other, as it is perceived as distancing oneself. On the contrary, addressing (even a stranger) by first name is considered a friendly gesture.
  • Be punctual, few things can make the Danes more annoyed than showing up later, even by minutes, than the agreed time, save social gatherings at people's homes, where the requirements for punctuality is much more relaxed.
  • If there are free seats on a bus or train, it is not customary to seat yourself next to someone if you can avoid it.
  • Danes try to abridge differences between social classes. Modesty is a virtue - bragging, or showing off wealth, is considered rude, as is loud and passionate behaviour. Economic matters are private - don't ask Danes questions like how much they earn, or what their car costs. As in Germany, Britain, and the rest of the Nordic countries, weather is a good conversation topic.
  • Greetings between people who know each other (e.g. are good friends, close relatives, etc.) is often in the form of a careful hug. It is rare to see a peck on the cheek as a form of greeting, and it might be taken as way too personal.
  • When invited by a Dane - to visit their home, join them at their table or engage in an activity - don't hesitate to accept the invitation. .Danes generally don't strew invitations out of politeness, and only say it if they mean it.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
    • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

    The same goes for compliments. Bring a small gift; chocolate, flowers or wine are the most common, and remember despite their disregard for formality, to practice good table manners while at restaurants or in people's homes.
  • Even though 82% of the population is officially Lutheran, Denmark is by and large a agnostic country. Investigations into people's faith is largely unwelcome, and outside places of worship, displays of your faith should be kept private. Saying grace for example, is likely to be met with bewilderment and silence. Religious attire such as Muslim headscarfs, Kippahs or even t-shirts with religious slogans, will - while tolerated - also make many Danes feel uncomfortable.

Contact

Internet

.While Internet cafés are present in most larger cities, they are usually not geared for tourists and hence they can be a bit tricky to find.^ This obliviousness of Ms. Arnold and Ms. Nielsen is part of a larger problem, whereby they have long been among the most vocal cheerleaders of massive immigration and completely blind to the problems this creates.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Hotels usually provide both wireless internet and computers with internet access, but whether this service is provided for free, varies greatly - many cafés and bars also provide free wireless internet for paying customers, even when it is not signposted, so it is always a good idea to ask. The easiest way to get online is often the public library, as there is one in almost every town, they are usually centrally located, well signposted (look for Bibliotek) and always free - there can be a bit of waiting time to get a free computer though, but there will normally also be some sort of reservation system in place, so you can time it better.

Phone

Bring your own unlocked GSM phone to make calls. Prepaid SIM cards are available at most shops and international calling can be reasonably priced. The prepaid credit generally only work in Denmark, but can be purchased in small amounts to avoid waste when you leave.

Mail

Most towns of any size have a post-office or a supermarket licensed to handle mail and parcels. Service is efficient, and you can expect mail posted in the postoffice, or in a mailbox before it is emptied (hours are posted on the mailbox) to arrive before 3PM the following day in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Mail to the rest of Europe, the United States and Canada needs one extra day, while delivery time to the rest of the world varies greatly, and mostly depends on the postal service in the receiving country. Most post offices in Denmark also handles Western Union money transfers, ticket sales for events, currency exchange and sell phone cards for international calls. .Standard prices for postcards and standard letters are 5,50 DKK within Denmark, 8 DKK to Europe and 9 DKK for all other countries.^ Rotten in Denmark - the same all over Europe [2197 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

If you need to have parcels or mail sent to you in Denmark, you can receive it as Poste Restante at most major post offices (General Delivery in the US). The post office will only hold such mail in one month, after which it will be returned to the sender. The address format is:
Name
c/o Poste restante
Hovedpostkontoret (General Postoffice)
Postal-Code City
Denmark
Major international parcel services like UPS or Fedex, while present in Denmark, do not offer any holding service.

Cope

Consular assistance

All developed nations have embassies in Copenhagen, and most other countries have embassies in either Stockholm or Copenhagen responsible for consular services to the whole Scandinavian region. EU member nations will usually also have several small consulates in the provinces. If you fall victim to serious criminal injuries while in Denmark, you might be eligible to financial compensation. If you wish to file a claim you must report the incident to police within 24 hours, and file a form obtainable from the police to Erstatningsnævnet; Gyldenløvesgade 11, 1600 Copenhagen V. Tel +45 33 92 33 34, Fax: +45 39 20 45 05, Email: erstatningsnaevnet@erstatningsnaevnet.dk. Claim processing time is a minimum of 3 months.

Customer Service

By most standards the Danes have a great deal to learn about customer service, and many visitors may initially be appalled by the low standards present outside upmarket establishments, used to dealing with international expectations. .Many attribute this to the high equality not only being present in practice, but also mentally - "you are not worth any more than me, so why should I treat you any different". By and large it is just one of those cultural differences you have deal with while visiting another country, and throwing a hissy fit or demanding to speak to the supervisor, is unlikely to get you anywhere.^ Another one, can you see what I see??
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Another one, can you help?
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Another one - You have it both ways [505 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

On the upside; tipping is neither expected - nor required, and when you do bump into good service, it tends to be truly genuine helpfulness, rather than an expectation for tips, or employee training courses - so savour such moments, remember to tip, and forget about the rest.
On a practical level, this means that you should only expect table service in restaurants. In café's and bars you usually order in the bar or counter and pay immediately when ordering, even if you intend for a 2nd order. It is also common that staff doing other duties than serving customers will happily keep the customer waiting, until he or she is finished with with whatever needs doing. Also don't expect any sir or madam's, verbal bromides seems awkward to most Danes, including those behind a counter.

Media

Apart from children's shows, nothing gets dubbed in Denmark although a sizeable portion of broadcasts in Denmark are American and British productions - so even with no English channels, there will usually be something on in a comprehensible language, same goes for cinemas - so you should be safe for a lazy rainy day. Nearly all hotels will have CNN and the BBC World Service available.
If you want update with local news, the Copenhagen Post is the country's sole English newspaper, it is published weekly and available in many bars and Cafés in Copenhagen, while much harder to find in the rest of the country.
Online you can follow Danish news in English at:
  • The Copenhagen Post (neutral) [85]
  • Politiken (centrist) [86]
  • Jyllands Posten (right) [87]
  • Denmark.dk (official news) [88]
  • DR (public broadcaster) [89]

Get out

North Atlantic

For historical reasons, Denmark is a central hub for access to the truly fascinating North Atlantic region, with direct flights to and from several cities on Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland. Hanstholm in Northwestern Jutland has weekly ferry services to Torshavn on the Faroe Islands and Seyðisfjörður on Iceland. Longyearbyen on Svalbard can be reached from several cities, once or twice weekly with a single stopover in Oslo.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DENMARK (Danmark), a small kingdom of Europe, occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast. The kingdom lies between 54° 33' and 57° 45' N. and between 8 ° 4' 54" and 12° 47' 25" E., exclusive of the island of Bornholm, which, as will be seen, is not to be included in the Danish archipelago. The peninsula is divided between Denmark and Germany (Schleswig-Holstein). The Danish portion is the northern and the greater, and is called Jutland (Dan. Jylland). Its northern part is actually insular, divided from the mainland by the Limfjord or Liimfjord, which communicates with the North Sea to the west and the Cattegat to the east, but this strait, though broad and possessing lacustrine characteristics to the west, has only very narrow entrances. The connexion with the North Sea dates from 1825. The Skagerrack bounds Jutland to the north and north-west. The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden.
There is little variety in the surface of Denmark. It is uniformly low, the highest elevation in the whole country, the Himmelbjerg near Aarhus in eastern Jutland, being little more than 500 ft. above the sea. Denmark, however, is nowhere low in the sense in which Holland is; the country is pleasantly diversified, and rises a little at the coast even though it remains flat inland. The landscape of the islands and the south-eastern part of Jutland is rich in beech-woods, corn-fields and meadows, and even the minute islets are green and fertile. In the western and northern districts of Jutland this condition gives place to a wide expanse of moorland, covered with heather, and ending towards the sea in low whitish-grey cliffs. There is a certain charm even about these monotonous tracts, and it cannot be said that Denmark is wanting in natural beauty of a quiet order. Lakes, though small, are numerous; the largest are the Arresii and the Esromso in Zealand, and the chain of lakes in the Himmelbjerg region, which are drained by the largest river in Denmark, the Gudenaa, which, however, has a course not exceeding 80 m. Many of the meres, overhung with thick beechwoods, are extremely beautiful. The coasts are generally low and sandy; the whole western shore of Jutland is a succession of sand ridges and shallow lagoons, very dangerous to shipping. In many places the sea has encroached; even in the 19th century entire villages were destroyed, but during the last twenty years of the century systematic efforts were made to secure the coast by groynes and embankments. A belt of sand dunes, from Soo yds. to 7 m. wide, stretches along the whole of this coast for about 200 m. Skagen, or the Skaw, a long, low, sandy point, stretches far into the northern sea, dividing the Skagerrack from the Cattegat. On the western side the coast is bolder and less inhospitable; there are several excellent havens, especially on the islands. The coast is nowhere, however, very high, except at one or two points in Jutland, and at the eastern extremity of Moen, where limestone cliffs occur.
Continental Denmark is confined wholly to Jutland, the geographical description of which is given under that heading. Out of the total area of the kingdom, 14,829 sq. m., Jutland, including the small islands adjacent to it, covers 9753 sq. m., and the insular part of the kingdom (including Bornholm), 5076 sq. m. The islands may be divided into two groups, consisting of the two principal islands Fiinen and Zealand, and the lesser islands attendant on each. Fiinen (Dan. Fyen), in form roughly an oval with an axis from S.E. to N.W. of 53 m., is separated from Jutland by a channel not half a mile wide in the north, but averaging io m. between the island and the Schleswig coast, and known as the Little Belt. Fiinen, geologically a part of southern Jutland, has similar characteristics, a smiling landscape of fertile meadows, the typical beech-forests clothing the low hills and the presence of numerous erratic blocks, are the superficial signs of likeness. Several islands, none of great extent, lie off the west coast of Fiinen in the Little Belt; off the south, however, an archipelago is enclosed by the long narrow islands of Aerti (16 m. in length) and Langeland (32 m.), including in a triangular area of shallow sea the islands of Taasinge, Avernako, Dreio, Turo and others. These are generally fertile and well cultivated. Aeroskjobing and Rudkjobing, on Aero and Langeland respectively, are considerable ports. On Langeland is the great castle of Tranekjaer, whose record dates from the 13th century. The chief towns of Fiinen itself are all coastal. Odense is the principal town, lying close to a great inlet behind the peninsula of Hindsholm on the north-east, known as Odense Fjord. .Nyborg on the east is the port for the steam-ferry to Korsor in Zealand; Svendborg picturesquely overlooks the southern archipelago; Faaborg on the south-west lies on a fjord of the same name; Assens, on the west, a port for the crossing of the Little Belt into Schleswig, still shows traces of the fortifications which were stormed by John of Ranzau in 1 535; Middelfart is a seaside resort near the narrowest reach of the Little Belt; Bogense is a small port on the north coast.^ The key issue is that many of them show little desire to fit into their adopted country.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

All these towns are served by railways radiating from Odense. The strait crossed by the Nyborg-Korsor ferry is the Great Belt which divides the Fiinen from the Zealand group, and is continued south by the LangeIands Belt, which washes the straight eastern shore of that island, and north by the Samso Belt, named from an island 15 m. in length, with several large villages, which lies somewhat apart from the main archipelago.
Zealand, or Sealand (Dan. Sjaelland), measuring 82 m. N. to S. by 68 E. to W. (extremes), with its fantastic coast-line indented by fjords and projecting into long spits or promontories, may be considered as the nucleus of the kingdom, inasmuch as it contains the capital, Copenhagen, and such important towns as Roskilde, Slagelse, Korsor, Naestved and Elsinore (Helsingor). Its topography is described in detail under Zealand. Its attendant islands lie mainly to the south and are parts of itself, only separated by geologically recent troughs. The eastern coast of Moen is rocky and bold. It is recorded that this island formed three separate isles in 1 ioo, and the village of Borre, now 2 m. inland, was the object of an attack by a fleet from Lubeck in 1510. On Falster is the port of NykjObing, and from Gjedser, the extreme southern point of Denmark, communication is maintained with Warnemiinde in Germany (29 m.). From NykjObing a bridge nearly one-third of a mile long crosses to Laaland, at the west of which is the port of Nakskov; the other towns are the county town of Maribo with its fine church of the 14th century, SaxkjObing and ROdby. The island of Bornholm lies 86 m. E. of the nearest point of the archipelago, and as it belongs geologically to Sweden (from which it is distant only 22 m.) must be considered to be physically an appendage rather than an internal part of the kingdom of Denmark.
Table of contents

Geology

The surface in Denmark is almost everywhere formed by the so-called Boulder Clay and what the Danish geologists call the Boulder Sand. The former, as is well known, owes its origin to the action of ice on the mountains of Norway in the Glacial period. It is unstratified; but by the action of water on it, stratified deposits have been formed, some of clay, containing remains of arctic animals, some, and very extensive ones, of sand and gravel. This boulder sand forms almost everywhere the highest hills, and besides, in the central part of Jutland, a wide expanse of heath and moorland apparently level, but really sloping gently towards the west. The deposits of the boulder formation rest generally on limestone of the Cretaceous period, which in many places comes near the surface and forms cliffs on the sea-coast. Much of the Danish chalk, including the wellknown limestone of Faxe, belongs to the highest or " Danian " subdivision of the Cretaceous period. In the south-western parts a succession of strata, described as the Brown Coal or Lignite formations, intervenes between the chalk and the boulder clay; its name is derived from the deposits of lignite which occur in it. It is only on the island of Bornholm that older formations come to light. This island agrees in geological structure with the southern part of Sweden, and forms, in fact, the southernmost portion of the Scandinavian system. There the boulder clay lies immediately on the primitive rock, except in the south-western corner of the island, where a series of strata appear belonging to the Cambrian, Silurian, Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, the true Coal formation, &c., being absent. Some parts of Denmark are supposed to have been finally raised out of the sea towards the close of the Cretaceous period; but as a whole the country did not appear above the water till about the close of the Glacial period. The upheaval of the country, a movement common to a large part of the Scandinavian peninsula, still continues, though slowly, north-east of a line drawn in a south-easterly direction from Nissumfjord on the west coast of Jutland, across the island of Fyen, a little south of the town of Nyborg. Ancient seabeaches, marked by accumulations of seaweed, rolled stones, &c., have been noticed as much as 20 ft. above the present level. But the upheaval does not seem to affect all parts equally. Even in historic times it has vastly changed the aspect and configuration of the country.

