Deventer: Wikis

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Deventer
—  Municipality  —
Deventer skyline, showing the Lebuinus Church

Flag

Coat of arms
Location of Deventer in Overijssel, Netherlands
Country Netherlands
Province Overijssel
Area (2006)
 - Total 134.37 km2 (51.9 sq mi)
 - Land 131.31 km2 (50.7 sq mi)
 - Water 3.07 km2 (1.2 sq mi)
Population (1 January, 2007)
 - Total 96,596
 - Density 736/km2 (1,906.2/sq mi)
  Source: CBS, Statline.
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Ltspkr.pngDeventer is a municipality and city in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. Deventer is largely situated on the east bank of the river IJssel, but also has a small part of its territory on the west bank. In 2005 the municipality of Bathmen (pop. 5,000) was merged with Deventer as part of a national effort to reduce bureaucracy in the country.

Contents

Population centres

Linde
Oude Molen

Associated hamlets at second level

  • Deventer (see below)
    • Snippeling (a small community about 2 km east of the city centre)
  • Colmschate (Deventer suburb quarters surrounding eponymous village 4 km east of the city centre, ice skating hall, small railway station)
    • De Bannink
    • Oxe
  • Diepenveen, a picturesque village 4 km to the north, surrounded by forests
    • Molenbelt
    • Rande
    • Tjoene
  • Lettele, in a forest area
    • Linde
    • Oude Molen ('old mill')
  • Okkenbroek
  • Schalkhaar (former centre of Diepenveen municipality including Lettele and Okkenbroek until 1/1/1999)
    • Averlo
    • Frieswijk
  • Bathmen (independent municipality until 1/1/2005)
    • Apenhuizen ('monkey houses')
    • Dortherhoek
    • Loo
    • Pieriksmars
    • Zuidloo

Deventer (city)

Deventer was probably founded by the English missionary Lebuinus around 768, who built a wooden church on the right bank of the river IJssel. This was not the first human settlement at the location; from the Bronze Age to about 400 A.D., there was a settlement at Colmschate, 4 km east of the city centre. Remains of this settlement were excavated between 1981 and 2006.

Sights and events

  • The Waag (Weighing-house) on the edge of the Brink square, built in 1550 and restored in 2003. The Deventer City Museum is housed inside the Waag. The Museum's collections include industrial and trading history, paintings by Gerard Terborch and Han van Meegeren, silver objects, and prehistoric findings). Thea Beckman's novel Het wonder van Frieswijck ("The Frieswijck Miracle") features the Waag. On the outer wall of the Waag hangs a kettle that is over 500 years old, said to have been used for a public execution in the late Middle Ages; a man who had produced counterfeit coins was cooked to death in it.
  • The Lebuïnuskerk (St. Lebuin's Church) in Gothic style, with remarkable ceiling paintings and a beautiful organ. Its tower can be climbed in summer.
  • The Brink (market square) with houses, shops, and cafes dating from 1575-1900. The market square is also the center of Deventer nightlife. Alongside this square there is the Bussink "Koekhuisje", where you can buy the famous Deventer Koek (honey-cake). Markets take place every Friday (including a very big one on Good Friday, following a medieval tradition) and Saturday.
  • The Speelgoedmuseum (Toy Museum) behind the Waag, housed in one of the most picturesque old houses of the city.
  • The medieval Bergkerk (Mountain Church), on top of a small hill (old river dune), now a museum for modern art.
  • The picturesque and old streets around the Bergkerk, known as Bergkwartier (Mountain Quarter) situated on and around an old river dune.
  • Football stadium De Adelaarshorst, home venue of Go Ahead Eagles situated in a typical 1930s neighbourhood and one of the oldest stadiums still in use today.
  • The city hosts three events of national and even international fame:
    • In the first week-end of July, the city centre is the scene of the spectacular open air festival "Deventer op stelten" (Deventer on Stilts). Actors and artists give free performances in the streets and on the Brink square. All actors must use stilts during their acts.
    • In August, Deventer is home to Europe's largest book fair, attracting some 125,000 visitors.
    • The Dickens Festival in December sees some of the oldest streets and alleys in the city dressed up in the style of the Victorian era, as per Dickens' writings. The latter attracted 135,000 visitors in 2004 and 2006.

History

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City Rights and Medieval Times

The towers of the St. Nicholas Church date back to c. 1200

The village of Deventer, already important because of a trading road crossing the river IJssel, was looted and burnt down by the Vikings in 882. It was immediately rebuilt and fortified with an earthen wall (in the street Stenen Wal remains of this wall have been excavated and restored). Deventer received city rights in 956, after which fortifications were built or replaced by stone walls around the city for defense. Between 1000 and 1500, Deventer grew to be a flourishing trade city because of its harbour on the river IJssel, which was capable of accommodating large ships. The city was a member of the Hanseatic League. In the 15th century, Deventer had a common mint, where coins for the 3 IJssel cities Deventer, Zwolle, and Kampen were made.

Deventer is the place of birth of Geert Groote and home to his Brethren of the Common Life, a school of religious thought that was of great influence on Thomas a Kempis and Erasmus in later times. It had book printing shops dating back to as early as 1477, and an internationally famous Latin School, where the famous scholar Desiderius Erasmus went when he was a boy.

