Denmark-Norway: Wikis

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Danmark–Norge
Dänemark-Norwegen
Denmark–Norway
Personal union

1536–1814
 

Flag of Denmark Arms of King Frederick IV
Map of Denmark–Norway, ca. 1780
Capital Copenhagen
Language(s) Danish, Norwegian and German. Also IcelandicFaroese, Sami
Religion Lutheran
Government Monarchy
King
 - 1524–1533 Frederick I
 - 1588–1648 Christian IV
 - 1648–1670 Frederick III
 - 1808–1839¹ Frederick VI
Historical era Early modern Europe
 - Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden June 6, 1523
 - Kalmar Union collapses 1536
 - Danish Rigsråd abolished October 14, 1660
 - Lex Regia confirms absolutism November 14, 1665
 - Treaty of Brömsebro August 13, 1645
 - Treaty of Roskilde February 26, 1658
 - Treaty of Kiel January 14, 1814
 - Congress of Vienna September, 1814 – June 9, 1815
Area
 - 1780² 487,476 km2 (188,216 sq mi)
Population
 - 1645 est. 1,315,000³ 
 - 1801 est. 1,859,000³ 
Currency D: Danish rigsdaler
N: Norwegian rigsdaler
¹ Frederick VI was regent for his father, so ruled as de facto king from April 14, 1784; he continued to rule Denmark after the Treaty of Kiel until his death on December 3, 1839.

² Denmark (43,094 km²), Schleswig-Holstein (15,763 km²), Norway (mainland) (324,220 km²), Faroes (1,399 km²), Iceland (103,000 km²). (With Greenland additional 2,175,600 km².)
³ 1645: Estimated 825.000 in Denmark, 440.000 in Norway and 50,000 in Iceland[1]
1801: 929,000 in Denmark, 883,000 in Norway and 47,000 in Iceland[2]

Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark-Norge, German: Dänemark-Norwegen) is the historiographical name for a former political entity consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Following the strife surrounding the break-up of its predecessor, the Kalmar Union, the two kingdoms entered into another personal union in 1536 which lasted until 1814. The corresponding adjective and demonym is Dano-Norwegian.

The term Kingdom of Denmark is sometimes used to include both countries in the period 1536–1814, since the political and economic power emanated from Copenhagen, Denmark. The term covers the "royal part" of the Oldenburgs as it was in 1460, excluding the "ducal part" of Schleswig and Holstein. The administration used two official languages, Danish and German, and for several centuries both a Danish and German Chancery existed.[3]

Denmark and Norway parted when the union was dissolved in 1814. Iceland, which legally became a Danish colony in 1814, has since become an independent country.

The term Denmark–Norway has didactic merits and reflects the historical and legal roots of that union. It is adopted from the Oldenburg dynasty's official title. The kings always used the style "King of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths". Denmark and Norway officially had separate legal codes and currencies, as well as mostly separate governing institutions, although following the introduction of absolutism in 1660 the centralisation of government meant a concentration of institutions in Copenhagen. The term Sweden-Finland is sometimes, although with less justification, applied to the contemporary Swedish realm between 1521 and 1809. Finland was never a separate kingdom, and was completely integrated with Sweden, while Denmark was the dominant component in a political union.

Contents

Religion

Denmark–Norway was amongst the countries to follow Martin Luther after the Protestant Reformation, thus the official religion was established as Lutheran Protestantism throughout the entire life span of the kingdom.

There was however one other religious "reformation" in the kingdom during the rule of Christian VI, a follower of Pietism. The period from 1735 until his death in 1746 has been nicknamed "the State Pietism", as new laws and regulations were established in favor of Pietism. Though Pietism never did last for a substantial amount of recurring time, the next 200 years would see numerous new small pietistic resurrections. In the end, Pietism was never firmly established as a lasting religious grouping.

Colonial Empire

Throughout the time of Denmark–Norway, it continuously had possession over various overseas territories. At the earliest times areas in Northern Europe, for instance Estonia and the Norwegian possessions of Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Orkney, Shetland and Iceland.

From the 17th century, the kingdom would start taking colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and India.

