|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
• 679 m (2,228 ft)
Dharwad is the administrative seat of the Dharwad District. The municipality of Hubli-Dharwad (resulting from a merger with neighbouring Hubli in 1961) covers 200.23 km². Dharwad is located 425 km northwest of Bangalore, on the main highway between Bangalore and Pune in Maharashtra. Dharwad is famous for its Dharwad pedha - a milk-based sweetmeat. Dharwad is host to the Karnataka University, a prominent university of the region and is well-known as a city popular with students and pensioners. The twin cities of Hubli-Dharwad are located at a distance of around 430 kms from Bangalore the capital of Karnataka state. The climate is hot and wet during the summer and rainy seasons and pleasant during winter. The twin cities have a history behind them dating back to the Hoysala period. Dharwad is the administrative capital of the Dharwad district and Hubli serves as the commerce center. Dharwad is a quiet, pleasant, and fast growing city in the northern part of Karnataka. Together with Hubli , which is a city twenty-two kilometers away, Dharwad forms a twin city.
Dharwad is known for its prestigious educational institutions. It houses the Karnataka University, which caters to graduate and research students. Karnataka College offers educational services to students just out of high school who aspire to make a career either in the arts or the sciences. S.D.M. Engineering college a more recent addition to the list of educational institutions offers education in Engineering. Hubli has an Engineering college( B.V.B College of Engineering and Technology), the Karnataka Medical College and other institutions.
Dharwad is perhaps best known for its "Pedhas", a sweet made out of milk, and is a must-buy for any tourist visiting the city.Today, Dharwad has grown beyond its borders, with industries dotting both its northern and southern boundaries. In years ahead, it promises to be a beehive of commercial activity. The location of the city on the NH4 makes it equidistant from 2 of the most industrialised centers in the country - Bangalore , the capital of Karnataka state and Pune the 2nd most industrialised city in Maharshtra.
Dharwad is situated on the edge of Western Ghats and hence is a hilly town. Spread over seven small hills at an average altitude of 750 meters above sea level, the city enjoys a salubrious climate amidst thick vegetation. Years ago, Dhwarwad was known for its lakes but many have dried out now.The ones that still exist are Sadhankere, Kelgeri kere and Nuggikere. Dharwad sits at the cusp of two distinct geographical divisions - Malenaadu (hilly, forest land with red soil) and Belavalanaadu (Deccan plains with black soil). The earstwhile National Highway 4, runs almost as a dividing line.
The word "Dharwad" means a place of rest in a long travel or a small habitation. For centuries, Dharwad acted as a gateway between the Malenaadu (western mountains) and the Bayalu seeme (plains) and it became a resting place for travellers. The name is derived from the Sanskrit word 'dwarawata', 'dwara' meaning "door" and 'wata' or 'wada'meaning "town".
Another theory is that during the Vijayanagara rule of Dharwad there was a ruler by name "of Dharav" (1403), and Dharwad got its name from him. There are some inscriptions that refer to Dharwad as Kampana Sthana.
Inscriptions found near Durga Devi temple in Narendra (a nearby village) and RLS High School date back to the 12th century and have references to Dharwad. This makes Dharwad at least 900 years old. Also, there is an inscription at Hanuman Temple at Bokyapur lake near Garag (a village about 18 km from Dharwad).
The Chalukyas ruled Dharwad during the 12th century. A stone inscription indicates that there was a ruler by the name of BhaskaraDeva in 1117. In the 14th century, the district was first overrun by the Bahmani Sultanate, after which it was annexed to the newly established Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, an official of which named Dhar Rao, according to local tradition, built the fort at Dharwad town in 1403. After the defeat of the king of Vijayanagar at Talikot (1565), Dharwad was for a few years practically independent under its Hindu governor; but in 1573 the fort was captured by the sultan of Bijapur, Adil Shah, and Dharwad was annexed to his dominions. Adil Shah built a fort in an area later called MannaKille, and later Nazratabad. With this fort, the strategic importance of Dharwad increased and it thus attracted the attention of subsequent conquerors, including Aurangzeb, Shivaji, Aurangzeb's son Mu Azam, Peshwa Balaji Rao, Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan and finally the British colonizers.
In 1685, the fort was taken by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, and Dharwad, on the break-up of the Mughal empire, fell under the sway of the Maratha Peshwa of Pune. In 1764, the province was overrun by Hyder Ali of the Mysore, who in 1778 captured the fort of Dharwad.. The fort was retaken in 1791 by the Marathas. After the final defeat of the Peshwa by the British in 1818, Dharwar was incorporated into the territory of the British East India Company's Bombay Presidency. During the early 19th century, when the British were expanding their domains, they faced a lot of opposition from local rulers, including Baba Saheb of Naragund and Kittur Rani Chennamma.
Dharwad was the home to the famous freedom fighter and the "Karnataka Kulapurohit", Sri Alur Venkatrao. It was Sri Alur Venkatrao’s work, ‘Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava’, that mooted the idea of unification of Kannada-speaking areas.
Dharwad was peaceful for most of late 19th century. During those times, the British started an English medium school in Dharwad in 1848. Later, in 1863, the Basel Mission organization started another school. In 1867 the British opened another school, Varmal school, which later on became known as a training college. In 1883, the municipality area included Sidapur, Lakamanhalli, Haveri Pete, Bagtalan, Madihal, Galaganjikop, Malapur, Kamalapur, Narayanpur, Saptapur, Atti kolla and Hosayellapur. The British government also established a railway station in 1888.
The town had a station on the Southern Maratha railway. By 1901, the town had a population of 31,279 and was home to several cotton gina, a cotton mill, and two high schools, one maintained by the government and the other by the Basel German Mission.
