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Arabic Diatessaron, Translated by Abul Faraj Al Tayyeb from Syrian to Arabic, 11th Century

The Diatessaron (c 160 - 175) is the most prominent Gospel harmony created by Tatian, an early Christian apologist and ascetic.[1] The term "diatessaron" is from Middle English ("interval of a fourth") by way of Latin, diatessarōn ("made of four [ingredients]"), and ultimately Greek, διὰ τεσσάρων (dia tessarōn) ("out of four"; i.e., διά, dia, "at intervals of" and tessarōn [genitive of τέσσαρες, tessares], "four"). Tatian combined the four gospelsMatthew, Mark, Luke, and John — into a single narrative.

Tatian's harmony follows the gospels closely in terms of text but puts the text in a new, different sequence. The four gospels are different from each other, and combining them into one story is tantamount to creating a new story different from each original.[2] Like other harmonies, the Diatessaron resolves conflicting statements. For example, it omits the conflicting genealogies in Matthew and Luke. In order to fit all the canonical material in, Tatian created his own narrative sequence, which is different from both the synoptic sequence and John's sequence. Tatian omitted duplicated text, especially among the synoptics. The harmony does not include Jesus' encounter with the adulteress (John 7:53 - 8:11), a passage that some consider not to be original to John.[3] No significant text was added.

Only 56 verses in the canonical Gospels do not have a counterpart in the Diatessaron, mostly the genealogies and the Pericope Adulterae. The final work is about 72% the length of the four gospels put together (McFall, 1994).

In the early Church, the gospels at first circulated independently, with Matthew the most popular.[4] The Diatessaron is notable evidence for the authority already enjoyed by the four gospels by the mid-second century.[5] Twenty years after Tatian's harmony, Irenaeus expressly proclaimed the authoritative character of the four gospels. The Diatessaron became a standard text of the gospels in some Syriac-speaking churches down to the fifth century, when it gave way to the four separate Gospels,[5] in the Peshitta version.[6]

Contents

Tatian's harmony

Tatian was an Assyrian who was a pupil of Justin Martyr in Rome. When Justin quotes the synoptic Gospels, he tends to do so in a harmonised form, and it is generally concluded that he must have possessed a Greek harmony text of Matthew, Luke and Mark; but it is unclear how much Tatian may have borrowed from this previous author in determining his own narrative sequence of Gospel elements. It is equally unclear whether Tatian took the Syriac Gospel texts composited into his Diatessaron from a previous translation, or whether the translation was his own. Where the Diatessaron records Gospel quotations from the Jewish Scriptures, the text appears to agree with that found in the Syriac Peshitta Old Testament rather than that found in the Greek Septuagint - as used by the original Gospel authors. The majority consensus is that the Peshitta Old Testament preceded the Diatessaron, and represents an independent translation from the Hebrew Bible. Resolution of these scholarly questions remained very difficult so long as no complete version of the Diatessaron in Syriac or Greek had been recovered; while the medieval translations that had survived - in Arabic and Latin - both relied on texts that had been heavily corrected to conform better with later canonic versions of the separate Gospel texts.

There has even been disagreement about what language Tatian used for its original composition, whether Syriac or Greek. Modern scholarship tends to favour a Syriac origin; but even so, the exercise must have been repeated in Greek very shortly afterwards—probably by Tatian himself.

Diatessaron in Syriac Christianity

The Diatessaron was used as the standard Gospel text in the liturgy of at least some sections of the Syrian Church for possibly up to two centuries and was quoted or alluded to by Syrian writers. Ephrem the Syrian wrote a commentary on it, the Syriac original of which was rediscovered only in 1957, when a manuscript acquired by Sir Chester Beatty in 1957 (now Chester Beatty Syriac MS 709, Dublin) turned out to contain the text of Ephrem's commentary. The manuscript constituted approximately half of the leaves of a volume of Syriac writings that had been catalogued in 1952 in the library of the Coptic monastery of Deir es-Suriani in Wadi Natrun, Egypt. Subsequently, the Chester Beatty library was able to track down and buy a further 42 leaves, so that now approximately eighty per cent of the Syriac commentary is available (McCarthy 1994). Ephrem did not comment on all passages in the Diatessaron, and nor does he always quote commentated passages in full; but for those phrases that he does quote, the commentary provides for the first time a dependable witness to Tatian's original; and also confirms its content and their sequence. [1].

How the Gospel text that was a standard in Syriac Christianity for possibly as long as two centuries should have utterly disappeared requires explaining. Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus on the Euphrates in upper Syria in 423, suspecting Tatian having been a heretic, sought out and found more than two hundred copies of the Diatessaron, which he "collected and put away, and introduced instead of them the Gospels of the four evangelists". Thus the harmonisation was replaced in the 5th century by the canonical four gospels individually, in the Peshitta version, whose Syriac text nevertheless contains many Diatessaronic readings. Gradually, without extant copies to which to refer, the Diatessaron developed a reputation for having been heretical.

Vernacular harmonies derived from the Diatessaron

No Christian tradition, other than some Syriac ones, has ever adopted a harmonized Gospel text for use in its liturgy. However, in many traditions (given the inherent tendency of Christian liturgical texts to ossification), it was not unusual for subsequent Christian generations to seek to provide paraphrased Gospel versions in language closer to the vernacular of their own day. Frequently such versions have been constructed as Gospel harmonies, sometimes taking the Tatian's Diatessaron as an exemplar; other times proceeding independently. Hence from the Syriac Diatessaron text was derived an 11th Century Arabic harmony (the source for the published versions of the Diatessaron in English); and a 13th Century Persian harmony. The Arabic harmony preserves Tatian's sequence exactly, but uses a source text corrected in most places to that of the standard Syriac Peshitta Gospels; the Persian harmony differs greatly in sequence, but translates a Syriac text that is rather closer to that in Ephrem's commentary. The Diatessaron is thought to have been available to Muhammad, and may have led to the assumption in the Koran that the Christian Gospel is one text.[7]

An Old Latin version of Tatian's Syriac text appears to have circulated in the West from the late second century; with a sequence adjusted to conform more closely to that of the canonical Gospel of Luke, and also including additional material (such as the pericope of the adulteress), possibly from the Gospel of the Hebrews. With the gradual adoption of the Vulgate as the liturgical Gospel text of the Latin Church, the Latin Diatessaron was increasingly modified to conform to Vulgate readings. In 546 Victor of Capua discovered such a mixed manuscript; and, further corrected by Victor so as to provide a very pure Vulgate text within a modified Diatessaron sequence, this harmony, the Codex Fuldensis, survives in the monastic library at Fulda, where it served as the source text for vernacular harmonies in Old High German, Eastern Frankish and Old Saxon (the alliterative poem 'Heliand'). The older mixed Vulgate/Diatessaron text type also appears to have continued as a distinct tradition, as such texts appear to underlie surviving 13th-14th century Gospel harmonies in Middle Dutch, Middle High German, Middle French, Middle English, Tuscan and Venetian; although no example of this hypothetical Latin sub-text has ever been identified. This Latin Diatessaron textual tradition has also been suggested as underlying the enigmatic 16th century pro-Muslim Gospel of Barnabas (Joosten, 2002).

