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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Dhammapada (Pāli; Prakrit: Dhamapada;[1] Sanskrit Dharmapada) is a versified Buddhist scripture traditionally ascribed to the Buddha himself. It is one of the best-known texts from the Theravada canon.[2]

The title, Dhammapada, is a compound term composed of dhamma and pada, each word having a number of denotations and connotations. Generally, dhamma can refer to the Buddha's "doctrine" or an "eternal truth" or "righteousness" or all "phenomena";[3] and, at its root, pada means "foot" and thus by extension, especially in this context, means either "path" or "verse" (cf. "foot (prosody)") or both.[4] English translations of this text's title have used various combinations of these and related words.[5][6]

Contents

History

Pali Canon

    Vinaya Pitaka    
   
                                       
SV. Khandhaka Vin V
               
   
    Sutta Pitaka    
   
                                                 
DN MN SN AN KN
                                                 
   
    Abhidhamma Pitaka    
   
                                                           
Dhs. Vbh. Dhk.
Pug.
Kvu. Yam. Patthana
                       
   

According to tradition,lol im neil from habs

the Dhammapada's verses were spoken by the Buddha on various occasions.[7]  Most verses deal with ethics.[8]  The text is part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, although over half of the verses exist in other parts of the Pali Canon.[9]  A 4th or 5th century CE commentary attributed to Buddhaghosa includes 305 stories which give context to the verses.

Although the Pāli edition is the best-known, a number of other versions are known:[10]

Comparing the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari Dharmapada and the Udanavarga, Brough (2001) identifies that the texts have in common 330 to 340 verses, 16 chapter headings and an underlying structure. He suggests that the three texts have a "common ancestor" but underlines that there is no evidence that any one of these three texts might have been the "primitive Dharmapada" from which the other two evolved.[18]

The Dhammapada is considered one of the most popular pieces of Theravada literature.[2] A critical edition of the Dhammapada was produced by Danish scholar Viggo Fausbøll in 1855, becoming the first Pali text to receive this kind of examination by the European academic community.[19]

Organization

The Pali Dhammapada contains 423 verses in 26 chapters (listed below in English and, in parentheses, Pali).[20][21][22]

I. The Twin-Verses (Yamaka-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
II. On Earnestness (Appamāda-vaggo)
III. Thought (Citta-vaggo)
IV. Flowers (Puppha-vaggo)
V. The Fool (Bāla-vaggo)
VI. The Wise Man (Paṇḍita-vaggo)
VII. The Venerable (Arahanta-vaggo)
VIII. The Thousands (Sahassa-vaggo)
IX. Evil (Pāpa-vaggo)
X. Punishment (Daṇḍa-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
XI. Old Age (Jarā-vaggo)
XII. Self (Atta-vaggo)
XIII. The World (Loka-vaggo)
XIV. The Buddha — The Awakened (Buddha-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
XV. Happiness (Sukha-vaggo)
XVI. Pleasure (Piya-vaggo)
XVII. Anger (Kodha-vaggo)
XVIII. Impurity (Mala-vaggo)
XIX. The Just (Dhammaṭṭha-vaggo)
XX. The Way (Magga-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
XXI. Miscellaneous (Pakiṇṇaka-vaggo)
XXII. The Downward Course (Niraya-vaggo)
XXIII. The Elephant (Nāga-vaggo)
XXIV. Thirst (Taṇhā-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
XXV. The Mendicant (Bhikkhu-vaggo)
XXVI. The Brāhmana (Brāhmaṇa-vaggo)

Excerpts

The following English translations are from Müller (1881). The Pali text is from the Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project (SLTP) edition.[21]

Ch. I. Twin Verses (Yamaka-vaggo)

1. All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him, as the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage. Manopubbagamā dhammā manoseṭṭhā manomayā
Manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā
Tato na dukkhamanveti cakka'va vahato pada.
2. All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him. Manopubbagamā dhammā manoseṭṭhā manomayā
Manasā ce pasannena bhāsati vā karoti vā
Tato na sukhamanveti chāyā'va anapāyinī.
5. For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time: hatred ceases by love, this is an old rule. Na hi verena verāni sammantīdha kudācana
Averena ca sammanti esa dhammo sanantano.