Climate, Flora, Fauna

The climate of Denmark does not differ materially from that of Great Britain in the same latitude; but whilst the summer is a little warmer, the winter is colder, so that most of the evergreens which adorn an English garden in the winter cannot be grown in the open in Denmark. During thirty years the annual mean temperature varied from 43.88° F. to 46 22° in different years and different localities, the mean average for the whole country being 45.14°. The islands have, upon the whole, a somewhat warmer climate than Jutland. The mean temperatures of the four coldest months, December to March, are 33.26°, 31. 64°, 31 82°, and 33.98° respectively, or for the whole winter 32.7°; that of the summer, June to August, 59.2 °, but considerable irregularities occur. Frost occurs on an average on twenty days in each of the four winter months, but only on two days in either October or May. A fringe of ice generally lines the greater part of the Danish coasts on the eastern side for some time during the winter, and both the Sound and the Great Belt are at times impassable on account of ice. In some winters the latter is sufficiently firm and level to admit of sledges passing between Copenhagen and Malmo. The annual rainfall varies between 21 58 in. and 27.87 in. in different years and different localities. It is highest on the west coast of Jutland;. while the small island of Anholt in the Cattegat has an annual rainfall of only 15.78 in. More than half the rainfall occurs from July to November, the wettest month being September, with an average of 2.95 in.; the driest month is April, with an average of 1 14 in. Thunderstorms are frequent in the summer. South-westerly winds prevail from January to March, and from September to the end of the year. In April the east wind, which is particularly searching, is predominant, while westerly winds prevail from May to August. In the district of Aalborg, in the north of Jutland, a cold and dry N.W. wind called skai prevails in May and June, and is exceedingly destructive to vegetation; while along the west coast of the peninsula similar effects are produced by a salt mist, which carries its influence from 15 t& 30 m. inland.
The flora of Denmark presents greater variety than might. be anticipated in a country of such simple physical structure. The ordinary forms of the north of Europe grow freely in the mild air and protected soil of the islands and the eastern coast; while on the heaths and along the sandhills on the Atlantic side there flourish a number of distinctive species. The Danish forest is almost exclusively made up of beech, a tree which thrives better in Denmark than in any other country of Europe. The oak and ash are now rare, though in ancient times both were abundant in the Danish islands. The elm is also scarce. The almost. universal predominance of the beech is by no means of ancient origin, for in the first half of the 17th century the oak was still the characteristic Danish tree. .No conifer grows in Denmark except under careful cultivation, which, however, is largely practised in Jutland.^ Seeking Islamic law: Muslim leaders openly declare their goal of introducing Islamic law once Denmark's Muslim population grows large enough - a not-that-remote prospect.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

But again, abundant traces of ancient extensive forests of fir and pine are found in the numerous. peat bogs which supply a large proportion of the fuel locally used. In Bornholm, it should be mentioned, the flora is more like that of Sweden; not the beech, but the pine, birch and ash are the most abundant trees.
The wild animals and birds of Denmark are those of the rest of central Europe. The larger quadrupeds are all extinct; even the red deer, formerly so abundant that in a single hunt in Jutland in 1593 no less than 1600 head of deer were killed, is now only to be met with in preserves. In the prehistoric " kitchenmiddens " (kj okkenmodding) and elsewhere, however, vestiges are found which prove that the urochs, the wild boar, the beaver, the bear and the wolf all existed subsequently to the arrival of man. The usual domestic animals are abundantly found in Denmark, with the exception of the goat, which is uncommon. The sea fisheries are of importance. Oysters are found in some places, but have disappeared from many localities, where their abundance in ancient times is proved by their shell moulds on the coast. The Gudenaa is the only salmon river in Denmark.

Population

The population of Denmark in 1901 was 2,449,540. It was 929,001 in 1801, showing an increase during the century in the proportion of 1 to 2.63. In 1901 the average density of the population of Denmark was 165.2 to the square mile, but varied much in the different parts. Jutland showed an average of only 109 inhabitants per square mile, whilst on the islands, which had a total population of 1,385,537, the average stood at 272.95, owing, on the one hand, to the fact that large tracts in the interior of Jutland are almost uninhabited, and on the other to the fact that the capital of the country, with its proportionately large population, is situated on the island of Zealand. The percentages of urban and rural population are respectively about 38 and 62. A notable movement of the population to the towns began about the middle of the 19th century, and increased until very near its end. It was stronger on the islands, where the rural population increased by 5.3% only in eleven years, whereas in Jutland the increase of the rural population between 1890 and 1901 amounted to 12.0%. Here, however, peculiar circumstances contributed to the increase, as successful efforts have been made to render the land fruitful by artificial means. The English Miles ro ao 30 Albae -tbae Capitals of Counties County Boundaries Railways --i--- Canals Marshes  ?_ - ' 1s3nge ? rr b 1'? j ?2t - od &rederiks Riedyerikssun' nae ?l"? T ? l ' ..
COP;H?C?E - Iiin e ?® ? A ?st an?[i? ?
RodV.tg
Vi k?nde } f ?' = ? $ditk6 I{ ` ? ? A'°E ,,. K. ': xisser Roskilde tin; ?? _ _ er $ ? e ?-; tagsnamn qsselh';P' Pi.: ...: g ingst d ., ... ska?r ? -' _Faist Etadersleoe' K ?HoUe Ringe ae /,r ggers =erg. "?` ° Steens -lint S ore_Heddinge ..
= {l. b0 t??, _ ?? skaa ,?
.° 5° d ? vPa ?4? ? m-rk - - Dreio. ° t=.
?skJ'.
Geting Rddby edseMdde„ =eh Zurgsi tienliufg ort.:i-f Longitude East io of Greenwich C ? e acr - eto {? rtt_? n ?,?; T s a. Vtnd s?a1 Na ys'koa _.
Bandhotm aPPet A Danes are a yellow-haired and blue-eyed Teutonic race of middle stature, bearing traces of their kinship with the northern Scandinavian peoples. .Their habits of life resemble those of the North Germans even more than those of the Swedes.^ Those who quote "If you can't convince them, confuse them" are more dangerous than the suicide bombers.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The independent tenure of the land by a vast number of small farmers, who are their own masters, gives an air of carelessness, almost of truculence, to the well-to-do Danish peasants. They are generally slow of speech and manner, and somewhat irresolute, but take an eager interest in current politics, and are generally fairly educated men of extreme democratic principles. The result of a fairly equal distribution of wealth is a marked tendency towards equality in social intercourse. The townspeople show a bias in favour of French habits and fashions. .The separation from the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which were more than half German, intensified the national character; the Danes are intensely patriotic; and there is no portion of the Danish dominions except perhaps in the West Indian islands, where a Scandinavian language is not spoken.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ The further assumption that more than half of all rapists in Denmark are Muslims is without any basis in fact, as criminal registers do not record religion.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The preponderance of the female population over the male is approximately as 1052 to 1000. The male sex remains in excess until about the twentieth year, from which age the female sex preponderates in increasing ratio with advancing age. The percentage of illegitimacy is high as a whole, although in some of the rural districts it is very low. But in Copenhagen 20% of the births are illegitimate. Between the middle and the end of the 19th century the rate of mortality decreased most markedly for all ages. During the last decade of the century it ranged between 19.5 per thousand in 1891 and 15.1 in 1898 (17.4 in 1900). Emigration for some time in the 19th century at different periods, both in its early part and towards its close, seriously affected the population of Denmark. But in the last decade it greatly diminished. Thus in 1892 the number of emigrants to Transatlantic places rose to 10,422 but in 1900 it was only 3570. The great bulk of them go to the United States; next in favour is Canada.

Communications

The roads of Denmark form an extensive and well-maintained system. The railway system is also fairly complete, the state owning about three-fifths of the total mileage, which amounts to some 2000. Two lines enter Denmark from Schleswig across the frontier. The main Danish lines are as follows. From the frontier a line runs east by Fredericia, across the island of Flinen by Odense and Nyborg, to Korsiir on Zealand, and thence by Roskilde to Copenhagen. The straits between Fredericia and Middelfart and between Nyborg and Korsor are crossed by powerful steam-ferries which are generally capable of conveying a limited number of railway wagons. This system is also in use on the line which runs south fromRoskilde to the island of Falster, from the southernmost point of which, Gjedser, ferrysteamers taking railway cars serve Warnemunde in Germany. The main lines in Jutland run (a) along the eastern side north from Fredericia by Horsens, Aarhus, Randers, Aalborg and HjOrring, to Frederikshavn, and (b) along the western side from Esbjerg by Skjerne and Vemb, and thence across the peninsula by Viborg to Langaa on the eastern line. The lines are generally of standard gauge (q. ft. 82 in.), but there is also a considerable mileage of light narrow-gauge railways. Besides the numerous steam-ferries which connect island and island, and Jutland with the islands, and the Gjedser-Warnemiinde route, a favourite passenger line from Germany is that between Kiel and KorsOr, while most of the German Baltic ports have direct connexion with Copenhagen. With Sweden communications are established by ferries across the Sound between Copenhagen and Malmo and Landskrona, and between Elsinore (Helsingor) and Helsingborg. The postal department maintains a telegraph and telephone service.

Industries

The main source of wealth in Denmark is agriculture, which employs about two-fifths of the entire population. Most of the land is freehold and cultivated by the owner himself, and comparatively little land is let on lease except very large holdings and glebe farms. The independent small farmer (bonder) maintains a hereditary attachment to his ancestral holding. There is also a class of cottar freeholders (junster). Fully 74% of the total area of the country is agricultural land.
Of this only about one-twelfth is meadow land. The land under grain crops is not far short of one-half the remainder, the principal crops being oats, followed by barley and rye in about equal quantities, with wheat about one-sixth that of barley and hardly one-tenth that of oats. Beet is extensively grown. During the last forty years of the 19th century dairy-farming was greatly developed in Denmark, and brought to a high degree of perfection by the application of scientific methods and the best machinery, as well as by the establishment of joint dairies. The Danish government has assisted this development by granting money for experiments and by a rigorous system of inspection for the prevention of adulteration. The co-operative system plays an important part in the industries of butter-making, poultry-farming and the rearing of swine.
Rabbits, which are not found wild in Denmark, are bred for export. Woods cover fully 7% of the area, and their preservation is considered of so much importance that private owners are under strict control as regards cutting of timber. The woods consist mostly of beech, which is principally used for fuel, but pines were extensively planted during the 19th century. Allusion has been made already to the efforts to plant the extensive heaths in Jutland with pine-trees.

Agriculture

Rates and taxes on land are mostly levied according to a uniform system of assessment, the unit of which is called a Tonde Hartkorn. The Td. Htk., as it is usually abbreviated, has further subdivision, and is intended to correspond to the same value of land throughout the country. The Danish measure for land is a Tonde Land (Td. L.), which is equal to 1.363 statute acres. Of the best ploughing land a little over 6 Td. L., or about 8 acres, go to a Td. Htk., but of unprofitable land a Td. Htk. may represent 300 acres or more. On the islands and in the more fertile part of Jutland the average is about 10 Td. L., or 132 acres. Woodland, tithes, &c., are also assessed to Td. Htk. for fiscal purposes. In the island of Bornholm, the assessment is somewhat different, though the general state of agricultural holdings is the same as in other parts. The selling value of land has shown a decrease in modern times on account of the agricultural depression. A homestead with land assessed less than 1 Td. Htk. is legally called a Huus or Sted, i.e. cottage, whilst a farm assessed at 1 Td. Htk. or more is called Gaard, i.e. farm. Farms of between 1 and 12 Td. Htk. are called Bondergaarde, or peasant farms, and are subject to the restriction that such a holding cannot lawfully be joined to or entirely merged into another. They may be subdivided, and portions may be added to another holding, but the homestead, with a certain amount of land, must be preserved as a separate holding for ever. The seats of the nobility and landed gentry are called Herregaarde. The peasants hold about 73% of all the land according to its value. As regards their size about 30% are assessed from 1 to 4 Td. Htk.; about 33% from 4 to 8 Td. Htk.; the remainder at about 8 Td. Htk. An annual sum is voted by parliament out of which loans are granted to cottagers who desire to purchase small freehold plots.
The fishery along the coasts of Denmark is of some importance both on account of the supply of food obtained thereby for the population of the country, and on account of the export; but the good fishing grounds, not far from the Danish coast, particularly in the North Sea, are mostly worked by the fishing vessels of other nations, which are so numerous that the Danish government is obliged to keep gun-boats stationed there in order to prevent encroachments on territorial waters.
[GOVERNMENT

Other Industries

The mineral products of Denmark are unimportant. It is one of the poorest countries of Europe in this particular. It is rich, however, in clays, while in the island of Bornholm there are quarries of freestone and marble. The factories of Denmark supply mainly local needs. The largest are those engaged in the construction of engines and iron ships. The manufacture of woollens and cotton, the domestic manufacture of linen in Zealand, sugar refineries, paper mills, breweries, and distilleries may also be mentioned. The most notable manufacture is that of porcelain. The nucleus of this industry was a factory started in 1772, by F. H. Muller, for the making of china out of Bornholm clay. In 1779 it passed into the hands of the state, and has remained there ever since, though there are also private factories. Originally the Copenhagen potters imitated the Dresden china made at Meissen, but they later produced graceful original designs. The creations of Thorvaldsen have been largely repeated and imitated in this ware. Tradeunionism flourishes in Denmark, and strikes are of frequent occurrence.

Commerce

Formerly the commercial legislation of Denmark was to such a degree restrictive that imported manufactures had to be delivered to the customs, where they were sold by public auction, the proceeds of which the importer received from the custom-houses after a deduction was made for the duty. To this restriction, as regards foreign intercourse, was added a no less injurious system of inland duties impeding the commerce of the different provinces with each other. The want of roads also, and many other disadvantages, tended to keep down the development of both commerce and industry. .During the 19th century, however, several commercial treaties were concluded between Denmark and the other powers of Europe, which made the Danish tariff more regular and liberal.^ However, the new Danish government has made it extremely difficult for Danish citizens to bring a foreign spouse to Denmark.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The vexed question, of many centuries' standing, concerning the claim of Denmark to levy dues on vessels passing through the Sound, was settled by the abolition of the dues in 1857. The commerce of Denmark is mainly based on home production and home consumption, but a certain quantity of goods is imported with a view to re-exportation, for which the free port and bonded warehouses at Copenhagen give facilities. In modern times the value of Danish commerce greatly increased, being doubled in the last twenty years of the 19th century, and exceeding a total of fifty millions sterling. The value of export is exceeded as a whole by that of import in the proportion, roughly, of 1 to 1.35. By far the most important articles of export may be classified as articles of food of animal origin, a group which covers the vast export trade in the dairy produce, especially butter, for which Denmark is famous. The value of the butter for export reaches nearly 40% of the total value of Danish exports. A small proportion of the whole is imported chiefly from Russia (also Siberia) and Sweden and re-exported as of foreign origin. The production of margarine is large, but not much is exported, margarine being largely consumed in Denmark instead of butter, which is exported. Next to butter the most important article of Danish export is bacon, and huge quantities of eggs are also exported. Exports of less value, but worthy of special notice, are vegetables and wool, bones and tallow, also dairy machinery, and finally cement, the production of which is a growing industry. The classes of articles of food of animal origin, and living animals, are the only ones of which the exportation exceeds the importation; with regard to all other goods, the reverse is the case. In the second of these classes the most important export is home-bred horned cattle. The trade in live sheep and swine, which was formerly important, has mostly been converted into a dead-meat trade. A proportionally large importation of timber is caused by the scarcity of native timber suitable for building purposes, the plantations of firs and pines being insufficient to produce the quantity required, and the quality of the wood being inferior beyond the age of about forty years. The large importation of coal, minerals and metals, and goods made from them is likewise caused by the natural poverty of the country in these respects.
Denmark carries on its principal import trade with Germany, Great Britain and the United States of America, in this order, the proportions being about 30, 20 and 16% respectively of the total. Its principal export trade is with Great Britain, Germany and Sweden, the percentage of the whole being 60, 18 and 10. With Russia, Norway and France (in this order) general trade is less important, but still large. A considerable proportion of Denmark's large commercial fleet is engaged in the carrying trade between foreign, especially British, ports.
Under a law of the 4th of May 1907 it was enacted that the metric system of weights and measures should come into official use in three years from that date, and into general use in five years.