Tradition of Gospel harmonies

The name 'Diatessaron' is Greek for 'through four'; the Syriac name for this gospel harmony is 'ܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ ܕܡܚܠܛܐ' (Ewangeliyôn Damhalltê) meaning 'Gospel of the Mixed' while in the other hand we have 'ܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ ܕܡܦܪܫܐ' (Evangelion de Mepharreshe) meaing 'Gospel of the separated'. Indeed, the Syrian Church also rejected John's Book of Revelation and the Pastoral Epistles. They were included again only in the middle of the sixth century.

In the tradition of Gospel harmonies, there is another Diatessaron, reportedly written by one Ammonius the Alexandrian, to correct perceived deficiencies in Tatian's. (Note that this Ammonius may or may not be the Ammonius Saccas who taught Origen and Plotinus). None of this revised Diatessaron survives, except as it may have influenced the medieval Arabic and Latin texts that were formerly the only existing reflections of Tatian's work.

Gospel harmonies are valuable in studies of biblical texts, since they frequently offer glimpses of earlier versions of texts. In particular, due to their not having been copied as frequently as biblical texts, more of the earlier versions survive (as newer copies did not exist to replace them). As such, the extant texts contain within them portions of earlier versions of the gospels than the earliest separate gospels known.

In addition, because the Old Testament quotations in the Diatessaron are separately translated from the Hebrew - and hence independent of the Septuagint - these quotations form an important early witness to the vocalisation of the Hebrew Bible.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Tatian
  2. ^ Ehrman, Bart D.. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 978-0-06-073817-4
  3. ^ "certainly not part of the original text," according to Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Pericope adulterae.
  4. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  5. ^ a b Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Diatessaron
  6. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Peshitta
  7. ^ On pre-Islamic Christian strophic poetical tests in the Koran, Ibn Rawandi, ISBN 1-57392-945-X

References

  • Carmel McCarthy, 1994. Saint Ephrem's Commentary on Tatian's Diatessaron: An English Translation of Chester Beatty Syriac MS 709 with Introduction and Notes (Oxford University Press) ISBN 13: 9780199221639 The first English translation.
  • William L. Petersen, "Textual evidence of Tatian's dependence upon Justin's Apomnemonegmata, New Testament Studies 36 (1990) 512-534.
  • Jeffrey Tigay, editor. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986
  • Leslie McFall, 1994. "Tatian's Diatessaron: Mischievous or Misleading?" Westminster Theological Journal 56 (1994): 87-114.
  • Jan Joosten, 2002. "The Gospel of Barnabas and the Dietessaron" Harvard Theological Review 95.1 (2002): pp 73-96.
  • Jan Joosten, 2001. "Tatian's Diatessaron and the Old Testament Peshitta" Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 120, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 501-523

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

The Earliest Life of Christ Ever Compiled from the Four Gospels
by Tatian, translated by J. Hamlyn Hill

INTRODUCTORY NOTE IN THE BORGIAN MS

In the name of the one God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, to whom be glory for ever. With the assistance of the Most High God, we begin to transcribe the Holy Gospel and most beautiful garden, entitled Diatessaron, the interpretation of which expression is, That which is composed of four, and which Tatian, a Greek, compiled out of the four evangelists, Matthew the chosen, whose sign is M ; Mark the selected, whose sign is E ; Luke the lovable, whose sign is K ; and John the beloved, whose sign is H.

The excellent and learned presbyter Abu-Faraj Abdullah Ibn-at-Tabib, with whom God be pleased, translated it from the Syriac into the Arabic tongue. And he said as a beginning, The Gospel of Jesus the Son of the living God.

Ciasca observes that this name is given differently in the notice at the conclusion, and says the latter is the more correct form.

ENGLISH VERSION OF THE ARABIC DIATESSARON.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God,[1] and the Word itself is God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him not even one existing thing hath been made. In him was life; and the life is the light of men. And the light shineth in the darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.

There was in the days of Herod the king a certain priest named Zacharias, of the family of Abijah : and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of God blameless. And they had no child, because that Elizabeth was barren, and they both were advanced in age.

Now while he executed the priest's office Lit. "comprehended." : * " " l ' *>* (

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before God in the order of his ministration, according to the custom of the priest's office, g his lot was to burn incense, and he entered into the temple of the Lord. And the whole i o multitude of the people were praying with out at the hour of incense. And there appeared unto Zacharias an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. When Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him. But the angel saith unto him, Fear not, Zacharias, because thy supplication is heard, and thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John. And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and he shall drink no wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit while he is yet in his mother's womb. And many of the children of Israel shall he turn unto the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah the prophet, to turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the knowledge of the just; to make ready for the Lord a perfect people. But Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife advanced in age. . The angel answered and said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and I was sent to speak unto thee, and to announce this unto thee as good tidings. From henceforth thou shalt be silent and not able to speak, until the day wherein this shall come to pass, because thou belie vedst not this my word, which shall be fulfilled in its season. But the people were standing waiting for Zacharias, and they marvelled. because he

. tarried in the sanctuary. And when Zacharias came out, he could not speak unto them : and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the sanctuary : and he was making signs unto them, and remained dumb. And when the days of his ministration were fulfilled, he departed unto his house. And after these days Elizabeth his wife conceived; and she hid herself five months, and said, This hath the Lord done unto me in the days wherein he looked upon me, to take away my reproach among men. Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God into Galilee, unto a city named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. And the angel came in unto her, and said unto her, Hail, thou that art full of favour, our Lord is with thee, thou blessed among women. And when she beheld him, she was troubled at his saying, and was con sidering what this salutation might be. And the angel saith unto her, Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found favour with God. Thou shalt now conceive, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High : and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David : and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. Mary said unto the angel, How shall this be done unto me since no man hath known me? The angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Spirit shall come, and the power of the Most High shall descend upon thee : wherefore also that The Borgian MS. omits " into Galilee." The Vatican MS. above ver. inserts, " The nd chapter " (or division) " from the Gospel of Luke."

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which shall be born of thee, shall be holy, and shall be called the Son of God. And behold, Elizabeth thy kinswoman, she also hath conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her that is called barren. For nothing shall be difficult > to God. Mary said, Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord; be it done unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her. Then Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, unto a city of Judah; and entered into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elizabeth. And when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe rejoiced in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit; and she cried out with a loud voice, and said unto Mary, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit that is in thy womb. Whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord cometh unto me? When the voice of thy salutation came to mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb in great joy. And blessed is she that believed; for that shall be performed, which was spoken from the Lord. And Mary saith : My soul doth magnify the Lord, And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour, Who hath looked upon the low estate of his handmaiden : Behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; And holy is his name; And his mercy from a generation to generations Embraceth them that fear him.


