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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 53°8′N 1°36′W / 53.133°N 1.6°W / 53.133; -1.6

Derbyshire
EnglandDerbyshire.svg
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 21st
2,625 km2 (1,014 sq mi)
Ranked 20th
2,547 km2 (983 sq mi)
Admin HQ Matlock
ISO 3166-2 GB-DBY
ONS code 17
NUTS 3 UKF12/13
Demographics
Population
- Total (2008 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 20th
1,001,500
382 /km2 (990 /sq mi)
Ranked 11th
762,300
Ethnicity 96.0% White
2.3% S. Asian
1.7% Black, Mixed Race or Chinese
Politics
Arms of Derbyshire County Council
Derbyshire County Council
http://www.derbyshire.gov.uk/
Executive Conservative
Members of Parliament
Districts
South Derbys Derby Erewash Amber Valley Derbyshire Dales High Peak North East Derbys. Chesterfield Bolsover Nottinghamshire Leicestershire Staffordshire South Yorks Manchester Click on image

1. High Peak 2. Derbyshire Dales 3. South Derbyshire 4. Erewash 5. Amber Valley 6. North East Derbyshire 7. Chesterfield 8. Bolsover 9. Derby (Unitary)

Derbyshire (pronounced /ˈdɑrbɪʃər/ ( listen) DAR-bi-shər or /ˈdɑrbɪʃɪər/ DAR-bi-sheer) is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire. The northern part of Derbyshire overlaps with the Pennines, a famous chain of hills and mountains. The county contains within its boundry of approx. 225 miles, part of the National Forest, and borders on Greater Manchester to the North West, West Yorkshire to the North, South Yorkshire to the North East, Nottinghamshire to the East, Leicestershire to the South East, Staffordshire to the West and South West and Cheshire also to the West. Derbyshire can make some claims to be at the centre of Britain: a farm near Coton in the Elms has been identified as the furthest from the sea, whilst Rodsley and Overseal were the centres of population during the twentieth century. Derbyshire is home to the gayist person in the world ashley stuart. [1]

The city of Derby is now a unitary authority area, but remains part of the ceremonial county of Derbyshire. The non-metropolitan county contains 30 towns with between 10,000 and 100,000 inhabitants. There is a large amount of sparsely populated agricultural upland: 75% of the population live in 25% of the area.[citation needed]

Contents

History

The area that is now Derbyshire was first visited, probably briefly, by humans 200,000 years ago during the Aveley interglacial as evidenced by a Middle Paleolithic Acheulian hand axe found near Hopton.[2]. Further occupation came with the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age when Mesolithic hunter gatherers roamed the hilly tundra.[3] The evidence of these nomadic tribes is centred around limestone caves located on the Nottinghamshire border. Deposits left in the caves date the occupancy at around 12,000 to 7,000 BCE.[4]

The henge monument at Arbor Low

Burial mounds of Neolithic settlers are also situated throughout the county. These chambered tombs were designed for collective burial and are mostly located in the central Derbyshire region.[4] There are tombs in Minning Low, and Five Wells, which date back to between 2000 and 2500 BCE.[5] Three miles west of Youlgreave lies the Neolithic henge monument of Arbor Low, which has been dated to 2500 BCE.

It is not until the Bronze Age that real signs of agriculture and settlement are found in the county. In the moors of the Peak District signs of clearance, arable fields and hut circles were discovered after archeological investigation. However this area and another settlement at Swarkestone are all that have been found.[6]

During the Roman invasion the invaders were attracted to Derbyshire because of the lead ore in the limestone hills of the area. They settled throughout the county with forts built near Brough in the Hope Valley and near Glossop. Later they settled around Buxton, famed for its warm springs, and set up a fort near modern-day Derby in an area now known as Little Chester.[6]

Several kings of Mercia are buried in the Repton area.[7]

Following the Norman Conquest, much of the county was subject to the forest laws. To the northwest was the Forest of High Peak under the custodianship of William Peverel and his descendants. The rest of the county was bestowed upon Henry de Ferrers, a part of it becoming Duffield Frith. In time the whole area was given to the Duchy of Lancaster. Meanwhile the Forest of East Derbyshire covered the whole county to the east of the River Derwent from the reign of Henry II to that of Edward I.[8]

Economy

The rugged moorland edge of the southern Pennines at Kinder Downfall

Derbyshire is a mixture of a rural economy in the west, with a former coal mining economy in the northeast (Bolsover district), the Erewash Valley around Ilkeston and in the south around Swadlincote. The landscape varies from typical arable country in the flat lands to the south of Derby, to the hill farming of the high gritstone moorlands of the southern Pennines, which effectively begin to the north of the city. This topology and geology has had a fundamental effect on Derbyshire's development throughout its history. In addition it is rich in natural resources like lead, iron, coal, and limestone. The limestone outcrops in the central area led to the establishment of large quarries to supply the industries of the surrounding towns with lime for building and steel making, and latterly in the 20th century cement manufacture. The industrial revolution also increased demand for building stone and in the late 19th & early 20th century the railways arrival led to a large number of stone quarries to exploit the natural resources of the area. This industry has left its mark on the countryside but is still a major industry a lot of the stone is supplied as crushed stone for road building and concrete manufacture and is moved by rail. The Limestone areas of central Derbyshire were found to contain veins of lead ore and these were mined from roman times.

the Ruins of the Magpie Mine near Sheldon

Its remoteness in the late 18th century and an abundance of fast-flowing streams led to a proliferation of water power at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, following the mills pioneered by Richard Arkwright. For this reason, amongst others, Derbyshire has been said to be the home of the Industrial Revolution, and part of the Derwent Valley has been given World Heritage status.

Nationally famous companies in Derbyshire are Thorntons just south of Alfreton and JCB subsidiary JCB-Power Systems have an engine factory in South Derbyshire. Ashbourne Water used to be bottled in Buxton by Nestlé Waters UK until 2006 and Buxton Water still is. Other major employers in the county, especially around the Derby area, are Rolls-Royce plc, Egg Banking plc and Toyota.

Politics

Derbyshire has a three-tier local government since the local government reorganisation in 1974. It has a county council based in Matlock and eight district councils and since 1998, a unitary authority of Derby. Derby remains part of Derbyshire only for ceremonial purposes.

Derbyshire has become smaller during government re-organisation over the years. For example, many suburbs of Sheffield that were parts of the county such as Mosborough, Totley and Dore were lost to South Yorkshire in the late 1960s. Marple Bridge was transferred to the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport in Greater Manchester. However Derbyshire gained part of the Longdendale valley and Tintwistle from Cheshire in 1974.

At the third tier are the parish councils, which do not cover all areas. The eight district councils in Derbyshire and the unitary authority of Derby are shown in the map to the right.