Money and Banking

The unit of the Danish monetarysystem, as of the Swedish and Norwegian, is the krone (crown), equal to is. 13d., which is divided into ioo Ore; consequently 72 ore are equal to one penny. Since 1873 gold has been the standard, and gold pieces of 20 and 10 kroner are coined, but not often met with, as the public prefers bank-notes. The principal bank is the National Bank at Copenhagen, which is the only one authorized to issue notes. These are of the value of 10, 50, loo and Soo kr. Next in importance are the Danske Landmands Bank, the Handels Bank and the Private Bank, all at Copenhagen. The provincial banks are very numerous; many of them are at the same time savings banks. Their rate of interest, with few exceptions, is 31 to 4%. There exist, besides, in Denmark several mutual loan associations (Kreditforeninger), whose business is the granting of loans on mortgage. Registration of mortgages is compulsory in Denmark, and the system is extremely simple, a fact which has been of the greatest importance for the improvement of the country. There are comparatively large institutions for insurance of all kinds in Denmark. The largest office for life insurance is a state institution. By law of the 9th of April 1891 a system of old-age pensions was established for the benefit of persons over sixty years of age.

Government

.Denmark is a limited monarchy, according to the law of 1849, revised in 1866. The king shares his power with the parliament (Rigsdag), which consists of two chambers, the Landsthing and the Folkething, but the constitution contains no indication of any difference in their attributes.^ Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, two members of the Danish parliament, are "offended" by our article "Muslim Extremism: Denmark's had Enough" (Aug.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The Landsthing, or upper house, however, is evidently intended to form the conservative element in the constitutional machinery. While the 114 members of the Folkething (House of Commons) are elected for three years in the usual way by universal suffrage, 12 out of the 66 members of the Landsthing are life members nominated by the crown. The remaining S4 members of the Landsthing are returned for eight years according to a method of proportionate representation by a body of deputy electors. Of these deputies one-half are elected in the same way as members of the Folkething, without any property qualification for the voters; the other half of the deputy electors are chosen in the towns by those who during the last preceding year were assessed on a certain minimum of income, or paid at least a certain amount in rates and taxes. In the rural districts the deputy electors returned by election are supplemented by an equal number of those who have paid the highest amounts in taxes and county rates together. In this manner a representation is secured for fairly large minorities, and what is considered a fair share of influence on public affairs given to those who contribute the most to the needs of the state. The franchise is held byevery male who has reached his thirtieth year, subject to independence of public charity and certain other circumstances. A candidate for either house of the Rigsdag must have passed the age of twenty-five. Members are paid ten kroner each day of the session and are allowed travelling expenses. The houses meet each year on the first Monday in October. .The constitutional theory of the Folkething is that of one member for every 16,000 inhabitants.^ If present trends persist, one sociologist estimates, every third inhabitant of Denmark in 40 years will be Muslim.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

.The Faeroe islands, which form an integral part of the kingdom of Denmark in the wider sense, are represented in the Danish parliament, but not the other dependencies of the Danish crown, namely Iceland, Greenland and the West Indian islands of St Thomas, St John and St Croix.^ Elisabeth Arnold and Elsebeth Gerner Nielsen, two members of the Danish parliament, are "offended" by our article "Muslim Extremism: Denmark's had Enough" (Aug.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The budget is considered by the Folkething at the beginning of each session. The revenue and expenditure average annually about f4,700,000. The principal items of revenue are customs and excise, land and house tax, stamps, railways, legal fees, the state lottery and death duties. A considerable reserve fund is maintained to meet emergencies. The public debt is about -f13,50o,000 and is divided into an internal debt, bearing interest generally at 32%, and a foreign debt (the larger), with interest generally at 3%. The revenue and expenditure of the Faeroes are included in the budget for Denmark proper, but Iceland and the West Indies have their separate budgets. The Danish treasury receives nothing from these possessions; on the contrary, Iceland receives an annual grant, and the West Indian islands have been heavily subsidized by the Danish finances to assist the sugar industry. The administration of Greenland entails an annual loss which is posted on the budget of the ministry of finances. The state council (Statsraad) includes the presidency of the council and ministries of war, and marine, foreign affairs, the interior, justice, finance, public institution and ecclesiastical, agriculture and public works.

Local Government

For administrative purposes the country is divided into eighteen counties (Amter, singular Amt), as follows. (I) Covering the islands of Zealand and lesser adjacent islands, Copenhagen, Frederiksborg, Holbaek, Soro, Praesto. (2) Covering the islands of Laaland and Falster, Maribo. (3) Covering Fiinen, Langeland and adjacent islets, Svendborg, Odense. (4) On the mainland, HjOrring, Aalborg, Thisted, RingkjObing, Viborg, Randers, Aarhus, Vejle, Ribe. (5) Bornholm. The principal civil officer in each of these is the Amtmand. Local affairs are managed by the Amstraad and Sogneraad, corresponding to the English county council and parish council. These institutions date from 1841, but they have undergone several modifications since. The members of these councils are elected on a system similar to that applied to the elections for the Landsthing. The same is the case with the provincial town councils. That of Copenhagen is elected by those who are rated on an income of at least 400 kroner (2 2). The burgomasters are appointed by the crown, except at Copenhagen, where they are elected by the town council, subject to royal approbation. The financial position of the municipalities in Denmark is generally good. The ordinary budget of Copenhagen amounts to about 1,100,000 a year.

Justice

For the administration of justice Denmark is divided into herreds or hundreds; as, however, they are mostly of small extent, several are generally served by one judge (herredsfoged); the townships are likewise separate jurisdictions, each with a byfoged. There are 126 such local judges, each of whom deals with all kinds of cases arising in his district, and is also at the head of the police. There are two intermediary Courts of Appeal (Overret), one in Copenhagen, another in Viborg; the Supreme Court of Appeal (Hojesteret) sits at Copenhagen. In the capital the different functions are more divided. There is also a Court of Commerce and Navigation, on which leading members of the trading community serve as assessors. In the country, Land Commissions similarly constituted deal with many questions affecting agricultural holdings. A peculiarity of the Danish system is that, with few exceptions, no civil cause can be brought before a court until an attempt has been made at effecting an amicable settlement. .This is mostly done by so-called Committees of Conciliation, but in some cases by the court itself before commencing formal judicial proceedings.^ Comments are screened for relevance, substance, and tone, and in some cases edited before posting.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

In this manner three-fifths of all the causes are settled, and many which remain unsettled are abandoned by the plaintiffs. Sanitary matters are under the control of a Board of Health. .The whole country is divided into districts, in each of which a medical man is appointed with a salary, who is under the obligation to attend to poor sick and assist the authorities in medical matters, inquests, &c.^ No one can bring into the country an intended spouse under the age of 24.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The relief of the poor is well organized, mostly on the system of out-door relief. Many workhouses have been established for indigent persons capable of work. There are also many almshouses and similar institutions.

Army and Navy

The active army consists of a life guard battalion and 10 infantry regiments of 3 battalions each, infantry, 5 cavalry regiments of 3 squadrons each, 12 field batteries (now re-armed with a Krupp Q.F. equipment), 3 battalions of fortress artillery and 6 companies of engineers, with in addition various local troops and details. The peace strength of permanent troops, without the annual contingent of recruits, is about 13,500 officers and men, the annual contingent of men trained two or three years with the colours about 22,500, and the annual contingent of special reservists (men trained for brief periods) about 17,000. Thus the number of men maintained under arms (without calling up the reserves) is as high as 75,000 during certain periods of the year and averages nearly 60,000. Reservists who have definitively left the colours are recalled for short refresher trainings, the number of men so trained in 1907 being about 80,000. The field army on a war footing, without depot troops, garrison troops and reservists, would be about 50,000 strong, but by constituting new cadres at the outbreak of war and calling up the reserves it could be more than doubled, and as a matter of fact nearly 120,000 men were with the colours in the manoeuvre season in 1907. The term of service is eight years in the active army and its reserves and eight years in the second line. The armament of the infantry is the Krag-jorgensen of -314 in. calibre, model 1889, that of the field artillery a 7 . 5 cm. Krupp Q.F. equipment, model 1902. The navy consists of 6 small battleships, 3 coast defence armour-clads, 5 protected cruisers, 5 gun-boats, and 24 torpedo craft.

Religion

The national or state church of Denmark is officially styled " Evangelically Reformed," but is popularly described as Lutheran. The king must belong to it. .There is complete religious toleration, but though most of the important Christian communities are represented their numbers are very small.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The Mormon apostles for a considerable time made a special raid upon the Danish peasantry and a few hundreds profess this faith. There are seven dioceses, Fiinen, Laaland and Falster, Aarhus, Aalborg, Viborg and Ribe, while the primate is the bishop of Zealand, and resides at Copenhagen, but his cathedral is at Roskilde. The bishops have no political function by reason of their office, although they may, and often do, take a prominent part in politics. The greater part of the pastorates comprise more than one parish. The benefices are almost without exception provided with good residences and glebes, and the tithes, &c., generally afford a comfortable income. The bishops have fixed salaries in lieu of tithes appropriated by the state.