16th–20th century

Deventer in c. 1550
1652 map of Deventer by Willem and Joan Blaeu

Between 1500 and 1800, the mass of water flowing through the IJssel decreased, decreasing the importance of Deventer's harbour. The competition of trade centres in Holland, as well as the religious war between 1568 and 1648, brought a decline in the city's economy. In the 18th century, the iron industry came to Deventer. East of the town, so-called "oer", riversand containing iron, was found as early as 900. From this material, ore was produced and brought to town. The main road of the villages Okkenbroek, Lettele and Schalkhaar is still named Oerdijk (Ore Dyke). In the 19th century, Deventer became an industrial town. Bicycles, carpets, tins and cans for food and drinks, cigars, books, machinery, mattress were produced until the mid-20th century.

World War II

Deventer has seen few military engagements throughout its long history, although it was a garrison city of the Dutch cavalry. The industrial area and harbour were bombed heavily during World War II. The city centre has been largely spared, thus offering a view that has remained largely unchanged for the past few centuries.

The female Jewish poet and writer, Etty Hillesum, lived in Deventer during the war before being deported to Auschwitz.

In Schalkhaar, a village only 2 km northeast of the city centre, barracks were used by the German occupying forces to train Nazi policemen. The compound is now a centre for asylum seekers.

Deventer has been somewhat popular with the film industry. During the production of the movie A Bridge Too Far all of the scenes taking place in nearby Arnhem were filmed in Deventer - as Arnhem itself had lost its historic center.

Modern Times

Deventer logo

The city's trade and industry is still of some importance. The city is host to a factory producing central heating systems, as well as an editor and publisher named Kluwer. The Deventer honey cake (Deventer Koek), produced in Deventer for over 500 years, is still manufactured locally and sold all over the Netherlands.

Railway

Deventer has 2 railway stations - for destinations see

Notable people associated with Deventer

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Deventer is twinned with:

Notes

  1. ^ "Twin Cities of Tartu". ©2007 City of Tartu. http://tartu.ee/?lang_id=2&menu_id=13&page_id=1096. Retrieved 2009-01-04.  

External links

Coordinates: 52°15′N 6°12′E / 52.25°N 6.2°E / 52.25; 6.2


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Deventer is an old city in the Dutch province of Overijssel.

Understand

In medieval times, Deventer was, thanks largely to its location along the river IJssel, a very important and wealthy city, a member of the Hanseatic League. Many of the buildings erected in those glory days still remain.

Get in

By car

From Amsterdam, Deventer can be reached via the A1.

By train

Direct intercity services connect Deventer to Amsterdam as well as Schiphol Airport. In both cases, the journey will take about 90 minutes.

See

The oldest part of the town, just south of the railway station, still contains many medieval buildings. Just walking around the compact centre there will be plenty to look at, but particularly attractive are the following:

  • Bergkwartier (the district surrounding the Bergkerk, a church placed on a hillock)
  • Noordenbergkwartier (a very old quarter)
  • Saint Lebuinus Church, in Late Gothic style, at 42 Grote Kerkhof
  • "Waag", 57 Brink
  • Go up the bell tower in the church for some amazing views as well as the bullet holes in the walls outside.
  • Deventer has its own Leaning Tower of Piza (actually a large building in the Centrum Square) that leans over quite a lot.
  • See the bridge where the film "A Bridge Too Far" was made (Arnhem was to modern to film there).
  • See the Motorcar museum.

Eat

The city's most famous foodstuff is "Deventer Koek", which can be bought in the Koekhuisje (Cookie House) at 84 Brink.

Get out

The cities of Zutphen and Apeldoorn are just 15 km from Deventer.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DEVENTER, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, on the right bank of the Ysel, at the confluence of the Schipbeek, and a junction station Io m. N. of Zutphen by rail. It is also connected by steam tramway S.E. with Brokulo. Pop. (1900) 26,212. Deventer is a neat and prosperous town situated in the midst of prettily wooded environs, and containing many curious old buildings. There are three churches of special interest: the Groote Kerk (St Lebuinus), which dates from 1334, and occupies the site of an older structure of which the IIth-century crypt remains; the Roman Catholic Broederkerk, or Brothers' Church, containing among its relics three ancient gospels said to have been written by St Lebuinus (Lebwin), the English apostle of the Frisians and Westphalians (d. c. 773); and the Bergkerk, dedicated in 1206, which has two late Romanesque towers. The town hall (1693) contains a remarkable painting of the town council by Terburg. In the fine square called the Brink is the old weigh-house, now a school (gymnasium), built in r528,with a large external staircase (1644). The gymnasium is descended from the Latin school of which the celebrated Alexander Hegius was master in the third quarter of the 15th century, when the young Erasmus was sent to it, and at which Adrian Floreizoon, afterwards Pope Adrian VI., is said to have been a pupil about the same time. Another famous educational institution was the "Athenaeum" or high school, founded in 1630, at which Henri Renery (d. 1639) taught philosophy, while Johann Friedrich Gronov (Gronovius) (1611-1671) taught rhetoric and history in the middle of the same century. The "Athenaeum" disappered in 1876. In modern times Deventer possessed a famous teacher in Dr Burgersdyk (d. 1900), the Dutch translator of Shakespeare. The town library, also called the library of the Athenaeum, includes many MSS. and incunabula, and a 13thcentury copy of Reynard the Fox. The archives of the town are of considerable value. Besides a considerable agricultural trade, Deventer has important iron foundries and carpet factories (the royal manufactory of Smyrna carpets being especially famous); while cotton-printing, rope-making and the weaving of woollens and silks are also carried on. A public official is appointed to supervise the proper making of a form of gingerbread known as "Deventer Koek," which has a reputation throughout Holland. In the church of Bathmen, a village 5 m. E. of Deventer, some 14th-century frescoes were discovered in 1870.

In the 14th century Deventer was the centre of the famous religious and educational movement associated with the name of Gerhard Groot, who was a native of the town (see Brothers Of Common Life).


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