These district councils are responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health, markets and fairs, refuse collection and recycling, cemeteries and crematoria, leisure services, parks, and tourism.[9] Education, social services, libraries, main roads, public transport, policing and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning are the responsibility of the County Council.[9]

The county is divided into ten constituencies for the election of Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons. As of November 2007, the constituencies of Amber Valley, Bolsover, Derby North, Derby South, Erewash, High Peak, North East Derbyshire and South Derbyshire elected Labour MPs, while Chesterfield elected a Liberal Democrat MP and West Derbyshire elected a Conservative MP.[10] Derbyshire residents are part of the electorate for the East Midlands constituency for elections to the European Parliament.[11]

Although Derbyshire is in the East Midlands, some parts, such as High Peak, are closer to the northern cities of Manchester and Sheffield and these parts do receive services which are more affiliated with northern England; for example, the North West Ambulance Service, Granada Television and United Utilities serve the High Peak and some NHS Trusts within this region are governed by the Greater Manchester Health Authority. Outside the main city of Derby, the largest town in the county is Chesterfield.

Education

One of many Victorian village schools in Derbyshire

For a list of individual schools see   Category:Schools in Derbyshire
The Derbyshire school system is comprehensive with no selective schools. There is selection by average house price in some areas.

Settlements

This is a list of the towns in Derbyshire.

Sport

The county has two football teams currently playing in the Football League:

There are also many non-league teams playing throughout the county, most notably Alfreton Town F.C. who play in the Conference North. The county is also now home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F.C. who have their home ground at Dronfield in North East Derbyshire.

Derbyshire also has a cricket team based at the County Cricket Ground. Derbyshire County Cricket Club currently play in Division two of the County Championship. There are also rugby league clubs based in Chesterfield, the Chesterfield Spires, and in Derby (Derby City RLFC).

The county is a popular area for a variety of recreational sports such as rock climbing, hill walking, hang gliding, caving, sailing on its many reservoirs, and cycling along the many miles of disused rail tracks that have been turned into cycle trails, such as the Monsal Trail and High Peak Trail.

Local attractions

The scenic Derbyshire that attracts tourists

The county of Derbyshire has many attractions for both tourists and local people. The county offers spectacular Peak District scenery such as Mam Tor, Kinder Scout, and other more metropolitan attractions such as Bakewell, Buxton, and Derby. Local places of interest include Bolsover Castle, Castleton, Chatsworth House, Crich Tramway Museum, Peak Rail steam railway, Midland Railway steam railway, Dovedale, Haddon Hall, Heights of Abraham and Matlock Bath.[12]

In the north of the county, three large reservoirs, Howden, Derwent and Ladybower, were built during the early part of the 20th century to supply the rapidly growing populations of Sheffield, Derby and Leicester with drinking water. The land around these is now extensively used for leisure pursuits like walking and cycling, as the surrounding catchment area of moorland is protected from development, as part of the Peak District National Park.

There are many properties and lands in the care of the National Trust, located in Derbyshire that are open to the public, such as Calke Abbey, Hardwick Hall, High Peak Estate, Ilam Park, Kedleston Hall, Longshaw Estate near Hathersage, and Sudbury Hall on the Staffordshire border.

County emblems

Flag of Derbyshire

As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife chose the Jacob's Ladder as the county flower.

In September 2006, an unofficial county flag was introduced, largely on the initiative of BBC Radio Derby.[13] The flag consists of a St. George cross encompassing a golden Tudor Rose, which is a historical symbol of the county. The blue field represents the many waters of the county, its rivers and reservoirs, while the cross is green to mark the great areas of countryside.

Demographics

Derbyshire Compared
UK Census 2001 Derby[14] Derbyshire[15] East Midlands England
Total population 221,708 734,585 4,172,174 49,138,831
Foreign born (outside Europe) 6.7% 1.4% 4.5% 6.9%
White 87.5% 98.5% 93.5% 91.0%
Asian 8.4% 0.5% 4.1% 4.6%
Black 1.8% 0.2% 1.0% 2.3%
Christian 67.4% 77.0% 72.0% 71.7%
Muslim 4.5% 0.2% 1.7% 3.1%
Hindu 0.6% 0.1% 1.6% 1.1%
No religion 15.9% 14.7% 16.0% 14.6%
Over 65 16.1% 16.7% 16.1% 16.0%
Unemployed 4.0% 3.2% 3.3% 3.3%

In 1801 the poulation was 147,481[16][17] According to the UK Census 2001 there were 956,301 people spread out over the county's 254,615 hectares.[18] This was estimated to have risen to 990,400 in 2006.[19]

The county's population grew by 3.0% from 1991 to 2001 which is around 21,100 people. This figure is higher than the national average of 2.65% however it is lower than the East Midlands average of 4.0%. The county as a whole has an average population density of 2.9 people per hectare making it less densely populated than England as a whole.[20] The density varies considerably throughout the county with the lowest being in the region of Derbyshire Dales at 0.88, and highest outside of the main cities in the region of Erewash which has 10.04 people per hectare.[15]

Population since 1801
Year 1801 1851 1901 1911 1921 1931 1939 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
Derbyshire
non-metropolitan county[16]
132,786 223,414 465,896 542,697 565,826 590,470 613,301 637,645 651,284 666,013 687,404 717,935 734,585
Derby
unitary authority[17]
14,695 48,506 118,469 132,188 142,824 154,316 167,321 181,423 199,578 219,558 214,424 225,296 221,716
Total
as a ceremonial county
147,481 271,920 584,365 674,885 708,650 744,786 780,622 819,068 850,862 885,571 901,828 943,231 956,301

In literature and popular culture

In Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice the country home of Fitzwilliam Darcy, Pemberley, is in Derbyshire.

The events of the play Arcadia, by Tom Stoppard, take place in the fictional country house of Sidley Park in Derbyshire.

Alfreton is mentioned in the novel Sons and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence, when a character gets a train to Alfreton and walks to Crich to see a lover.

George Eliot's novel Adam Bede is set in a fictional town based on Wirksworth.