Education and Arts

.The educational system of Denmark is maintained at a high standard.^ Racism in Swedish Education system (Offer low quality courses in English but high quality courses in Swedish) [198 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The instruction in primary schools is gratuitous. .Every child is bound to attend the parish school at least from the seventh to the thirteenth year, unless the parents can prove that it receives suitable instruction in other ways.^ Jewish parents were told by one school principal that she could not guarantee their children's safety and were advised to attend another institution.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The schools are under the immediate control of school boards appointed by the parish councils, but of which the incumbent of the parish is ex-officio member; superior control is exercised by the Amtmand, the rural dean, and the bishop, under the Minister for church and education. Secondary public schools are provided in towns, in which moderate school fees are paid. There are also public grammar-schools. Nearly all schools are day-schools. There are only two public schools, which, though on a much smaller scale, resemble the great English schools, namely, those of Soro and Herlufsholm, both founded by private munificence. Private schools are generally under a varying measure of public control. The university is at Copenhagen. Amongst numerous other institutions for the furtherance of science and training of various kinds may be mentioned the large polytechnic schools; the high school for agriculture and veterinary art; the royal library; the royal society of sciences; the museum of northern antiquities; the society of northern antiquaries, &c. The art museums of Denmark are not considerable, except the museum of Thorvaldsen, at Copenhagen, but much is done to provide first-rate training in the fine arts and their application to industry through the Royal Academy of Arts, and its schools. Finally, it may be mentioned that a sum proportionately large is available from public funds and regular parliamentary grants for furthering science and arts by temporary subventions to students, authors, artists and others of insufficient means, in order to enable them to carry out particular works, to profit by foreign travel, &c. The principal scientific societies and institutions are detailed under Copenhagen. During the earlier part of the 19th century not a few men could be mentioned who enjoyed an exceptional reputation in various departments of science, and Danish scientists continue to contribute their full share to the advancement of knowledge. The society of sciences, that of northern antiquaries, the natural history and the botanical societies, &c., publish their transactions and proceedings, but the Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, of which 14 volumes with 259 plates were published (1861-1884), and which was in the foremost rank in its department, ceased with the death in 1884 of the editor, the distinguished zoologist, I. C. Sch16dte.
Another extremely valuable publication of wide general interest, the Meddelelser om Gronland, is published by the commission for the exploration of Greenland. What may be called the modern " art " current, with its virtues and vices, is as strong in Denmark as in England. Danish sculpture will be always famous, if only through the name of Thorvaldsen. In architecture the prevailing fashion is a return to the style of the first half of the i 7th century, called the Christian IV. style; but in this branch of art no marked excellence has been obtained.
Authorities.-J. P. Trap, Statistisk Topographisk Beskrivelse of Kongeriget Danmark (Copenhagen, 1859-1860, 3 vols., 2nd ed., 1872-1879); V. Falbe-Hansen and W. Scharling, Danmarks Statistik (Copenhagen, 1878-1891, 6 vols.). (Various writers) Vort Folk i det nittende Aarhundrede (Copenhagen, 1899 et seq.), illustrated; J. Carlsen, H. Olrik and C. N. Starcke, Le Danemark (Copenhagen, 1900), 700 pp.; illustrated, published in connexion with the Paris Exhibition. Statistisk Aarbog (1896, &c.). Annual publication, and other publications of Statens Statistiske Bureau, Copenhagen; Annuaire meteorologique, Danish Meteorological Institution, Copenhagen; E. Loffler, Dcinemarks Natur and Volk (Copenhagen, 1905); Margaret Thomas, Denmark Past and Present (London, 1902).
(C. A. G.; O. J. R. H.) History Ancient. - Our earliest knowledge of Denmark is derived from Pliny, who speaks of three islands named " Skandiai," a name which is also applied to Sweden. He says nothing about the inhabitants of these islands, but tells us more about the Jutish peninsula, or Cimbric Chersonese as he calls it. He places the Saxons on the neck, above them the Sigoulones, Sabaliggoi and Kobandoi, then the Chaloi, then above them the Phoundousioi, then the Charondes and finally the Kimbroi. He also mentions the three islands called Alokiai, at the northern end of the peninsula. This would point to the fact that the Limfjord was then open at both ends, and agree with Adam of Bremen (iv. 16), who also speaks of three islands called Wendila, Morse and Thud. The Cimbri and Charydes are mentioned in the Monumentum Ancyranum as sending embassies to Augustus in A.D. 5. The Promontorium Cimbrorum is spoken of in Pliny, who says that the Sinus Codanus lies between it and Mons Saevo. The latter place is probably to be found in the highlying land on the N.E. coast of Germany, and the Sinus Codanus must be the S.W. corner of the Baltic, and not the whole sea. Pomponius Mela says that the Cimbri and Teutones dwelt on the Sinus Codanus, the latter also in Scandinavia (or Sweden). The Romans believed that these Cimbri and Teutones were the same as those who invaded Gaul and Italy at the end of the 2nd century B.C. The Cimbri may probably be traced in the province of Aalborg, formerly known as Himmerland; the Teutones, with less certainty, may be placed in Thyth or Thyland, north of the Limfjord. No further reference to these districts is found till towards the close of the migration period, about the beginning of the 6th century, when the Heruli, a nation dwelling in or near the basin of the Elbe, were overthrown by the Langobardi. According to Procopius (Bellum Gothicum, ii. 1 5), a part of them made their way across the " desert of the Sla y s," through the lands of the Warni and the Danes to Thoule (i.e. Sweden). This is the first recorded use of the name " Danes." It occurs again in Gregory of Tours (Historiae Francorum, iii. 3) in connexion with an irruption of a GStish (loosely called Danish) fleet into the Netherlands (c. 520). From this time the use of the name is fairly common. The heroic poetry of the Anglo-Saxons may carry the name further back, though probably it is not very ancient, at all events on the mainland.
According to late Danish tradition Denmark now consisted of Vitheslaeth (i.e. Zealand, Moen, Falster and Laaland), Jutland (with Fyen) and Skaane. Jutland was acquired by Dan, the eponymous ancestor of the Danes. He also won Skaane, including the modern provinces of Halland, Kristianstad, MalmOhus and Blekinge, and these remained part of Denmark until the middle of the 17th century. These three divisions always remained more or less distinct, and the Danish kings had to be recognized at Lund, Ringsted and Viborg, but Zealand was from time immemorial the centre of government, and Lejre was the royal seat and national sanctuary. According to tradition this dates from the time of Skitildr, the eponymous ancestor of the Danish royal family of Skikildungar. He was a son of Othin and husband of the goddess Gefjon, who created Zealand. AngloSaxon tradition also speaks of Scyld (i.e. Skioldr), who was regarded as the ancestor of both the Danish and English royal families, and it represented him as coming as a child of unknown origin in a rudderless boat. There can be little doubt that from a remote antiquity Zealand had been a religious sanctuary, and very probably the god Nerthus was worshipped here by the Angli and other tribes as described in Tacitus (Germania, c. 40). The Lejre sanctuary was still in existence in the time of Thietmar of Merseburg (i. 9), at the beginning of the 11th century.
In Scandinavian tradition the next great figure is Frole the peace-king, but it is not before the 5th century that we meet with the names of any kings which can be regarded as definitely historical. In Beowulf we hear of a Danish king Healfdene, who had three sons, Heorogar, Hrothgar and Halga. The hero Beowulf comes to the court of Hrothgar from the land of the G6tar, where Hygelac is king. This Hygelac is undoubtedly to be identified with the Chochilaicus, king of the Danes (really Gotar) who, as mentioned above, made a raid against the Franks c. 520. Beowulf himself won fame in this campaign, and by the aid of this definite chronological datum we can place the reign of Healfdene in the last half of the 5th century, and that of Hrothgar's nephew Hrothwulf, son of Halga, about the middle of the 6th century. Hrothgar and Halga correspond to Saxo's Hroar and Helgi, while Hrothwulf is the famous Rolvo or Hrolfr Kraki of Danish and Norse saga. There is probably some historical truth in the story that Heoroweard or Hiorvar6r was responsible for the death of Hrolfr Kraki. Possibly a still earlier king of Denmark was Sigarr or Sigehere, who has won lasting fame from the story of his daughter Signy and her lover Hagbar5r.
From the middle of the 6th to the beginning of the 8th century we know practically nothing of Danish history. There are numerous kings mentioned in Saxo, but it is impossible to identify them historically. We have mention at the beginning of the 8th century of a Danish king Ongendus (cf. .O. E. Ongenpeow) who received a mission led by St Willibrord, and it was probably about this time that there flourished a family of whom tradition records a good deal.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The founder of this line was Ivarr Viofa6mi of Skaane, who became king of Sweden. His daughter Auo'r married one Hroerekr and became the mother of Haraldr Hilditonn. The genealogy of Haraldr is given differently in Saxo, but there can be no doubt of his historical existence. In his time it is said that the land was divided into four kingdoms - Skaane, Zealand, Fyen and Jutland. After a reign of great splendour Haraldr met his death in the great battle of Bravalla (Bravik in OstergOtland), where he was opposed by his nephew Ring, king of Sweden.
The battle probably took place about the year 750. Fifty years later the Danes begin to be mentioned with comparative frequency in continental annals. From 777-798 we have mention of a certain Sigifridus as king of the Danes, and then in 804 his name is replaced by that of one Godefridus. This Godefridus is the Godefridus-Guthredus of Saxo, and is to be identified also with Guc rti r the Yngling, king in Vestfold in Norway. He came into conflict with Charlemagne, and was preparing a great expedition against him when he was killed by one of his own followers (c. 810). He was succeeded by his brother Hemmingus, but the latter died in 812 and there was a disputed succession. The two claimants were " Sigefridus nepos Godefridi regis " and " Anulo nepos Herioldi quondam regis " (i.e. probably Haraldr Hilditonn). A great battle took place in which both claimants were slain, but the party of Anulo (0.N. Ali) were victorious and appointed as kings Anulo's brothers Herioldus and Reginfridus. They soon paid a visit to Vestfold, " the extreme district of their realm, whose peoples and chief men were refusing to be made subject to them," and on their return had trouble with the sons of Godefridus. The latter expelled them from their kingdom, and in 814 Reginfridus fell in a vain attempt to regain it. Herioldus now received the support of the emperor, and after several unsuccessful attempts a compromise was effected in 819 when the parties agreed to share the realm. In 820 Herioldus was baptized at Mainz and received from the emperor a grant of Riustringen in N.E. Friesland. In 827 he was expelled from his kingdom, but St Anskar, who had been sent with Herioldus to preach Christianity, remained at his post. In 836 we find one Hone as king of the Danes; he was probably a son of Godefridus. During his reign there was trouble with the emperor as to the overlordship of Frisia. In the meantime Herioldus remained on friendly terms with Lothair and received a further grant of Walcheren and the neighbouring districts. In 850 Horic was attacked by his own nephews and compelled to share the kingdom with them, while in 852 Herioldus was charged with treachery and slain by the Franks. In 854 a revolution took place in Denmark itself. Horic's nephew Godwin, returning from exile with a large following of Northmen, overthrew his uncle in a three days' battle in which all members of the royal house except one boy are said to have perished. This boy now became king as " Horicus junior." Of his reign we know practically nothing. The next kings mentioned are Sigaf rid and Halfdane, who were sons of the great Viking leader Ragnarr Loobrok. There is also mention of a third king named Godefridus. The exact chronology and relationship of these kings it is impossible to determine, but we know that Healfdene died in Scotland in 877, while Godefridus was treacherously slain by Henry of Saxony in 885. During these and the next few years there is mention of more than one king of the names Sigefridus and Godefridus: the most important event associated with their names is that two kings Sigefridus and Godefridus fell in the great battle on the Dyle in 891.
We now have the names of several kings, Heiligo, Olaph (of Swedish origin), and his sons Chnob and Gurth. Then come a Danish ruler Sigeric, followed by Hardegon, son of Swein, coming from Norway. At some date after 916 we find mention of one "Hardecnuth Urm " ruling among the Danes. Adam of Bremen, from whom these details come, was himself uncertain whether " so many kings or rather tyrants of the Danes ruled together or succeeded one another at short intervals." Hardecnuth Urm is to be identified with the famous Gorm the old, who married Thyra Danmarkarbot: their son was Harold Bluetooth.
(A. M w.) Medieval and Modern. - Danish history first becomes authentic at the beginning of the 9 th century. The Danes, the southernmost branch of the Scandinavian family, referred to by Alfred (c. 890) as occupying Jutland, the islands and Scania, were, in 777, strong enough to defy the Frank empire by harbouring its fugitives. Five years later we find a Danish king, Sigf rid, among the princes who assembled at Lippe in 782 to make their submission to Charles the Great. About the same time Willibrord, from his see at Utrecht, made an unsuccessful attempt to convert the " wild Danes." These three salient facts are practically the sum of our knowledge of early Danish history previous to the Viking period. That mysterious upheaval, most generally attributed to a love of adventure, stimulated by the pressure of over-population, began with the ravaging of Lindisfarne in 793, and virtually terminated with the establishment of Rollo in Normandy (9r r). There can be little doubt that the earlier of these expeditions were from Denmark, though the term Northmen was originally applied indiscriminately to all these terrible visitants from the unknown north. The rovers who first chastened and finally colonized southern England and Normandy were certainly Danes.
The Viking raids were one of the determining causes of the establishment of the feudal monarchies of western Europe, but the untameable freebooters were themselves finally subdued by the Church. At first sight it seems curious that Christianity should have been so slow to reach Denmark. But we must bear in mind that one very important consequence of the Viking raids was to annihilate the geographical remoteness which had hitherto separated Denmark from the Christian world. Previously to 793 there lay between Jutland and England a sea which no keel had traversed within the memory of man. .The few and peaceful traders who explored those northern waters were careful never to lose sight of the Saxon, Frisian and Frankish shores during their passage.^ The Danish role during WW2..for those who don't know.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Nor was communication with the west by land any easier. For generations the obstinately heathen Saxons had lain, a compact and impenetrable mass, between Scandinavia and the Frank empire, nor were the measures adopted by Charles the Great for the conversion of the Saxons to the true faith very much to the liking of their warlike Danish neighbours on the other side. But by the time that Charles had succeeded in " converting " the Saxons, the Viking raids were already at their height, and though generally triumphant, necessity occasionally taught the Northmen the value of concessions. Thus it was the desire to secure his Jutish kingdom which induced Harold Klak, in 826, to sail up the Rhine to Ingelheim, and there accept baptism, with his wife, his son Godfred and 400 of his suite, acknowledging the emperor as his overlord, and taking back with him to Denmark the missionary monk Ansgar. .Ansgar preached in Denmark from 826 to 861, but it was not till after the subsidence of the Viking raids that Adaldag, archbishop of Hamburg, could open a new and successful mission, which resulted in the erection of the bishoprics of Schleswig, Ribe and Aarhus (c. 948), though the real conversion of Denmark must be dated from the baptism of King Harold Bluetooth (960).^ Contrary to media reports, the real news from Denmark is not flirting with fascism but getting mired in inertia.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula, and the other Scandinavian kingdoms. Harold Bluetooth Danis expansion. (94 o -9 86) subdued German territory south of the p Eider, extended the Danevirke, Denmark's great line of defensive fortifications, to the south of Schleswig and planted the military colony of Julin or Jomsborg, at the mouth of the Oder. Part of Norway was first seized after the united Danes and Swedes had defeated and slain King Olaf Trygvesson at the battle of Svolde (1000); and between 1028 and 1035 Canute the Great added the whole kingdom to his own; but the union did not long survive him. Equally short-lived was the Danish dominion in England, which originated in a great Viking expedition of King Sweyn I.
The period between the death of Canute the Great and the accession of Valdemar I. was a troublous time for Denmark. .The kingdom was harassed almost incessantly, and more than once partitioned,by pretenders to the throne, who did not scruple to invoke the interference of the neighbouring monarchs, and even of the heathen Wends, who established themselves for a time on the southern islands.^ Those who quote "If you can't convince them, confuse them" are more dangerous than the suicide bombers.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Yet, throughout this chaos, one thing made for future stability, and that was the growth and consolidation of a national church, which culminated in the erection of the archbishopric of Lund (c. 1104) and the consequent ecclesiastical independence of Denmark. The third archbishop of Lund was Absalon (1128-1201), Denmark's first great statesman, who so materially assisted Valdemar I. (1157-1182) and Canute VI. (1182-1202) to establish the dominion of Denmark over the Baltic, mainly at the expense of the Wends. The policy of Absalon was continued on a still vaster scale by Valdemar II. (1202-1241), at a time when the German kingdom was too weak and distracted to intervene to save its seaboard; but the treachery of a vassal and the loss of one great battle sufficed to plunge this unwieldy, unsubstantial empire in the dust. (See Valdemar I., Ii., and Absalon.) Yet the age of the Valdemars was one of the most glorious in Danish history, and it is of political importance as marking a. turning-point. Favourable circumstances had, from the first, given the Danes the lead in Scandinavia. They held the richest and therefore the most populous lands, and geographically they were nearer than their neighbours to western civilization.. Under the Valdemars, however, the ancient patriarchal system. was merging into a more complicated development, of separate estates. The monarchy, now dominant, and far wealthier than before, rested upon the support of the great nobles, many of whom held their lands by feudal tenure, and constituted the royal Raad, or council. The clergy, fortified by royal privileges, had also risen to influence; but celibacy and independence of the civil courts tended to make them more and more of a separate caste. Education was spreading. Numerous Danes, lay as well as clerical, regularly frequented the university of Paris. There were signs too of the rise of a vigorous middle class, due to the extraordinary development of the national resources (chiefly the herring fisheries, horse-breeding and cattle-rearing) and the foundation of gilds, the oldest of which, the Edslag of Schleswig, dates from the early 12th century. The bonder, or yeomen, were prosperous and independent, with well-defined rights. Danish territory extended over 60,000 sq. kilometres, or nearly double its present area; the population was about 700,000; and 160,000 men and 1400 ships were available for national defence.
On the death of Valdemar II. a period of disintegration ensued. Valdemar's son, Eric Plovpenning, succeeded him as king; but his near kinsfolk also received huge appanages, and Period of family discords led to civil wars. Throughout the disintegra- 1 th and part of the 1 4th century, struggle ra ed tion. 3 P 4 Y? gg g between the Danish kings and the Schleswig dukes; and of six monarchs no fewer than three died violent deaths. Superadded to these troubles was a prolonged struggle for supremacy between the popes and the crown, and, still more serious, the beginning of a breach between the kings and nobles, which had important constitutional consequences. The prevalent disorder had led to general lawlessness, in consequence of which the royal authority had been widely extended; and a strong opposition gradually arose which protested against the abuses of this authority. In 1282 the nobles extorted from King Eric Glipping the first Haandfaestning, or charter, which recognized the Danehof, or national assembly, as a regular branch of the administration and gave guarantees against further usurpations. Christopher II. (1319-1331) was constrained to grant another charter considerably reducing the prerogative, increasing the privileges of the upper classes, and at the same time reducing the burden of taxation. But aristocratic licence proved as mischievous as royal incompetence; and on the death of Christopher II. the whole kingdom was on the verge of dissolution. Eastern Denmark was in the hands of one magnate; another magnate held Jutland and Fiinen in pawn; the dukes of Schleswig were practically independent of the Danish crown; the Scandian provinces had (1332) surrendered themselves to Sweden.
It was reserved for another Valdemar (Valdemar IV., q.v.) to reunite and weld together the scattered members of his heritage. Vatde= His long reign (1340-1375) resulted in the re-establish- mar IV., ment of Denmark as the great Baltic power. It is also 1340= a very interesting period of her social and constitutional 1375. development. This great ruler, who had to fight, year after year, against foreign and domestic foes, could, nevertheless, always find time to promote the internal prosperity of his much afflicted country. For the dissolution of Denmark, during the long anarchy, had been internal as well as external. The whole social fabric had been convulsed and transformed. The monarchy had been undermined. The privileged orders had aggrandized themselves at the expense of the community. The yeoman class had sunk into semi-serfdom. .In a word, the natural cohesion of the Danish nation had been loosened and there was no security for law and justice.^ For Adib Farakish: There's no reason to be upset [432 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ There are no moderate muslims [57 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