Ch. X. Punishment (Daṇḍa-vaggo)

131. He who seeking his own happiness punishes or kills beings who also long for happiness, will not find happiness after death. Sukhakāmāni bhūtāni yodaṇḍena vihisati
Attano sukhamesāno pecca so na labhate sukha.
132. He who seeking his own happiness does not punish or kill beings who also long for happiness, will find happiness after death. Sukhakāmāni bhūtāni yodaḍena na hisati
Attano sukhamesāno pecca so labhate sukha.
133. Do not speak harshly to anybody; those who are spoken to will answer thee in the same way. Angry speech is painful, blows for blows will touch thee. Mā'voca pharusa kañci vuttā paivadeyyu ta
Dukkhā hi sārambhakathā paṭidaṇḍā phuseyyu ta.

Chapter XII: Self (Atta-vaggo)

157. If a man hold himself dear, let him watch himself carefully; during one at least out of the three watches a wise man should be watchful.
158. Let each man direct himself first to what is proper, then let him teach others; thus a wise man will not suffer.
159. If a man make himself as he teaches others to be, then, being himself well subdued, he may subdue (others); one's own self is indeed difficult to subdue.
160. Self is the lord of self, who else could be the lord? With self well subdued, a man finds a lord such as few can find.
161. The evil done by oneself, self-begotten, self-bred, crushes the foolish, as a diamond breaks a precious stone.
162. He whose wickedness is very great brings himself down to that state where his enemy wishes him to be, as a creeper does with the tree which it surrounds.
163. Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, are easy to do; what is beneficial and good, that is very difficult to do.
164. The foolish man who scorns the rule of the venerable (Arahat), of the elect (Ariya), of the virtuous, and follows false doctrine, he bears fruit to his own destruction, like the fruits of the Katthaka reed.
165. By oneself the evil is done, by oneself one suffers; by oneself evil is left undone, by oneself one is purified. Purity and impurity belong to oneself, no one can purify another.
166. Let no one forget his own duty for the sake of another's, however great; let a man, after he has discerned his own duty, be always attentive to his duty.

Ch. XIV: The Buddha (The Awakened) (Buddha-vaggo)

183. Not to commit any sin, to do good, and to purify one's mind, that is the teaching of (all) the Awakened. Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ kusalassa upasampadā
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ etaṃ buddhāna sāsana.

Ch. XX: The Way (Magga-vaggo)

276. You yourself must make an effort. The Tathagatas (Buddhas) are only preachers. The thoughtful who enter the way are freed from the bondage of Mara. Tumhehi kiccaṃ ātappaṃ akkhātāro tathāgatā
Paṭipannā pamokkhanti jhāyino mārabandhanā.
277. 'All created things perish,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way to purity. Sabbe sakhārā aniccā'ti yadā paññāya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyā.
278. 'All created things are grief and pain,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way that leads to purity. Sabbe sakhārā dukkhā'ti yadā paññāya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyā.
279. 'All forms are unreal,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way that leads to purity. Sabbe dhammā anattā'ti yadā paññāya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyā.

Ch. XXIV: Thirst (Tahā-vaggo)

343. Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a snared hare; let therefore the mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after passionlessness for himself. Tasiāya purakkhatā pajā parisappanti saso'va bādhito
Tasmā tasiṇaṃ vinodaye bhikkhu ākakhī virāgamattano.
350. If a man delights in quieting doubts, and, always reflecting, dwells on what is not delightful (the impurity of the body, &c.), he certainly will remove, nay, he will cut the fetter of Mara. Vitakkupasame ca yo rato asubha bhāvayati sadā sato
Esa kho vyantikāhiti esa checchati mārabandhana.

Chapter XII: Self

157 If you hold yourself dear guard yourself diligently. Keep vigil during one of the three watches of the night.

158 Learn what is right; then teach others as the wise do.

159 Before trying to guide others, be your own guide first. It is hard to learn to guide oneself.

160 Your own self is your master; who else could be? With your own self controlled, your gain a master very hard to find.

161 The evil done by the selfish crushes them as a 162 diamond breaks a hard gem. As a vine over- powers a tree, evil over-powers the evil doer, trapping him in a situation only his enemies 163 would wish him to be in. Evil deeds, which harm oneself, are easy to do; good deeds are not so easy.