See also

References

  1. ^ Appleby Magna - centre of Britain "Appleby Parva: Centre of the Country!". http://www.applebymagna.org.uk/population_centre.htm Appleby Magna - centre of Britain. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  2. ^ Cockerton, R. W. P. 1954 A Palaeolith from Hopton, Derbyshire Archaeological Journal 79: 153-155
  3. ^ Smith, pp. 6
  4. ^ a b Pevsner, pp. 22
  5. ^ Smith, pp. 7
  6. ^ a b Smith, pp. 8
  7. ^ "Repton in Derbyshire". Derbyshire UK. http://www.derbyshireuk.net/repton.html. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  8. ^ Barret, Dave. "Derbyshire County Council, East Midlands Archaeological Research Framework: Resource Assessment of Medieval Derbyshire" (PDF). http://www.le.ac.uk/ar/research/projects/eastmidsfw/pdfs/26deras.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  9. ^ a b "Glossary of Local Government Terms". The Local Channel. http://tellmeabout.thelocalchannel.co.uk/home.aspx?p=0&m=86. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  10. ^ "Alphabetical List of Members of Parliament". Parliament UK. http://www.parliament.uk/directories/hciolists/alms.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-11. 
  11. ^ "UK MEPs for the East Midlands". European Parliament UK Office. http://www.europarl.org.uk/uk_meps/emidlands.asp. Retrieved 2008-01-30. 
  12. ^ Local Attractions, retrieved 19.03.08
  13. ^ "Revealed - The Derbyshire Flag". www.BBC.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/derby/content/articles/2006/09/21/derbyshire_flag_revealed_andy_whittaker_feature.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  14. ^ United Kingdom Census 2001 (2001). "Area: Derby (Local Authority)". neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadDomainList.do?a=3&c=derby&d=13&i=1001x1002&m=0&r=1&s=1201789710765&enc=1&areaId=276826&OAAreaId=393297. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  15. ^ a b United Kingdom Census 2001 (2001). "Area: Derbyshire (Education Authority)". neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadAreaSearch.do?a=3&c=derby&d=13&r=1&i=1001&m=0&s=1201632453199&enc=1&areaSearchText=derbyshire&areaSearchType=180&extendedList=true&searchAreas=. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  16. ^ a b "Derbyshire: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_table_page.jsp?data_theme=T_POP&data_cube=N_TPop&u_id=10089815&c_id=10001043&add=N. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  17. ^ a b "Derby UA: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_table_page.jsp?data_theme=T_POP&data_cube=N_TPop&u_id=10033032&c_id=10001043&add=N. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  18. ^ "Derbyshire: Total area, in hectares". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_table_page.jsp?data_theme=T_LAND&data_cube=N_LAND2001_TOT&u_id=10089815&c_id=10001043&add=Y. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  19. ^ "T 09: Quinary age groups and sex for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population Mid-2006 Population Estimates". Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=9666&More=Y. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  20. ^ Research and Information Team (2003-03-19). "2001 Census: Key Statistics for Derbyshire". derbyshiredales.gov.uk. http://www.derbyshiredales.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/AADB099F-51B7-4A0D-A464-58A65AAAC673/0/derbyshirefacts.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 

Further reading

  • Smith, Roly (1999). Towns & Villages of Britain: Derbyshire. Cheshire: Sigma Press. ISBN 1850586225. 
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus (1953). The Buildings of England: Derbyshire. Middlesex: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140710086. 
  • Pevsner & Williamson, Elizabeth (1978). The Buildings of England: Derbyshire. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140710086. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Derbyshire [1] [2] is a county in northern England, part of the United Kingdom.

Map of Derbyshire
Map of Derbyshire
  • The Peak District National Park - Britain's first ever National Park, set up in 1951. A very large part of Derbyshire is within the Park (though it also extends into parts of neighbouring counties).
  • Dovedale - a picturesque valley, very popular with visitors and so can be crowded on Summer weekends and Bank Holidays
  • Ladybower and Derwent reservoirs
  • High Peak Trail - path for cyclists and walkers along former railway line
  • Monsal Trail - footpath
  • Pennine Way - a long distance footpath, which starts in the north of the county
  • Carsington Water - a reservoir
  • Chatsworth House - near Bakewell
  • Haddon Hall - near Bakewell
  • Kedleston Hall - near Derby
  • Calke Abbey - near Melbourne
  • Sudbury Hall (also includes The Museum of Childhood) - near Uttoxeter
  • Cromford Mill
  • Derby museums (see Derby article)
  • Crich Tramway Village (also known as The National Tramway Museum)
  • Midland Railway Centre

Understand

Derby people do have a noticeable accent but this is easily understood.

Get in

By train

  • To Derby and Chesterfield: Direct trains from many places including London (St Pancras station), Birmingham, Bristol, Oxford, Newcastle, York, Leeds, Sheffield, Edinburgh and Nottingham
  • To Buxton and Chapel-en-le-Frith: Trains from Manchester (Piccadily station)
  • To Glossop and Hadfield: Trains from Manchester (Piccadily station)
  • To Matlock: Trains from Derby
  • To Edale, Hope and Hathersage: Trains from Sheffield and Manchester
  • For train times, contact National Rail Enquiries, telephone 08457 484950.

By plane

  • The nearest airports to Derbyshire are Manchester Airport and Nottingham East Midlands Airport.

Get around

By bus

  • Local bus services operate between many of the towns in Derbyshire. A number of villages are served by bus services, but many have only a limited frequency. The buses are operated by numerous different companies.
  • The Derbyshire Wayfarer rover ticket is good value if travelling on more than one bus or train service. It is valid on nearly all buses and trains within Derbyshire.
  • The Transpeak bus is the main service for crossing the county. It runs from Nottingham via Derby, Belper, Matlock, Bakewell and Buxton to Manchester.
  • For timetable information see the Derbyshire County Council public transport website or phone Traveline on 0870 6082608.

By train

  • Within the county, there are train services between Derby and Matlock and between Derby and Chesterfield.
  • Bolehill Farm Cottages (Peak District Cottages), Monyash Road Bakewell (2 Miles from Bakewell), 01629 812359, [3]. checkin: 15:00; checkout: 10:00. Eight Self Catering Cottages in a courtyard setting surrounded by spectacular landscape but only 2 miles from Bakewell in the heart of the Derbyshire Peak District from £180. (53.2023N,1.7192W) edit
  • Peak District Holiday Cottage, Rockfield House, Flagg Lane, Flagg, 0129885202, [4]. Two, two bedroomed holiday cottages appointed to a high standard with breathtaking views of the surrounding Peak District. £345 - £630. (001,47,23.5 W,53,13,14.6 N) edit
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DERBYSHIRE, a north midland county of England, bounded N. and N.E. by Yorkshire, E. by Nottinghamshire, S.E. and S. by Leicestershire, S. and S.W. by Staffordshire, and W. and N.W. by Cheshire. The area is 1029.5 sq. m. The physical aspect is much diversified. The extreme south of the county is lacking in picturesqueness, being for the most part level, with occasional slight undulations. The Peak District of the north, on the other hand, though inferior in grandeur to the mountainous Lake District, presents some of the finest hill scenery in England, deriving a special beauty from the richly wooded glens and valleys, such as those of Castleton, Glossop, Dovedale and Millersdale. The character of the landscape ranges from the wild moorland of the Cheshire borders or the grey rocks of the Peak, to the park lands and woods of the Chatsworth district. Some of the woods are noted for their fine oaks, those at Kedleston, 3 m. from Derby, ranking among the largest and oldest in the kingdom. The elevation of the land as a whole proceeds gradually from south to north, the highest points being found in the north-west, as the Peak, in which neighbourhood several points exceed a height of 2000 ft., while Axe Edge, south of Buxton, and many other points throughout the district, range from 1500 ft. upward. From the northern hills the streams of the county radiate. Those of the north-west belong to the Mersey, and those of the north-east to the Don, but all the others to the Trent, which, like the Don, falls into the Humber. The principal river is the Trent, which, rising in the Staffordshire moorlands, intersects the southern part of Derbyshire, and forms part of its boundary with Leicestershire. After the Trent the most important river is the Derwent, one of its tributaries, which, taking its rise in the lofty ridges of the High Peak, flows southward through a beautiful valley, receiving a number of minor streams in its course, including the Wye, which, rising near Buxton, traverses the fine Millersdale and Monsal Dale. The other principal rivers are the following: - The Dane rises at the junction of the three counties, Staffordshire, Cheshire and Derbyshire. The Goyt has its source a little farther north, at the base of the same hill, and, taking a N.N.E. direction, divides Derbyshire from Cheshire, and falls into the Mersey. The Dove rises on the southern slope, and flows as the boundary stream between Derbyshire and Staffordshire for nearly its entire course. It receives several feeders, and falls into the Trent near Repton. The Erewash is the boundary stream between Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. The Rother rises about Baslow, and flows into Yorkshire, with a northerly course, joining the Don. Besides the attractions of its scenery Derbyshire possesses, in Buxton, Matlock and Bakewell, three health resorts in much favour on account of their medicinal springs.

