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.The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders.^ American Psychiatric Association (1980).
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Anxiety Disorders : Future Directions for Research and Treatment - Mental Health - Public Health Agency of Canada 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.phac-aspc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th Edition.
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ American Psychiatric Association (2001).
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is used in the United States and in varying degrees around the world, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies and policy makers.^ Mental health, United States, 2000.
  • NEJM -- Prevalence and Treatment of Mental Disorders, 1990 to 2003 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be emphasized that if this Spanish language version is going to be used in a Spanish-speaking population in the United States, some changes may be required because of differences in dialects.
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A second generation of cross-national psychiatric surveys was carried out in the 1990s 17 - 24 using a more elaborate interview, the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

The DSM has attracted controversy and criticism as well as praise. .There have been five revisions since it was first published in 1952, gradually including more disorders, though some have been removed and are no longer considered to be mental disorders.^ No 12-month mental disorder(g) .
  • 4327.0 - National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing: Users' Guide, 2007 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.abs.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike some disorders for which there are specific treatment protocols based on abundant research evidence, presently there are no treatment guidelines for ASD published in the general pediatric literature to assist the primary care physician.
  • The Pediatrician's Role in the Diagnosis and Management of Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Children -- Committee on Children With Disabilities 107 (5): 1221 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I know with some of the eating disorders , such as anorexia and binging there are host of contributors.
  • Mood Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.It initially evolved out of systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, and from a manual developed by the US Army.^ It may be that psychiatric comorbidity has a greater effect when there are economic and other system pressures to shorten hospital stay.
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Method A sample of 1011 adults receiving out-patienttreatment for a psychiatric disorder in the public mental health systems of five US states were interviewed.
  • Treatment engagement and violence risk in mental disorders -- ELBOGEN et al. 189 (4): 354 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Objective To estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (D S M-IV) mental disorders in 14 countries (6 less developed, 8 developed) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.The last major revision was the fourth edition ("DSM-IV"), published in 1994, although a "text revision" was produced in 2000. The fifth edition ("DSM-V") is currently in consultation, planning and preparation, due for publication in May 2013.[1 ] The mental disorders section of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is another commonly-used guide, used more often in Europe and other parts of the world.^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th Edition.
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision.
  • Integrated Treatment of Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance UseDisorders � Lecture Outline 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alcoholmedicalscholars.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.The coding system used in the DSM-IV is designed to correspond with the codes used in the ICD, although not all codes may match at all times because the two publications are not revised synchronously.^ We identified 593 children who had ASD diagnoses ( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification , code 299.0 or 299.8) recorded 2 or more times in KP outpatient databases before May 2005.
  • Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med -- Maternal and Paternal Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders, April 2007, Croen et al. 161 (4): 334 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpedi.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The survey was designed to produce diagnoses of mental disorders by two classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) ; and the WHO International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) .
  • 4327.0 - National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing: Users' Guide, 2007 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.abs.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diagnostic criteria for all mental disorders are described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV).2 .
  • Geminus Corporation - Bipolar Disorder - Bipolar Disorder Research at the National Institute of Mental Health 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.geminus.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Uses

.Many mental health professionals use this book to determine and help communicate a patient's diagnosis after an evaluation; hospitals, clinics, and insurance companies also generally require a 'five axis' DSM diagnosis of all the patients treated.^ All about Mental Health Problems .
  • Causes Of Mental Disorders | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Always seek help from qualified professionals in the field of mental health.

^ Self-help groups for former patients: Relations with mental health professionals.
  • Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General - Chapter 2 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.surgeongeneral.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The DSM can be used to establish a diagnosis or categorize patients using diagnostic criteria.^ Although criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fourth edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR1), allow diagnosis of a specific eating disorder, many patients demonstrate a mixture of both anorexia and bulimia.

^ But it would be useful to know how to approach a patient's illness by having some kind of diagnosis as a starting point.
  • Psychiatry's civil war - health - 14 December 2009 - New Scientist 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diagnostic criteria for all mental disorders are described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV).2 .
  • Geminus Corporation - Bipolar Disorder - Bipolar Disorder Research at the National Institute of Mental Health 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.geminus.org [Source type: Academic]

.The DSM may also be used in mental health research.^ Paper presented at the annual conference of Mental Health Services Research and Evaluation, Arlington, VA. Campbell, J. (1997).
  • Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General - Chapter 2 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.surgeongeneral.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ We think that further research may greatly benefit from using a dimensional approach.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An essential first step in obtaining effective treatment is making prompt contact with a health care provider after the first onset of a mental or substance use disorder.
  • Delay of First Treatment of Mental and Substance Use Disorders in Mexico -- Borges et al. 97 (9): 1638 -- American Journal of Public Health 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Studies done on specific diseases often recruit patients whose symptoms match the criteria listed in the DSM for that disease.^ Although criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fourth edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR1), allow diagnosis of a specific eating disorder, many patients demonstrate a mixture of both anorexia and bulimia.

^ Patients who have manic and hypomanic symptoms often minimize AOD and psychiatric disorders.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study [ 23 ] exposed GPs to 52 patients with validated psychiatric symptoms.
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | General practitioners' self-perceived ability to recognize severity of common mental disorders: an underestimated factor in case identification? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.An international survey of psychiatrists in 66 countries comparing use of the ICD-10 and DSM-IV found the former was more often used for clinically absent diagnosis while the latter was more valued for research.^ The gold standard for diagnosis of nicotine dependence comes from DSM-IV and ICD-10.
  • Disabilities, Quality of Life, and Mental Disorders Associated With Smoking and Nicotine Dependence -- Schmitz et al. 160 (9): 1670 -- Am J Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ajp.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The clinical interview using DSM-IV (Volume 1: Fundamentals).
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnosis and Exclusion Criteria Diagnosis of autism was established by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised , 28 the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), 29 the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV , 3 and the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases – 10 criteria, under the direction of a board-certified child psychiatrist.
  • Decreased Left Posterior Insular Activity during Auditory Language in Autism -- Anderson et al. 31 (1): 131 -- American Journal of Neuroradiology 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ajnr.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.The DSM, including DSM-IV, is a registered trademark belonging to the American Psychiatric Association.^ American Psychiatric Association (1980).
  • Anxiety Disorders : Future Directions for Research and Treatment - Mental Health - Public Health Agency of Canada 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.phac-aspc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ American Psychiatric Association (2001).
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright © 2003 American Psychiatric Association.
  • Disabilities, Quality of Life, and Mental Disorders Associated With Smoking and Nicotine Dependence -- Schmitz et al. 160 (9): 1670 -- Am J Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ajp.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]

History

.The initial impetus for developing a classification of mental disorders in the United States was the need to collect statistical information.^ Mental health, United States, 2000.
  • NEJM -- Prevalence and Treatment of Mental Disorders, 1990 to 2003 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision.
  • Integrated Treatment of Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance UseDisorders � Lecture Outline 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alcoholmedicalscholars.org [Source type: Academic]

The first official attempt was the 1840 census which used a single category, "idiocy/insanity". The 1880 census distinguished among seven categories: mania, melancholia, monomania, paresis, dementia, dipsomania, and epilepsy. .In 1917, a "Committee on Statistics" from what is now known as the American Psychiatric Association (APA), together with the National Commission on Mental Hygiene, developed a new guide for mental hospitals called the "Statistical Manual for the Use of Institutions for the Insane", which included 22 diagnoses.^ American Psychiatric Association (1980).
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Anxiety Disorders : Future Directions for Research and Treatment - Mental Health - Public Health Agency of Canada 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.phac-aspc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ American Psychiatric Association (2001).
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright © 2003 American Psychiatric Association.
  • Disabilities, Quality of Life, and Mental Disorders Associated With Smoking and Nicotine Dependence -- Schmitz et al. 160 (9): 1670 -- Am J Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ajp.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

This was subsequently revised several times by APA over the years. APA, along with the New York Academy of Medicine, also provided the psychiatric nomenclature subsection of the US medical guide, the "Standard Classified Nomenclature of Disease", referred to as the "Standard".[4]

DSM-I (1952)

.World War II saw the large-scale involvement of US psychiatrists in the selection, processing, assessment and treatment of soldiers.^ Assessments can be considered part of the treatment process since the assessment process often facilitates breaking through the addicted person's denial mechanisms.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Although surveys of mental disorders have been carried out since the end of World War II, 1 - 3 cross-national comparisons were hampered by inconsistencies in diagnostic methods.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By answering these questions, it should be possible to improve the screening, clinical risk assessment, and treatment of suicide around the world.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

This moved the focus away from mental institutions and traditional clinical perspectives. .A committee headed by psychiatrist and brigadier general William C. Menninger developed a new classification scheme called Medical 203, issued in 1943 as a "War Department Technical Bulletin" under the auspices of the Office of the Surgeon General.^ Fifty years of psychiatric nomenclature: Reflections on the 1943 War Department Technical Bulletin, Medical 203.