164 Foolish people who scoff at teachings of the wise, the noble, and the good, following false doctrines bring about their own down- fall like the khattaka tree, which dies after bearing fruit.

165 By oneself is evil done; by oneself one is in- jured. Do not do evil, and suffering will not come. Everyone has the choice to be pure or impure. No one can purify another.

166 Don’t neglect you own duty for another, however great. Know your own duty and perform it.

Translated by Eknath Easwaran

Literary Merits

The literary merits of the Dhammapada are a matter of disagreement.[10] Pali scholar K.R. Norman notes that some readers have claimed that the Dhammapada is a "masterpiece of Indian literature", but that this assessment is not universally shared.[10] John Brough, who wrote extensively on the subject of the related Gāndhārī Dharmapada, believed that the text had largely been composed from a patchwork of cliches, and that while it contained a few novel and well-constructed verses, suffered from an "accumulation of insipid mediocrity."[23] While he believed that the Dhammapada did not warrant the high praised sometimes lavished upon it, Brough did note that it contained "small fragments of excellent poetry", and that the Dhammapada fared well when considered alongside other, similarly composite works.[23] Several scholars have noted that much of the Dhammapada consists of vague moral aphorisms, many of them not clearly specific to Buddhism at all.[19]

English translations

  • Tr F. Max Müller, in Buddhist Parables, by E. W. Burlinghame, 1869; reprinted in Sacred Books of the East, volume X, Clarendon/Oxford, 1881; reprinted in Buddhism, by Clarence Hamilton; reprinted separately by Watkins, 2006; reprinted 2008 by Red and Black Publishers, St Petersburg, Florida, ISBN 978-1-934941-03-4; the first English translation (a Latin translation by V. Fausböll had appeared in 1855)
  • Tr J. Gray, American Mission Press, Rangoon, 1881
  • Tr J. P. Cooke & O. G. Pettis, Boston (Massachusetts?), 1898
  • Hymns of Faith, tr Albert J. Edmunds, Open Court, Chicago, & Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., London, 1902
  • Tr Norton T. W. Hazeldine, Denver, Colorado, 1902
  • The Buddha's Way of Virtue, tr W. D. C. Wagiswara & K. J. Saunders, John Murray, London, 1912
  • Tr Silacara, Buddhist Society, London, 1915
  • Tr Suriyagoda Sumangala, in Ceylon Antiquary, 1915
  • Tr A. P. Buddhadatta, Colombo Apothecaries, 1920?
  • The Buddha's Path of Virtue, tr F. L. Woodward, Theosophical Publishing House, London & Madras, 1921
  • In Buddhist Legends, tr E. W. Burlinghame, Harvard Oriental Series, 1921, 3 volumes; reprinted by Pali Text Society[1], Bristol; translation of the stories from the commentary, with the Dhammapada verses embedded
  • Tr R. D. Shrikhande and/or P. L. Vaidya (according to different bibliographies; or did one publisher issue two translations in the same year?), Oriental Book Agency, Poona, 1923; includes Pali text
  • "Verses on Dhamma", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume I, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids, 1931, Pali Text Society, Bristol; verse translation; includes Pali text
  • Tr N. K. Bhag(w?)at, Buddha Society, Bombay, 1931/5; includes Pali text
  • The Way of Truth, tr S. W. Wijayatilake, Madras, 1934
  • Tr Irving Babbitt, Oxford University Press, New York & London, 1936; revision of Max Müller
  • Tr K. Gunaratana, Penang, Malaya, 1937
  • The Path of the Eternal Law, tr Swami Premananda, Self-Realization Fellowship, Washington DC, 1942
  • Tr Dhammajoti, Maha Bodhi Society, Benares, 1944
  • Tr Jack Austin, Buddhist Society, London, 1945
  • Stories of Buddhist India, tr Piyadassi, 2 volumes, Moratuwa, Ceylon, 1949 & 1953; includes stories from the commentary