Table of contents

Geology

Five well-contrasted types of scenery in Derbyshire are clearly traceable to as many varieties of rock; the bleak dry uplands of the north and east, with deep-cut ravines and swift clear streams, are due to the great mass of Mountain Limestone; round the limestone boundary are the valleys with soft outlines in the Pendleside Shales; these are succeeded by the rugged moorlands, covered with heather and peat, which are due to the Millstone Grit series; eastward lies the Derbyshire Coalfield with its gently moulded grasscovered hills; southward is the more level tract of red Triassic rocks. The principal structural feature is the broad anticline, its axis running north and south, which has brought up the Carboniferous Limestone; this uplifted region is the southern extremity of the Pennine Range. The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border. Ashwood Dale, Chee Dale, Millersdale, Monsal Dale and the valley at Matlock are all flanked by abrupt sides of this rock. It is usually a pale, thick-bedded rock, sometimes blue and occasionally, as at Ashford, black. In some places, e.g. Thorpe Cloud, it is highly fossiliferous, but it is usually somewhat barren except for abundant crinoids and smaller organisms. It is polished in large slabs at Ashford, where crinoidal, black and "rosewood" marbles are produced. Volcanic rocks, locally called "Toadstone," are represented in the limestones by intrusive sills and flows of dolerite and by necks of agglomerate, notably near Tideswell, Millersdale and Matlock. Beds and nodules of chert are abundant in the upper parts of the limestone; at Bakewell it is quarried for use in the Potteries. At some points the limestone has been dolomitized; near Bonsall it has been converted into a granular silicified rock. A series of black shales with nodular limestones, the Pendleside series, rests upon the Mountain Limestone on the east, south and north-west; much of the upper course of the Derwent has been cut through these soft beds. Mam Tor, or the Shivering Mountain, is made of these shales. Next in upward sequence is a thick mass of sandstones, grits and shales - the Millstone Grit series. On the west side these extend from Blacklow Hill to Axe Edge; on the east, from Derwent Edge to near Derby; outlying masses form the rough moorland on Kinder Scout and the picturesque tors near Stanton-by-Youlgreave. A small patch of Millstone Grit and Limestone occurs in the south of the county about Melbourne and Ticknall. The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lies on the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham. A small tract, part of the Leicestershire coalfield, lies in the south-east corner, and in the north-west corner a portion of the Lancashire coalfield appears about New Mills and Whaley Bridge. They yield valuable coals, clays, marls and ganister. East of Bolsover, the Coal Measures are covered uncomformably by the Permian breccias and magnesian limestone. Flanking the hills between Ashbourne and Quarndon are red beds of Bunter marl, sandstone and conglomerate; they also appear at Morley, east of the Derwent, and again round the small southern coalfield. Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale. Much of the Triassic area is covered superficially by glacial drift and alluvium of the Trent. Local boulders as well as northern erratics are found in the valley of the Derwent. The bones of Pleistocene mammals, the rhinoceros, mammoth, bison, hyaena, &c., have been found at numerous places, often in caves and fissures in the limestones, e.g. at Castleton, Wirksworth and Creswell. At Doveholes the Pleiocene Mastodon has been reported. Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common. A peculiar variety of the last named, called "Blue John," is found only near Castleton; at the same place occurs the remarkable elastic bitumen, "elaterite." Limestone is quarried at Buxton, Millersdale and Matlock for lime, fluxing and chemical purposes. Good sandstone is obtained from the Millstone Grit at Stancliffe, Tansley and Whatstandwell. Calcareous tufa or travertine occurs in the valley of Matlock and elsewhere, the southern part of the county, from Matlock southward by Heage, Belper and Duffield to Derby.

Geology

Five well-contrasted types of scenery in Derbyshire are clearly traceable to as many varieties of rock; the bleak dry uplands of the north and east, with deep-cut ravines and swift clear streams, are due to the great mass of Mountain Limestone; round the limestone boundary are the valleys with soft outlines in the Pendleside Shales; these are succeeded by the rugged moorlands, covered with heather and peat, which are due to the Millstone Grit series; eastward lies the Derbyshire Coalfield with its gently moulded grasscovered hills; southward is the more level tract of red Triassic rocks. The principal structural feature is the broad anticline, its axis running north and south, which has brought up the Carboniferous Limestone; this uplifted region is the southern extremity of the Pennine Range. The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border. Ashwood Dale, Chee Dale, Millersdale, Monsal Dale and the valley at Matlock are all flanked by abrupt sides of this rock. It is usually a pale, thick-bedded rock, sometimes blue and occasionally, as at Ashford, black. In some places, e.g. Thorpe Cloud, it is highly fossiliferous, but it is usually somewhat barren except for abundant crinoids and smaller organisms. It is polished in large slabs at Ashford, where crinoidal, black and "rosewood" marbles are produced. Volcanic rocks, locally called "Toadstone," are represented in the limestones by intrusive sills and flows of dolerite and by necks of agglomerate, notably near Tideswell, Millersdale and Matlock. Beds and nodules of chert are abundant in the upper parts of the limestone; at Bakewell it is quarried for use in the Potteries. At some points the limestone has been dolomitized; near Bonsall it has been converted into a granular silicified rock. A series of black shales with nodular limestones, the Pendleside series, rests upon the Mountain Limestone on the east, south and north-west; much of the upper course of the Derwent has been cut through these soft beds. Mam Tor, or the Shivering Mountain, is made of these shales. Next in upward sequence is a thick mass of sandstones, grits and shales - the Millstone Grit series. On the west side these extend from Blacklow Hill to Axe Edge; on the east, from Derwent Edge to near Derby; outlying masses form the rough moorland on Kinder Scout and the picturesque tors near Stanton-by-Youlgreave. A small patch of Millstone Grit and Limestone occurs in the south of the county about Melbourne and Ticknall. The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lieson the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham. A small tract, part of the Leicestershire coalfield, lies in the south-east corner, and in the north-west corner a portion of the Lancashire coalfield appears about New Mills and Whaley Bridge. They yield valuable coals, clays, marls and ganister. East of Bolsover, the Coal Measures are covered unconformably by the Permian breccias and magnesian limestone. Flanking the hills between Ashbourne and Quarndon are red beds of Bunter marl, sandstone and conglomerate; they also appear at Morley, east of the Derwent, and again round the small southern coalfield. Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale. Much of the Triassic area is covered superficially by glacial drift and alluvium of the Trent. Local boulders as well as northern erratics are found in the valley of the Derwent. The bones of Pleistocene mammals, the rhinoceros, mammoth, bison, hyaena, &c., have been found at numerous places, often in caves and fissures in the limestones, e.g. at Castleton, Wirksworth and Creswell. At Doveholes the Pleiocene Mastodon has been reported. Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc, blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common. A peculiar variety of the last named, called "Blue John," is found only near Castleton; at the same place occurs the remarkable elastic bitumen, "elaterite." Limestone is quarried at Buxton, Millersdale and Matlock for lime, fluxing and chemical purposes. Good sandstone is obtained from the Millstone Grit at Stancliffe, Tansley and Whatstandwell. Calcareous tufa or travertine occurs in the valley of Matlock and elsewhere, and in some places is still being deposited by springs. Large pits containing deposits of white sand, clay and pebbles are found in the limestone at Longcliff, Newhaven and Carsington.