^ Studies have shown that general practitioners (GPs) under-identify these disorders when compared to standard categorical diagnoses made by structured interviews or by psychiatrists [ 3 , 4 ].
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | General practitioners' self-perceived ability to recognize severity of common mental disorders: an underestimated factor in case identification? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The seriousness of this problem has led the World Health Organization (WHO) [6] , the U.S. Surgeon General [7] , the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [8] , and the Institute of Medicine [2] to call for research aimed at better understanding the risk factors for suicide and nonfatal suicidal behavior.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[5] .The foreword to the DSM-I states the US Navy had itself made some minor revisions but "the Army established a much more sweeping revision, abandoning the basic outline of the Standard and attempting to express present day concepts of mental disturbance.^ Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is much more than the normal anxiety people experience day to day.
  • Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders - Information on Anxiety and Other Anxiety Related Mental Health Disorders 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the harshest criticisms have come from those who led previous revisions of the DSM , in 1980 and 1994.
  • Psychiatry's civil war - health - 14 December 2009 - New Scientist 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Making us crazy: DSM: The psychiatric Bible and the creation of mental disorders .

This nomenclature eventually was adopted by all Armed Forces", and "assorted modifications of the Armed Forces nomenclature [were] introduced into many clinics and hospitals by psychiatrists returning from military duty." The Veterans Administration also adopted a slightly modified version of Medical 203.
.In 1949, the World Health Organization published the sixth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) which included a section on mental disorders for the first time.^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, revised 3rd Edition.
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, 9th revision.
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders, 3rd edition, revised .

.The foreword to DSM-1 states this "categorized mental disorders in rubrics similar to those of the Armed Forces nomenclature."^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Disorder as harmful dysfunction: A conceptual critique of DSM-III-R's definition of mental disorder.
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]

.An APA Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics was empowered to develop a version specifically for use in the United States, to standardize the diverse and confused usage of different documents.^ Generations of diversity: Latinos in the United States.
  • Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General - Chapter 2 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.surgeongeneral.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be emphasized that if this Spanish language version is going to be used in a Spanish-speaking population in the United States, some changes may be required because of differences in dialects.
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The magnitude of these delays was larger than has been observed in developed countries such as the United States.
  • Delay of First Treatment of Mental and Substance Use Disorders in Mexico -- Borges et al. 97 (9): 1638 -- American Journal of Public Health 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

In 1950 the APA committee undertook a review and consultation. .It circulated an adaptation of Medical 203, the VA system and the Standard's Nomenclature, to approximately 10% of APA members.^ Fifty years of psychiatric nomenclature: Reflections on the 1943 War Department Technical Bulletin, Medical 203.

.46% replied, of which 93% approved, and after some further revisions (resulting in it being called DSM-I), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was approved in 1951 and published in 1952. The structure and conceptual framework were the same as in Medical 203, and many passages of text identical.^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th Edition.
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision.
  • Integrated Treatment of Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance UseDisorders � Lecture Outline 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alcoholmedicalscholars.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[5] .The manual was 130 pages long and listed 106 mental disorders.^ Provides a list of mental disorders .
  • Models of Mental Illness and Anxiety Disorders 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC web.jjay.cuny.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders .
  • bol.com|Diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders, American Psychiatric Association| Engelse boeken 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bol.com [Source type: General]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders .
  • WHO | Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]
  • TOPCAT 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topcat.switchinc.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]

DSM-II (1968)

.Although the APA was closely involved in the next significant revision of the mental disorder section of the ICD (version 8 in 1968), it decided to also go ahead with a revision of the DSM. It was also published in 1968, listed 182 disorders, and was 134 pages long.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision.
  • Integrated Treatment of Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance UseDisorders � Lecture Outline 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alcoholmedicalscholars.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The strength of the association between common mental disorders and opioid use was similar for this group confirming more long-term opioid use but was somewhat larger.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Association Between Mental Health Disorders, Problem Drug Use, and Regular Prescription Opioid Use, October 23, 2006, Sullivan et al. 166 (19): 2087 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

It was quite similar to the DSM-I. The term “reaction” was dropped but the term “neurosis” was retained. .Both the DSM-I and the DSM-II reflected the predominant psychodynamic psychiatry,[7] although they also included biological perspectives and concepts from Kraepelin's system of classification.^ The CIDI version 1.1 has 2 diagnostic programs to compute diagnoses according to the criteria and definitions of both DSM-III-R and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision .
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Psychiatric classification systems like DSM-IV and ICD-10 are based on the presence/absence of diagnostic criteria.
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | General practitioners' self-perceived ability to recognize severity of common mental disorders: an underestimated factor in case identification? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ FULL TEXT The classification of mental disorder: a simpler system for DSM-V and ICD-11 Goldberg Adv.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.Symptoms were not specified in detail for specific disorders.^ The American Psychiatric Association (APA) specifies the symptoms and criteria for PSTD in its Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders : .
  • Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - HealthyPlace 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An individual does not meet the criteria for any specific Bipolar Disorder, but has similar symptoms.

^ Mixed Anxiety Depression is characterized by a combination of dysphoric symptoms of anxiety and depression in individuals who fail to meet syndromal criteria for any specific anxiety disorder or depressive disorder (20).
  • The DSM-IV Classification and Psychopharmacology 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many were seen as reflections of broad underlying conflicts or maladaptive reactions to life problems, rooted in a distinction between neurosis and psychosis (roughly, anxiety/depression broadly in touch with reality, or hallucinations/delusions appearing disconnected from reality).^ On the distinction between attentional deficits/hyperactivity and conduct problems/aggression in child psychopathology.
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Usually some screening questionnaires for sleep problems and for psychopathology are also given, such as the MMPI, Beck depression and anxiety scales, HCL90.