. He hath wrought victory by his arm,

And he hath scattered the proud in their opinions. He hath put down the haughty from the thrones, And hath exalted the humble. The hungry he hath filled with good things; And the rich he hath left without anything. He hath holpen Israel his servant, And remembered his mercy (As he spake unto our fathers) Unto Abraham and unto his seed for ever. And Mary abode with Elizabeth about three months, and returned unto her house. Now Elizabeth's time of bringing forth was come; and she brought forth a son. And her neighbours and kinsfolk heard that God had multiplied his mercy towards her; and they rejoiced with her. And on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias, after the name of his father. And his mother answered and said unto them, Not so; but he shall be called John. And they said unto her, There is no one among thy kindred that is called by this name. And they made signs to his father, How do you wish to call him? And he asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they all marvelled. And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spake, and praised God. And fear fell on all their neighbours : and this was noised abroad over all the hill country of Judaea. And all that heard it, thought in their heart saying, What shall this child be? For the hand of the Lord was with him. And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, and said, Blessed he the Lord, the God of Israel, Who hath regarded his people, and wrought salvation for them, And hath raised up a horn of salvation for us In the house of his servant David, As he spake from eternity by the mouth of his holy prophets, That he would save us from our enemies, And from the hand of all that hate us. And he showed mercy towards our fathers, And remembered his holy covenant, And the oath which he sware unto Abraham our father, That he would grant unto us salvation from the hand of our enemies That we may serve before him without fear In justice and righteousness all our days. And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Most High; Thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to make ready his way, To give knowledge of life unto his people yy Unto the remission of their sins Through the tender mercy of our God, Whereby he visits us, rising from on high To shine upon them that sit in darkness, and under the shadow of death, And to establish our feet in the way of peace. And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was waiting in the desert till the day of his showing unto the children of Israel. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on I this wise : When his mother had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together Or, "shall visit."

, J she was found with child of the Holy Spirit. And Joseph her husband was a righteous man, and unwilling to make her a public example, and thought to put her away privily. But while he was thinking of this, an angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife : for that which is begotten in her is of the Holy Spirit. She shall bring forth a son; and thou shalt call his name JESUS; for he shall save his people from their sins. Now all this is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bring forth a son, And they shall call his name Emmanuel; which is, being interpreted, Our God is with us. And when Joseph arose from his sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took unto him his wife; and knew her not till she brought forth her a firstborn son. Now in those days there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the people of his dominion should be enrolled. This was the first enrolment made in the governorship of Quirinius in Syria. And all were going into their own city to be enrolled. And Joseph also went up from Nazareth, a city of Galilee, into Judaea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David, with Mary his betrothed, who was great with child, that he might be enrolled there. And while they were there, the days were fulfilled that she should bring forth. And she brought forth her firstborn son; and she wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger, because there was no room for them, where they were staying. And there were shepherds staying in that country, who were guarding their flock in the watch of the night. And behold, an angel of God came near unto them; and the glory of the Lord shone round about them; and they were afraid with a great fear. And the angel said unto them, Be not afraid; for I bring you as good tidings a great joy that shall be to the whole world : there is born to you this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is the Lord the Messiah. And this is the sign unto you : Ye shall find a babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, and laid in a manger. And suddenly there appeared with the angels an abundant heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, And on earth peace, and good hope to men. And when the angels went away from them into heaven, the shepherds spake one to another, saying, Let us go to Bethlehem, and see this saying that is come to pass, even as the Lord hath showed us. And they came with haste and found Mary and Joseph, and the babe laid in the manger. And when they had seen it, they related the saying which had been spoken to them about the child. And all that heard it wondered at the description, which the shepherds had described to them. But Mary was keeping all these sayings, and comparing them in her heart. And those shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had seen and heard, even as it was described unto them. And after eight days were fulfilled, that the child should be circumcised, his namewas called JESUS; and this is what he was called by the angel, before he was conceived in the womb. And when the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him to Jerusalem to present him before the Lord, as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord, and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtle doves, or two young pigeons. And there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous, devout, and looking for the consolation of Israel : and the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it had been said unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he was not going to see death, until he set his eyes upon the Lord's Christ. And he came in the Spirit into the temple : and when his parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might offer a sacrifice for him, as it is written in the law, he took him up into his arms, and praised God, and said, Now wilt thou loose the bonds of thy servant, Lord, According to thy word, in peace. For already mine eyes have witnessed thy mercy, Which thou hast prepared on account of the whole world, A light for the unveiling of the Gentiles, And a glory for thy people Israel. And Joseph and his mother were marvelling at these things which were spoken con cerning him; and Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold he is set for the falling and for the rising again of many

IO .

in Israel; and for a sign of contradiction; and a sword shall pierce through thine own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed. And Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, she also was advanced in age, and had lived with her husband for seven years from her virginity; and she remained a widow about > fourscore and four years, and departed not from the temple worshipping with fastings and supplications night and day. And she also stood up at that hour, and gave thanks unto the Lord, and spake of him to all that were looking for the deliverance of Jerusalem. And when they had accomplished all things according to what is in the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth. After these things wise men from the i b east came to Jerusalem, saying, Where is the king of the Jews, who has been born? We have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. And when Herod the king heard it, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. And gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them, where the Messiah should be born. And they said, In Bethlehem of Judah : thus it is written in the prophet, And thou, Bethlehem of Judah, Art in no wise least among the kings of Judah; For out of thee shall come forth a king, And he shall rule my people Israel. Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, inquired of them the time Arabic, "al majfis." By removing the opening words of S. Matthew, " Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea, in the days of Herod the king," and substituting more vaguely, "After these things," Tatian avoids the difficulty felt by harmonists in assigning a place to Luke ii. .


. ii at which the star appeared unto them. And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said unto them, Go, and inquire carefully concerning the child; and when ye have found him, come and bring me word, that I also may come and worship him. And when g they had heard the king they went their way; and lo, the star, which they had seen in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over the place, where the child was. And when they saw the star, they io rejoiced with exceeding great joy. And they came into the house, and saw the child with Mary his mother; and they fell down and worshipped him; and opening their cases, they offered unto him offerings, gold, myrrh, and frankincense. And they saw in sleep that they should not return to Herod; and they departed by another way to go into their own country. And when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, and said unto him, Arise, and take the child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I tell thee : for Herod sets about to seek the child to destroy him. And Joseph arose, and took the child and his mother by night, and fled into Egypt, and remained there until the death of Herod : that it might be fulfilled, which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt did I call my son. Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the male children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the borders thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had carefully inquired of the wise men. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet, saying, A voice was heard in Eamah, Weeping and great mourning : Eachel weepeth for her children, And is unwilling to be consoled for the loss of them. But when king Herod was dead, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, and said unto him, Arise and take the child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel : for they are dead that sought the child's life. Joseph arose, and took the child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. But when he heard that Archelaus was become king in Judaea instead of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither; but he saw in a dream that he should go into the land of Galilee, and that he should dwell in a city that is called Nazareth : that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, He shall be called a Nazarene. And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom : and the grace of God was upon him. And his parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the passover. And when he was twelve years old, they went up after their custom to the feast; and when the days were fulfilled, they returned; but the boy Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew it not, supposing him to be with the children of their company. And when they had made a day's journey, they sought for him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance: and when they found him not, they returned to Jeru salem, seeking for him again. And after Arabic, "kinsfolk."

three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing them, and asking them questions : and all that heard him were amazed at his wisdom and sayings. And when they saw him, they were astonished : and his mother said unto him, My son, why hast thou thus dealt with us? Behold, I and thy father were seeking thee with great anxiety. And he saith unto them, How is it that ye sought me? did ye not know that I must be in my Father's house? And they understood not the say ing, which he spake unto them. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth; and he was subject unto them : and his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. And Jesus advanced in stature and wisdom, and in favour with God and men. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of I Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, under the high priests Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God went forth unto John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. And he came into all the region round about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance with remission of sins; and he i b preached in the wilderness of Judaea, and said, Eepent ye, the kingdom of the heavens is at hand. This is he that was spoken of a through Isaiah the prophet, The voice which crieth in the wilderness, Make ye ready the way of the Lord, * And establish in the plain a way for our God. All the valleys shall be filled; Omitting Mark i. ; cf. xiii. .