To make an end of this universal lawlessness Valdemar IV. was obliged, in the first place, to re-establish the royal authority by providing the crown with a regular and certain income. This he did by recovering the alienated royal demesnes in every direction, and from henceforth the annual landgilde, or rent, paid by the royal tenants, became the monarch's principal source of revenue. Throughout his reign Valdemar laboured incessantly to acquire as much land as possible. Moreover, the old distinction between the king's private estate and crown property henceforth ceases; all such property was henceforth regarded as the hereditary possession of the Danish crown.
The national army was also re-established on its ancient footing. Not only were the magnates sharply reminded that they held their lands on military tenure, but the towns were also made to contribute both men and ships, and peasant levies, especially archers, were recruited from every parish. Everywhere indeed Valdemar intervened personally. The smallest detail was not beneath his notice. Thus he invented nets for catching wolves and built innumerable water-mills, " for he would not let the waters run into the sea before they had been of use to the community." Under such a ruler law and order were speedily reestablished. The popular tribunals regained their authority, and a supreme court of justice, Det Kongelige Retterting, presided over by Valdemar himself, not only punished the unruly and guarded the prerogatives of the crown, but also protected the weak and defenceless from the tyranny of the strong. Nor did Valdemar hesitate to meet his people in public and periodically render an account of his stewardship. He voluntarily resorted to the old practice of summoning national assemblies, the so-called Danehof. At the first of these assemblies held at Nyborg, Midsummer Day 1314, the bishops and councillors solemnly promised that the commonalty should enjoy all the ancient rights and privileges conceded to them by Valdemar II., and the wise provision that the Danehof should meet annually considerably strengthened its authority. The keystone to the whole constitutional system was " King Valdemar's Charter "issued in May 1360 at the Rigsmiide, or parliament, held at Kalundborg in May 1360. This charter was practically an act of national pacification, the provisions of which king and people together undertook to enforce for the benefit of the commonweal.
The work of Valdemar was completed and consolidated by his illustrious daughter Margaret (1 375 - 1 4 12), whose crowning achievement was the Union of Kalmar (1397), whereby she sought to combine the three northern kingdoms The Union f o into a single state dominated by Denmark. In any 1397Kalma, case Denmark was bound to be the only gainer by the Union. Her population was double that of the two other kingdoms combined, and neither Margaret nor her successors observed the stipulations that each country should retain its own laws and customs and be ruled by natives only. In both Norway and Sweden, therefore, the Union was highly unpopular. The Norwegian aristocracy was too weak, however, seriously to endanger the Union at any time, but Sweden was, from the first, decidedly hostile to Margaret's whole policy. Nevertheless during her lifetime the system worked fairly well; but her pupil and successor, Eric of Pomerania, was unequal to the burden of empire and embroiled himself both with his neighbours and his subjects. The Hanseatic League, whose political ascendancy had been shaken by the Union, enraged by Eric's efforts to bring in the Dutch as commercial rivals, as well as by the establishment of the Sound tolls, materially assisted the Holsteiners in their twenty-five years' war with Denmark (1410-35), and Eric VII. himself was finally deposed (1439) in favour of his nephew, Christopher of Bavaria.
The deposition of Eric marks another turning-point in Danish history. It was the act not of the people but of the Rigsraad (Senate), which had inherited the authority of the Growth of ancient Danehof and, after the death of Margaret, the power grew steadily in power at the expense of the crown. of the As the government grew more and more aristocratic, nobles. the position of the peasantry steadily deteriorated. It is under Christopher that we first hear, for instance, of the Vornedskab, or patriarchal control of the landlords over their tenants, a system which degenerated into rank slavery. In Jutland, too, after the repression, in 1441, of a peasant rising, something very like serfdom was introduced.
On the death of Christopher III. without heirs, in 1448, the Rigsraad elected his distant cousin, Count Christian of Oldenburg, king; but Sweden preferred Karl Knutsson (Charles " VIII."), while Norway finally combined with Denmark, at the conference of Halmstad, in a double of the Union.
HISTORY]
election which practically terminated the Union, though an agreement was come to that the survivor of the two kings should reign over all three kingdoms. Norway, subsequently, threw in her lot definitively with Denmark. Dissensions resulting in interminable civil wars had, even before the Union, exhausted the resources of the poorest of the three northern realms; and her ruin was completed by the ravages of the Black Death, which wiped out two-thirds of her population. .Unfortunately, too, for Norway's independence, the native gentry had gradually died out, and were succeeded by immigrant Danish fortune-hunters; native burgesses there were none, and the peasantry were mostly thralls; so that, excepting the clergy, there was no patriotic class to stand up for the national liberties.^ Unfortunately for them, Danish voters do see the problems and threw their coalition out of office last November.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Far otherwise was it in the wealthier kingdom of Sweden. Here the clergy and part of the nobility were favourable to the Union; but the vast majority of the people hated it as a foreign usurpation. Matters were still further complicated by the continual interference of the Hanseatic League; and Christian I. (1448-1481) and Hans (1481-1513), whose chief merit it is to have founded the Danish fleet, were, during the greater part of their reigns, only nominally kings of Sweden. Hans also received in fief the territory of Dietmarsch from the emperor, but, in attempting to subdue the hardy Dietmarschers, suffered a crushing defeat in which the national banner called " Danebrog " fell into the enemy's hands (1500). .Moreover, this defeat led to a successful rebellion in Sweden, and a long and ruinous war with Lubeck, terminated by the peace of Malmo, 151 2. It was during this war that a strong Danish fleet dominated the Baltic for the first time since the age of the Valdemars.^ In a momentous election last November, a center-right coalition came to power that - for the first time since 1929 - excluded the socialists.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

On the succession of Hans's son, Christian II. (1513-1523), Margaret's splendid dream of a Scandinavian empire seemed, finally, about to be realized. The young king, a man Christian of character andenius had wide views and original IL, 1513= g 1523. ideas. Elected king of Denmark and Norway, he suc ceeded in subduing Sweden by force of arms; but he spoiled everything at the culmination of his triumph by the hideous crime and blunder known as the Stockholm massacre, which converted the politically divergent Swedish nation into the irreconcilable foe of the unional government (see Christian Ii.). Christian's contempt of nationality in Sweden is the more remarkable as in Denmark proper he sided with the people against the aristocracy, to his own undoing in that age of privilege and prejudice. His intentions, as exhibited to his famous Landelove (National Code), were progressive and enlightened to an eminent degree; so much so, indeed, that they mystified the people as much as they alienated the patricians; but his actions were often of revolting brutality, and his whole career was vitiated by an incurable double-mindedness which provoked general distrust. Yet there is no doubt that Christian II. was a true patriot, whose ideal it was to weld the three northern kingdoms into a powerful state, independent of all foreign influences, especially of German influence as manifested in the commercial tyranny of the Hansa League. His utter failure was due, partly to the vices of an undisciplined temperament, and partly to the extraordinary difficulties of the most inscrutable period of European history, when the shrewdest heads were at fault and irreparable blunders belonged to the order of the day. That period was the period of the Reformation, which profoundly affected the politics of Scandinavia. Christian II. had always subordinated religion to politics, and was Papist or Lutheran according to circumstances. But, though he treated the Church more like a foe than a friend and was constantly at war with the Curia, he retained the Catholic form of church worship and never seems to have questioned the papal supremacy. On the flight of Christian II. and the election of his uncle, Frederick I. (1523 - Frederick 1 533), the Church resumed her jurisdiction and every- 1., 1523= thing was placed on the old footing. The newly 1533. The elected and still insecure German king at first remained Reforma= neutral; but in the autumn of 1525 the current of tion. Lutheranism began to run so strongly in Denmark as to threaten to whirl away every opposing obstacle. This novel and disturbing phenomenon was mainly due to the zeal and eloquence of the ex-monk Hans Tausen and his associates, or disciples, Peder Plad and Sadolin; and, in the autumn of 1526, Tausen was appointed one of the royal chaplains. The three ensuing years were especially favourable for the Reformation, as during that time the king had unlooked-for opportunities for filling the vacant episcopal sees with men after his own heart, and at heart he was a Lutheran. The reformation movement in Denmark was further promoted by Schleswig-Holstein influence. Frederick's eldest son Duke Christian had, since 1527, resided at Haderslev, where he collected round him Lutheran teachers from Germany, and made his court the centre of the propaganda of the new doctrine. On the other hand, the Odense Recess of the 10th of August 1527, which put both confessions on a footing of equality, remained unrepealed; and so long as it remained in force, the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishops, and, consequently, their authority over the " free preachers " (whose ambition convulsed all the important towns of Denmark and aimed at forcibly expelling the Catholic priests from their churches) remained valid, to the great vexation of the reformers. The inevitable ecclesiastical crisis was still further postponed by the superior stress of two urgent political events - Christian II.'s invasion of Norway (1531) and the outbreak, in 1533, of " Grevens fejde," or " The Count's War " (1534-36), The the count in question being Christopher of Oldenburg, count's great-nephew of King Christian I., whom Lubeck and War, her allies, on the death of Frederick I., raised up 1533= against Frederick's son Christian III. The Catholic 3?' party and the lower orders generally took the part of Count Christopher, who acted throughout as the nominee of the captive Christian II., while the Protestant party, aided by the Holstein dukes and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, sided with Christian III. The war ended with the capture of Copenhagen by the forces of Christian III., on the 29th of July 1536, and the triumph of so devoted a Lutheran sealed the fate of the Roman Catholic Church in Denmark, though even now it was necessary for the victorious king to proceed against the bishops and their friends by a coup d'etat, engineered by his German generals the Rantzaus. The Recess of 1536 enacted that the bishops should forfeit their temporal and spiritual authority, and that all their property should be transferred to the crown for the good of the commonwealth. In the following year a Church ordinance, based upon the canons of Luther, 1Vlelanchthon and B ugenhagen, was drawn up, submitted to Luther for his approval, and promulgated on the 2nd of September 1537. On the same day seven " superintendents," including Tausen and Sadolin, all of whom had worked zealously for the cause of the Reformation, were consecrated in place of the dethroned bishops. The position of the superintendents and of the reformed church generally was consolidated by the Articles of Ribe in 1542, and the constitution of the Danish church has practically continued the same to the present day. But Catholicism could not wholly or immediately be dislodged by the teaching of Luther. It had struck deep roots into the habits and feelings of the people, and traces of its survival were distinguishable a whole century after the triumph of the Reformation. Catholicism lingered longest in the cathedral chapters. Here were to be found men of ability proof against the eloquence of Hans Tausen or Peder Plad and quite capable of controverting their theories - men like Povl Helgesen, for instance, indisputably the greatest Danish theologian of his day, a scholar whose voice was drowned amidst the clash of conflicting creeds.
Though the Reformation at first did comparatively little for education,' and the whole spiritual life of Denmark was poor and feeble in consequence for at least a generation afterwards the change of religion was of undeniable, if of  ? g g ? theEffects Re temporary, benefit to the state from the political formation. point of view. The enormous increase of the royal revenue consequent upon the confiscation of the property of the Church could not fail to increase the financial stability of the monarchy. In particular the suppression of the monasteries benefited the crown in two ways. The old church had, indeed, frequently rendered the state considerable financial aid, but such voluntary assistance was, from the nature of the case, casual and arbitrary. Now, however, the state derived a fixed and certain revenue from the confiscated lands; and the possession 1 It is true the university was established on the 9th of September 1537, but its influence was of very gradual growth and small at first.
of immense landed property at the same time enabled the crown advantageously to conduct the administration. The gross revenue of the state is estimated to have risen threefold. Before the Reformation the annual revenue from land averaged 400,000 bushels of corn; after the confiscations of Church property it averaged 1,200,000 bushels. The possession of a full purse materially assisted the Danish government in its domestic administration, which was indeed epoch-making. It enabled Christian III. to pay off his German mercenaries immediately after the religious coup d'etat of 1536. It enabled him to prosecute shipbuilding with such energy that, 'by 1550, the royal fleet numbered at least thirty vessels, which were largely employed as a maritime police in the pirate-haunted Baltic and North Seas. It enabled him to create and remunerate adequately a capable official class, which proved its efficiency under the strictest supervision, and ultimately produced a whole series of great statesmen and admirals like Johan Friis, Peder Oxe, Herluf Trolle and Peder Skram. It is not too much to say that the increased revenue derived from the appropriation of Church property, intelligently applied, gave Denmark the hegemony of the North during the latter part of Christian III.'s reign, the whole reign of Frederick II. and the first twenty-five years of the reign of Christian IV., a period embracing, roughly 1544= speaking, eighty years (1544-1626). Within this period 1626. Denmark was indisputably the leading Scandinavian power. While Sweden, even after the advent of Gustavus Vasa, was still of but small account in Europe, Denmark easily held her own in Germany and elsewhere, even against Charles V., and was important enough, in 1553, to mediate a peace between the emperor and Saxony. .Twice during this period Denmark and Sweden measured their strength in the open field, on the first occasion in the " Scandinavian Seven Years' War " (1562-70), on the second in the " Kalmar War " (1611-13), and on both occasions Denmark prevailed, though the temporary advantage she gained was more than neutralized by the intense feeling of hostility which the unnatural wars, between the two kindred peoples of Scandinavia, left behind them.^ The next nine months did witness some fine-tuning of procedures: Immigrants now must live seven years in Denmark (rather than three) to become permanent residents.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ The further assumption that more than half of all rapists in Denmark are Muslims is without any basis in fact, as criminal registers do not record religion.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Still, the fact remains that, for a time, Denmark was one of the great powers of Europe. Frederick II., in his later years (1571-1588), aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he was able to enforce the rule that all foreign ships should strike their topsails to Danish men-of-war as a token of his right to rule the northern seas. Favourable political circumstances also contributed to this general acknowledgment of Denmark's maritime greatness. The power of the Hansa had gone; the Dutch were enfeebled by their contest with Spain; England's sea-power was yet in the making; Spain, still the greatest of the maritime nations, was exhausting her resources in the vain effort to conquer the Dutch. Yet more even than to felicitous circumstances, Denmark owed her short-lived greatness to the great statesmen and administrators whom Frederick II. succeeded in gathering about him. Never before, since the age of Margaret, had Denmark been so well governed, never before had she possessed so many political celebrities nobly emulous for the common good.
Frederick II. was succeeded by his son Christian IV. (April 4, 1588), who attained his majority on the 17th of August 1596, at the age of nineteen. The realm which Christian IV. was to govern had undergone great changes within the last of two generations. Towards the south the boundaries of the Danish state remained unchanged. Levensaa and 1v., 1588. the Eider still separated Denmark from the Empire. Schleswig was recognized as a Danish fief, in contradistinction to Holstein, which owed vassalage to the Empire. The " kingdom " stretched as far as Kolding and Skedborg, where the " duchy " began; and this duchy since its amalgamation with Holstein by means of a common Landtag, and especially since the union of the dual duchy with the kingdom on almost equal terms in 1533, was, in most respects, a semi-independent state. Denmark, moreover, like Europe in general, was, politically, on the threshold of a transitional period. During the whole course of the 16th century the monarchical form of government was in every large country, with the single exception of Poland, rising on the ruins of feudalism. The great powers of the late 16th and early 17th centuries were to be the strong, highly centralized, hereditary monarchies, like France, Spain and Sweden. There seemed to be no reason why Denmark also should not become a powerful state under the guidance of a powerful monarchy, especially as the sister state of Sweden was developing into a great power under apparently identical conditions. Yet, while Sweden was surely ripening into the dominating power of northern Europe, Denmark had as surely entered upon a period of uninterrupted and apparently incurable decline. What was the cause of this anomaly ? Something of course must be allowed for the superior and altogether extraordinary genius of the great princes of the house of Vasa; yet the causes of the decline of Denmark lay far deeper than this. They may roughly be summed up under two heads: the inherent weakness of an elective monarchy, and the absence of that public spirit which is based on the intimate alliance of ruler and ruled. Whilst Gustavus Vasa had leaned upon the Swedish peasantry, in other words upon the bulk of the Swedish nation, which was and continued to be an integral part of the Swedish body-politic, Christian III. on his accession had crushed the middle and lower classes in Denmark and reduced them to political insignificance. Yet it was not the king who benefited by this blunder. The Danish monarchy since the days of Margaret had continued to be purely elective; and a purely elective monarchy at that stage of the political development of Europe was a mischievous anomaly. It signified in the first place that the crown was not the highest power in the state, but was subject to the aristocratic Rigsraad, or council of state. The Rigsraad was the permanent owner of the realm and the crown-lands; the king was only their temporary administrator. If the king died before the election of his successor, the Rigsraad stepped into the king's place. Moreover, an elective monarchy implied that, at every fresh succession, the king was liable to be bound by a new Haandfaestning, or charter. The election itself might, and did, become a mere formality; but the condition precedent of election, the acceptance of the charter, invariably limiting the royal authority, remained a reality. This period of aristocratic rule, which dates practically from the accession of Frederick I. (1523), and lasted for nearly a century and a half, is known in Danish history as Adelsvaelde, or rule of the nobles.
Again, the king was the ruler of the realm, but over a very large portion of it he had but a slight control. The crown-lands and most of the towns were under his immediate jurisdiction, but by the side of the crown-lands lay the estates of the nobility, which already comprised about one-half of the superficial area of Denmark, and were in many respects independent of the central government both as regards taxation and administration. In a word, the monarchy had to share its dominion with the nobility; and the Danish nobility in the 16th century was one of the most exclusive and selfish aristocracies in Europe, and already far advanced in decadence. Hermetically sealing itself from any intrusion from below, it deteriorated by close and constant intermarriage; and it was already, both morally and intellectually, below the level of the rest of the nation. Yet this very aristocracy, whose claim to consideration was based not upon its own achievements but upon the length of its pedigrees, insisted upon an amplification of its privileges which endangered the economical and political interests of the state and the nation. The time was close at hand when a Danish magnate was to demonstrate that he preferred the utter ruin of his country to any abatement of his own personal dignity.
All below the king and the nobility were generally classified together as " subjects." Of these lower orders the clergy stood first in the social scale. As a spiritual estate, indeed, it had ceased to exist at the Reformation, though still represented in the Rigsdag or diet. Since then too it had become quite detached from the nobility, which ostentatiously despised the teaching profession. .The clergy recruited themselves therefore from the class next below them, and looked more and more to the crown for help and protection as they drew apart from the gentry, who, moreover, as dispensers of patronage, lost no opportunity of appropriating church lands and cutting down tithes.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The burgesses had not yet recovered from the disaster of " Grevens fejde "; but while the towns had become more dependent on the central power, they had at the same time been released from their former vexatious subjection to the local magnates, and could make their voices heard in the Rigsdag, where they were still, though inadequately, represented. Within the Estate of Burgesses itself, too, a levelling process had begun. The old municipal patriciate, which used to form the connecting link between the bourgeoisie and the nobility, had disappeared, and a feeling of common civic fellowship had taken its place. All this tended to enlarge the political views of the burgesses, and was not without its influence on the future. .Yet, after all, the prospects of the burgesses depended mainly on economic conditions; and in this respect there was a decided improvement, due to the increasing importance of money and commerce all over Europe, especially as the steady decline of the Hanse towns immediately benefited the trade of Denmark-Norway; Norway by this time being completely merged in the Danish state, and ruled from Copenhagen.^ Rotten in Denmark - the same all over Europe [2197 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