^ The relation between alcohol problems and the anxiety disorders.
  • Anxiety Disorders : Future Directions for Research and Treatment - Mental Health - Public Health Agency of Canada 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.phac-aspc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Sociological and biological knowledge was also incorporated, in a model that did not emphasize a clear boundary between normality and abnormality.^ The concept of mental disorder: On the boundary between biological facts and social values.
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.Following controversy and protests from gay activists at APA annual conferences from 1970 to 1973, as well as the emergence of new data from researchers such as Alfred Kinsey and Evelyn Hooker, the seventh printing of the DSM-II, in 1974, no longer listed homosexuality as a category of disorder.^ Other studies, though, have shown that this association is no longer significant after accounting for a broad range of comorbid disorders [22] – [24] .
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although further understanding of the etiology of a learning disorder such as written expression disorder is relevant to determining the best interventions, current educational practices may be slow to adopt new research findings.
  • Learning Disorder, Written Expression: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Future surveys of trends in the prevalence and treatment of mental disorders need to include data on treatment processes, such as those in the NCS-R, to permit changes in the quality of treatment to be tracked.
  • NEJM -- Prevalence and Treatment of Mental Disorders, 1990 to 2003 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

.But through the efforts of psychiatrist Robert Spitzer, who had led the DSM-II development committee, a vote by the APA trustees in 1973, and confirmed by the wider APA membership in 1974, the diagnosis was replaced with the category of "sexual orientation disturbance",[9] presently referred to as gender identity disorder (GID).^ Develop and reflect here your knowledge of developmental milestones and transitions, personality and adaptation, the human and family life cycle, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, oppression, and models of social functioning to describe the forces, issues, and momentum of the client's life leading to the presenting issue.
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd ed., rev. (DSM-III-R) diagnosis of conduct disorder assumes that all children who engage in three or more criterion antisocial behaviors for 6 months or more suffer from a mental disorder.
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

DSM-III (1980)

In 1974, the decision to create a new revision of the DSM was made, and Robert Spitzer was selected as chairman of the task force. .The initial impetus was to make the DSM nomenclature consistent with the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), published by the World Health Organization.^ Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A second generation of cross-national psychiatric surveys was carried out in the 1990s 17 - 24 using a more elaborate interview, the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Abbreviations: CIDI, Composite International Diagnostic Interview; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; IQR, interquartile range; OR, odds ratio; PARP, population attributable risk proportion; PTSD, posttraumatic stress; WMH, WHO World Mental Health .
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

The revision took on a far wider mandate under the influence and control of Spitzer and his chosen committee members.[10] .One goal was to improve the uniformity and validity of psychiatric diagnosis in the wake of a number of critiques, including the famous Rosenhan experiment.^ FULL TEXT Validity of a short clinical interview for psychiatric diagnosis: the mini-SCAN Nienhuis et al.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.There was also a need to standardize diagnostic practices within the US and with other countries after research showed that psychiatric diagnoses differed markedly between Europe and the USA.[11] The establishment of these criteria was also an attempt to facilitate the pharmaceutical regulatory process.^ We should consider the possibility that meeting criteria for these DSM-III-R diagnoses in a population study, without consideration of severity of disorders or of related functional impairments, need not indicate the presence of a complete, clinically relevant psychiatric syndrome.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In future research we therefore plan to make more detailed analysis of patterns of co-occurrence between symptoms to address subthreshold manifestations of different psychiatric syndromes.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Depression Managing the Mental Health Practice As an experienced mental health practice manager, I have noticed distinct differences between medical and mental health offices.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

The criteria adopted for many of the mental disorders were taken from the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and Feighner Criteria, which had just been developed by a group of research-orientated psychiatrists based primarily at Washington University in St. Louis and the New York State Psychiatric Institute. .Other criteria, and potential new categories of disorder, were established by consensus during meetings of the committee, as chaired by Spitzer.^ On the other hand, population studies may not be the best tool for studying less common disorders, as the number of respondents meeting criteria for other diagnoses is too small to enable reliable and valid results.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A second strategy involves selecting persons with a target disorder without regard for other disorders for which they might meet criteria.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure of Common Mental Disorders, October 1999, Krueger 56 (10): 921 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first strategy limits the investigation to those persons who meet the criteria for a specific disorder but not the criteria for any other mental disorder.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure of Common Mental Disorders, October 1999, Krueger 56 (10): 921 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.A key aim was to base categorization on colloquial English descriptive language (which would be easier to use by Federal administrative offices), rather than assumptions of etiology, although its categorical approach assumed each particular pattern of symptoms in a category reflected a particular underlying pathology (an approach described as "neo-Kraepelinian”).^ Substance abuse is a pattern of substance use that leads to significant impairment or distress, reflected by one or more of the following: .
  • The Nature of Substance Use Disorders 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.childwelfare.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It might be considered a weakness that we based our diagnoses of MDE and GAD on questionnaires rather than on structured psychiatric interviews that could have improved the diagnostic reliability.
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | General practitioners' self-perceived ability to recognize severity of common mental disorders: an underestimated factor in case identification? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Referral to an appropriate facility should be based on practical clinical criteria rather than on diagnosis alone.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

The psychodynamic or physiologic view was abandoned, in favor of a regulatory or legislative model. .A new "multiaxial" system attempted to yield a picture more amenable to a statistical population census, rather than just a simple diagnosis.^ Results underline the argument for focusing on core psychopathological processes rather than on their manifestation as distinguished disorders in future population studies on common mental disorders.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Referral to an appropriate facility should be based on practical clinical criteria rather than on diagnosis alone.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the current study, the presence of multiple disorders (i.e., “multimorbidity” [46] ) yielded ORs several times higher than that for any individual disorder in the prediction of suicide attempts.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

Spitzer argued, “mental disorders are a subset of medical disorders” but the task force decided on the DSM statement: “Each of the mental disorders is conceptualized as a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome.”[7]
.The first draft of the DSM-III was prepared within a year.^ Nine common DSM-III-R diagnoses were assessed twice with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview with a time lapse of 1 year.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For most of the major mental illnesses, the DSM-IV draft includes the alternative of a substance-induced disorder within that diagnosis.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The first such studies have appeared only within the past 10 years, with the pace of progress accelerating steadily since that time.
  • Geminus Corporation - Bipolar Disorder - Bipolar Disorder Research at the National Institute of Mental Health 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.geminus.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar Disorder Research at the National Institute of Mental Health 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.depressiontreatmentweb.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many new categories of disorder were introduced; a number of the unpublished documents that aim to justify them have recently come to light.^ This was striking in light of research documenting that mental disorders have greater effects on role functioning than many serious chronic physical illnesses.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, because mental disorders are highly comorbid [20] , it is possible that many of the observed associations are due to the true effects of only a small number of disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .Field trials sponsored by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) were conducted between 1977 and 1979 to test the reliability of the new diagnoses.^ National Institute of Mental Health (1993).
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The information provided on this site is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient, site visitor, or student and his/her existing psychologist, mental health provider or college instructor.
  • Alphabetical Index of all Psychiatric Disorders at ALLPSYCH Online 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC allpsych.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Role of the Sponsors: The US WMH survey is funded under a collaborative agreement between the National Institute of Mental Health and Harvard Medical School.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

A controversy emerged regarding deletion of the concept of neurosis, a mainstream of psychoanalytic theory and therapy but seen as vague and unscientific by the DSM task force. .Faced with enormous political opposition, so the DSM-III was in serious danger of not being approved by the APA Board of Trustees unless “neurosis” was included in some capacity, a political compromise reinserted the term in parentheses after the word “disorder” in some cases.^ Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Disorder as harmful dysfunction: A conceptual critique of DSM-III-R's definition of mental disorder.
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some children and adults with disorder of written expression have benefited from computer programs that translate their spoken words to text.
  • Learning Disorder, Written Expression: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Additionally, the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality replaced the DSM-II category of "sexual orientation disturbance".
.Finally published in 1980, the DSM-III was 494 pages long and listed 265 diagnostic categories.^ Nine common DSM-III-R diagnoses were assessed twice with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview with a time lapse of 1 year.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnostic evaluation can include the clinical application of the DSM-III-R (or DSM-IV), perhaps in the form of the Structured Clinical Interview from DSM-III-R (SCID).
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The CIDI version 1.1 has 2 diagnostic programs to compute diagnoses according to the criteria and definitions of both DSM-III-R and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision .
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

It rapidly came into widespread international use by multiple stakeholders and has been termed a revolution or transformation in psychiatry.[7][8].

DSM-III-R (1987)

.In 1987 the DSM-III-R was published as a revision of DSM-III, under the direction of Spitzer.^ [Medline] Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Gibbon M, First MB. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID).
  • Validation and Utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Diagnosing Mental Disorders in 1003 General Hospital Spanish Inpatients -- Diez-Quevedo et al. 63 (4): 679 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DSM-III-R. See American Psychiatric Association (1987).
  • Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General - Chapter 2 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.surgeongeneral.gov [Source type: Academic]

Categories were renamed, reorganized, and significant changes in criteria were made. Six categories were deleted while others were added. .Controversial diagnoses such as pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder and Masochistic Personality Disorder were considered and discarded.^ The differential diagnoses between the various personality disorders are blurred.
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) - narcissisticabuse | Google Groups 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, one considers post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, somatoform disorders, various adjustment disorders and personality disorders.