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Indian Colonies

With its main colony at Trankebar, Denmark maintained numerous colonies from the 17th to 19th centuries over various parts around India. The last towns it had control over were sold to the United Kingdom in 1845.

Caribbean Colonies

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Geography
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Centered around what is known as the Virgin Islands, Denmark established the Danish West Indies. This colony was one of the longest lived of Denmark, as it was sold to the United States in 1917.

Denmark-Norway's possessions c. 1800

African Colonies

In the Gold Coast region of West Africa, Denmark also over time had control over various colonies and forts. The last remaining forts was sold to the United Kingdom in 1850.

History

Origins of the Union

The Scandinavians were Christianized in the 10th–13th centuries, resulting in three consolidated kingdoms. Denmark forged from the three Lands of Denmark (including Blekinge, Gotland, Halland and Skåne in modern-day Sweden and Southern Schleswig in modern Germany) Sweden forged from the Lands of Sweden (most of Svealand, Götaland and Finland) Norway forged from various petty kingdoms (including Båhuslen, Herjedalen, Jemtland and Idre & Särna) plus overseas possessions of Shetland and the Orkneys (both annexed in 875), Faroe Islands (annexed 1035), Greenland and Iceland (annexed 1261–62).

Carta marina, an early map of Scandinavia, made around end of Kalmar Union and start of Denmark-Norway

The three kingdoms then united in the Kalmar Union of 1397–1521, after which the Union was split in two halves: "Denmark-Norway" (including overseas possessions in the North Atlantic as well as the island of Saaremaa in modern Estonia), and "Sweden" (including Finland).

Northern Seven Years' War

The reason for the outbreak of the Northern Seven Years' War is mainly attributed to Denmark's displeasure over the Kalmar Union being dismantled. Actions such as when Danish king Christian III included the traditionally Swedish insignia of three crowns into his own coat of arms, was interpreted by the Swedes as a Danish claim over Sweden. In response Erik XIV of Sweden added the insignia of Norway and Denmark to his own coat of arms.

After Swedish king Erik introduced obstacles, trying to hinder Russian trade, Lübeck and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth joined Denmark in a war alliance. After this happened, Denmark made some naval attacks on Sweden which effectively started the war. After seven years of war, the conflict was concluded with a status quo ante bellum.

Kalmar War

Christian IV, King of Denmark and Norway.

Because of Denmark–Norway's dominion over the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, Sweden had an intention to avoid paying Denmark's Sound Toll. Swedish king Charles IX's way of accomplishing this was to try to set up a new trade route through Lapland and northern Norway. In 1607 Charles IX declared himself "King of the Lapps in Nordland", and started collecting taxes in Norwegian territory.

Denmark and king Christian IV of Denmark protested against the Swedish actions, as they had no intentions of letting another independent trade route open, Christian IV also had an intent of forcing Sweden to rejoin its union with Denmark. In 1611 Denmark finally invaded Sweden with 6000 men and took the city of Kalmar. Eventually on January 20, 1613, the Treaty of Knäred was signed in which Norway's land route from Sweden was regained by incorporating Lapland into Norway, and Swedish payment of a high ransom of 1 million silver riksdaler for two fortresses which Denmark had taken in the war. However, Sweden achieved getting exempt of the Sound Toll, as only Britain and Holland had before.

Aftermath of the Älvsborg Ransom

The great ransom paid by Sweden (called the Älvsborg Ransom) was used by Christian IV, amongst many other things, to found the cities of Glückstadt, Christiania (refounded after a fire), Christianshavn, Christianstad and Christianssand. He also founded the Danish East India Company which led to the establishment of numerous Danish colonies in India.

Thirty Years' War

Not long after the Kalmar war, Denmark–Norway got involved in another greater war, in which they fought together with the mainly north German and other Protestant states against the Catholic states led by German Catholic League.

Christian IV sought to become the leader of the north German Lutheran states, however following the Battle of Lutter in 1626 Denmark met a crushing defeat. This lead to most of the German Protestant states ceasing their support for Christian IV. After another defeat at the Battle of Wolgast and following the Treaty of Lübeck in 1629, which forbade Denmark from future intervening in German affairs, Denmark's participation in the war came to an end.