There can, indeed, be no doubt that the Danish and Norwegian merchants at the end of the i 6th century flourished exceedingly, despite the intrusion and competition of the Dutch and the dangers to neutral shipping arising from the frequent wars between England, Spain and the Netherlands.
At the bottom of the social ladder lay the peasants, whose condition had decidedly deteriorated. Only in one respect had they benefited by the peculiar conditions of the 16th century: the rise in the price of corn without any corresponding rise in the land-tax must have largely increased their material prosperity. Yet the number of peasant-proprietors had diminished, while the obligations of the peasantry generally had increased; and, still worse, their obligations were vexatiously indefinite, varying from year to year and even from month to month. They weighed especially heavily on the so-called Ugedasmaend, who were forced to work two or three days a week in the demesne lands. This increase of villenage morally depressed the peasantry, and widened still further the breach between the yeomanry and the gentry. Politically its consequences were disastrous. While in Sweden the free and energetic peasant was a salutary power in the state, which he served with both mind and plough, the Danish peasant was sinking to the level of a bondman. While the Swedish peasants were well represented in the Swedish Riksdag, whose proceedings they sometimes dominated, the Danish peasantry had no political rights or privileges whatever.
Such then, briefly, was the condition of things in Denmark when, in 1588, Christian IV. ascended the throne. Where so much was necessarily uncertain and fluctuating, there was room for an almost infinite variety of development. Much depended on the character and personality of the young prince who had now taken into his hands the reins of government, and for half a century was to guide the destinies of the nation. In the beginning of his reign the hand of the young monarch, who was nothing if not energetic, made itself felt in every direction. The harbours of Copenhagen, Elsinore and other towns were enlarged; many decaying towns were abolished and many new ones built under more promising conditions, including Christiania, which was founded in August 1624, on the ruins of the ancient city of Oslo. Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies. Copenhagen especially benefited by Christian IV.'s commercial policy. He enlarged and embellished it, and provided it with new harbours and fortifications; in short, did his best to make it the worthy capital of a great empire. But it was in the foreign policy of the government that the royal influence was most perceptible. Unlike Sweden, Denmark had remained outside the great religious-political movements which were the outcome of the Catholic reaction; and the peculiarity of her position made her rather hostile than friendly to the other Protestant states. The possession of the Sound enabled her to close the Baltic against the Western powers; the possession of Norway carried along with it the control of the rich fisheries which were Danish monopolies, and therefore a source of irritation to England and Holland. Denmark, moreover, was above all things a Scandinavian power. While the territorial expansion of Sweden in the near future was a matter of necessity, Denmark had not only attained, but even exceeded, her natural limits. Aggrandizement southwards, at the expense of the German empire, was becoming every year more difficult; and in every other direction she had nothing more to gain. Nay, more, Denmark's possession of the Scanian provinces deprived Sweden of her proper geographical frontiers. .Clearly it was Denmark's wisest policy to seek a close alliance with Sweden in their common interests, and after the conclusion of the " Kalmar War " the two countries did remain at peace for the next thirty-one years.^ The next nine months did witness some fine-tuning of procedures: Immigrants now must live seven years in Denmark (rather than three) to become permanent residents.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ If present trends persist, one sociologist estimates, every third inhabitant of Denmark in 40 years will be Muslim.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ For years, Danes lauded multiculturalism and insisted they had no problem with the Muslim customs - until one day they found that they did.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

But the antagonistic interests of the two countries in Germany during the Thirty Years' War precipitated a fourth contest between them (1643-45), in which Denmark would have been utterly ruined but for the heroism of King Christian IV. and his command of the sea during the crisis of the struggle. Even so, by the peace of Bromsebro (February 8, 1645) Denmark surrendered the islands of Oesel and Gotland and the provinces of Jemteland and Herjedal (in Norway) definitively, and Halland for thirty years.
The freedom from the Sound tolls was by the same treaty also extended to Sweden's Baltic provinces.
The peace of Bromsebro was the first of the long series of treaties, extending down to our own days, which mark the progressive shrinkage of Danish territory into an irreducible minimum. Sweden's appropriation of Danish soil had begun, and at the same time Denmark's power of resisting the encroachments of Sweden was correspondingly reduced. The Danish national debt, too, had risen enormously, while the sources of future income and consequent recuperation had diminished or disappeared. The Sound tolls, for instance, in consequence of the treaties of Bromsebro and Kristianopel (by the latter treaty very considerable concessions were made to the Dutch) had sunk from 400,000 to 140,000 rix-dollars. The political influence of the crown, moreover, had inevitably been weakened, and the conduct of foreign affairs passed from the hands of the king into the hands of the Rigsraad. On the accession of Frederick III. (1648-1670) moreover, the already diminished royal prerogative was still further curtailed by the Haandfaestning, or charter, which he was compelled to sign. Fear and hatred of Sweden, and the never abandoned hope of recovering the lost provinces, animated king and people alike; but it was Denmark's crowning misfortune that she possessed at this difficult crisis no statesman of the first rank, no one even approximately comparable with such competitors as Charles X. of Sweden or the " Great Elector " Frederick William of Brandenburg. From the very beginning of his reign Frederick III. was resolved upon a rupture at the first convenient opportunity, while the nation was, if possible, even more bellicose than the king. The apparently insuperable difficulties of Sweden in Poland was the feather that turned the scale; on the 1st of June 1657, Frederick III. signed the manifesto justifying a war which was never formally declared and brought Denmark to the very verge of ruin. The extraordinary details of this dramatic struggle will be found elsewhere (see FREDERICK III., king of Denmark, and Charles X., king of Sweden); suffice it to say that by the peace of Roskilde (February 26, 1658), Denmark consented to cede the three Scanian provinces, the island of Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Baahus and Trondhjem; to renounce all anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish [[Viii. 2 ?I]]., vessels, even when carrying foreign goods, from all tolls. These terrible losses were somewhat retrieved by the subsequent treaty of Copenhagen (May 27, 1660) concluded by the Swedish regency with Frederick III. after the failure of Charles X.'s second war against Denmark, a failure chiefly owing to the heroic defence of the Danish capital (1658-60). By this treaty Treaty of Sweden gave back the province of Trondhjem and the T Copen= isle of Bornholm and released Denmark from the most hagen, onerous of the obligations of the treaty of Roskilde.
1660. In fact the peace of Copenhagen came as a welcome break in an interminable series of disasters and humiliations. Anyhow, it confirmed the independence of the Danish state. On the other hand, if Denmark had emerged from the war with her honour and dignity unimpaired, she had at the same time tacitly surrendered the dominion of the North to her Scandinavian rival.
But the war just terminated had important political consequences, which were to culminate in one of the most curious and interesting revolutions of modern history. In the first place, it marks the termination of the Adelsvaelde, or rule of the nobility. By their cowardice, incapacity, fished, egotism and treachery during the crisis of the struggle, the Danish aristocracy had justly forfeited the respect of every other class of the community, and emerged from the war hopelessly discredited. On the other hand, Copenhagen, proudly conscious of her intrinsic importance and of her inestimable services to the country, whom she had saved from annihilation by her constancy, now openly claimed to have a voice in public affairs. Still higher had risen the influence of the crown. The courage and resource displayed by Frederick III. in the extremity of the national danger had won for " the least expansive of monarchs " an extraordinary popularity.
On the 10th of September 1660, the Rigsdag, which was to repair the ravages of the war and provide for the future, was opened with great ceremony in the Riddersaal of the castle of Copenhagen. The first bill laid before the Estates by the government was to impose an excise tax on the principal articles of consumption, together with subsidiary taxes on cattle, poultry, &c., in return for which the abolition of all the old direct taxes was promised. The nobility at first claimed exemption from taxation altogether, while the clergy and burgesses insisted upon an absolute equality of taxation. There were sharp encounters between the presidents of the contending orders, but the position of the Lower Estates was considerably prejudiced by the dissensions of its various sections. Thus the privileges of the bishops and of Copenhagen profoundly irritated the lower clergy and the unprivileged towns, and made a cordial understanding impossible, till Hans Svane, bishop of Copenhagen, and Hans Nansen the burgomaster, who now openly came forward as the leader of the reform movement, proposed that the privileges which divided the non-noble Estates should be abolished. In accordance with this proposal, the two Lower Estates, on the 16th of September, subscribed a memorandum addressed to the Rigsraad, declaring their willingness to renounce their privileges, provided the nobility did the same; which was tantamount to a declaration that the whole of the clergy and burgesses had made common cause against the nobility. The opposition so formed took the name of the " Conjoined Estates." The presentation of the memorial provoked an outburst of indignation. But the nobility soon perceived the necessity of complete surrender. On the 30th of September the First Estate abandoned its former standpoint and renounced its privileges, with one unimportant reservation.
The struggle now seemed to be ended, and the financial question having also been settled, the king, had he been so minded, might have dismissed the Estates. But the still more important question of reform was now raised. On the 17th of September the burgesses introduced a bill proposing a new constitution, which was to include local self-government in the towns, the abolition of serfdom, and the formation of a national army. It fell to the ground for want of adequate support; but another proposition, the fruit of secret discussion between the king and his confederates, which placed all fiefs under the control of the crown as regards taxation, and p rovided for selling and letting them to the highest bidder, was accepted by the Estate of burgesses. The significance of this ordinance lay in the fact that it shattered the privileged position of the nobility, by abolishing the exclusive right to the possession of fiefs. What happened next is not quite clear. Our sources fail us, and we are at the mercy of doubtful rumours and more or less unreliable anecdotes. We have a vision of intrigues, mysterious conferences, threats and bribery, dimly discernible through a shifting mirage of tradition.
The first glint of light is a letter, dated the 23rd of September, from Frederick III. to Svane and Nansen, authorizing them to communicate the arrangements already made to reliable men, and act quickly, as " if the others gain time they may possibly gain more." The first step was to make sure of the city trainbands: of the garrison of Copenhagen the king had no doubt. The headquarters of the conspirators was the bishop's palace near Vor Frue church, between which and the court messages were passing continually, and where the document to be adopted by the Conjoined Estates took its final shape. On the 8th of October the two burgomasters, Hans Nansen and Kristoffer Hansen, proposed that the realm of Denmark should be made over to the king as a hereditary kingdom, without prejudice to the privileges of the Estates; whereupon they proceeded to Brewer's Hall, and informed the Estate of burgesses there assembled of what had been done. A fiery oration from Nansen dissolved some feeble opposition; and simultaneously Bishop Svane carried the clergy along with him. The so-called " Instrument," now signed by the Lower Estates, offered the realm to the king and his house as a hereditary monarchy, by way of thank-offering mainly for his courageous deliverance of the kingdom during the war; and the Rigsraad and the nobility were urged to notify the resolution to the king, and desire him to maintain each Estate in its due privileges, and to give a written counterassurance that the revolution now to be effected was for the sole benefit of the state. Events now moved forward rapidly. On the 10th of October a deputation from the clergy and burgesses proceeded to the Council House where the Rigsraad were deliberating, to demand an answer to their propositions. After a tumultuous scene, the aristocratic Raad rejected the " Instrument " altogether, whereupon the deputies of the commons proceeded to the palace and were graciously received by the king, who promised them an answer next day. The same afternoon the guards in the streets and on the ramparts were doubled; on the following morning the gates of the city were closed, powder and bullets were distributed among the city train-bands, who were bidden to be in readiness when the alarm bell called them, and cavalry was massed on the environs of the city. The same afternoon the king sent a message to the Rigsraad urging them to declare their views quickly, as he could no longer hold himself responsible for what might happen. After a feeble attempt at a compromise the Raad gave way. On the 13th of October it signed a declaration to the effect that it associated itself still with the Lower Estates in the making over of the kingdom, as a hereditary monarchy, to his majesty and his heirs male and female. The same day the king received the official communication of this declaration and the congratulation of the burgomasters. Thus the ancient constitution was transformed; and Denmark became a monarchy hereditary in Frederick III. and his posterity.
But although hereditary sovereignty had been introduced, the laws of the land had not been abolished. The monarch was specifically now a sovereign over-lord, but he had not been absolved from his obligations towards his subjects. Hereditary sovereignty per se was not held to signify unlimited dominion, still less absolutism. On the contrary, the magnificent gift of the Danish nation to Frederick III. was made under express conditions. The " Instrument " drawn up by the Lower Estates implied the retention of all their rights; and the king, in accepting the gift of a hereditary crown, did not repudiate the implied inviolability of the privileges of the donors.
Unfortunately everything had been left so vague, that it was an easy matter for ultra-royalists like Svane and Nansen to ignore the privileges of the Estates, and even the Estates themselves.
On the 14th of October a committee was summoned to the palace to organize the new government. The discussion turned mainly upon two points, (I) whether a new oath of homage should be taken to the king, and (2) what was to be done with the Haandfaestning or royal charter. The first point was speedily decided in the affirmative, and, as to the second, it was ultimately decided that the king should be released from his path and the charter returned to him; but a rider was added suggesting that he should, at the same time, promulgate a Recess providing for his own and his people's welfare. Thus Frederick III. was not left absolutely his own master; for the provision regarding a Recess, or new constitution, showed plainly enough that such a constitution was expected, and, once granted, would of course have limited the royal power.
It now only remained to execute the resolutions of the committee. On the 17th of October the charter, which the king had sworn to observe twelve years before, was solemnly handed back to him at the palace, Frederick III. thereupon promising to rule as a Christian king to the satisfaction of all the Estates of the realm. On the following day the king, seated on the topmost step of a lofty tribune surmounted by a baldaquin, erected in the midst of the principal square of Copenhagen, received the public homage of his subjects of all ranks, in the presence of an immense concourse, on which occasion he again promised to rule " as a Christian hereditary king and gracious master," and, " as soon as possible, to prepare and set up " such a constitution as should secure to his subjects a Christian and indulgent sway. The ceremony concluded with a grand banquet at the palace. After dinner the queen and the clergy withdrew; but the king remained. An incident now occurred which made a strong impression on all present. With a brimming beaker in his hand, Frederick III. went up to Hans Nansen, drank with him and drew him aside. They communed together in a low voice for some time, till the burgomaster, succumbing to the influence of his potations, fumbled his way to his carriage with the assistance of some of his civic colleagues. .Whether Nansen, intoxicated by wine and the royal favour, consented on this occasion to sacrifice the privileges of his order and his city, it is impossible to say; but it is significant that, from henceforth, we hear no more of the Recess which the more liberal of the leaders of the lower orders had hoped for when they released Frederick III. from the obligations of the charter.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