^ Asperger's Disorder is often misdiagnosed as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) , though evident as early as age 3 (while pathological narcissism cannot be safely diagnosed prior to early adolescence).
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder And Other Mental Health Disorders (Co-Morbidity and Dual Diagnosis) - narcissisticabuse | Google Groups 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Sexual orientation disturbance" was also removed, but was largely subsumed under "sexual disorder not otherwise specified" which can include "persistent and marked distress about one’s sexual orientation."^ Grief reaction Brain tumor (especially if associated with vision or coordination impairment) Communication disorder (Not otherwise specified) Oppositional defiant disorder Generalized anxiety disorder Panic disorder .
  • Anxiety Disorder, Separation Anxiety and School Refusal: Differential Diagnoses & Workup - eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Emotional Distress How to Successfully Parent an ADD Child I have a daughter with Inattentive ADD. Did you notice that I did not say ADHD? There is a difference; a large one if you are the parent.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ A. A marked and persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[7][13] .Altogether, DSM-III-R contained 292 diagnoses and was 567 pages long.^ Nine common DSM-III-R diagnoses were assessed twice with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview with a time lapse of 1 year.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The CIDI version 1.1 has 2 diagnostic programs to compute diagnoses according to the criteria and definitions of both DSM-III-R and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision .
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sanderson WC, DiNardo PA, Rapee RM, Barlow DH. Syndrome comorbidity in patients diagnosed with a DSM-III-R anxiety disorder.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

DSM-IV (1994)

.In 1994, DSM-IV was published, listing 297 disorders in 886 pages.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For sales information, see the American Psychiatric Press web page on the DSM-IV Library or call (800) 368-5777.
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes, Alphabetical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The discrepancy needed to diagnose a learning disorder is defined by DSM-IV criteria as achievement that is substantially below intellect.
  • Learning Disorder, Written Expression: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The task force was chaired by Allen Frances.^ But the very fact that the APA has produced a task force to decide whether bitterness, apathy, extreme shopping, and overuse of the Internet belong in the manual indicates, as Allen Frances, who chaired the DSM-IV task force, told Psychiatric News last month, that DSM-V is "headed in a very wrong direction."
  • The diagnostic madness of DSM-V. - By Christopher Lane - Slate Magazine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: General]

^ Allen Frances, Chair of the DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association Task Force , recently acknowledged (Spiegel 2005) that the desired reliability has not been obtained.
  • The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pdm1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He currently serves as vice chair of the task force to develop the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fifth Edition.
  • Primary Psychiatry: In Session with Darrel A. Regier, MD, MPH: The Developmental Process for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.primarypsychiatry.com [Source type: Academic]

A steering committee of 27 people was introduced, including four psychologists. .The steering committee created 13 work groups of 5–16 members.^ It is important to determine when to deal with the family as a group to resolve conflicts and when members need to work with a therapist alone to develop independence from dysfunctional reliance.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

Each work group had approximately 20 advisers. The work groups conducted a three step process. First, each group conducted an extensive literature review of their diagnoses. Then they requested data from researchers, conducting analyses to determine which criteria required change, with instructions to be conservative. Finally, they conducted multicenter field trials relating diagnoses to clinical practice.[14][15] .A major change from previous versions was the inclusion of a clinical significance criterion to almost half of all the categories, which required symptoms cause “clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning”.^ D. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypomanic episodes are not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to require hospitalization.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Manic episodes, often having a rapid onset and symptom progression over a few days, generally impair occupational or social functioning, and may require hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) was characterized at this stage.^ Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) .
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the illness begins before or soon after puberty, it is often characterized by a continuous, rapid-cycling, irritable, and mixed symptom state that may co-occur with disruptive behavior disorders, particularly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or conduct disorder (CD), or may have features of these disorders as initial symptoms.

^ FULL TEXT Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis Simon et al.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

DSM-IV-TR (2000)

.A "Text Revision" of the DSM-IV, known as the DSM-IV-TR, was published in 2000. The diagnostic categories and the vast majority of the specific criteria for diagnosis were unchanged.^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision.
  • Integrated Treatment of Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance UseDisorders � Lecture Outline 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alcoholmedicalscholars.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The discrepancy needed to diagnose a learning disorder is defined by DSM-IV criteria as achievement that is substantially below intellect.
  • Learning Disorder, Written Expression: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Psychology Diagnosis and DSM-IV This article discusses the modern classification system for psychological disorders, DSM-IV. By Mojo21   |  Published 9/15/2008 More topics: Dsm Iv .
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[16] The text sections giving extra information on each diagnosis were updated, as were some of the diagnostic codes in order to maintain consistency with the ICD.

DSM-IV-TR - The Current Version

DSM-IV-TR, the current DSM edition

Categorization

.The DSM-IV is a categorical classification system.^ The five axes of DSM-IV classification are: .
  • Holy Book of the Psychiatric World | Brain Blogger 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC brainblogger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can see that mental disorders have been categorized in the DSM-IV (Ref.2), which is the standard classification system that psychiatrists and psychologists use, into five major categories.
  • Mental Illness, Mental Disorders - WebHealth 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC webhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Will the DSM-V have a different kind of classification system than the categorical approach in the current edition of the manual?
  • Primary Psychiatry: In Session with Darrel A. Regier, MD, MPH: The Developmental Process for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.primarypsychiatry.com [Source type: Academic]

.The categories are prototypes, and a patient with a close approximation to the prototype is said to have that disorder.^ Approximately 85 percent of patients with the disorder experience academic and occupational difficulties caused by their inability to meet the social demands of securing and maintaining employment or relationships.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The disorder increases a patient's lifetime risk of depression approximately fourfold.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.DSM-IV states, “there is no assumption each category of mental disorder is a completely discrete entity with absolute boundaries...” but isolated, low-grade and noncriterion (unlisted for a given disorder) symptoms are not given importance.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As far as I know, the complete DSM-IV isn't available on the web, but you may be able to find it in a library, or you can just buy your own.
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes/Numerical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some general screening devices for mental disorders (e.g., the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Screen [SCID-Screen]) include questions related to social phobia but are quite lengthy, requiring up to 25 minutes to complete; others do not screen for social phobia (e.g., the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders [Prime-MD]).
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .Qualifiers are sometimes used, for example mild, moderate or severe forms of a disorder.^ When used in low doses on an as-needed basis, beta blockers appear to be a clinically effective treatment for mild to moderate circumscribed performance anxiety.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with mild to moderate depression, psychosocial therapies may be used alone for a limited period, or they may be used in conjunction with antidepressant medication.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ WMH-CIDI/ DSM-IV disorders were classified as serious, moderate, or mild.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.For nearly half the disorders, symptoms must be sufficient to cause “clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning", although DSM-IV-TR removed the distress criterion from tic disorders and several of the paraphilias.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms must result in significant impairment of social, occupational or school functioning.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ B. Symptoms interfere with social, occupational, sexual or school functioning.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Each category of disorder has a numeric code taken from the ICD coding system, used for health service (including insurance) administrative purposes.^ The UK National Health Service provides information about suicide , including statistics about suicide in the UK and links to other resources .
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In adjusted models, respondents with a mental health disorder in 1998 were twice as likely to use prescribed opioids in 2001.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Association Between Mental Health Disorders, Problem Drug Use, and Regular Prescription Opioid Use, October 23, 2006, Sullivan et al. 166 (19): 2087 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mental Nearly $24 Million Awarded to Substance Abuse Treatment The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) awarded nearly $24 million in grants to expand and/or enhance substance abuse treatment.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Multi-axial system

The DSM-IV organizes each psychiatric diagnosis into five levels (axes) relating to different aspects of disorder or disability:
  • Axis I: Clinical disorders, including major mental disorders, and learning disorders
  • Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation (although developmental disorders, such as Autism, were coded on Axis II in the previous edition, these disorders are now included on Axis I)
  • Axis III: Acute medical conditions and physical disorders
  • Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to the disorder
  • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning or Children's Global Assessment Scale for children and teens under the age of 18
.Common Axis I disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism, phobias, and schizophrenia.^ Bipolar disorder , which is depression with episodes of mania .
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The depressive episodes of people with bipolar disorder are often indistinguishable from those of patients with unipolar major depressive disorder.