Torstenson War

Treaty of Brömsebro, 1645.
Brown: Denmark-Norway; Green: Sweden; Yellow: the provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna and the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel, which were ceded to Sweden; Red: the province of Halland, ceded for 30 years.

As Sweden was having great success during the Thirty Years' War, together with Denmark being a failure, Sweden saw an opportunity of a change of power in the region. Denmark–Norway had a threatening territory surrounding Sweden, and the Sound Dues were a continuing irritation for the Swedes. In 1643 the Swedish Privy Council determined Swedish territorial gain in an eventual war against Denmark–Norway to have good chances. Not long after this, Sweden invaded Denmark–Norway.

Denmark was itself poorly prepared for the war, and Norway was reluctant to attack Sweden, which left the Swedes in a good position.

The war ended as foreseen with Swedish victory, and with the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, Denmark–Norway had to cede some of their territories, including Norwegian territories Jämtland, Härjedalen and Idre & Särna as well as the Danish Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel. So, as the Thirty Years' War would see the rise of Sweden as a great power, it marked the start of decline with the Danish.

Treaty of Roskilde, 1658.
In red: Halland, previously occupied by Sweden for a 30-year period under the terms of the Peace of Brömsebro negotiated in 1645, was now ceded. In yellow: the Scanian lands and Bohus County were ceded. In purple: Trøndelag and Bornholm provinces, which were ceded in 1658, but rebelled against Sweden and returned to Danish rule in 1660.

Second Northern Wars

The Dano-Swedish War (1657-1658), a part of the Second Northern War, was one of the most devastating wars for the Dano-Norwegian kingdom. After a huge loss in the war, Denmark–Norway were forced in the Treaty of Roskilde to give Sweden nearly half their territory. This included Norwegian province of Trøndelag and Båhus, and all remaining Danish provinces on the Swedish mainland plus the island of Bornholm.

However, two years later, in 1660, there was a follow-up treaty, the Treaty of Copenhagen, which gave Trøndelag and Bornholm back to Denmark–Norway.

Royal Absolutist State

In the aftermath of Sweden's definite secession from the Kalmar Union in 1521, civil war and Protestant Reformation followed in Denmark and Norway. When things had settled down, the Rigsraad (High Council) of Denmark became weakened, and finally abolished in 1660[4] when Denmark–Norway became an absolutist state and Denmark a hereditary monarchy, as Norway had been since the Middle Ages. These changes were confirmed in the Lex Regia signed November 14, 1665, stipulating that all power lay in the hands of the king, who was only responsible towards God.[5] The Norwegian Riksråd was assembled for the last time in 1537. Norway kept its separate laws and some institutions, such as a royal chancellor, and separate coinage and army.

Scanian War

Denmark had lost its provinces in Scania after the Treaty of Roskilde and was always eager to retrieve them back, but as Sweden had grown into a great power it would not be an easy task. However, Christian V finally saw an opportunity when Sweden got involved in the Franco-Dutch War, and after some hesitation Denmark invaded Sweden in 1675.

Although the Danish assault initially was a great success, the Swedes led by 19 year old Charles XI managed to counterattack and take back the land that was being occupied. At the end the war was concluded with the French dictating peace, with no permanent gains or losses to either of the countries.

Napoleonic Wars and end of the Union

Battle between the frigate HMS Tartar and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen in 1808.

During the Napoleonic Wars Denmark at first tried to keep itself neutral, so it could continue its trade with both France and United Kingdom, but when it entered the League of Armed Neutrality, the British considered it a hostile action, thus attacking Copenhagen in 1801 and 1807. Because of this Denmark allied itself with Napoleon.

Denmark–Norway was defeated and had to cede the territory of mainland Norway to the King of Sweden at the Treaty of Kiel. Norway's overseas possessions were kept by Denmark. But the Norwegians objected to the terms of this treaty, and a constitutional assembly declared Norwegian independence on May 17, 1814 and elected the Crown Prince Christian Frederik as king of independent Norway. Following a Swedish invasion, Norway was forced to accept a personal union, but retained its liberal constitution and separate institutions, except for the foreign service. The Union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved in 1905.

See also

References


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