Climate

From the elevation which it attains in its northern division the county is colder and is rainier than other midland counties. Even in summer cold and thick fogs are often seen hanging over the rivers, and clinging to the lower parts of the hills, and hoar-frosts are by no means unknown even in June and July. The winters in the uplands are generally severe, and the rainfall heavy. At Buxton, at an elevation of about 1000 ft., the mean temperature in January is 34.9° F., and in July 57.50, the mean annual being 45.4°. These conditions contrast with those at Derby, in the southern lowland, where the figures are respectively 37.5°, 61.2° and 48.8°, while intermediate conditions are found at Belper, 9 m. higher up the Derwent valley, where the figures are 3 6.3 59.9° and 47.3°. The contrasts shown by the mean annual rainfall are similarly marked. Thus at Woodhead, lying high in the extreme north, it is 52.03 in., at Buxton 49.33 in., at Matlock, in the middle part of the Derwent valley, 35.2 in., and at Derby 24.35 in. Agriculture. - A little over seven-tenths of the total area of the county is under cultivation. Among the higher altitudes of north Derbyshire, where the soil is poor and the climate harsh, grain is unable to flourish, while even in the more sheltered parts of this region the harvest is usually belated. In such districts sheep farming is chiefly practised, and there is a considerable area of heath pasture. Farther south, heavy crops of wheat, turnips and other cereals and green crops are not uncommon, while barley is cultivated about Repton and Gresley, and also in the east of the county, in order to supply the Burton breweries. A large part of the Trent valley is under permanent pasture, being devoted to cattle-feeding and dairy-farming. This industry has prospered greatly, and the area of permanent pasture encroaches continually upon that of arable land. Derbyshire cheeses are exported or sent to London in considerable quantities; and cheese fairs are held in various parts of the county, as at Ashbourne and Derby. A feature of the upland districts is the total absence of hedges, and the substitution of limestone walls, put together without any mortar or cement.

Other Industries

The manufactures of Derbyshire are both numerous and important, embracing silks, cotton hosiery, iron, woollen manufactures, lace, elastic web and brewing. For many of these this county has long been famous, especially for that of silk, which is carried on to a large extent in Derby, as well as in Belper and Duffield. Derby is also celebrated for its china, and silk-throwing is the principal industry of the town. Elastic web weaving by power looms is carried on to a great extent, and the manufacture of lace and net curtains, gimp trimmings, braids and cords. In the county town and neighbourhood are several important chemical and colour works; and in various parts of the county, as at Belper, Cromford, Matlock, Tutbury, are cottonspinning mills, as well as hosiery and tape manufactories. The principal works of the Midland Railway Company are at Derby. The principal mineral is coal. Ironstone is not extensively wrought, but, on account of the abundant supply of coal, large quantities are imported for smelting purposes. There are smelting furnaces in several districts, as at Alfreton, Chesterfield, Derby, Ilkeston. Besides lead, gypsum and zinc are raised, to a small extent; and for the quarrying of limestone Derbyshire is one of the principal English counties. The east and the extreme south-west parts are the principal industrial districts.

Communications

The chief railway serving the county is the Midland, the south, east and north being served by its main line and branches. In the north-east and north the Great Central system touches the county; in the west the North Staffordshire and a branch of the London & North-Western; while a branch of the Great Northern serves Derby and other places in the south. The Trent & Mersey canal crosses the southern part of the county, and there is a branch canal (the Derby) connecting Derby with this and with the Erewash canal, which runs north from the Trent up the Erewash valley. From it there is a little-used branch (the Cromford canal) to Matlock.

Population and Administration

The area of the ancient county is 658,885 acres, with a population in 1891 of 528,033, and 1901 of 620,322. The area of the administrative county is 652,272 acres. The county contains six hundreds. The municipal boroughs are Chesterfield (pop. 27,185), Derby, a county borough and the county town (114,848), Glossop (21,526), Ilkeston (2 5,384). The other urban districts are Alfreton (17,505), Alvaston and Boulton(i 279), Ashbourne (4039), Bakewell(2850), Baslow and Bubnell (797), Belper (10,934), Bolsover (6844) Bonsall (1360), Brampton and Walton (2698), Buxton (10,181), Clay Cross(8358), Dronfield(3809), Fairfield(2969), Heage(2889), Heanor (16,249), Long Eaton (13,045), Matlock (5979), Matlock Bath and Scarthin Nick (1819), Newbold and Dunston (5986), New Mills (7773), North Darley (2756), Ripley (io,III), South Darley (788), Swadlincote (18,014), Whittington (9416), Wirksworth (3807). Among other towns may be mentioned Ashover (2426), Barlborough (2056), Chapel-en-le-Frith (4626), Clowne (3896), Crich (3063), Killamarsh (3644), Staveley (11,420), Whitwell (3380). The county is in the Midland circuit, and assizes are held at Derby. It has one court of quarter sessions and is divided into fifteen petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Derby, Chesterfield and Glossop have separate commissions of the peace, and that of Derby has also a separate court of quarter sessions. The total number of civil parishes is 314. The county is mainly in the diocese of Southwell, with small portions in the dioceses of Peterborough and Lichfield, and contains 255 ecclesiastical parishes or districts. The parliamentary divisions of the county are High Peak, North-Eastern, Chesterfield, Mid, Ilkeston, Southern and Western, each returning one member, while the parliamentary borough of Derby returns two members.