^ Although bipolar disorder is equally common in women and men, research indicates that approximately three times as many women as men experience rapid cycling.

.Common Axis II disorders include personality disorders: paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and mental retardation.^ For most of the major mental illnesses, the DSM-IV draft includes the alternative of a substance-induced disorder within that diagnosis.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Alliance on Mental Illness is a national self-help and family advocacy organization dedicated solely to improving the lives of people with severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (manic depression), major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a first step toward doing so, we found that mental disorders are differentially associated with suicidal behavior depending on which part of the pathway to suicide was being predicted.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.Common Axis III disorders include brain injuries and other medical/physical disorders which may aggravate existing diseases or present symptoms similar to other disorders.^ Other symptoms may include: .
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Krueger RF, Caspi A, Moffit TE, Silva PA. The structure and stability of common mental disorders ( DSM-III-R ): a longitudinal-epidemiological study.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients who have difficulty engaging in Alcoholics Anonymous and other support groups and who do not exhibit evidence of a personality disorder may be depressed.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

Cautions

.The DSM-IV-TR states, because it is produced for the completion of Federal legislative mandates, its use by people without clinical training can lead to inappropriate application of its contents.^ The clinical interview using DSM-IV (Volume 1: Fundamentals).
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As far as I know, the complete DSM-IV isn't available on the web, but you may be able to find it in a library, or you can just buy your own.
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes, Alphabetical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes/Numerical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnostic evaluation can include the clinical application of the DSM-III-R (or DSM-IV), perhaps in the form of the Structured Clinical Interview from DSM-III-R (SCID).
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Appropriate use of the diagnostic criteria is said to require extensive clinical training, and its contents “cannot simply be applied in a cookbook fashion”.^ Pediatricians should consider using screening and diagnostic tools specific for ASD. Such tools should be ethnoculturally and linguistically appropriate.
  • The Pediatrician's Role in the Diagnosis and Management of Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Children -- Committee on Children With Disabilities 107 (5): 1221 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lifetime mental disorders were assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Version 3.0, a fully structured diagnostic interview administered by trained lay interviewers [33] .
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the same diagnostic criteria are used for both genders, the presentation and course of depression are sometimes different in women (Table 3) .
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[18] .The APA notes diagnostic labels are primarily for use as a “convenient shorthand” among professionals. The DSM advises laypersons should consult the DSM only to obtain information, not to make diagnoses, and people who may have a mental disorder should be referred to psychological counseling or treatment.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only about half those who received treatment had disorders that met diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder.
  • NEJM -- Prevalence and Treatment of Mental Disorders, 1990 to 2003 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Professional counseling is an important part of treatment for borderline personality disorder .
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further, a shared diagnosis/label may have different etiologies (causes) or require different treatments; the DSM contains no information regarding treatment or cause for this reason.^ Note: This page provided as a service to Club DSM Members for informational purposes only - no endorsement should be implied.
  • Club DSM Vendors Page 12 October 2009 10:59 UTC www.dsm.org [Source type: General]

^ Untreated depression may also affect mother-child bonding and may be a cause of chronic depression and treatment resistance.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mental health services (eg, counseling or treatment of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, OCD) may be required in addition to special academic services.
  • Learning Disorder, Written Expression: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The range of the DSM represents an extensive scope of psychiatric and psychological issues or conditions, and it is not exclusive to what may be considered “illnesses”.^ Also, both ethnic and cultural backgrounds may alter a person's experience of both AOD and psychiatric conditions.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But if it continues, your doctor may consider another condition, such as schizophrenia .
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medications, including reserpine and other medications that treat hypertension and hypotension, can cause conditions that may be confused with psychiatric or AOD disorders.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

Sourcebooks

.The DSM-IV doesn't specifically cite its sources, but there are four volumes of "sourcebooks" intended to be APA's documentation of the guideline development process and supporting evidence, including literature reviews, data analyses and field trials.^ DSM-IV Antisocial personality disorder field trial.
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of substance intoxication or withdrawal, and the symptoms in criterion A developed during, or within a month of, significant substance intoxication or withdrawal.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[19][20][21][22] .The Sourcebooks have been said to provide important insights into the character and quality of the decisions that led to the production of DSM-IV, and hence the scientific credibility of contemporary psychiatric classification.^ For sales information, see the American Psychiatric Press web page on the DSM-IV Library or call (800) 368-5777.
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes/Numerical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Classification trees distinguish suicide attempters in major psychiatric disorders: a model of clinical decision making.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Toward an empirical classification for the DSM-IV. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100 (3), 280-288.
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

[23][24]

Criticism

.Beginning with the problem that there is no single objective diagnostic test for a mental illness in the field of psychiatry — a problem the DSM sidesteps by referring only to "mental disorders", defined as dysfunctional psychological or behavioral patterns — the DSM-IV has come under various criticisms over the years.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DSM-IV Antisocial personality disorder field trial.
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Validity and reliability

.The most fundamental criticism of the DSM concerns the construct validity and reliability of its diagnostic categories and criteria.^ The DSM-IV draft describes diagnostic criteria for mood disorder due to a general medical condition.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnostic criteria for major depression, as established in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), are the same for women and men (Table 2).
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The CIDI version 1.1 has 2 diagnostic programs to compute diagnoses according to the criteria and definitions of both DSM-III-R and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision .
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[25][26][27] Although increasingly standardized, critics argue that the DSM's claim of an empirical foundation is overstated.[23] .A reliance on operational definitions necessitates that intuitive concepts such as depression be operationally defined before they can be used in scientific investigation.^ They may also be caused by withdrawal from depressants such as alcohol and by medical disorders such as AIDS and thyroid problems.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A possible relationship between depression and medications such as birth control pills or agents used in hormone replacement therapy must also be explored.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with mild to moderate depression, psychosocial therapies may be used alone for a limited period, or they may be used in conjunction with antidepressant medication.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Such definitions are used as a follow up to a conceptual definition, in which the specific concept is defined as a measurable occurrence.^ The clinical reappraisal study did not assess the concordance between survey measures of comorbidity and assessments of comorbidity in the clinical follow-up interviews.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pediatricians should consider using screening and diagnostic tools specific for ASD. Such tools should be ethnoculturally and linguistically appropriate.
  • The Pediatrician's Role in the Diagnosis and Management of Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Children -- Committee on Children With Disabilities 107 (5): 1221 -- AAP Policy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.John Stuart Mill pointed out the dangers of believing anything that could be given a name must refer to a thing and Stephen Jay Gould and others have criticized psychologists for doing just that.^ Unfortunately, the severely depressed person may drop out of treatment or even commit suicide while the clinician is trying to sort things out (see section on "Assessing Danger to Self or Others."
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When your entry is prompted by readings, react critically and relate the readings to other points of view that include your own experience.
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A committed operationalist would respond that speculation about the thing in itself, or noumenon, should be resisted as meaningless, and would comment only on phenomena using operationally defined terms and tables of operationally defined measurements.^ Although current FDA guidelines are that hypnotics be prescribed only for short-term use, in practice, they are often prescribed for many months or years.