We can follow pretty plainly the stages of the progress from a limited to an absolute monarchy. By an act dated the 10th = of January 1661, entitled " Instrument, or pragmatic sanction," of the king's hereditary right to the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, it was declared that rule. all the prerogatives of majesty, and " all regalia as an absolute sovereign lord," had been made over to the king. Yet, even after the issue of the " Instrument," there was nothing, strictly speaking, to prevent Frederick III. from voluntarily conceding to his subjects some share in the administration. Unfortunately the king was bent upon still further emphasizing the plenitude of his power. At Copenhagen his advisers were busy framing drafts of a Lex Regia Perpetua; and the one which finally won the royal favour was the famous Kongelov, or " King's Law." This document was in every way unique. In the first place it is remarkable for its literary excellence. Compared with the barbarous macaronic jargon of the contemporary official language it shines forth as a masterpiece of pure, pithy and original Danish. Still more remarkable are the tone and tenor of this royal law. The Kongelov has the highly dubious honour of being the one written law in the civilized world which fearlessly carries out absolutism to the last consequences. The monarchy is declared to owe its origin to the surrender of the supreme authority by the Estates to the king. The maintenance of the indivisibility of the realm and of the Christian faith according to the Augsburg Confession, and the observance of the Kongelov itself, are now the sole obligations binding upon the king. The supreme spiritual authority also is now claimed; and it is expressly stated that it becomes none to crown him; the moment he ascends the throne, crown and sceptre belong to him of right. Moreover, par. 26 declares guilty of lese-majeste whomsoever shall in any way usurp or infringe the king's absolute authority. In the following reign the ultra-royalists went further still. In their eyes the king was not merely autocratic, but sacrosanct. Thus before the anointing of Christian V. on the 7th of June 1671, a ceremony by way of symbolizing the new autocrat's humble submission to the Almighty, the officiating bishop of Zealand delivered an oration in which he declared that the king was God's immediate creation, His vicegerent on earth, and that it was the bounden duty of all good subjects to serve and honour the celestial majesty as represented by the king's terrestrial majesty. The Kongelov is dated and subscribed the 14th of November 1665, but was kept a profound secret, only two initiated persons knowing of its existence until after the death of Frederick III., one of them being Kristoffer Gabel, the king's chief intermediary during the revolution, and the other the author and custodian of the Kongelov, Secretary Peder Schumacher, better known as Griffenfeldt. It is significant that both these confidential agents were plebeians.
The revolution of 1660 was certainly beneficial to Norway. With the disappearance of the Rigsraad, which, as representing the Danish crown, had hitherto exercised sovereignty over both kingdoms, Norway ceased to be a subject principality. The sovereign hereditary king stood in exactly the same relations to both kingdoms; and 1660. thus, constitutionally, Norway was placed on an equality with Denmark, united with but not subordinate to it. It is clear that the majority of the Norwegian people hoped that the revolution would give them an administration independent of the Danish government; but these expectations were not realised. Till the cessation of the Union in 1814, Copenhagen continued to be the headquarters of the Norwegian administration; both kingdoms had common departments of state; and the common chancery continued to be called the Danish chancery. On the other hand the condition of Norway was now greatly improved. In January 1661 a land commission was appointed to investigate the financial and economical conditions of the kingdoms; the fiefs were transformed into counties; the nobles were deprived of their immunity from taxation; and in July 1662 the Norwegian towns received special privileges, including the monopoly of the lucrative timber trade.
The Enevaelde, or absolute monarchy, also distinctly benefited the whole Danish state by materially increasing its reserve of native talent. Its immediate consequence was to throw open every state appointment to the middle classes; and the middle classes of that period, with very few exceptions, monopolized the intellect and the energy of the nation. New blood of the best quality nourished and stimulated the whole body politic. Expansion and progress were the watchwords at home, and abroad it seemed as if Denmark were about to regain her former position as a great power. This was especially the case during the brief but brilliant administration of Chancellor Griffenfeldt. Then, if ever, Denmark had the chance of playing once more a leading part in international politics. But Griffenfeldt's difficulties, always serious, were increased by the instability of the European situation, depending as it did on the ambition of Louis XIV. Resolved to conquer the Netherlands, the French king proceeded, first of all, to isolate her by dissolving the Triple Alliance. (See Sweden and Griffenfeldt.) In April 1672 a treaty was concluded between France and Sweden, on condition that France should not include Denmark in her system of alliances without the consent of Sweden. This treaty showed that Sweden weighed more in the French balances than Denmark. In June 1672 a French army invaded the Netherlands; whereupon the elector of Brandenburg contracted an alliance with the emperor Leopold, to which Denmark was invited to accede; almost simultaneously the States-General began to negotiate for a renewal of the recently expired Dano-Dutch alliance.
In these circumstances it was as difficult for Denmark to remain neutral as it was dangerous for her to make a choice.
An alliance with France would subordinate her to Denmark in the Sweden; an alliance with the Netherlands would expose Great her to an attack from Sweden. The Franco-Swedish Northern alliance left Griffenfeldt no choice but to accede to the War.
opposite league, for he saw at once that the ruin of the Netherlands would disturb the balance of power in the north by giving an undue preponderance to England and Sweden. But Denmark's experience of Dutch promises in the past was not reassuring; so, while negotiating at the Hague for a renewal of the Dutch alliance, he at the same time felt his way at Stockholm towards a commercial treaty with Sweden. His Swedish mission proved abortive, but, as he had anticipated, it effectually accelerated the negotiations at the Hague, and frightened the Dutch into unwonted liberality. In May 1673 a treaty of alliance was signed by the ambassador of the States-General at Copenhagen, whereby the Netherlands pledged themselves to pay Denmark large subsidies in return for the services of Io,000 men and twenty warships, which were to be held in readiness in case the United Provinces were attacked by another enemy besides France. Thus, very dexterously, Griffenfeldt had succeeded in gaining his subsidies without sacrificing his neutrality.
.His next move was to attempt to detach Sweden from France; but, Sweden showing not the slightest inclination for a rapprochement, Denmark was compelled to accede to the anti-French league, which she did by the treaty of Copenhagen, of January 1674, thereby engaging to place an army of 20,000 in the field when required; but here again Griffenfeldt safeguarded himself to some extent by stipulating that this provision was not to be operative till the allies were attacked by a fresh enemy.^ Fomenting anti-Semitism: Muslim violence threatens Denmark's approximately 6,000 Jews, who increasingly depend on police protection.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

When, in December 1674, a Swedish army invaded Prussian Pomerania, Denmark was bound to intervene as a belligerent, but Griffenfeldt endeavoured to postpone this intervention as long as possible; and Sweden's anxiety to avoid hostilities with her southern neighbour materially assisted him to postpone the evil day. He only wanted to gain time, and he gained it. To the last he endeavoured to avoid a rupture with France even if he broke with Sweden; but he could not restrain for ever the foolish impetuosity of his own sovereign, Christian V., and his fall in the beginning of 1676 not only, as he had foreseen, involved Denmark in an unprofitable war, but, as his friend and disciple, Jens Juel, well observed, relegated her henceforth to the humiliating position of an international catspaw. Thus at the peace of Fontainebleau (September 2, 1679) Denmark, which had borne the brunt of the struggle in the Baltic, was compelled by the inexorable French king to make full restitution to Sweden, the treaty between the two northern powers being signed at Lund on the 26th of September. Freely had she spent her blood and her treasure, only to emerge from the five years' contest exhausted and empty-handed.
By the peace of Fontainebleau Denmark had been sacrificed to the interests of France and Sweden; forty-one years later she was sacrificed to the interests of Hanover and Prussia by the peace of Copenhagen (1720), which ended the Northern War so far as the German powers were concerned. But it would not have terminated advantageously for them at all, had not the powerful and highly efficient Danish fleet effectually prevented the Swedish government from succouring its distressed German provinces, and finally swept the Swedish fleets out of the northern waters. Yet all the compensation Denmark received for her inestimable services during a whole decade was 600,000 rixdollars! The bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, the province of Farther Pomerania and the isle of Riigen which her armies had actually conquered, and which had been guaranteed to her by a whole catena of treaties, went partly to the upstart electorate of Hanover and partly to the upstart kingdom of Prussia, both of which states had been of no political importance whatever at the beginning of the war of spoliation by which they were, ultimately, to profit so largely and so cheaply.
The last ten years of the reign of Christian V.'s successor, Frederick IV. (1699-1730), were devoted to the nursing and development of the resources of the country, which had suffered only less severely than Sweden from the effects F IV rederick 1699 ., of the Great Northern War. The court, seriously pious, 1730. did much for education. A wise economy also contributed to reduce the national debt within manageable limits, and in the welfare of the peasantry Frederick IV. took a deep interest. In 1722 serfdom was abolished in the case of all peasants in the royal estates born after his accession.
The first act of Frederick's successor, Christian VI. (1730-1746), was to abolish the national militia, which had been an intolerable burden upon the peasantry; yet the more pressing agrarian difficulties were not thereby surmounted, Christian as had been hoped. The price of corn continued 1746/730= to fall; the migration of the peasantry assumed alarming proportions; and at last, " to preserve the land " as well as to increase the defensive capacity of the country, the national militia was re-established by the decree of the 4th of February 1733, which at the same time bound to the soil all peasants between the age of nine and forty. Reactionary as the measure was it enabled the agricultural interest, on which the prosperity of Denmark mainly depended, to tide over one of the most dangerous crises in its history; but certainly the position of the Danish peasantry was never worse than during the reign of the religious and benevolent Christian VI.
Under the peaceful reign of Christian's son and successor, Frederick V. (1746-1766), still more was done for commerce, industry and agriculture. To promote Denmark's carrying trade, treaties were made with the Barbary Frederick States, Genoa and Naples; and the East Indian 1766. Trading Company flourished exceedingly. On the other hand the condition of the peasantry was even worse under Frederick V. than it had been under Christian VI., the Stavnsbaand, or regulation which bound all males to the soil, being made operative from the age of four. Yet signs of a coming amelioration were not wanting. The theory of the physiocrats now found powerful advocates in Denmark; and after 1755, when the press censorship was abolished so far as regarded political economy and agriculture, a thorough discussion of the whole agrarian question became possible. A commission appointed in 1757 worked zealously for the repeal of many agricultural abuses; and several great landed proprietors introduced hereditary leaseholds, and abolished the servile tenure.
Foreign affairs during the reigns of Frederick V. and Christian VI. were left in the capable hands of J. H. E. Bernstorff, who aimed at steering clear of all foreign complications and preserving inviolable the neutrality of Denmark. This he succeeded in doing, in spite of the Seven Years' War and of the difficulties attending the thorny Gottorp question in which Sweden and Russia were equally interested. .The same policy was victoriously pursued by his nephew and pupil Andreas Bernstorff, an even greater man than the elder Bernstorff, who controlled the foreign policy of Denmark from 1773 to 1778, and again from 1784 till his death in 1797. The period of the younger Bernstorff synchronizes with the greater part of the Christian VII., 766 = long reign of Christian VII.^ At the same time, there's a number of attitudes they take from Islam," says the psychologist, who emphasizes that "Islam" has more of a cultural than a religious meaning here.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

(1766-1808), one of the 1808, most eventful periods of modern Danish history. The king himself was indeed a semi-idiot, scarce responsible for his actions, yet his was the era of such striking personalities as the brilliant charlatan Struensee, the great philanthropist and reformer C. D. F. Reventlow, the ultra-conservative Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, whose mission it was to repair: the damage done by Struensee, and that generation of alert and progressive spirits which surrounded the young crown prince Frederick, whose first act, on taking his seat in the council of state, at the age of sixteen, on the 4th of April 1784, was to dismiss Guldberg.
A fresh and fruitful period of reform now began, lasting till nearly the end of the century, and interrupted only by the brief but costly war with Sweden in 1788. The emancipation of the peasantry was now the burning question of the day, and the whole matter was thoroughly ventilated. Bernstorff and the crown prince were the most zealous advocates of the peasantry in the council of state; but the honour of bringing the whole peasant question within the range of practical politics undoubtedly belongs to C. D. F. Reventlow. Nor was the reforming principle limited to the abolition of serfdom. In 1788 the corn trade was declared free; the Jews received civil rights; and the negro slave trade was forbidden. In 1796 a special ordinance reformed the whole system of judicial procedure, making it cheaper and more expeditious; while the toll ordinance of the 1st of February 1797 still further extended the principle of free trade. .Moreover, until two years after Bernstorff's death in 1797, the Danish press enjoyed a larger freedom of speech than the press of any other absolute monarchy in Europe, so much so that at last Denmark became suspected of favouring Jacobin views.^ Freedom of speech in Denmark [136 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Freedom of speech: Danish Cartoons and John Lennon [585 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