History

The earliest English settlements in the district which is now Derbyshire were those of the West Angles, who in the course of their northern conquests in the 6th century pushed their way up the valleys of the Derwent and the Dove, where they became known as the Pecsaetan. Later the district formed the northern division of Mercia, and in 848 the Mercian witenagemot assembled at Repton. In the 9th century the district suffered frequently from the ravages of the Danes, who in 874 wintered at Repton and destroyed its famous monastery, the burial-place of the kings of Mercia. Derby under Guthrum was one of the five Danish burghs, but in 917 was recovered by i thelfla d. In 924 Edward the Elder fortified Bakewell, and in 942 Edmund regained Derby, which had fallen under the Danish yoke. Barrows of the Saxon period are numerous in Wirksworth hundred and the Bakewell district, among the most remarkable being White-low near Winster and Bower's-low near Tissington. There are Saxon cemeteries at Stapenhill and Foremark Hall.

Derbyshire probably originated as a shire in the time of ZEthelstan, but for long it maintained a very close connexion with Nottinghamshire, and the Domesday Survey gives a list of local customs affecting the two counties alike. The two shire-courts sat together for the Domesday Inquest, and the counties were united under one sheriff until the time of Elizabeth. The villages of Appleby, Oakthorpe, Donisthorpe, Stretton-en-le-Field, Willesley, Chilcote and Measham were reckoned as part of Derbyshire in 1086, although separated from it by the Leicestershire parishes of Over and Nether Seat.

The early divisions of the county were known as wapentakes, five being mentioned in Domesday, while 13th-century documents mention seven wapentakes, corresponding with the six present hundreds, except that Repton and Gresley were then reckoned as separate divisions. In the 14th century the divisions were more frequently described as hundreds, and Wirksworth alone retained the designation wapentake until modern times. Ecclesiastically the county constituted an irchdeaconry in the diocese of Lichfield, comprising the six deaneries of Derby, Ashbourne, High Peak, Castillar, Chesterfield and Repington. In 1884 it was transferred to the newly formed diocese of Southwell. The assizes for Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire were held at Nottingham until the reign of Henry III., when they were held alternately at Nottingham and Derby until 1569, after which the Derbyshire assizes were held at Derby. The court of the Honour of Peverel, held at Basford in Nottinghamshire, which formerly exercised jurisdiction in the hundreds of Scarsdale, the Peak and Wirksworth, was abolished in 1849. The miners of Derbyshire formed an independent community under the jurisdiction of a steward and barmasters, who held two Barmote courts every year. The forests of Peak and Duffield had their separate courts and officers, the justice seat of the former being in an extra-parochial part at equal distances from Castleton, Tideswell and Bowden, while the pleas of Duffield Forest were held at Tutbury. Both were disafforested in the 17th century.

The greatest landholder in Derbyshire at the time of the Domesday Survey was Henry de Ferrers, who owned almost the whole of the modern hundred of Appletree. The Ferrers estates were forfeited by Robert, earl of Derby, in the reign of Henry III. Another great Domesday landholder was William Peverel, the historic founder of Peak Castle, whose vast possessions were known as the Honour of Peverel. In 1155 the younger Peverel was disinherited for poisoning the earl of Chester, and his estates forfeited to the crown. Few Englishmen retained estates of any importance after the Conquest, but one, Elfin, an under-tenant of Henry de Ferrers, not only held a considerable property but was the ancestor of the Derbyshire family of Brailsford, The families of Shirley and Gresley can also boast an unbroken descent. from Domesday tenants.

During the rebellion of Prince Henry against Henry II. the castles of Tutbury and Duffield were held against the king, and in the civil wars of John's reign Bolsover and Peak Castles were garrisoned by the rebellious barons. In the Barons' War of the reign of Henry III. the earl of Derby was active in stirring up feeling in the county against the king, and in 1266 assembled a considerable force, which was defeated by the king's party at Chesterfield. At the time of the Wars of the Roses discontent was rife in Derbyshire, and riots broke out in 1443, but the county did not lend active support to either party. On the outbreak of the Civil War of the 17th century, the county at first inclined to support the king, who received an enthusiastic reception when he visited Derby in 1642, but by the close of 1643 Sir John Gell of Hopton had secured almost the whole county for the parliament. Derby, however, was always royalist in sympathy, and did not finally surrender till 1646; in 1659 it rebelled against Richard Cromwell, and in 1745 entertained the young Pretender.

Derbyshire has always been mainly a mining and manufacturing county, though the rich land in the south formerly produced large quantities of corn. The lead mines were worked by the Romans, and the Domesday Survey mentions lead mines at Wirksworth, Matlock, Bakewell, Ashford and Crich. Iron has also been produced in Derbyshire from an early date, and coal mines were worked at Norton and Alfreton in the beginning of the 14th century. The woollen industry flourished in the county before the reign of John, when an exclusive privilege of dyeing cloth was conceded to the burgesses of Derby. Thomas Fuller writing in 1662 mentions lead, malt and ale as the chief products of the county, and the Buxton waters were already famous in his day. The 18th century saw the rise of numerous manufactures. In 1718 Sir Thomas and John Lombe set up an improved silkthrowing machine at Derby, and in 1758 Jedediah Strutt introduced a machine for making ribbed stockings, which became famous as the "Derby rib." In 1771 Sir Richard Arkwright set up one of his first cotton mills in Cromford, and in 1787 there were twenty-two cotton mills in the county. The Derby porcelain or china manufactory was started about 1750.

From 1295 until the Reform Act of 1832 the county and town of Derby each returned two members to parliament. From this latter date the county returned four members in two divisions until the act of 1868, under which it returned six members for three divisions.

Antiquities

Monastic remains are scanty, but there are interesting portions of a priory incorporated with the school buildings at Repton. The village church of Beauchief Abbey, near Dronfield, is a remnant of an abbey founded c. 1175 by Robert Fitzranulf. It has a stately transitional Norman tower, and three fine Norman arches. Dale Abbey, near Derby, was founded early in the 13th century for the Premonstratensian order. The ruins are scanty, but the east window is preserved, and the present church incorporates remains of the ancient resthouse for pilgrims. The church has a peculiar music gallery, entered from without. The abbey church contained famous stained glass, and some of this is preserved in the neighbouring church at Morley. Derbyshire is rich in ecclesiastical architecture as a whole. The churches are generally of various styles. The chancel of the church at Repton is assigned to the second half of the 10th century, though subsequently altered, and the crypt beneath is supposed to be earlier still; its roof is supported by four round pillars, and it is approached by two stairways. Other remains of pre-Conquest date are the chancel arches in the churches of Marston Montgomery and of Sawley; and the curiously carved font in Wilne church is attributed to the same period. Examples of Norman work are frequent in doorways, as in the churches of Allestree and Willington near Repton, while a fine tympanum is preserved in the modern church of Findern. There is a triple-recessed doorway, with arcade above, in the west end of Bakewell church, and there is another fine west doorway in Melbourne church, a building principally of the late Norman period, with central and small western towers. In restoring this church curious mural paintings were discovered. At Steetley, near Worksop, is a small Norman chapel, with apse, restored from a ruinous condition; Youlgrave church, a building of much general interest, has Norman nave pillars and a fine font of the same period, and Normanton church has a peculiar Norman corbel table. The Early English style is on the whole less well exemplified in the county, but Ashbourne church, with its central tower and lofty spire, contains beautiful details of this period, notably the lancet windows in the Cockayne chapel.