  • Tr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Oxford University Press, London, 1950; includes Pali text
  • Collection of Verses on the Doctrine of the Buddha, comp Bhadragaka, Bangkok, 1952
  • Tr T. Latter, Moulmein, Burma, 1950?
  • Tr W. Somalokatissa, Colombo, 1953
  • Tr Narada, John Murray, London, 1954
  • Tr E. W. Adikaram, Colombo, 1954
  • Tr A. P. Buddhadatta, Colombo, 1954; includes Pali text
  • Tr Siri Sivali, Colombo, 1954
  • Tr ?, Cunningham Press, Alhambra, California, 1955
  • Tr C. Kunhan Raja, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar/Madras, 1956; includes Pali text
  • Free rendering and interpretation by Wesley La Violette, Los Angeles, 1956
  • Tr Buddharakkhita, Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore, 1959; 4th edn, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1996; includes Pali text
  • Tr Suzanne Karpelès?, serialized in Advent (Pondicherry, India), 1960-65; reprinted in Questions and Answers, Collected Works of the Mother, 3, Pondicherry, 1977
  • Growing the Bodhi Tree in the Garden of the Heart, tr Khantipalo, Buddhist Association of Thailand, Bangkok, 1966; reprinted as The Path of Truth, Bangkok, 1977
  • Tr P. Lal, New York, 1967/70
  • Tr Juan Mascaró, Penguin Classics, 1973
  • Tr Thomas Byrom, Shambhala, Boston, Massachusetts, & Wildwood House, London, 1976 (ISBN 0-87773-966-8)
  • Tr Ananda Maitreya, serialized in Pali Buddhist Review, 1 & 2, 1976/7; offprinted under the title Law Verses, Colombo, 1978; revised by Rose Kramer (under the Pali title), originally published by Lotsawa Publications in 1988, reprinted by Parallax Press in 1995
  • The Buddha's Words, tr Sathienpong Wannapok, Bangkok, 1979
  • Wisdom of the Buddha, tr Harischandra Kaviratna, Pasadena, 1980; includes Pali text
  • The Eternal Message of Lord Buddha, tr Silananda, Calcutta, 1982; includes Pali text
  • Tr Chhi Med Rig Dzin Lama, Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, India, 1982; tr from the modern Tibetan translation by dGe-'dun Chos-'phel; includes Pali & Tibetan texts
  • Tr & pub Dharma Publishing, Berkeley, California, 1985; tr from the modern Tibetan translation by dGe-'dun Chos-'phel
  • Commentary, with text embedded, tr Department of Pali, University of Rangoon, published by Union Buddha Sasana Council, Rangoon (date uncertain; 1980s)
  • Tr Daw Mya Tin, Burma Pitaka Association, Rangoon, 1986; probably currently published by the Department for the Promotion and Propagation of the Sasana, Rangoon, and/or Sri Satguru, Delhi
  • Path of Righteousness, tr David J. Kalupahana, Universities Press of America, Lanham, Maryland, c. 1986
  • Tr Raghavan Iyer, Santa Barbara, 1986; includes Pali text
  • Tr Eknath Easwaran, Arkana, London, 1986/7(ISBN 978-1-58638-019-9); reissued with new material Nilgiri Press 2007, Tomales, CA (ISBN 9781586380205)
  • Tr John Ross Carter & Mahinda Palihawadana, Oxford University Press, New York, 1987; the original hardback edition also includes the Pali text and the commentary's explanations of the verses; the paperback reprint in the World's Classics Series omits these
  • Tr U. D. Jayasekera, Colombo, 1992
  • Treasury of Truth, tr Weragoda Sarada, Taipei, 1993
  • Tr Thomas Cleary, Thorsons, London, 1995
  • The Word of the Doctrine, tr K. R. Norman, 1997, Pali Text Society, Bristol; the PTS's preferred translation
  • Tr Anne Bancroft?, Element Books, Shaftesbury, Dorset, & Richport, Massachusetts, 1997
  • Tr F. Max Müller (see above), revised Jack Maguire, SkyLight Pubns, Woodstock, Vermont, 2002
  • Tr Glenn Wallis, Modern Library, New York, 2004 (ISBN 0-679-64397-9)
  • Tr Gil Fronsdal, Shambhala, Boston, Massachusetts, 2005 (ISBN 1-59030-380-6)
  • Tr Bhikkhu Varado, Inward Path, Malaysia, 2007; Dhammapada in English Verse

See also online translations listed below.