After India's independence in 1947, the Bombay Presidency was reconstituted as India's Bombay State. In 1956 the southern, Kannada-speaking districts of Bombay State, including Dharwad, were added to Mysore and renamed Karnataka in 1972. Dharwad is home to the Karnataka University and the University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS) as well as numerous other colleges.
In 1941, Dharwad had a population of 47,992.. In 1961, the town merged with the adjacent town of Hubli to become a single municipality, Hubli-Dharwad. The population of the twin cities is the second-largest in Karnataka, after Bangalore. Hubli-Dharwad's population increased 22.99% between 1981 and 1991, from 527,108 to 648,298, and by 21.2% between 1991 and 2001. In the year 2008, a Circuit bench of the High Court of Karnataka was established in Dharwad.
The Dharwad region has contributed to some of the greatest exponents of Hindustani music including Sawai Gandharva, Mallikarjun Mansur, Bhimsen Joshi (now living in Pune), Basavaraj Rajaguru, Kumar Gandharva and Gangubai Hangal.
Dharwad is an unlikely outpost of the Kirana Gharana. Ustad Abdul Karim Khan was a frequent visitor to Mysore Darbar, where he had been conferred the title of Sangeet Ratna. On the way to Mysore, he used to stay with his brother in Dharwad, where he taught his most famous disciple, Sawai Gandharva. Sawai Gandharva in turn was the guru to Gangubai Hangal, Bhimsen Joshi and Basavaraj Rajaguru.
Jnanpith Award winners D.R. Bendre, V. K. Gokak and Girish Karnad trace their origins to Dharwad. Kannada writer and critic, Kirtinath Kurtakoti winner of Sahitya Akademi, also lived in Dharwad for a good part of his life. The eminent political scientist, Dr. R T Jangam, made Dharwad his home for over 40 years till his demise in 2005. This prolific author's books are on the syllabus of universities across the world. One of the greatest Marathi writers, Sahitya Akademi Award winner G. A. Kulkarni also lived most of his life here in Dharwad. Leena Chandavarkar, famous Hindi actress and wife of late Kishore Kumar, belongs to this town and still owns property in Dharwad near the Railway Station. Noted film maker and environmentalist Suresh Heblikar, who has also won a National Award for his contribution to cinema also belongs to Dharwad.
Nandan Nilekani, the Co-Chairman of Infosys moved in with his uncle's family in Dharwad for his education and was a student of St Joseph's High School.
Dharwad has produced eminent legal luminaries like Narayanarao Karagudri , Sanglad J., Bannurmath J., A.C.Kabbin J., Mohan Shantangoudar J., B.S.Patil, Ashok Hinchigeri J., Subhash Adi J., and lawyers like Late Shri Hiregoudar, C.B Patil, Sharat.S. Javali (Supreme Court), Mohan Katarki (lawyer for Karnataka in the Cauvery Water Dispute).
Uma Shashikant, eminent Investment Advisor and Sucheta Dalal,the Mumbai based financial journalist, who exposed the Harshad Mehta scandal also studied in Dharwad. P B Mahishi, T M Shivkumar, Ganapati Bhatt, Dr A.M.Patil, Manish Desai and K Nandini have distinguished themselves in Civil Service. Lucy D'Abreu (oldest Briton ever) was also born in Dharwad.
There are many spiritual personalities associated with this sleepy town. Some of them are Shishunal Sharif Saheb, Siddharoodha Swamigalu, Kumara Swamiji, Hurakadli Ajja, Mrityunjaya Appagalu, Mahanta Appagalu, and Garag Madiwaleshwara.
Dharwad has been a renowned centre of learning, with many famous high schools, colleges and universities. These include:
These institutions of learning have established themselves as reputed places of learning and have contributed many famous personalities.
Dharwad produces milk products. Dharwad pedha is made from milk and khoa. Mishra's Line Bazar and Babu Singh's Thakur pedhas are among the better known.
A dish typical of Dharwad is Jolada Rotti made of jowar flour. It is made in two forms—crisp and soft, and is usually eaten with spicy brinjal (eggplant) pallya, kalu pallya (beans), "agasi" or "guryellu" chutney powder and curds.It's available in Prabhu Khanavali near court circle. The now-closed Dharwad Restaurant run by Kidiyoor Sarvothama Rao and Janardhan Rao was popular for masala dosa and was a popular hang-out place for college students. Other restaurants in Dharwad include LEA Canteen (is famous for Mirchi, Girmit & Avalakki), Basappa Khanavali, Megha Darshini, Kamat Hotels, Mytri Paradise, Bombay Restaurant(tuppa dosa(ghee dosa) with sweet Jhunuka is very tasty), Hoysala, Hotel Brindavan, Mandar Regency, Travel Inn, Ozone, etc. Phadd made of rice flour is also a good dish, eaten with Sambhar and coconut or groundnut chutney. It is available at Paul Canteen near JSS college and Bombay Restaurant near Gandhi Cchowk. Sheetal Goan Fishland on Kalghatgi Road is a popular place for sea food and Hashmi Hotel is good for non-veg dishes. Last but not the least, Manju Canteen at Navodaya Nagar which is very famous for mirchi and girmit in Dharwad and is considered as a landmark canteen where all local boys can meet in the evening even without a plan.
Dharwad cultivates a variety of food products. The Dharwad Cotton Hybrid (DCH), a popular variety of cotton a few years back, was basically invented in University of Agricultural Sciences. In addition to this, Dharwad produces varieties of channa, kardi, soya and groundnut seeds. Also, farmers grow sugarcane, paddy, jowar, wheat, green gram, bengal gram, munge and many other food products. Dharwad Alphonso mangoes and Navalur gauvas are also produced.