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And every mountain and hill shall be brought low; And the crooked shall become straight; And the difficult place easy; And all flesh shall see the salvation of God. The same came for a witness, that he might bear witness of the light, that all might believe through him. He was not the light, but came that he might bear witness of the light, which is the true light, lighting every man, coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he the power to become children of God, even to them that believe on his name : which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us (and we saw his glory, as it were the glory of the only one from the Father), full of grace and truth. John bare witness of him, and preached, saying, This is he of whom I said, He that is about to come after me is preferred before me : for he was before me. And of his fulness we all received, grace for grace. For the law was given through Moses; truth and grace came through Jesus Christ. No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten, God, who is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. And this is the witness of John, when the Jews sent unto him from Jerusalem priests and Levites to ask him, Who art thou? And he confessed, and denied not; and he acknowledged that he was not the Messiah. And again they asked him, What then? Art Or, "life."

thou Elijah? And he said, I am not. Art thou a prophet? He answered, No. They said unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? He saith, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Set in order the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet. And they that had been sent were of the Pharisees. And they asked him, and said unto him, Why then baptizest thou, since thou art not the Messiah, nor Elijah, nor a prophet? John answered and said unto them, I baptize in water : in the midst of you standeth one whom ye know not. This is he, of whom I said, that he cometh after me, and he was before me, of whom I am not worthy to unloose the latchet of his shoes. These things were done in Bethany beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing. Moreover John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle; and his food was locusts and wild honey. Then went out unto him the people of Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan; and they were baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to be baptized, he said unto them, Ye offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance : and do not think, and say within yourselves, We have Abraham as our father; for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. Behold, IO the axe is laid unto the root of the tree : Arabic, " almu *tazila." Or, " with." Omitting " about his loins." Arabic, " azzanadika,"

  • Lit, " guided."
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every tree therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be taken away, and cast into the fire. And the multitudes asked him, io saying, What shall we do? He answered, n and said unto them, He that hath two coats, let him give to him that hath none; and he that hath food, let him do likewise. And there came also publicans to be baptized, and they said unto him, Master, what shall we do? He saith unto them, Ask nothing more than that which you are commanded to ask. And soldiers asked him, saying, What shall we also do? He saith unto them, Do violence to no man, neither act unjustly towards him; and be content with your wages. And as the people were considering, and all men were reasoning in their hearts concerning John, whether haply he were the Christ; John answered, and said unto them, I baptize you with water; there will come after me he that is mightier than I, of whom I am not worthy to unloose the latchets of his shoes : he shall baptize you in the Holy Spirit and in fire: who, grasp- ing a fan in his hand to cleanse his threshing floor, will gather the wheat into his garners; but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire. And other things he taught, and preached good tidings unto the people. Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to the Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him. And Jesus was about thirty years of age, * and was supposed to be the son of Joseph. Now John saw Jesus coming unto him, and saith, This is the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. This is he of whom I said, After me shall come a man, which is preferred before me, for he is

before me. And I knew him not; but that     

he may be made manifest to Israel, for this cause am I come baptizing in water. Now John was forbidding him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me? Jesus answered him, and said, Suffer it now : thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffered him. And when all the people were baptized, a Jesus also was baptized; and he went up b straightway from the water : and the heaven was opened unto him. And the Holy Spirit a descended upon him in the form of a dove's body: and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. And John bare witness, saying, Furthermore I saw the Spirit descending as a dove out of heaven; and it abode upon him. And I knew him not; but he that sent me to baptize in water, he said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt see the Spirit descending and abiding, this is he that baptizeth in the Holy Spirit. And I have seen, and have borne witness, that this is the Son of God. And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, re- i a turned from the Jordan, and straightway the Spirit drove him forth into the wilderness, that he might be tempted of Satan; I b and he was with the wild beasts; and he a fasted forty days and forty nights; and b tasted nothing in those days : and he after- b ward hungered. And the tempter came, and said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. He answered and said, It is written, Man Or, "with." a Omitting "and praying." * Or, " with."

  • Or, "with." Or, "led."

c Both Ephraem and the Curetonian Syriac omit "and forty nights," which therefore may not have been originally in the Diatessaron.

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liveth not by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Then Satan brought him into the holy city, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down; for it is written, He giveth his angels charge concerning thee; And in their arms they shall receive thee up, Lest haply thou dash thy foot against a stone. Jesus saith unto him, Again it is written, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. And the devil took him up into a high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them in a moment of time. And the devil saith unto him, To thee will I give all this authority, and the glory of it, which have been delivered unto me, that I may give them to whomsoever I will. If therefore thou wilt worship before me, all shall be thine. Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee hence, Satan : for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. And when the devil had completed all his temptations, he departed from him until the season; and behold, i b angels came and ministered unto him. On the next day John was standing, and two of his disciples; and he looked upon Jesus, as he walked, and said, Behold the Lamb of God ! And his two disciples heard > him speaking; and they followed Jesus. And Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Master, where dwellest thou? Omitting Luke iv. , " to keep thee," Or Matt. iv. .

He said unto them, Come, and see. And    

they came, and saw the place of his abode; and they remained with him that day : and it was about the tenth hour. One of the two, that had heard from John, and had followed Jesus, was Andrew, Simon's brother. He first saw his own brother Simon, and said unto him, We have found the Messiah. And he brought him unto Jesus. And Jesus looked upon him, and said, Thou art Simon, the son of Jonah : thou shalt be called The rock. On the morrow Jesus wished to go forth into Galilee; and he found Philip, and said unto him, Follow me. Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Simon. And Philip found Nathanael, and said unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, to be Jesus, the son of Joseph, from Nazareth. Nathanael said unto him, Can any good thing be found from Nazareth? Philip said unto him, Come, and see. And Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and said of him, This is indeed a son of Israel, in whom is no guile ! Nathanael said unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus said unto him, Before Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee. Nathanael answered, and saith unto him, Master, thou art the Son of God; thou art king of Israel. Jesus said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig-tree, thou believedst : thou shalt see what is greater than this. And he said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Henceforth ye shall see the heavens opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. The clause interpreting " Messiah " is absent. Lit. " flesh." After commenting on the call of Nathanael Ephraem has