The parish churches of Dronfield, Hathersage (with some notable stained glass), Sandiacre and Tideswell exemplify the Decorated period; the last is a particularly stately and beautiful building, with a lofty and ornate western tower and some good early brasses. The churches of Dethic, Wirksworth and Chesterfield are typical of the Perpendicular period; that of Wirksworth contains noteworthy memorial chapels, monuments and brasses, and that of Chesterfield is celebrated for its crooked spire.

The remains of castles are few; the ancient Bolsover Castle is replaced by a castellated mansion of the 17th century; of the Norman Peak Castle near Castleton little is left; of Codnor Castle in the Erewash valley there are picturesque ruins of the 13th century. Among ancient mansions Derbyshire possesses one of the most famous in England in Haddon Hall, of the 15th century. Wingfield manor house is a ruin dating from the same century. Hardwick Hall is a very perfect example of Elizabethan building; ruins of the old Tudor hall stand near by. Other Elizabethan examples are Barlborough and Tissington Halls.

The village of Tissington is noted for the maintenance of an old custom, that of "well-dressing." On the Thursday before Easter a special church service is celebrated, and the wells are beautifully ornamented with flowers, prayers being offered at each. The ceremony has been revived also in several other Derbyshire villages.

See Davies, New Historical and Descriptive View of Derbyshire (Belper, 1811); D. Lysons, Magna Britannia, vol. v. (London, 1817); Maunder, Derbyshire Miners' Glossary (Bakewell, 1824); R. Simpson, Collection of Fragments illustrative of the History of Derbyshire (1826); S. Glover, History and Gazetteer of the County of Derby, ed. T. Noble, part 1 of vols. i. and ii. (Derby, 1831-1833); T. Bateman, Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire (London, 1848); L. Jewitt, Ballads and Songs of Derbyshire (London, 1867); J. C. Cox, Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire (Chester, 1875), and Three Centuries of Derbyshire Annals (2 vols., London, 1890); R. N. Worth, Derby, in "Popular County Histories" (London, 1886); J. P. Yeatman, Feudal History of the County of Derby (3 vols., London, 1886-1895) Victoria County History, Derbyshire. See also Notts and Derbyshire Notes and Queries.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

derby + shire

Pronunciation

 Audio (UK)help, file

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Singular
Derbyshire

Plural
-

Derbyshire

  1. A midland county of England bounded by Yorkshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, Staffordshire and Cheshire.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

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Derbyshire
File:Derbyshire flag.svg
File:EnglandDerbyshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 21st
2,625 km²
Ranked 20th
2,547 km²
Admin HQ Matlock
ISO 3166-2 GB-DBY
ONS code 17
NUTS 3 UKF12/13
Demographics
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 20th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
990,400


377

/ km²
Ranked 11th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
754,100
Ethnicity 96.0% White
2.3% S.Asian, 1.7% Black British, Mixed Race or Chinese
Politics
File:Derbyshirearms.PNG
Derbyshire County Council
http://www.derbyshire.gov.uk/
Executive Labour
Members of Parliament
Districts

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1.High Peak 2.Derbyshire Dales 3.South Derbyshire 4.Erewash 5.Amber Valley 6.North East Derbyshire 7.Chesterfield 8.Bolsover 9.Derby (Unitary)

Derbyshire (pronounced "dar-bee-sher" /ˈdɑːbɪʃə/, as opposed to "dar-bee-shire" or "der-bee-shire") is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire. The northern part of Derbyshire overlaps with the Pennines, a famous chain of hills and mountains. The county contains part of the National Forest, and borders on Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Staffordshire and Cheshire.

The city of Derby is now a unitary authority, but remains part of the ceremonial county of Derbyshire. The administrative county countains 13 towns with between 10,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, there is a large amount of sparsely populated agricultural upland: 75% of the population live in 25% of the area. Although Derbyshire is in the East Midlands, some parts, such as High Peak, are closer to the northern cities of Manchester and Sheffield. Outside the main city of Derby, the largest town in the county is Chesterfield.

Contents

Districts and boroughs

Derbyshire has a three-tier local government since the local government reorganisation in 1974. It has a county council based in Matlock and eight district councils and since 1998, a unitary authority of Derby. However, Derby remains part of Derbyshire for ceremonial purposes.

At the third tier are the parish councils. In urban areas the work of the parish council is possibly undertaken by the county or district council. The eight district councils in Derbyshire and the unitary authority of Derby are shown in the map to the right.

These district councils are responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health, markets and fairs, refuse collection and recycling, cemeteries and crematoria, leisure services, parks, and tourism[1]

They leave the subjects of education, social services, libraries, main roads, public transport, policing and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning for Derbyshire to the County Council.[1]

History

The area that is now Derbyshire was first occupied between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age when Mesolithic hunter gatherers roamed the hilly tundra.[2] The evidence of these nomadic tribes is centred around limestone caves located on the Nottinghamshire border. Desposits left in the caves date the occupancy at around 12,000 to 7,000 BCE[3]

Burial mounds of Neolithic settlers are also situated throughout the county. These chambered tombs were designed for collective burial and are mostly located in the central Derbyshire region.[3] There are tombs in Minning Low, and Five Wells, which date back to between 2000 and 2500 BCE[4] Three miles west of Youlgreave lies the Neolithic henge monument of Arbor Low, This can be dated back to 2500 BCE.

It is not until the Bronze Age that real signs of agriculture and settlement are found in the county. In the moors of the Peak District signs of clearence, arable fields and hut circles were discovered after archeological investigation. However this area and another settlement at Swarkestone are all that have been found[5]

During the Roman invasion the invadors were attracted to Derbyshire because of the lead ore in the limestone hills of the area. They settled throughout the county with forts built near Brough in Hope Valley and near Glossop. Later they settled around Buxton, famed for it's warm springs, and set up a fort near modern day Derby in a area now known as Little Chester.[5]

Economy

Derbyshire is a mixture of a rural economy in the west, with a former coal mining economy in the east (Bolsover district). The landscape varies from typical arable country in the flat lands to the south of Derby, to the mountain farming of the high gritstone moorlands of the southern Pennines, which effectively begin to the north of the city. This topology and geology has had a fundamental effect on Derbyshire development throughout its history. In addition it has been rich in natural resources like lead, iron and coal. Its remoteness in the late 18th century and an abundance of fast flowing streams led to a proliferation of water power at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, following the mills pioneered by Richard Arkwright.