^ Decisions about diagnosis and treatment would be quite different if two of his psychiatric admissions were 4 to 6 weeks long with clearly defined manic and psychotic symptoms continuing throughout the course, despite aggressive use of psychiatric treatment and medication.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk of chronic overuse suggests that these drugs should be used only intermittently until the patient's confidence in performance situations is restored.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: A Common, Underrecognized Mental Disorder - November 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

This line of criticism has also appeared in non-specialist venues. .In 1997, Harper's Magazine published an essay, ostensibly a book review of the DSM-IV, that criticized the lack of hard science and the proliferation of disorders.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The discrepancy needed to diagnose a learning disorder is defined by DSM-IV criteria as achievement that is substantially below intellect.
  • Learning Disorder, Written Expression: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.The language of the DSM was described as "simultaneously precise and vague", and the manual itself compared to "a militia's Web page, insofar as it constitutes an alternative reality under siege," and a "fertilizer bomb" against hard science.^ For sales information, see the American Psychiatric Press web page on the DSM-IV Library or call (800) 368-5777.
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes/Numerical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnostic criteria for all mental disorders are described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV).2 .
  • Geminus Corporation - Bipolar Disorder - Bipolar Disorder Research at the National Institute of Mental Health 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.geminus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnostic criteria for all mental disorders are described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition ( DSM-IV ).

[28]

Symptomatological bias

.By design, the DSM is primarily concerned with the symptoms of mental disorders, it does not attempt to analyze or explain the conditions it lists or even to discuss possible patterns or relationships between and among them.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The information provided on this site is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient, site visitor, or student and his/her existing psychologist, mental health provider or college instructor.
  • Alphabetical Index of all Psychiatric Disorders at ALLPSYCH Online 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC allpsych.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

As such, it has been compared to a naturalist’s field guide to birds, with similar advantages and disadvantages.[29] .The lack of causative or explanatory material, however, is not specific to the DSM, but rather reflects a general lack of pathophysiological understanding of psychiatric disorders.^ However, after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, only disorders characterized by anxiety and poor impulse-control predict which people with suicide ideation act on such thoughts.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ EPIDEMIOLOGICAL studies on DSM-III-R diagnoses in the general population have often revealed strikingly high levels of comorbidity; substantial proportions of respondents meet the criteria for more than 1 psychiatric disorder.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addiction treatment populations, many psychiatric disorders are substance-induced disorders that are caused by AOD use.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.As DSM-III chief architect Robert Spitzer and DSM-IV editor Michael First outlined in 2005, "little progress has been made toward understanding the pathophysiological processes and etiology of mental disorders.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although this model may at first seem far-fetched, overall severity of maladjustment has been recognized by the DSM-III , DSM-III-R , and DSM-IV , but is recorded on the fifth axis as the Global Assessment of Functioning score (as opposed to being offered as an account of comorbidity among Axis I disorders).
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure of Common Mental Disorders, October 1999, Krueger 56 (10): 921 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.If anything, the research has shown the situation is even more complex than initially imagined, and we believe not enough is known to structure the classification of psychiatric disorders according to etiology."^ Psychology Diagnosis and DSM-IV This article discusses the modern classification system for psychological disorders, DSM-IV. By Mojo21   |  Published 9/15/2008 More topics: Dsm Iv .
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ According to the lower BIC, the restricted model is even preferable as it is more parsimonious.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It appears to help no more than 5 to 10 percent of the insomniacs seen in our Sleep Disorders Center.

[30] .The DSM's apparent superficiality is therefore largely a result of necessity, since there is no agreement on a more explanatory classification system.^ Psychology Diagnosis and DSM-IV This article discusses the modern classification system for psychological disorders, DSM-IV. By Mojo21   |  Published 9/15/2008 More topics: Dsm Iv .
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ As noted above, though, the weighted part II sample is representative of the population and includes 100% of respondents with core DSM-IV disorders, which means that there is no loss in generality of results due to the focus on part II respondents.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.Despite the lack of consensus, advocates for specific psychopathlogical paradigms have nonetheless faulted the current diagnostic scheme for not incorporating the innovations of their particular models; the most recent example being evolutionary psychologists' criticism that the DSM does not differentiate between genuine cognitive malfunctions and those induced by psychological adaptations, a key distinction within evolutionary psychology, but one widely challenged within general psychology.^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival models of the associations between number of prior DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developing countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Multivariate survival models of associations between type/number of prior DSM-IV disorders and subsequent suicidal behavior—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[31][32][33]

Reductionist bias

.Despite caveats in the introduction to the DSM, it has long been argued that its system of classification makes unjustified categorical distinctions between disorders, and between normal and abnormal.^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, despite this wide variation, a meaningful association exists between disorder severity and probability of treatment in every survey.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are currently 3 viable classification systems for sleep disorders.

.Although the DSM-V may move away from this categorical approach in some limited areas, some argue that a fully dimensional, spectrum or complaint-oriented approach would better reflect the evidence.^ Indeed, some patients, especially those with conditioned (psychophysiologic) insomnia, may sleep better in the laboratory than at home (26).

^ Evidence suggests that several genetic loci may be involved in the vulnerability to autism 1 ; some may be arising de novo.
  • Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med -- Maternal and Paternal Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders, April 2007, Croen et al. 161 (4): 334 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpedi.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although pharmacotherapies for depression carry some risks, untreated depression may lead to significant problems.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[34][35][36][37] .Similarly, the current individual symptom-based approach has been argued to not adequately take into account the context in which a person is living, and to what extent there is internal disorder of an individual or a psychological response to adverse situations.^ This is known as a subadditive interaction; that is, a situation in which the effects of comorbid disorders are less than the sum of their individual effects due to the incremental predictive power of individual disorders decaying as the number of comorbid disorders increases.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Psychological Disorder The Effects of Autism on Change Blindness It has been shown through a variety of experiments that Autistic individuals are superior when it comes to visual search tasks.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ There are currently 3 viable classification systems for sleep disorders.

[38][39] .Because the level of impairment is often not correlated with symptom counts and can stem from various individual and social factors, the standard of distress or disability can often produce false positives.^ A normalized surface measure at a standardized level of the mesencephalon correlated with clinical effects of STN stimulation on motor disability in PD. A smaller mesencephalon surface area was associated with a decreased clinical benefit of stimulation.
  • Neuroimaging and Deep Brain Stimulation -- Dormont et al. 31 (1): 15 -- American Journal of Neuroradiology 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ajnr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because sleep needs vary from about 4 hours per night to about 9 hours per night among healthy individuals, insomnia cannot be diagnosed by the amount of sleep a person receives.

^ The symptoms must result in significant impairment of social, occupational or school functioning.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[40]
.Some psychiatrists also argue that current diagnostic standards rely on an exaggerated interpretation of neurophysiological findings and so understate the scientific importance of social-psychological variables.^ However, there are some difficulties in the interpretation of these findings.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[41] .Advocating a more culturally sensitive approach to psychology, critics such as Carl Bell and Marcello Maviglia contend that the cultural and ethnic diversity of individuals is often discounted by researchers and service providers.^ A bipolar disorder is diagnosed upon evidence of one or more manic episodes, often in an individual with a history of one or more major depressive episodes.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They include weekly to daily individual or group counseling, often in combination with additional treatment services such as detoxification, education, medical services, and specially focused groups.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[42]. In addition, current diagnostic guidelines have been criticized as having a fundamentally Euro-American outlook. .Although these guidelines have been widely implemented, opponents argue that even when a diagnostic criteria set is accepted across different cultures, it does not necessarily indicate that the underlying constructs have any validity within those cultures; even reliable application can only demonstrate consistency, not legitimacy.^ Although current FDA guidelines are that hypnotics be prescribed only for short-term use, in practice, they are often prescribed for many months or years.