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s 
 
And Jesus returned in the power of the  

Spirit into Galilee. And the third day there was a feast in Cana, a city of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there : and Jesus also was bidden, and his disciples, to the feast. And when the wine failed, his mother said unto Jesus, They have no wine. And Jesus said unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? hath not my hour come? But his mother said unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. There were six waterpots of stone set there for the purification of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece. And Jesus said unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. He said unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the ruler of the feast. And they did so. And when the ruler of the feast tasted the water, which was become wine, and knew not whence it was (but the servants knew, because they had drawn the water), the ruler of the feast called the bridegroom, and said unto him, Every man setteth on first the good wine; and when men have drunk freely, he brings that which is worse : but thou hast kept the good wine until now. This was the first sign, namely, that which Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and manifested his glory; and his disciples believed on him. And his fame

IO

II

'

a heading, "Ordo et solemnitas Apostolorum Domini" followed by remarks upon the class of men chosen for the twelve disciples. Dr. Wace thought this an introduction to the calling of disciples; see later, ver. et seq. But is it not rather retrospective, dealing with the call of the first four just related? This heading is only found in one of the two Armenian versions, and there it is in red ink, as if it were a quotation from the Diatessaron, which may originally have been divided into sections suitable for instruction. Cf. p. . Arabic, ** Qatna." The Codex Fuldensis puts this " beginning of miracles" after the miraculous draught of fishes, Luke v. - ! Lit. " at the time of drunkenness." Cf. vii. .


. was published in all the neighbouring region. And he taught in their synagogues, and was glorified by all men. And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up : and he entered, according to his custom, into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up to read. And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Isaiah. And Jesus opened the book, and found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, Because he anointed me to preach good tidings unto the poor; And sent me to heal the bruised in heart; To * proclaim forgiveness to the wicked and sight to the blind; To bring the broken into forgiveness, And to proclaim the year acceptable to the Lord. And he closed the book and gave it back to the attendant; and went away, and sat down : and the eyes of all, that were standing in the synagogue, were turning upon him. And he began to say unto them, To-day hath this scripture been fulfilled, which ye have heard with your ears. And all bare a him witness, and wondered at the words of grace, which proceeded out of his mouth. From that time began Jesus to preach the ij* gospel of the kingdom of God, and to say, Repent ye, and believe in the gospel. The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of the heavens is at hand. The Vulgate and Ciasca's Latin commence Luke iv. here. Mr. Rendel Harris thinks the Arabic translator misread the Syriac word for "captives." For the continuation of this part of S. Luke see xvii. , and note thereon. The internal order of this verse is altered. Or, " has arrived."

.  And walking by the sea of Galilee, he saw     

two brethren, Simon, who is called Cephas, and Andrew his brother, casting their nets into the sea; for they were fishers. And Jesus saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. And they immediately left the nets there, and followed him. And going on from thence he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and Jesus called them. And they straightway left the boat and their father Zebedee, and followed him. And when the multitudes were come to- gether unto him, to hear the word of God, and he was standing by the. lake of Gen nesaret, he saw two boats standing by the lake : but the fishermen, who had come up therefrom, were washing their nets. And one of them was Simon Cephas's; and into it Jesus went up, and sat down in it, and commanded them to put out a little from the land into the water. And sitting down he taught the multitudes out of the boat. And when he ceased to speak, he said unto Simon, Put out into the deep, and let out your nets for a draught. Simon answered, and said unto him, Master, we toiled all night, and took nothing: but at thy word I will let out the nets. And when they had done this, they inclosed an abundant multitude of fishes; for their net was nigh to be broken; and they beckoned unto their partners that were in the other boat, that they should come and help them. And when they were come, they filled both the boats, so that they were almost sunk. But, when Simon Cephas saw it, he fell down at Or "cast."

. Jesus' feet, and said unto him, Lord, I beseech of thee, that thou depart from me, for I am a sinful man. For amazement x had taken possession of him, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes, which they had taken; so also it had seized James and John, the sons of Zebedee, which were Simon's partners. And Jesus saith unto Simon, Fear not; from henceforth thou shalt be catching men unto life. And when they had brought their boats to land, they left all, and followed him. After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judah; and there he went about with them, and baptized. John also was baptizing in Aennon near to Salim, because there was much water there : and they were coming, and were being baptized. For John had not yet come into prison. Now there arose a questioning between a disciple of John and a Jew about purification. And they came unto John, and said unto him, Master, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, he also baptizeth, and many come to him. John answered and said unto them, A man can receive nothing of himself, except it have been given him from heaven. Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Messiah, but one sent before him. He that hath the bride is the bridegroom : and the friend of the bridegroom is he, which standeth and heareth him attentively, and rejoiceth with great joy at the bridegroom's Tatian seems right in putting this incident before Luke iv. , , as S. Peter would scarcely have felt such "amazement," if he had previously witnessed the miraculous cure of his own mother-in-law. S. Matthew put the latter after the Sermon on the Mount, which position Tatian considered too late. Lit. " an apostle." .

voice : behold, now my joy is already fulfilled. He must increase, but I must decrease. He that cometh from above is above all : he that is from the earth is from the earth, and from the earth he speaketh : he that hath come down from heaven is above all. And what he hath seen and heard, of this he beareth witness; and no man receiveth his witness. He that hath received his witness, hath set his seal to this, that he is truly God, For he whom God hath sent, speaketh the word of God : God giveth not the Spirit by measure. The Father loveth the Son, and hath put all things in his hands. He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life; but he that is disobedient to the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him. And Jesus knew that the Pharisees had I heard, that he had admitted, and that he baptized more disciples than John (not that Jesus himself was baptizing, but his dis ciples); and he left Judaea. s Now Herod the governor, when he was reproved by John concerning Herodias his brother Philip's wife, and concerning all the evil things which he was doing, added this also above all, that he shut up John in prison. Now when Jesus heard that John had been delivered up, he withdrew into Galilee; and he entered again into Cana, where he made the water wine. And there was at Capernaum a certain officer of the king, whose son was sick. When he heard, that See note to xxi. . These passages are displaced from their original order, so as to represent Jesus as calling His disciples before the imprisonment of S. John the Baptist. This narrative is inserted earlier than S. John's setting of it would imply because Tatian places it during the visit to Galilee mentioned in Matt. iv. .


THE DIATESSAROtf. Jesus was come out of Judaea into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought him, that he would come down, and heal his son; for he was very near to death. Jesus said unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye do not believe. The officer of the king said unto him, Sir, come down, lest my child die. Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy son liveth. The man believed the saying, that Jesus spake unto him, and he went his way. And when he went down, his servants met him, and announced to him, saying, Thy son liveth. And he inquired of them in what hour he got better. They said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him. And his father knew, that this had happened at that hour, in which Jesus said unto him, Thy son liveth : and himself believed, and the whole family of his house. And this is the second sign, that Jesus did, when he returned out of Judaea into Galilee. And he was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee : and leaving Nazareth he came and dwelt in Capernaum, in the seaside parts, in the borders of Zebuiun and Naphtali: that it might be fulfilled, which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying, The land of Zebuiun, the land of Naphtali, The way of the sea beyond Jordan Galilee of the peoples, The people which sat in darkness Saw a great light; And to them which sat in the region and in the shadow of death, To them did light spring up. And he was teaching them on the sabbaths: i b and they were astonished at his teaching, for his speech was as if it had authority. And in the synagogue there was a man, ^> Or, " gave him the good news."