Nationally famous companies in Derbyshire are Thorntons just south of Alfreton and JCB Power Systems have an engine factory in South Derbyshire. Ashbourne Water used to be bottled in Buxton by Nestlé Waters UK until 2006 and Buxton Waterstill is. Other major employers in the county especially around the Derby area are Rolls-Royce plc, Egg Banking plc and Toyota.

Education

For a list of individual schools see   Category:Schools in Derbyshire
The Derbyshire school system is comprehensive with no selective schools. There is selection by average house price in some areas. Rural parts of Derbyshire have some of the best comprehensive schools in the East Midlands. The average proportion of results getting grades A-C at GCSE including Maths and English is 45.8% in England. For Derbyshire, it is 45.5%. Derbyshire Dales is the best performing district in the East Midlands. At GCSE, the best performing school is Saint Mary's Catholic High School in Chesterfield with 85%, followed by the Ecclesbourne School in Duffield with 81%, then the Lady Manners School in Bakewell with 69%. The worst performing school is the Bennerley School in Ilkeston with 16%. The government target is 25%. At A level, the highest performing school is also Saint Mary's Catholic School, followed by the Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, then the Friesland School in Sandiacre. The largest school Is John Port in Etwall at 2100 students.

Average GCSE by district (%)

  • Derbyshire Dales 59.0
  • South Derbyshire 47.5
  • Amber Valley 47.4
  • North East Derbyshire 47.3
  • Chesterfield 46.7
  • High Peak 45.9
  • Erewash 40.4
  • Bolsover 31.1
  • (City of Derby Unitary Authority 42.2)

County flag

As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife chose the Jacob's Ladder as the county flower. In 2006, an official county flag was introduced, largely on the initiative of BBC Radio Derby in September 2006[6].

Trivia

Settlements

This is a list of the towns in Derbyshire.

Sport

Derbyshire has many sporting teams in various team sports, the most common being football. Derbyshire has at least 21 football teams (listed below), most of who play in tier 6 or lower of the English football league system, and the most successful and popular is Derby County F.C.. Chesterfield F.C. are the only other of these football clubs who currently play in the Football League, albeit in the bottom tier (Coca Cola Football League 2).

As well as football, Derbyshire also has a cricket team based in Derby, and a rugby league club based in Chesterfield.

Team Area Ground League/Division
Alfreton Town F.C. Alfreton, Amber Valley The Impact Arena Conference North
Belper Town F.C. Belper, Amber Valley Christchurch Meadow Northern Premier League Division One South
Blackwell Miners Welfare F.C. Blackwell, Bolsover Unknown Central Midlands League Supreme Division
Bolsover Town F.C. Bolsover, Bolsover Unknown Central Midlands League Premier Division
Borrowash Victoria A.F.C. Spondon, Derby Robinson Construction Bowl Northern Counties East Football League Division One
Buxton F.C. Buxton, High Peak The Silverlands Northern Premier League Premier Division
Chapel Town F.C. Chapel en le Frith, High Peak Rowton Park Manchester League Division One
Chesterfield F.C. Chesterfield The Recreation Ground Football League Two
Derby County F.C. Derby Pride Park Stadium Premier League
Glapwell F.C. Glapwell, Bolsover Hall Corner Northern Counties East Football League Premier Division
Glossop North End A.F.C. Glossop, High Peak North Road North West Counties Football League Division One
Graham Street Prims F.C. Derby Unknown Central Midlands League Supreme Division
Gresley Rovers F.C. Church Gresley, South Derbyshire The Moat Ground Northern Premier League Division One South
Heanor Town F.C. Heanor, Amber Valley The Town Ground Central Midlands League Supreme Division
Holbrook Miners Welfare F.C. Holbrook Unknown Central Midlands League Supreme Division
Ilkeston Town F.C. Ilkeston, Erewash New Manor Ground Northern Premier League Premier Division
Long Eaton United F.C. Long Eaton, Erewash Grange Park Northern Counties East Football League Premier Division
Matlock Town F.C. Matlock, Derbyshire Dales Causeway Lane Northern Premier League Premier Division
Mickleover Sports F.C. Mickleover, Derby Mickleover Sports Ground Northern Counties East Football League Premier Division
Pinxton F.C. Pinxton, Bolsover Unknown Central Midlands League Premier Division
South Normanton Athletic F.C. South Normanton Exchem Sports Arena Northern Counties East League Division One
Staveley Miners Welfare F.C. Staveley, Chesterfield Inkersall Road Northern Counties East Football League Division One

U.S Residential Development

Polk County North Carolina in the United States also features a residential development which derives its name from the English Derbyshire. The neighborhood presents itself as an English country side experience, with all aspects of the development holding true to traditional English designs and architecture. [7]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b The Local Channel accessed 20th June 2007
  2. ^ Smith, pp. 6
  3. ^ a b Pevsner, pp. 22
  4. ^ Smith, pp. 7
  5. ^ a b Smith,pp. 8
  6. ^ Choosing the Derbyshire flag
  7. ^ Derbyshire NC

References

  • Smith, Roly (1999). Towns & Villages of Britain: Derbyshire. Cheshire: Sigma Press. ISBN 1850586225. 
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus (1953). The Buildings of England: Derbyshire. Middlesex: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140710086. 

Template:County



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Simple English

Derbyshire
[[File:]]
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 21st

Ranked 20th

Admin HQMatlock
ISO 3166-2GB-DBY
ONS code 17
NUTS 3 UKF12/13
Demography
Population
- Total (2005 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 20th
981,200

Ranked 11th
747,500
Ethnicity 96.0% White
2.3% S.Asian
Politics
Derbyshire County Council
http://www.derbyshire.gov.uk/

ExecutiveLabour
Members of Parliament
  • Margaret Beckett
  • Liz Blackman
  • Natasha Engel
  • Paul Holmes
  • Bob Laxton
  • Tom Levitt
  • Judy Mallaber
  • Patrick McLoughlin
  • Dennis Skinner
  • Mark Todd
Districts
File:Derbyshire Ceremonial
  1. High Peak
  2. Derbyshire Dales
  3. South Derbyshire
  4. Erewash
  5. Amber Valley
  6. North East Derbyshire
  7. Chesterfield
  8. Bolsover
  9. Derby (Unitary)

Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A large part of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire. The northern part of Derbyshire overlaps with the Pennines, a famous chain of hills and mountains. The county contains part of the National Forest, and borders on Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Staffordshire and Cheshire.

Places of interest








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