^ Not only does it point out the struggle of addiction within the Gay and Lesbian community, but it forms a sense of mindfulness to those individuals as individuals.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Differences in maternal and paternal age and maternal educational level effects across ASD severity categories, although not significant, raise the possibility that the underlying biological and sociological risk profiles may differ according to ASD severity.
  • Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med -- Maternal and Paternal Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders, April 2007, Croen et al. 161 (4): 334 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpedi.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[41] .Cross-cultural psychiatrist Arthur Kleinman contends that the Western bias is ironically illustrated in the introduction of cultural factors to the DSM-IV: the fact that disorders or concepts from non-Western or non-mainstream cultures are described as "culture-bound", whereas standard psychiatric diagnoses are given no cultural qualification whatsoever, is to Kleinman revelatory of an underlying assumption that Western cultural phenomena are universal.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For sales information, see the American Psychiatric Press web page on the DSM-IV Library or call (800) 368-5777.
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes/Numerical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[43] .Kleinman's negative view towards the culture-bound syndrome is largely shared by other cross-cultural critics, common responses included both disappointment over the large number of documented non-Western mental disorders still left out, and frustration that even those included were often misinterpreted or misrepresented.^ We begin by reviewing the status of earlier controversies about the mental disorder concept in the service of documenting the impressive progress of the field in conceptualizing disorder.
  • Mark Twain Meets DSM-III-R: Conduct Disorder, Development, and the Concept of Harmful Dysfunction - Cogprints 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC cogprints.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A strong dose-response relation was found between the number of mental disorders present and the odds of a subsequent suicide attempt, consistent with the results from several prior studies [19] , [24] , [26] , [27] .
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Krueger RF, Caspi A, Moffit TE, Silva PA. The structure and stability of common mental disorders ( DSM-III-R ): a longitudinal-epidemiological study.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure and Stability of Common Mental Disorders: The NEMESIS Study, June 2001, Vollebergh et al. 58 (6): 597 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[44] Many mainstream psychiatrists have also been dissatisfied with these new culture-bound diagnoses, although not for the same reasons. Robert Spitzer, a lead architect of the DSM-III, has opined that the addition of cultural formulations was an attempt to placate cultural critics, and that they lack any scientific motivation or support. .Spitzer also posits that the new culture-bound diagnoses are rarely used in practice, maintaining that the standard diagnoses apply regardless of the culture involved.^ Discrepancies between the standardized parameter estimates in Figure 1 and those obtained using past-year diagnoses were minor, ranging from 0.00 to 0.07.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure of Common Mental Disorders, October 1999, Krueger 56 (10): 921 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In accordance with standard practice in psychiatric epidemiology, the diagnoses examined were made without the imposition of hierarchical exclusionary rules.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- The Structure of Common Mental Disorders, October 1999, Krueger 56 (10): 921 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.In general, the mainstream psychiatric opinion remains that if a diagnostic category is valid, cross-cultural factors are either irrelevant or are only significant to specific symptom presentations.^ A second generation of cross-national psychiatric surveys was carried out in the 1990s 17 - 24 using a more elaborate interview, the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Medical management of acute psychiatric symptoms is a treatment strategy during the acute phase regardless of long-term diagnostic results.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Mood disorder due to a general medical condition can be described as having 1) manic features, 2) depressive features, or 3) mixed features in which symptoms of both mania and depression are present and neither predominates.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[41]
.It has also been suggested that the apparent reductionism of the DSM, as well as its substantial expansions, are representative of an increasing medicalization of human nature, a result of disease mongering by drug companies, whose influence on psychiatry has dramatically grown in recent decades.^ The functioning and well-being of depressed patients: results from the Medical Outcomes Study.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ AOD-induced mood alterations can result from acute and chronic drug use as well as from drug withdrawal.
  • NCADI: Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Coexisting Mental Illness and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ncadi.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Knowing the nature of one's disorder and the impacts of certain medications helps in choosing the proper drug.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[45] .Of the authors who selected and defined the DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, roughly half had had financial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry at one time, raising the prospect of a direct conflict of interest.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For sales information, see the American Psychiatric Press web page on the DSM-IV Library or call (800) 368-5777.
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes, Alphabetical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes/Numerical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[46] In 2008, then American Psychiatric Association President Steven Sharfstein released a statement in which he conceded that psychiatrists had "allowed the biopsychosocial model to become the bio-bio-bio model".[47]

Political controversies

.There is scientific and political controversy regarding the continued inclusion of sex-related diagnoses such as the paraphilias (sexual fetishes) and hypoactive sexual desire disorder (low sex drive).^ Virginia Tech Shootings Sexual Sadism There is a time when fetishes can become more than just fantasy play.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ A related problem is that several disorders known to be associated with suicidal behavior were not examined in this study, such as nonaffective psychosis and personality disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to...
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes, Alphabetical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes/Numerical 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.dr-bob.org [Source type: Academic]

.Critics of these and other controversial diagnoses often cite the DSM's previous inclusion of homosexuality, as well as the APA's eventual decision to remove it, as a precedent for current disputes.^ The current study extends this finding to other diagnoses.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compulsive Shopping Diagnosing Schizophrenia: The Five Symptoms & Other Requirements The Diagnostic Statistic Manual IV (DSM-IV) identifies five symptoms of schizophrenia.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[48] .That 1974 decision, however, is still challenged by many conservative and religious groups who maintain that homosexuality is in fact a mental disorder,[49] even though the research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality and the longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality per se is a normal and positive variation of human sexual orientation.^ Metaanalysis of research on social work practice in mental health.
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mental disorders, medications, and clinical social work (2 nd ed.
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical social work practice in behavioral mental health (2 nd ed.
  • http://www.boisestate.edu/socwork/HARK/Teaching.The%20Evaluation%20and%20Treatment%20of%20Mental%20Disorders.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Academic]

[50][51] .The fact that this diagnostic revision continues to be passionately disputed, so many years after the fact, underscores that any reevaluation of controversial disorders must be viewed as a political as well as scientific decision.^ Depression During Pregnancy In the past, pregnancy was viewed as a period of well-being that made women feel biologically "complete" and that provided "protection" against psychiatric disorders.
  • Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - July 1999- American Academy of Family Physicians 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The fact that many people with subthreshold disorders are treated while many with serious disorders are not shows that unmet need for treatment among serious cases is not merely a matter of limited treatment resources but that misallocation of treatment resources is also involved.
  • JAMA -- Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys, June 2, 2004, The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium 291 (21): 2581 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many people who get treatment for borderline personality disorder do decrease destructive behaviors, often within the first year of treatment.
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indeed, even Robert Spitzer (psychiatrist), a leading proponent of scientific impartiality in the DSM, conceded that a significant reason that certain diagnoses are not removed from the DSM is because "it would be a public relations disaster for psychiatry".[52]

DSM-V: the next version

.The next (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), DSM-V, is currently in consultation, planning and preparation.^ DSM-IV mental disorders.
  • PLoS Medicine: Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th ed., text rev., pp.
  • Health News and Information 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.billingsclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hypomania Big Pharma and the DSM The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is in the process of undergoing revision.
  • Dsm Iv - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 24 September 2009 23:45 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