^ Denmark has a much broader spectrum of welfare costs than countries in North America.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

But in September 1799 under strong pressure from the Russian emperor Paul, the Danish government forbade anonymity, and introduced a limited censorship.
It was Denmark's obsequiousness to Russia which led to the first of her unfortunate collisions with Great Britain. In 1800 the Danish government was persuaded by the tsar to accede to the second Armed Neutrality League, which Russia had just concluded with Prussia and the Napo- Sweden. Great Britain retaliated by laying an embargo on the vessels of the three neutral powers, and by sending a considerable fleet to the Baltic under the command of Parker and Nelson. Surprised and unprepared though they were, the Danes, nevertheless, on the 2nd of April 180t, offered a gallant resistance; but their fleet was destroyed, their capital bombarded, and, abandoned by Russia, they were compelled to submit to a disadvantageous peace.
The same vain endeavour of Denmark to preserve her neutrality led to the second breach with England. After the peace of Tilsit there could be no further question of neutrality. Napoleon had determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's mediation, Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her. It was the intention of the Danish government to preserve its neutrality to the last, although, on the whole, it preferred an alliance with Great Britain to a league with Napoleon, and was even prepared for a breach with the French emperor if he pressed her too hardly. The army had therefore been assembled in Holstein, and the crown prince regent was with it. But the British government did not consider Denmark strong enough to resist France, and Canning had private trustworthy information of the designs of Napoleon, upon which he was bound to act. .He sent accordingly a fleet, with 30,000 men on board, to the Sound to compel Denmark, by way of security for her future conduct, to unite her fleet with the British fleet.^ Something Rotten in Denmark: $30,000 bounty [66 words] .
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Denmark was offered an alliance, the complete restitution of her fleet after the war, a guarantee of all her possessions, compensation for all expenses, and even territorial aggrandizement.
Dictatorially presented as they were, these terms were liberal and even generous; and if a great statesman like Bernstorff had been at the head of affairs in Copenhagen, he would, no doubt, have accepted them, even if with a wry face. But the prince regent, if a good patriot, was a poor politician, and invincibly obstinate. When, therefore, in August 1807, Gambier arrived in the Sound, and the English plenipotentiary Francis James Jackson, not perhaps the most tactful person that could have been chosen, hastened to Kiel to place the British demands before the crown prince, Frederick not only refused to negotiate, but ordered the Copenhagen authorities to put the city in the best state of defence possible. Taking this to be tantamount to a declaration of war, on the 16th of August the British army landed at Vedback; and shortly afterwards the Danish capital was invested. Anything like an adequate defence was hopeless; Loss of a bombardment began which lasted from the 2nd of Norway. September till the 5th of September, and ended with Treaty of the capitulation of the city and the surrender of the Kiel, 1814. fleet intact, the prince regent having neglected to give orders for its destruction. After this Denmark, unwisely, but not unnaturally, threw herself into the arms of Napoleon and continued to be his faithful ally till the end of the war. She was punished for her obstinacy by being deprived of Norway, which she was compelled to surrender to Sweden by the terms of the treaty of Kiel (1814), on the 14th of January, receiving by way of compensation a sum of money and Swedish Pomerania, with Riigen, which were subsequently transferred to Prussia in exchange for the duchy of Lauenburg and 2,000,000 rix-dollars.
On the establishment of the German Confederation in 1815, Frederick VI. acceded thereto as duke of Holstein, but refused to allow Schleswig to enter it, on the ground that Schleswig was an integral part of the Danish realm.
The position of Denmark from 1815 to 1830 was one of great difficulty and distress. The loss of Norway necessitated considerable reductions of expenditure, but the economies actually practised fell far short of the requirements of y P q after 1815. the diminished kingdom and its depleted exchequer; while the agricultural depression induced by the enormous fall in the price of corn all over Europe caused fresh demands upon the state, and added Io,000,000 rix-dollars to the national debt before 1835. The last two years of the reign of Frederick VI. (1838-1839) were also remarkable for the revival of political life, provincial consultative assemblies being established for Jutland, the Islands, Schleswig and Holstein, by the ordinance of the 28th of May 1831. But these consultative assemblies were regarded as insufficient by the Danish Liberals, and during the last years of Frederick VI. and the whole reign of his successor, Christian VIII. (1839-1848), the agitation for a free constitution, both in Denmark and the duchies, continued to grow in strength, ins spite of press prosecutions and other g ? P P P repressive measures. The rising national feeling in Germany also stimulated the separatist tendencies of the of the duchies; and "Schleswig-Holsteinism," as it now began to be called, evoked in Denmark the counter-movement known as Eiderdansk-politik, i.e. the policy of extending Denmark to the Eider and obliterating German Schleswig, in order to save Schleswig from being absorbed by Germany. This division of national sentiment within the monarchy, complicated by the approaching extinction of the Oldenburg line of the house of Denmark, by which, in the normal course under the Salic law, the succession to Holstein would have passed away from the Danish crown, opened up the whole complicated SchleswigHolstein Question with all its momentous consequences. (See Schleswig-Holstein Question.) Within the monarchy itself, during the following years, " Schleswig-Holsteinism " and " Eiderdanism " faced each other as rival, mutually exacerbating forces; and the efforts of succeeding governments to solve the insoluble problem broke down ever on the rock of nationalist passion and the interests of the German powers. The unionist constitution, devised by Christian VIII., and pro mulgated by his successor, Frederick VII. (1848-1863), on the 28th of January 1848, led to the armed intervention of Prussia, at the instance of the new German parliament at Frankfort; and though with the help P l g P of Russian and British diplomacy, the Danes were ultimately successful, they had to submit, in 1851, to the government of Holstein by an international commission consisting of three members, Prussian, Austrian and Danish respectively.
Denmark, meanwhile, had been engaged in providing herself with a parliament on modern lines. The constitutional rescript of the 28th of January 1848 had been withdrawn in favour of an electoral law for a national assembly, of whose 152 members 38 were to be nominated by the king and to form an Upper House (Landsting), while the remainder were to be elected by the people and to form a popular chamber (Folketing). The Bondevenlige, or philo-peasant party, which objected to the king's right of nomination and preferred a one-chamber system, now separated from the National Liberals on this point. But the National Liberals triumphed at the general election; fear of reactionary tendencies finally induced the Radicals to accede to the wishes of the majority; and on the 5th of June 1849 the new constitution received the royal sanction.
At this stage Denmark's foreign relations prejudicially affected her domestic politics. The Liberal Eiderdansk party was for dividing Schleswig into three distinct administrative belts, according as the various nationalities predomin ated (language rescripts of '85),but German sentiment was opposed to any such settlement and, still worse, the great continental powers looked askance on the new Danish constitution as far too democratic. The substance of the notes embodying the exchange of views, in 1851 and 1852, between the German great powers and Denmark, was promulgated, on the 28th of January 1852, in the new constitutional decree which, together with the documents on which it was founded, was known as the Conventions of 1851 and 1852. Under this arrangement each part of the monarchy was to have local autonomy, with a common constitution for common affairs. Holstein was now restored to Denmark, and Prussia and Austria consented to take part in the conference of London, by which the integrity of Denmark was upheld, and the succession to the whole monarchy settled on Prince Christian, youngest son of Duke William of SchleswigHolstein-Sonderburg-Gliicksburg, and husband of Louise of Hesse, the niece of King Christian VIII. The " legitimate " heir to the duchies, under the Salic law, Duke Christian of Sonderburg-Augustenburg, accepted the decision of the London conference in consideration of the purchase by the Danish government of his estates in Schleswig.
On the 2nd of October 1855 was promulgated the new common constitution, which for two years had been the occasion of a fierce contention between the Conservatives and the Radicals. It proved no more final than its predecessors.
The representatives of the duchies in the new common Rigsraad protested against it, as subversive of the Conventions of 1851 and 1852; and their attitude had the support of the German powers. In 1857, Carl Christian Hall became prime minister. After putting off the German powers by seven years of astute diplomacy, he realized the impossibility of carrying out the idea of a common constitution and, on the 30th of March 1862, a royal proclamation was issued detaching Holstein as far as possible from the common monarchy. Later in the year he introduced into the Rigsraad a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig, which was carried through and confirmed by the council of state on the 13th of November 1863. It had not, however, received the royal assent when the death of Frederick VII. brought the " Protocol King " Christian IX. to the throne. Placed between the necessity of offending his new subjects or embroiling himself with the German powers, Christian chose the remoter evil and, on the 18th of November, the new constitution became law. This once more opened up the whole question in an acute form. Frederick, son of Christian of Augustenburg, ref using to be bound by his father's engagements, entered Holstein and, supported by the Estates and the German diet, proclaimed himself duke. The events that followed; the occupation of the duchies by Austria and Prussia, the war of 1864, gallantly fought by the Danes against overwhelming odds, and the astute diplomacy by which Bismarck succeeded in ultimately gaining for Prussia the seaboard so essential for her maritime power, are dealt with elsewhere (see Schleswig-Holstein Question). For Denmark the question was settled when, by the peace of Vienna (October 30, 1864), the duchies were irretrievably lost to her. At the peace of Prague, which terminated the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Napoleon III. procured the insertion in the treaty of .paragraph v., by which the northern districts of Schleswig were to be reunited to Denmark when the majority of the population by a free vote should so desire; but when Prussia at last thought fit to negotiate with Denmark on the subject, she laid down conditions which the Danish government could not accept.^ However, the new Danish government has made it extremely difficult for Danish citizens to bring a foreign spouse to Denmark.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

Finally, in 1878, by a separate agreement between Austria and Prussia, paragraph v. was rescinded.
The salient feature of Danish politics during subsequent years was the struggle between the two Tings, the Folketing or Lower House, and the Landsting, or Upper House of the Rigsdag. Th is contest began in 18 2 when a com- g g g %, bination of all the Radical parties, known as the United Left," passed a vote of want of confidence against the government and rejected the budget.
Nevertheless, the ministry, supported by the Landsting, refused to resign; and the crisis became acute when, in 1875, J. B. Estrup became prime minister. .Perceiving that the coming struggle would be essentially a financial one, he retained the ministry of finance in his own hands; and, strong in the support of the king, the Landsting, and a considerable minority in the country itself, he devoted himself to the double task of establishing the political parity of the Landsting with the Folketing and strengthening the national armaments, so that, in the event of a war between the European great powers, Denmark might be able to defend her neutrality.^ The coming European civil war.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The Left was willing to vote 30,000,000 crowns for extraordinary military expenses, exclusive of the fortifications of Copenhagen, on condition that the amount should be raised by a property and income tax; and, as the elections of 1875 had given them a majority of three-fourths in the popular chamber, they spoke with no uncertain voice. But the Upper House steadily supported Estrup, who was disinclined to accept any such compromise. As an agreement between the two houses on the budget proved impossible, a provisional financial decree was issued on the 12th of April 1877, which the Left stigmatized as a breach of the constitution. But the difficulties of the ministry were somewhat relieved by a split in the Radical party, still further accentuated by the elections of 1879, which enabled Estrup to carry through the army and navy defence bill and the new military penal code by leaning alternately upon one or the other of the divided Radical groups.
After the elections of 1881, which brought about the reamalgamation of the various Radical sections, the opposition presented a united front to the government, so that, from 1882 onwards, legislation was almost at a standstill. The elections of 1884. showed clearly that the nation was also now on the side of the Radicals, 83 out of the 102 members of the Folketing belonging to the opposition. Still Estrup remained at his post. He had underestimated the force of public opinion, but he was conscientiously convinced that a Conservative ministry was necessary to Denmark at this crisis. When therefore the Rigsdag rejected the budget, he advised the king to issue another provisional financial decree. Henceforth, so long as the Folketing refused to vote supplies, the ministry regularly adopted these makeshifts. In 1886 the Left, having no constitutional means of dismissing the Estrup ministry, resorted for the first time to negotiations; but it was not till the 1st of April 1894 that the majority of the Folketing could arrive at an agreement with the government and the Landsting as to a budget which should be retrospective and sanction the employment of the funds so irregularly obtained for military expenditure. The whole question of the provisional financial decrees was ultimately regularized by a special resolution of the Rigsdag; and the retirement of the Estrup ministry in August 1894 was the immediate result of the compromise.
In spite of the composition of 1894, the animosity between Folketing and Landsting continues to characterize Danish politics, and the situation has been complicated by the division of both Right and Left into widely divergent groups. The elections of 1895 resulted in an undeniable victory of the extreme Radicals; and the budget of 1895-1896 was passed only at the last moment by a compromise. The session of 1896-1897 was remarkable for a rapprochement between the ministry and the " Left Reform Party," caused by the secessions of the " Young Right," which led to an unprecedented event in Danish politics - the voting of the budget by the Radical Folketing and its rejection by the Conservative Landsting in May 1897; whereupon the ministry resigned in favour of the moderate Conservative Herring cabinet, which induced the Upper House to pass the budget. The elections of 1898 were a fresh defeat for the Conservatives, and in the autumn session of the same year, the Folketing, by a crushing majority of 85 to 12, rejected the military budget. The ministry was saved by a mere accident - the expulsion of Danish agitators from North Schleswig by the German government, which evoked a passion of patriotic protest throughout Denmark, and united all parties, the war minister declaring in the Folketing, during the debate on the military budget (January 1899), that the armaments of Denmark were so far advanced that any great power must think twice before venturing to attack her. .The chief event of the year 1899 was the great strike of 40,000 artisans, which cost Denmark 50,000,000 crowns, and brought about a reconstruction of the cabinet in order to bring in, as minister of the interior, Ludwig Ernest Bramsen, the great specialist in industrial matters, who succeeded (September 2-4) in bringing about an understanding between workmen and employers.^ Fomenting anti-Semitism: Muslim violence threatens Denmark's approximately 6,000 Jews, who increasingly depend on police protection.
  • Something Rotten in Denmark? :: Daniel Pipes 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC www.danielpipes.org [Source type: General]

The session 1900-1901 was remarkable for the further disintegration of the Conservative party still in office (the Sehested cabinet superseded the Horring cabinet on the 27th of April 1900) and the almost total paralysis of parliament, caused by the interminable debates on the question of taxation reform. The crisis came in 1901. Deprived of nearly all its supporters in the Folketing, the Conservative ministry resigned, and King Christian was obliged to assent to the formation of a " cabinet of the Left " under Professor Deuntzer. Various reforms were carried, but the proposal to sell the Danish islands in the West Indies to the United States fell through. During these years the relations between Denmark and the German empire improved, and in the country itself the cause of social democracy made great progress. In January 1906 King Christian ended his long reign, and was succeeded by his son Frederick VIII. At the elections of 1906 the government lost its small absolute majority, but remained in power with support from the Moderates and Conservatives. It was severely shaken, however, when Herr A. Alberti, who had been minister of justice since 1901, and was admitted to be the strongest member of the cabinet, was openly accused of nepotism and abuse of the power of his position. These charges gathered weight until the minister was forced to resign in July 1908, and in September he was arrested on a charge of forgery in his capacity as director of the Zealand Peasants' Savings Bank. The ministry, of which