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which had an unclean devil;' and he cried out with a loud voice, saying, Let me alone, what have I to do with thee, Jesus of Nazareth? thou art come to destroy us. I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God. And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Shut up thy mouth, and go out of him. And the devil threw him down into the midst, and went out of him, when he had done him no hurt. And great wonder took hold of all, and they spake one with another, saying, What is this word, which in authority and power commandeth the unclean spirits, and they go out. And a rumour concerning him was published into all the neighbouring region. And Jesus going out of the synagogue, s saw a man sitting among the publicans, b Matthew by name; and he saith unto him, Come after me. And he arose, and followed him. And Jesus came into the house of Simon b and Andrew, with James and John. And ° Simon's wife's mother was weakened with a great fever; and they besought him for her. And he stood over her, and commanded her fever; and it left her; and immediately she rose up, and ministered unto them. And i a when even was come, they brought unto him many possessed with devils : and he cast out their devils with a word. And all that had b any sick with grievous and divers diseases, brought them unto him; and laying his hand on each, he healed them; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken, through Isaiah the prophet, saying, Himself shall take our infirmities, and bear our diseases. And all the city was gathered together unto the door Lit. "demon," and so in all cases after this except xx. , xxxv. , and xliii. . Cf. note to vii. . See note to vi. . Lit. " weakened."

. of Jesus; and again he cast out devils from many, because they cried out, and said, Thou art the Son of God. And he rebuked them, and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew that he was Christ the Lord. And very early in the morning of that day, he went out, and departed into a desert place, and was there praying. And Simon and they that were with him sought him; and when they had found him, they said unto $ him, All are seeking thee. He saith unto them, Let us go into the next villages and cities, that I may preach there also; for to this end am I come. And the multitudes b sought after him, and came until they overtook him; and they laid hold of him, that he should not depart from them. And Jesus said unto them, I must preach as a gospel the kingdom of God to the other cities also, because for the sake of this gospel was I sent. And Jesus was going about all the cities and the villages, and taught in their synagogues, and preached the gospel of the kingdom, and healed all diseases and all infirmities, and cast out devils; and his fame | ^ \ fjfil was published abroad, for he taught in every place, and was magnified by all. And as he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Repeated almost identically at xii. . Tatian may have meant this for Matt. iv. , varied; see ver. . This is fuller than Luke iv. , for which see vi. . Repeated from v. ; cf. Mark i. and Luke iv. . Or, " that." Cf. vi. and vii. . Tatian seems to have considered that Levi and Matthew were different persons. For a resume of the reasons for and against this view see Alford's Greek Testament under Matt. ix. . Alford thought the preponderance of testimony was in favour of the distinctness of the persons.

It is interesting to find him quoting Clement of Alexandria, who is supposed to have been a pupil of Tatian, as a supporter of the view here taken by Tatian. Ver. , are not in the Codex Fuldensis. Ephraem, Moes. p. , commenting on the disciples baptizing, says, " He chose James the publican," etc., from which some have inferred that his copy had "James the son of Alphaeus" here, as D a b c and Origen.

THE £>IAT£SSARON.

Alphaeus, sitting at the place of toll, and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him. And the report of him was heard in the whole region of Syria : and they brought unto him all that were sick with the more serious and divers diseases, and that were enduring torments, and demoniacs and lunatics and paralytics; and he healed them. And Jesus entered again into Capernaum after some days, and when it was heard, that he was in the house, many came together, so that it would not hold them, not even at the door; and he announced the word of God unto them. And there were there ij h certain of the Pharisees and doctors of the law sitting, which were come out of every village of Galilee and Judaea and Jerusalem : and the power of the Lord was present unto healing them. And there came some with a couch, whereon there was a man that was paralytic : and they sought to bring him in, and to lay him before him. And not finding a way by which they might bring him in because of the multitude, they went up to the roof, and let him down through the tiles with the couch into the midst before Jesus. And when Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the paralytic, My son, thy sins are forgiven thee. And the scribes and the Pharisees began to reason in their heart, Why doth this man speak blasphemies? who can for give sins but God alone? And Jesus per- ceived in his spirit that they reasoned these things within themselves, and said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your heart? Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, Thy Lit. "found." Tatian omits Mark ii. , "which was borne oifour." See also Mark ii. .

S. Matthew puts this miracle after the Sermon on the Mount

. sins are forgiven thee; or to say nnto him, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk? That ye may know, that the Son of man hath authority on earth to forgive sins (he saith to the paralytic), I say unto thee, Arise, take up thy bed, and depart unto thy house. And he arose straightway, and took his bed, a and went forth in the sight of all, and de- b parted to his house, magnifying God. And a when the multitudes saw it, they were afraid; for amazement took hold on them, and they \ -^ gb glorified God, which gave such authority unto man, saying, Truly we have already b seen wonderful things to-day, the like whereof b we never saw. And after these things Jesus went forth and saw a publican, named Levi, sitting among the publicans, and saith unto him, Follow me. And he forsook all, and rose up, and followed him. And Levi made him a great feast in his house; and there was a great multitude of publicans and of others, that were reclining at meat with him. And the scribes and Pharisees murmured, saying unto his disciples, Why do ye eat and drink with the publicans and sinners? Jesus answered, and said unto them, A physician doth not seek the whole, but those that are afflicted with evils. I am not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentance. But ^^ they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast continually, and make supplications; likewise also the Pharisees; but thy disciples eat and drink? He said unto See note to ver. . Tatian follows S. Luke in putting this before the Sermon on the Mount. Omitting Mark ii.  : "And the disciples of John, and of the Pharisees used to fast; and they come." S. Matthew attributes the question, which follows, to the disciples of John only. Tatian, following S. Luke, attributes it to the scribes and Pharisees.