It is due for publication in May 2013.[1 ]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b DSM-5 Publication Date Moved to May 2013
  2. ^ Mezzich, Juan E. (2002). "International Surveys on the Use of ICD-10 and Related Diagnostic Systems" (guest editorial, abstract). Psychopathology 35 (2-3): 72–75. doi:10.1159/000065122. PMID 12145487. http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowAbstract&ArtikelNr=65122&Ausgabe=228600&ProduktNr=224276. Retrieved 2008-09-02.  
  3. ^ "Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS)". http://tess2.uspto.gov/bin/showfield?f=doc&state=k7tj8q.2.1. Retrieved 2008-02-08.  
  4. ^ Greenberg SA, Shuman DW, Meyer RG. (2004) Unmasking forensic diagnosis. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2004 January-February;27(1):1-15. doi=10.1016/j.ijlp.2004.01.001
  5. ^ a b Houts, A.C. (2000) Fifty years of psychiatric nomenclature: Reflections on the 1943 War Department Technical Bulletin, Medical 203. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56 (7), Pages 935 - 967
  6. ^ Grob, GN. (1991) Origins of DSM-I: a study in appearance and reality Am J Psychiatry. April;148(4):421–31.
  7. ^ a b c d Mayes, R. & Horwitz, AV. (2005) DSM-III and the revolution in the classification of mental illness. J Hist Behav Sci 41(3):249–67.
  8. ^ a b Wilson, M. (1993) DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: a history. Am J Psychiatry. 1993 March;150(3):399–410.
  9. ^ "The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: a reformulation of the issues", by R.L. Spitzer, Am J Psychiatry 1981; 138:210-215
  10. ^ Speigel, A. (2005) The Dictionary of Disorder: How one man revolutionized of 2005-01-03.
  11. ^ Cooper JE, Kendell RE, Gurland BJ, Sartorius N, Farkas T (1969). Cross-national study of diagnosis of the mental disorders: some results from the first comparative investigation Am J Psychiatry, vol. 10, Suppl, pp. 21-9 PMID 5774702
  12. ^ Lane, Christopher (2007). Shyness: How Normal Behavior Became a Sickness. Yale University Press. pp. 263. ISBN 0300124465.  
  13. ^ Spiegel, Alix. (18 January 2002.) "81 Words". In Ira Glass (producer), "This American Life." Chicago: Chicago Public Radio.
  14. ^ Allen Frances, Avram H. Mack, Ruth Ross, and Michael B. First (2000) The DSM-IV Classification and Psychopharmacology.
  15. ^ Schaffer, David (1996) A Participant's Observations: Preparing DSM-IV Can J Psychiatry 1996;41:325–329.
  16. ^ APA Summary of Practice-Relevant Changes to the DSM-IV-TR.
  17. ^ Maser, JD. & Patterson, T. (2002) Spectrum and nosology: implications for DSM-V Psychiatric Clinics of North America, December, 25(4)p855-885
  18. ^ DSM FAQ
  19. ^ DSM-IV Sourcebook Volume 1
  20. ^ DSM-IV Sourcebook Volume 2
  21. ^ DSM-IV Sourcebook Volume 3
  22. ^ DSM-IV Sourcebook Volume 4
  23. ^ a b Poland, JS. (2001) Review of Volume 1 of DSM-IV sourcebook
  24. ^ Poland, JS. (2001) Review of vol 2 of DSM-IV sourcebook
  25. ^ Kendell R, Jablensky A. (2003) Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. Am J Psychiatry. January;160(1):4-12. PMID 12505793
  26. ^ Baca-Garcia E, Perez-Rodriguez MM, Basurte-Villamor I, Fernandez del Moral AL, Jimenez-Arriero MA, Gonzalez de Rivera JL, Saiz-Ruiz J, Oquendo MA. (2007) Diagnostic stability of psychiatric disorders in clinical practice. Br J Psychiatry. March;190:210-6. PMID 17329740
  27. ^ Pincus et al. (1998) "Clinical Significance" and DSM-IV Arch Gen Psychiatry.1998; 55: 1145
  28. ^ L.J. Davis (February 1997). "'The Encyclopedia of Insanity — A Psychiatric Handbook Lists a Madness for Everyone.'". Harpers Magazine. http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~rbell/EncyclopediaOfInsanity.html.gz.  
  29. ^ Paul R. McHugh (2005) Striving for Coherence: Psychiatry’s Efforts Over Classification JAMA. 2005;293(no.20)2526-2528.
  30. ^ Spitzer and First (2005) Classification of Psychiatric Disorders. JAMA.2005; 294: 1898-1899.
  31. ^ Dominic Murphy, PhD; Steven Stich, PhD (1998) Darwin in the Madhouse
  32. ^ Leda Cosmides, PhD; John Tooby, PhD (1999) Toward an Evolutionary Taxonomy of Treatable Conditions "J of Abnormal Psychology." 1999;108(3):453-464. [1]
  33. ^ McNally RJ. (2001) On Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis of mental disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2001 March;39(3):309-14. PMID 11227812
  34. ^ Spitzer, Robert L, M.D., Williams, Janet B.W, D.S.W., First, Michael B, M.D., Gibbon, Miriam, M.S.W., Biometric Research
  35. ^ Maser, JD & Akiskal, HS. et al. (2002) Spectrum concepts in major mental disorders Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 25, Special issue 4
  36. ^ Krueger, RF., Watson, D., Barlow, DH. et al. (2005) Toward a Dimensionally Based Taxonomy of Psychopathology Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 114, Issue 4
  37. ^ Bentall, R. (2006) Madness explained : Why we must reject the Kraepelinian paradigm and replace it with a 'complaint-orientated' approach to understanding mental illness Medical hypotheses, vol. 66(2), pp. 220-233
  38. ^ Chodoff, P. (2005) Psychiatric Diagnosis: A 60-Year Perspective Psychiatric News June 3, 2005 Volume 40 Number 11, p17
  39. ^ Jerome C. Wakefield, PhD, DSW; Mark F. Schmitz, PhD; Michael B. First, MD; Allan V. Horwitz, PhD (2007) Extending the Bereavement Exclusion for Major Depression to Other Losses: Evidence From the National Comorbidity Survey Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:433-440.
  40. ^ Spitzer RL, Wakefield JC. (1999) DSM-IV diagnostic criterion for clinical significance: does it help solve the false positives problem? Am J Psychiatry. 1999 December;156(12):1856-64. PMID 10588397
  41. ^ a b c Widiger TA, Sankis LM (2000). "Adult psychopathology: issues and controversies". Annu Rev Psychol 51: 377–404. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.377. PMID 10751976.  
  42. ^ Shankar Vedantam, Psychiatry's Missing Diagnosis: Patients' Diversity Is Often Discounted Washington Post: Mind and Culture, June 26
  43. ^ Kleinman A (1997). "Triumph or pyrrhic victory? The inclusion of culture in DSM-IV". Harv Rev Psychiatry 4 (6): 343–4. doi:10.3109/10673229709030563. PMID 9385013.  
  44. ^ Bhugra, D. & Munro, A. (1997) Troublesome Disguises: Underdiagnosed Psychiatric Syndromes Blackwell Science Ltd
  45. ^ Healy D (2006) The Latest Mania: Selling Bipolar Disorder PLoS Med 3(4): e185.
  46. ^ Cosgrove, Lisa, Krimsky, Sheldon,Vijayaraghavan, Manisha, Schneider, Lisa, Financial Ties between DSM-IV Panel Members and the Pharmaceutical Industry
  47. ^ Sharfstein, SS. (2005) Big Pharma and American Psychiatry: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Psychiatric News August 19, 2005 Volume 40 Number 16
  48. ^ Alexander, B. (2008) What's ‘normal’ sex? Shrinks seek definition Controversy erupts over creation of psychiatric rule book's new edition MSNBC Today, May.
  49. ^ [2]
  50. ^ American Psychological Association: Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation
  51. ^ Royal College of Psychiatrists: Submission to the Church of England’s Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality.
  52. ^ Kleinplatz, P.J & Moser, C. (2005). Politics versus science: An addendum and response to Drs. Spitzer and Fink. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 17(3/4), 135-139.

External links


Simple English

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a guide to grouping mental disorders. It is published by the American Psychiatric Association. It is used in the United States and around the world by doctors, researchers, health insurance companies, companies which make medicine, and others.

There have been five revisions since it was first published in 1952. Each time, more mental disorders were added, although some have been removed and are no longer seen as mental disorders.

The manual was developed from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, and from a manual written by the US Army. A lot of changes were made to it in 1980. The last time it was greatly changed was the fourth edition ("DSM-IV"), published in 1994, but small changes to text were made in a 2000 version. The fifth edition ("DSM-5") is currently being prepared, and it is planned to be finished in May 2013.[1]

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which are similar to those in the above article.








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