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Desmoxytes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Diplopoda
Order: Polydesmida
Family: Paradoxosomatidae
Genus: Desmoxytes
Chamberlin, 1923
Species

24 described, see text

Synonyms

Hylomus

Desmoxytes, whose species are commonly known as the dragon millipedes, is a genus of millipede found in southeast Asia. The genus was described by R.V. Chamberlin in 1923 and reviewed by Sergei Golovatch and Henrik Enghoff in 1994.[1] At least twenty-four species are known from southeastern China to Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.[2] One species, D. planata, has also been observed in Sri Lanka, the Andaman Islands, Seychelles, Java, Great Coco Island, and Fiji; however, this species has expanded its range by being transported through human activity.[1][3] Several species have only recently been discovered and some have yet to be officially described.[3]

Generally, species in this genus are striking in coloration and spiny.[3] This genus is unique for its sculptured, ornamented dorsums, and elaborate paranota.[4] The maximum length for a species in this genus is around 3 centimeters (1.2 in).[3] Species in this genus also have the ability to produce hydrogen cyanide to ward off predators, which can give the dragon millipedes an almondlike smell.[3]

Species

Other than D. planata, each species of dragon millipede is known primarily from only one or a few locations in their country of origin.[3] Additionally, there is one species from Australia, Desmoxytoides hasenpuschorum, which is extremely similar to Desmoxytes but has been split into its own monotypic genus; there is speculation, even by the genus authority for Desmoxytoides, that this split is not necessary.[3] Five species of Desmoxytes, including D. aspera, D. cervaria, D. draco, D. pilosa, and D. spectabilis, were originally placed in the separate genus Hylomus before it was lumped into Desmoxytes.[4][5]

Species of Desmoxytes[3]
Binomial names Species Authority Range
Desmoxytes acantherpestes Golovatch and Enghoff, 1994 Thailand
Desmoxytes aspera Attems, 1937 Vietnam
Desmoxytes cattienensis Nguyen Duc Anh et al., 2005 Vietnam
Desmoxytes cervaria Attems, 1953 Vietnam
Desmoxytes cervina Pocock, 1895 Myanmar
Desmoxytes cornutus Zhang & Li, 1982 China
Desmoxytes delfae Jeekel, 1964 Thailand
Desmoxytes draco Cook & Loomis, 1924 China
Desmoxytes enghoffi Nguyen Duc Anh et al., 2005 Vietnam
Desmoxytes gigas Golovatch and Enghoff, 1994 Thailand
Desmoxytes hostilis Golovatch and Enghoff, 1994 Vietnam
Desmoxytes jeekeli Golovatch and Enghoff, 1994 Thailand
Desmoxytes longispina Loksa, 1960 China
Desmoxytes minutuberculata Zhang, 1986 China
Desmoxytes pilosa Attems, 1937 Vietnam
Desmoxytes planata Pocock, 1895 Widespread
Desmoxytes proxima Nguyen Duc Anh et al., 2005 Vietnam
Desmoxytes pterygota Golovatch and Enghoff, 1994 Thailand
Desmoxytes purpurosea Enghoff, Sutcharit, and Panha, 2007 Thailand
Desmoxytes rubra Golovatch and Enghoff, 1994 Thailand
Desmoxytes specialis Nguyen Duc Anh et al., 2005 Vietnam
Desmoxytes spectabilis Attems, 1937 Vietnam
Desmoxytes taurina Pocock, 1895 Myanmar
Desmoxytes terae Jeekel, 1964 Malaysia, Thailand

References

  1. ^ a b Enghoff, Henrik (November 2005). "The millipedes of Thailand (Diplopoda)". Steenstrupia (Copenhagen) 29 (1): 87–103. http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:VyOnluEaqawJ:www.zmuc.dk/commonweb/JOURNALS/PDF/Vol29-1/Enghoff.pdf+Desmoxytes+planata&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=us. Retrieved 2008-12-16.  
  2. ^ Thompson, Christian (2008-12-15). "First Contact in the Greater Mekong" (pdf). World Wildlife Fund. http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/media/press/2008/WWFBinaryitem10994.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-16.  
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Enghoff, Henrik; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak (2007). "The shocking pink dragon millipede, Desmoxytes purpurosea, a colourful new species from Thailand". Zootaxa 1563: 31–36. ISSN 11755326. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01563p036.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-16.  
  4. ^ a b Shelley, Rowland; Selena Bauer (1998). [http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/fiji/pdf/shelley-bauer1998.pdf "The Milliped Family Paradoxosomatidae in the Hawaiian Islands (Diplopoda: Polydesmida)"]. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 56: 48–49. http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/fiji/pdf/shelley-bauer1998.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-17.  
  5. ^ "Zoo 111". Universität Ulm & Ruhr-Universität Bochum. http://www.biologie.uni-ulm.de/systax/daten/taxa/details/zoo_111.html. Retrieved 2008-12-17.  
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Classis: Diplopoda
Subclassis: Chilognatha
Infraclassis: Helminthomorpha
Superordo: Merocheta
Ordo: Polydesmida
Familia: Paradoxosomatidae
Genus: Desmoxytes
Species: D. acantherpestes - D. aspera - D. cattienensis - D. cervaria - D. cervina - D. cornutus - D. delfae - D. draco - D. enghoffi - D. gigas - D. hostilis - D. jeekeli - D. longispina - D. minutuberculata - D. pilosa - D. planata - D. proxima - D. pterygota - D. purpurosea - D. rubra - D. specialis - D. spectabilis - D. taurina - D. terae

Name

Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923

Reference

Henrik Enghoff, Chirasak Sutcharit & Somsak Panha, 2007, Zootaxa 1563: 31-36 [1]


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