Notes

  1. ^ See, e.g., the Gāndhārī Dharmapada (GDhp), verses 301, 302, in: Brough (1962/2001), p. 166; and, Ānandajoti (2007), ch. 4, "Pupphavagga" (retrieved 25 November 2008 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/C3-Comparative-Dhammapada/CD-04-Puppha.htm).
  2. ^ a b See, for instance, Buswell (2003): "rank[s] among the best known Buddhist texts" (p. 11); and, "one of the most popular texts with Buddhist monks and laypersons" (p. 627). Harvey (2007), p. 322, writes: "Its popularity is reflected in the many times it has been translated into Western languages"; Brough (2001), p. xvii, writes: "The collection of Pali ethical verses entitled Dhammapada is one of the most widely known of early Buddhist texts."
  3. ^ See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 335-39, entry "Dhamma," retrieved 25 November 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:2654.pali.
  4. ^ See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 408, entry "Pada," retrieved 25 November 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:1516.pali.
  5. ^ See, for instance, C.A.F Rhys David's "Verses on Dhamma," Kalupahana's "The Path of Righteousness," Norman's "The Word of the Doctrine," Woodward's "The Buddha's Path of Virtue," and other titles identified below at "English translations".
  6. ^ See also Fronsdal (2005), pp. xiii-xiv. Fronsdal, p. xiv, further comments:
    ... If we translate the title based on how the term dhammapada is used in the verses [see Dhp verses 44, 45, 102], it should probably be translated 'Sayings of the Dharma,' 'Verses of the Dharma,' or 'Teachings of the Dharma.' However, if we construe pada as 'path,' as in verse 21 ..., the title could be 'The Path of the Dharma.' Ultimately, as many translators clearly concur, it may be best not to translate the title at all.
  7. ^ Pertinent episodes allegedly involving the historic Buddha are found in the commentary (Buddharakkhita & Bodhi, 1985, p. 4). In addition, a number of the Dhammapada's verses are identical with text from other parts of the Pali tipitaka that are directly attributed to the Buddha in the latter texts. For instance, Dhammapada verses 3, 5, 6, 328-330 can also be found in MN 128 (Ñāamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 1009-1010, 1339 n. 1187).
  8. ^ Harvey (2007), p. 322, line v.b., refers to the Dhammapada as "a popular collection of 423 pithy verses of a largely ethical nature." Similarly, Brough (2001)'s preface (p. xvii) starts: "The collection of Pali ethical verses entitled Dhammapada is one of the most widely known of early Buddhist texts."
  9. ^ Geiger (2004), p. 19, para. 11.2 writes:
    More than half the verses may be found also in other canonical texts. The compiler of the [Dhammapada] however certainly did not depend solely on these canonical texts but also made use of the great mass of pithy sayings which formed a vast floating literature in India.
    In a similar vein, Hinüber (2000), p. 45, para. 90 remarks: "The contents of the [Dhammapada] are mainly gnomic verses, many of which have hardly any relation to Buddhism."
  10. ^ a b c Buddhist Studies Review, 6, 2, 1989, page 153, reprinted in Norman, Collected Papers, volume VI, 1996, Pali Text Society, Bristol, page 156
  11. ^ Brough (2001), pp. 44-45, summarizes his findings and inferences as:
    "... We can with reasonable confidence say that the Gāndhārī text did not belong to the schools responsible for the Pali Dhammapada, the Udānavarga, and the Mahāvastu; and unless we are prepared to dispute the attribution of any of these, this excludes the Sarvāstivādins and the Lokottaravāda-Mahāsānghikas, as well as the Theravādins (and probably, in company with the last, the Mahīśāsakas). Among possible claimants, the Dharmaguptakas and Kāśyapīyas must be considered as eligible, but still other possibilities cannot be ruled out."
  12. ^ Brough (2001). The original manuscript is believed to have been written in the first or second century CE.
  13. ^ See, e.g., Cone (1989).
  14. ^ Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XXIII, pages 113f
  15. ^ Brough (2001), pp. 38-41, indicates that the Udanavarga is of Sarvastivadin origin.
  16. ^ Hinüber (2000), p. 45, para. 89, notes:
    More than half of [the Dhammapada verses] have parallels in corresponding collections in other Buddhist schools, frequently also in non-Buddhist texts. The interrelation of these different versions has been obscured by constant contamination in the course of the text transmission. This is particularly true in case of one of the Buddhist Sanskrit parallels. The Udānavarga originally was a text corres[p]onding to the Pāli Udāna.... By adding verses from the Dhp [Dhammapada] it was transformed into a Dhp parallel in course of time, which is a rare event in the evolution of Buddhist literature.
  17. ^ Law (1930), p. iv; and, Ānandajoti (2007), "Introduction," "Sahassavagga" and "Bhikkhuvagga."
  18. ^ Brough (2001), pp. 23-30. After considering the hypothesis that these texts might lack a "common ancestor," Brough (2001), p. 27, conjectures:
    On the evidence of the texts themselves it is much more likely that the schools, in some manner or other, had inherited from the period before the schisms which separated them, a definite tradition of a Dharmapada-text which ought to be included in the canon, however fluctuating the contents of this text might have been, and however imprecise the concept even of a 'canon' at such an early period. The differing developments and rearrangements of the inherited material would have proceeded along similar lines to those which, in the Brahmanical schools, produced divergent but related collections of texts in the different Yajur-veda traditions.
    He then continues:
    ... [When] only the common material [is] considered, a comparison of the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari text, and the Udanavarga, has produced no evidence whatsoever that any one of these has any superior claim to represent a 'primitive Dharmapada' more faithfully than the others. Since the contrary appears to have been assumed from time to time, it is desirable to say with emphasis that the Pali text is not the primitive Dharmapada. The assumption that it was would make its relationship to the other texts altogether incomprehensible.
  19. ^ a b v. Hinüber, Oskar (2004), "Dhammapada", in Buswell, Jr., Robert E., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, USA: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 216–17, ISBN 0028659104 
  20. ^ English chapter titles based on Müller (1881).
  21. ^ a b Pali retrieved 2008-03-28 from "Bodhgaya News" (formerly, La Trobe U.) starting at http://www.bodhgayanews.net/tipitaka.php?title=&record=7150, and from "MettaNet - Lanka" at http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/5Khuddaka-Nikaya/02Dhammapada/index.html.
  22. ^ Brough (2001) orders the chapters of the Gandhari Dharmapada as follows: I. Brāhmaṇa; II. Bhikṣu; III. Tṛṣṇā; IV. Pāpa; V. Arhant; VI. Mārga; VII. Apramāda; VIII. Citta; IX. Bāla; X. Jarā; XI. Sukha; XII. Sthavira; XIII. Yamaka; XIV. Paṇḍita; XV. Bahuśruta; XVI. Prakīrṇaka (?); XVII. Krodha; XVIII. Pruṣpa; XIX. Sahasra; XX. Śīla (?); XXI. Kṛtya (?); XXII. Nāga, or Aśva (?); XXIII. - XVI. [Lost]. [Parenthesized question marks are part of Brough's titles.] Cone (1989) orders the chapters of the Patna Dharmapada as follows: 1. Jama; 2. Apramāda; 3. Brāhmaṇa; 4. Bhikṣu; 5. Attha; 6. Śoka; 7. Kalyāṇī; 8. Puṣpa; 9. Tahna; 10. Mala; 11. Bāla; 12. Daṇḍa; 13. Śaraṇa; 14. Khānti; 15. Āsava; 16. Vācā; 17. Ātta; 18. Dadantī; 19. Citta; 20. Māgga; 21. Sahasra; [22. Uraga].
  23. ^ a b Brough, John (2001). Gandhari Dharmapada (Buddhist Tradition) (v. 43). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xxi-xxii. ISBN 81-208-1740-0. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=aytJ5w074RYC&dq=Gandhari+Dharmapada&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=yh3YA_-_rG&sig=wgQn_rMwSYzqQInStPJEHzl_OKY&ei=Vk2GSdSZJ5mQsQOc15l4&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPP1,M1. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 

Sources

External links

Translations:

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

The Dhammapada is one of the primary collections of teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is revered as the "Shakyamuni Buddha" and considered founder of the Buddhist traditions. It contains 423 verses in 26 categories, which, according to tradition, are answers to questions put to the Buddha on various occasions, most of which deal with ethics.