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them, It is not given to you to make the sons of the bridegroom fast, while the bride groom is with them. The days will come, when the bridegroom shall have been taken away from them, then will they fast in those days. And he spake a parable unto them : * No man putteth on a new patch, and seweth it on an old garment; lest the new addition take from the old, and a great rent be made. And no man putteth new wine into old wine-skins; lest the wine burst the skins, and the skins perish, and the wine be poured out : but new wine must be put into new wine-skins, and both are preserved. b And no man drinking old wine straightway asketh for new; for he saith, The old is better. When Jesus was walking through the cornfields on the sabbath day, his disciples were hungry; and rubbing the ears of corn with their hands they were eating. But a some of the Pharisees, when they saw them, said unto him, See, why do thy disciples on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? And Jesus saith unto them, Have ye not heretofore read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry, he, and they that were with him? How he entered into the house of God, when Abiathar was high priest, and did eat the bread of the Lord's table, which it was not lawful to eat save for the priests, and gave also to them that were with him? And he said unto them, The sabbath was created for man, and man was Omitting Mark ii.  : "As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast." Slight change of order. Tatian follows S. Luke in putting this before the Sermon on the Mount, of which he appears to have considered Luke vi. - as a part. Or, " what thy disciples do." " What of old David did " does not agree so well with the Arabic

not created for the sabbath. Or have ye    

not read in the law, how that the priests in the temple break the sabbath, and are guilt less? But I say unto you, that a greater than the temple is here. If ye knew that I love mercy not sacrifice, surely ye would not have condemned the innocent. The Son of man is lord of the sabbath. And his kindred heard it, and they went out to lay hold on him : for they said, Truly he is beside himself. And on another sabbath he entered into the synagogue and taught : and there was a man there, whose right hand was withered. And the scribes and the Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal on the sabbath; that they might find a way to blame him. He knew their thoughts; and he saith to the man, whose hand was withered, Eise up, and come into the midst of the synagogue. And when he had come and stood forth, Jesus saith unto them, I ask you, What is lawful to do on the sabbath day, good or evil? to save lives, or to destroy them? But they b held their peace. Looking round about them with anger, and being grieved at the hardness of their heart, he said unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth: and his hand was made like the other. Then he said unto them, What man shall there be of you that shall have one A similar statement in Matt. ix. is omitted at vii. . It is strange how Tatian removes this verse from the further account, Mark iii. , etc., and attributes it to Christ's claim to be lord of the sabbath.

It is thus dissociated from the two statements of S. Mark, by which it might be explained, viz. : His neglecting to take food (Mark iii. ); and the report that he had an unclean spirit (Mark iii. and ), for which see xiv. and; also cf. xvi. . The first leaf missing from the Vatican MS. seems to have extended from this verse to viii. inclusive, this passage being obtained from the Borgian MS. onlv.

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sheep, and if it fall into a well on the sabbath day, he will not lay hold on it, and lift it out? But how much rather is a man i better than a sheep ! Therefore it is lawful to do good on the sabbath days. But the Pharisees went out, and took counsel against him, that they might destroy him. But Jesus perceiving it withdrew from thence : and great multitudes followed him; and he healed them all, and restrained them, that they should not make him known : that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying, Behold, my child in whom I am well pleased, My beloved in whom my soul hath rested : I have put my Spirit upon him; And he shall declare judgment to the nations. He shall not strive, nor cry aloud; Neither shall any one hear his voice in the streets. A bruised reed shall he not break; And a smoking lamp shall he not put out, Till he bring forth judgment unto victory. And in his own name shall he preach good tidings unto the nations. In those days Jesus went out into the mountain to pray; and he was there in the morning engaged in prayer to God. And * when it had become day, he called the disciples, and withdrew to the sea : and J h much people from Galilee followed him to pray; and from Judaea, and from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea and beyond Jordan, and from Tyre and Sidon, and from Decapolis : and a great multitude, hearing what things he did, came unto him. And he spake to S. Mark adds: "straightway . . . with the Herodians." Or, "wick."

)>


i a

i b

. his disciples, that they should bring unto him a boat, because of the crowd, lest they should press upon him: and he healed many; so that as many as had plagues were nigh to throng him on account of their eagerness to touch him. And the unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God. And he urgently threatened them, that they should not make him known. And they that were troubled with unclean spirits were cured. And all the multitude sought to touch him; for power went out from him, and healed them all. And Jesus, seeing the multitudes, went up into the mountain : and he called his disciples, and chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles : Simon, whom he named Cephas, and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Matthew and Thoma, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon, which is called the Zealot, and Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, and this is he that betrayed him. And Jesus came down with them, and stood on a level place, and a crowd of his disciples, and an abundant multitude of the people. And he selected these twelve, that they might be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, and that they might have the power of curing diseases, and casting out devils. Then he lifted up his eyes on them, and J|g § f opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. Blessed are the mournful: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall possess the earth. Aphraates gives, " the land of life." . Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness : for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful : for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart : for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called sons of God. Blessed are they that are cast out for righteousness' sake : for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. Blessed shall ye be, when men shall hate a you, and when they shall separate you, and cast you out, and reproach you, and say b every evil word against you, speaking falsely, for my sake. Then rejoice, and be exceeding glad; for your reward is abundant in the heavens : for so cast they out the prophets, that were before you. But woe unto you that are rich ! for ye have received your consolation. Woe unto you that are full! ye shall hunger.

Woe unto you that laugh now ! ye shall mourn and weep. Woe unto you, when men shall praise you ! for so did their fathers to the false prophets. I say unto you which hear, Ye are the -j-^' J salt of the earth : but if the salt lose its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is good for nothing; but it shall be cast out, and trodden down by men. Ye are the light of the world. A city built upon a mountain cannot be hid. Neither do men light a lamp, and put it under the bushel, but on the lamp-stand, that it may shine upon all that are in the house. So let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father, which is in the heavens. For there is nothing secret, except it shall be also manifested; nor hidden, except it shall be also known. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets : I came not to destroy, but to fulfil. Verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass away, one point or one letter shall not pass away from the law, till all of it be accomplished. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of the heavens : whosoever shall do and teach them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of the heavens. For I say unto you, Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens. Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; for whosoever shall kill shall be accountable to the judgment : but I say unto you, that every one who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be accountable * to the judgment; and whosoever shall say to his brother, ! horrid one, shall be accountable to the council; but whosoever shall say to him, Thou fool, shall be accounted worthy of the Gehenna of fire. If therefore thou shalt be offering thy gift upon the altar, and there shalt remember, that thy brother hath con ceived any hatred against thee, leave thy gift upon the altar, and go thy way first, and be reconciled to thy brother, and then return, and offer thy gift. Agree with thine s adversary quickly: whilst thou art still with him in the way, give a ransom and be Lit. "accounted worthy of." The word " Raca " is not retained in the Arabic.

.  freed from him; lest haply the adversary   ' 

deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt not go out thence, till thou payest the last mite. Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt not commit adultery: but I say unto you, that whosoever looketh on a woman, lusting after her, hath committed adultery with her there already in his heart. If thy right eye injureth thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee : for it is expedient for thee that one of thy members should perish, rather than that thy whole body should go into Gehenna. And if thy right hand injureth thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee : for it is better for thee that one of thy members should perish, than that thy whole body should fall into Gehenna. It was said, >, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorcement: but I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, without the cause of fornication, maketh her already commit adultery; and whosoever shall marry one who is put away, committeth adultery. Again, ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself; but call thou upon God in thy faith : but I say unto you, Swear not at all; not by the heaven, for it is the throne of God; nor by the earth, for it is the foot-stool under his feet; nor even by Jeru salem, for it is the city of the great king.

Neither swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair black or white. But $ let your speech be either, Yes, or No; but Lit. " Exactor of fines." Arabic, fals, i.e. ^ of a dirhem = half a farthing.


