Deshpande (Marathi: देशपांडे) (Kannada: ದೇಶಪಾಂಡೆ)is a common surname in the states of Maharashtra and Northern Karnataka,India. Deshpande was the revenue post created by the King Krishnadevrai of Devgiri (Daulatabad). One Deshpande used to be appointed superior to about 10 Pandes. More than 96% of Deshpandes belong to the Deshastha Brahmin community. However this surname is also found in CKP (Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu) communities, where there are at least 100 CKP families that have this surname. Some Goud Saraswat Brahmin (GSB) families also have this surname. Deshpande also predominantly denotes a Brahmin in Northern Karnataka, and is one of the influential surnames in this region, akin to surnames such as Kulkarni and Patil.
Deshpande derives from the Marathi title dešpande, or "district accountant". Dešpande was formerly a hereditary office, and is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit terms deśa ("country", or "district") and pandita ("learned man").