Sourced

Yammakavagga "The Pairs" (verses 1-20)

  • Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought. If with an impure mind a person speaks or acts suffering follows him like the wheel that follows the foot of the ox. (Verse 1)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita
    • Alternate translation: Phenomena are preceded by the heart, ruled by the heart, made of the heart. If you speak or act with a corrupted heart, then suffering follows you — as the wheel of the cart, the track of the ox that pulls it.
      • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
    • Alternative translation: All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him, as the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage... If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him.
      • Translator: F. Max Müller
  • "He insulted me, hit me, beat me, robbed me" — for those who brood on this, hostility isn't stilled. "He insulted me, hit me, beat me, robbed me" — for those who don't brood on this, hostility is stilled. Hostilities aren't stilled through hostility, regardless. Hostilities are stilled through non-hostility: this, an unending truth. (Verses 3-5)
    • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
    • Alternative: "He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me,"— in those who harbour such thoughts hatred will never cease. "He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me," — in those who do not harbour such thoughts hatred will cease. For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time: hatred ceases by love, this is an old rule.
      • Translator: F. Max Müller
  • As rain breaks through an ill-thatched house, passion will break through an unreflecting mind. (Verse 13)
    • Translator: F. Max Müller

Appamadavagga "Mindfulness" (verses 21-32)

  • Heedfulness is the path to the Deathless. Heedlessness is the path to death. The heedful die not. The heedless are as if dead already. (Verse 21)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita
    • Alternative: Earnestness is the path of immortality (Nirvana), thoughtlessness the path of death. Those who are in earnest do not die, those who are thoughtless are as if dead already.
      • Translator: F. Max Müller
  • Earnest among the thoughtless, awake among the sleepers, the wise man advances like a racer, leaving behind the hack. (Verse 29)
    • Translator: F. Max Müller

Cittavagga "The Mind" (verses 33-43)

  • Just as a fletcher straightens an arrow shaft, even so the discerning man straightens his mind — so fickle and unsteady, so difficult to guard. (Verse 33)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita
  • Hard to hold down, nimble, alighting wherever it likes: the mind. Its taming is good. The mind well-tamed brings ease. (Verse 35)
    • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
    • Alternative: It is good to tame the mind, which is difficult to hold in and flighty, rushing wherever it listeth; a tamed mind brings happiness.
      • Translator: F. Max Müller

Pupphavagga "Flowers" (verses 44-59)

  • Death carries off a man who is gathering flowers and whose mind is distracted, as a flood carries off a sleeping village. (Verse 47)
    • Translator: F. Max Müller

Balavagga "The Spiritually Immature" (verses 60-75)

  • Long for the wakeful is the night. Long for the weary, a league. For fools unaware of True Dhamma, samsara is long. (Verse 60)
    • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
  • If a traveller does not meet with one who is his better, or his equal, let him firmly keep to his solitary journey; there is no companionship with a fool. (Verse 61)
    • Translator: F. Max Müller

Panditavagga "The Spiritually Mature" (verses 76-89)

  • Just as a solid rock is not shaken by the storm, even so the wise are not affected by praise or blame.
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita

Sahassavagga "The Thousands" (verses 100-115)

  • Greater in battle than the man who would conquer a thousand-thousand men, is he who would conquer just one — himself. (Verse 103)
    • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
  • Better it is to live one day wise and meditative than to live a hundred years foolish and uncontrolled. (Verse 111)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita
  • Better than a thousand hollow words
    Is one word that brings peace.

    Better than a thousand hollow verses
    Is one verse that brings peace.

    Better than a hundred hollow lines
    Is one line of the law, bringing peace.

    • Translator: Thomas Byrom

Dandavagga "Violence" (verses 129-145)

  • All tremble at the rod, all are fearful of death. Drawing the parallel to yourself, neither kill nor get others to kill. (Verse 129)
    • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
    • Alternative: All men tremble at punishment, all men fear death; remember that you are like unto them, and do not kill, nor cause slaughter.
      • Translator: F. Max Müller

Jaravagga "Old Age" (verses 146-156)

  • How is there laughter, how is there joy, as this world is always burning? Why do you not seek a light, ye who are surrounded by darkness? (Verse 146)
    • Translator: F. Max Müller
    • Alternative: What laughter, why joy, when constantly aflame? Enveloped in darkness, don't you look for a lamp?
      • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
  • Behold this body — a painted image, a mass of heaped up sores, infirm, full of hankering — of which nothing is lasting or stable! (Verse 147)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita
    • Alternative: Look at the beautified image, a heap of festering wounds, shored up: ill, but the object of many resolves, where there is nothing lasting or sure.
      • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
  • Worn out is this body, a nest of diseases, dissolving. This putrid conglomeration is bound to break up, for life is hemmed in with death.
    • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
  • Looking for the maker of this tabernacle, I shall have to run through a course of many births, so long as I do not find (him); and painful is birth again and again. But now, maker of the tabernacle, thou hast been seen; thou shalt not make up this tabernacle again. All thy rafters are broken, thy ridge-pole is sundered; the mind, approaching the Eternal (visankhara, nirvana), has attained to the extinction of all desires. (Verses 153-154)
    • Translator: F. Max Müller

Attavagga "The Self" (verses 157-166)

  • One truly is the protector of oneself; who else could the protector be? With oneself fully controlled, one gains a mastery that is hard to gain. (Verse 160)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita

Lokavagga: "The World" (verses 167-178)

  • This world is blind! There are so few Who see things as they truly are. Come, take a good look at this world, Pretty like a king's chariot. Though fools become immersed in it, For the wise there's no attachment. See how much it's like a bubble! See how much it's like a mirage! The king of death does not see one Who regards the world in this way. Rouse yourself! And don't be lazy. Follow the good ways of dhamma. (Verses 168-174)
    • Translator: Andrew Olendzki

Buddhavagga "The Buddha" (verses 179-196)

  • To avoid all evil, to cultivate good, and to cleanse one's mind — this is the teaching of the Buddhas. (Verse 183)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita

Sukhavagga "Happiness" (verses 197-208)

  • Let us live happily then, not hating those who hate us! among men who hate us let us dwell free from hatred! (Verse 197)
    • Translator: F. Max Müller
  • Victory begets enmity; the defeated dwell in pain. Happily the peaceful live, discarding both victory and defeat. (Verse 201)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita
  • There is no fire like lust and no crime like hatred. There is no ill like the aggregates (of existence) and no bliss higher than the peace (of Nibbana). (Verse 202)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita

Maggavagga "The Path" (verses 273-289)

  • Of paths, the eightfold is best. Of truths, the four sayings. Of qualities, dispassion. Of two-footed beings, the one with the eyes to see. (Verse 273)
    • Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu
  • "All conditioned things are impermanent" — when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering. This is the path to purification. (Verse 277)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita
    • Alternative: All created things perish,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way to purity.
      • Translator: F. Max Müller

Tanhavagga "Craving" (verses 334-359)

  • Let go of the past, let go of the future, let go of the present, and cross over to the farther shore of existence. With mind wholly liberated, you shall come no more to birth and death. (Verse 348)
    • Translator: Acharya Buddharakkhita

Brahmanavagga "The Brahmana" (verses 383-423)

  • A man does not become a Brahmana by his platted hair, by his family, or by birth; in whom there is truth and righteousness, he is blessed, he is a Brahmana. (Verse 393)
    • Translator: F. Max Müller

See also

External links

Wikipedia
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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Dhammapada
by Gautama Buddha
The Dhammapada is a versified Buddhist scripture traditionally ascribed to the Buddha himself. It is one of the best known texts from the Theravada canon. Its literary merits are a matter of disagreement.
Excerpted from Dhammapada on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

English translations

  • Dhammapada, as translated by F. Max Muller.
  • Dhammapada, partially translated by the Wikisource community.
PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago. Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted.

Simple English

The Dhammapāda is a Buddhist scripture. Which includes sayings by the Gautama Buddha himself.








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