. tf what is more abundant than this, is of the evil one. Ye have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth : but I say unto you, Eesist not an evil man : but whosoever smiteth thee on thy right cheek, offer him the other also. And to him that wisheth to strive at law with thee, and take away thy coat, to him give up thy cloke also. And whosoever shall impress thee to go a mile, go with him two. Give to him that asketh of thee, and from him that wisheth to borrow of thee withhold it not : and do not restrain him that taketh away the things that are thine. And as ye wish that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise. Ye have heard that it was said, Love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy : but I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them that receive you harshly and drive you out; that ye may be ,, sons of your heavenly Father, who maketh his sun to rise on the good and the evil, and sendeth his rain on the just and the unjust. If ye love them that love you, s what reward shall ye have? for publicans b and sinners likewise love those that love them. And if ye do good to them that do good to you, where is your superiority? since even sinners do so. And if ye give a loan to him, of whom ye expect repayment, where is your superiority? for even sinners lend to sinners, expecting as much from them. But love your enemies, and do them good, and give a loan, and cut off no man's hope, that your reward may be great, and that ye may be sons of the Most High : Or, "punish." Or, "seize." THE JDIATESSARON.

for he is kind toward the evil and the un thankful. Be ye merciful, even as your Father also is merciful. And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others! do not even the publicans the same? Be ye therefore perfeet, as your heavenly Father also is perfect. Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye shall have no reward with your Father, which is in the heavens. When therefore thou doest alms, sound not a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may be praised of men. Verily I say unto you, They have received their reward. But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth : that thine alms may be secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall recompense thee openly. And when thou prayest, be not as the hypocrites, who love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men.

Verily I say unto you, They have received their reward. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy bedchamber, and having shut the door, pray to thy Father which is in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret shall recompense thee openly. And in praying speak not much, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard in much speaking. Be not therefore likened unto them, for your Father knoweth your petition, before ye ask him. One of his i b disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, even as John taught his disciples. Jesus saith unto them, After this manner a then pray ye: Our Father which art in the b This interruption during the Sermon on the Mount is noticeable.


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heavens, hallowed be thy name. Thy king-   io 

dom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven so on earth. Give us the sustenance of to- day. And forgive us our faults, as we also forgive those who commit faults against us. And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, unto the ages of ages. If ye forgive men their trespasses, your Father which is in the heavens will forgive you. But if ye forgive not men, neither will your Father forgive you your trespasses. When ye fast, become not, as the hypocrites, mournful : for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men as fasting. Verily, I say unto you, They have received their reward. But thou, when thou fastest, wash thy face, and anoint thy head, that thou appear not unto men as fasting, but unto thy Father which is in secret : and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall recompense thee. Fear not, little flock, for it hath pleased your Father well to give you the kingdom. Sell what ye possess, and give alms; make?>> s for yourselves purses which wax not old. Lay not up for yourselves treasure upon the earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves dig through and steal : but lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt; and thieves do not dig through, nor steal : for where thy treasure is, there is thy heart also. The lamp of the body is Lit. "power"; cf. ver. , an error for "food." Or rather, " folly," and so in ver. . Lit. " Treasure not," and so in ver. . Or, "in." * or, " woodworm." .

the eye : for if thine eye be unimpaired, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be worthless, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great will thy darkness be! Beware, lest the light that is in thee be darkness. For if thy whole body be full of light, not having any part dark, it shall be wholly full of light, as a lamp lightens thee with its bright shining. No man can serve two masters : for he is obliged to hate one of them, and love the other; and to honour one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and riches. Therefore I say unto you, Be not anxious for your lives, what ye shall eat, and what ye shall drink; nor for your bodies, what ye shall put on Is not the life more than the food, and the body more than the raiment? Consider attentively the birds of the heaven, which sow not, nor reap, nor gather into barns; and your Father, which is in the heavens, feedeth them. Are not ye of more ' \ value than they? And which of you, when he tries, shall be able to add one cubit unto his stature? If then ye are not able to do even that which is least, why are ye anxious concerning the rest? Consider the lilies of b the field, how they grow, though they toil not, nor spin. And I say unto you, that even Solomon in the magnificence of his glory was not arrayed even as one of these. But if God doth so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, how much rather shall it be done to you, ye of little faith. Be not therefore anxious, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed? nor let your b mind be troubled because of this. All

. these things do the nations of the world seek after; and your Father, which is in the heavens, knoweth that ye have need of all these things. Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. Be not anxious for the morrow : for the morrow will be anxious for what is its own. Its own evil is sufficient for the day.

(Alt ^ T Judge not, that ye be not judged: con- -H vj* demn not, that ye be not condemned : forgive, and ye shall be forgiven: release, and ye shall be released : give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed together and full, shall they thrust into your bosom. With the same measure wherewithsoever ye measure, it shall be measured to you. Take heed what ye hear: with ^ whatever measure ye measure, it shall be measured to you again, and it shall be added to you. I say unto these, which hear, He that hath, to him shall be given : and he that hath not, even that which he can have, shall be taken away from him. And he spake a parable unto them: Can a blind man guide a blind man? do they not both fall into a pit? The disciple is not superior to his master : but every per feet man shall be as his master. Why lookest thou at the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Or how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me cast out the mote from thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest not the beam in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam Or, "peculiar to it." Or, Luke vi. a . This clause appears to be au addition. Unnecessary repetition. Repeated from Matt. xiii. at xvi. . Or, perhaps, " stalk," a bit of wood like the " beam," but extremely small.

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from thine own eye, and then shalt thou see to draw out the mote from thy brother's eye. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before swine, lest haply they trample them with their feet, and turn and rend you. And he saith unto them, Which of you shall have a friend, and shall go unto him at midnight, and say to him, Friend, lend me three loaves; for a friend is come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to offer him; and the friend from within shall answer and say unto him, Trouble me not : the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed; I cannot rise and give unto thee? Verily I say unto you, Though he will not give l unto him because of friendship, yet because of his importunity he will arise and give unto him what he asked of him. And I say unto you, Ask, it shall be given you; seek, ye shall find; knock, it shall be opened unto you. Every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. What father among you, whose son asketh of him a loaf, do you think, will give him a stone? and if he ask of him a fish, will he, do you think, for a fish give him a serpent? and if he ask of him an egg, will he, think you, hold out to him a scorpion? If ye then, whilst ye are evil, know good gifts, and give them unto your sons, how much more shall your Father, which is in the heavens, give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him ! All things whatsoever ye wish that men should do unto you, do ye also unto them : this is the law and the prophets. Strive earnestly at the narrow gate: for Omitting " rise and." The root is the same as in ver. , " importunity."

. a wide gate, and a broad way leadeth to destruction; and they are many that go therein. How narrow is the gate, and confined the way, that leadeth unto life ! and they are few that find it. Beware of false prophets, which come to you in lambs' clothing, whilst inwardly they are ravening wolves : but by their fruits ye a shall know them. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For not of thorns do they gather figs, nor of a bramble-bush do they gather grapes. Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but an evil tree produceth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, nor an evil tree pro duce good fruit. The good man out of the good treasure, which is in his heart, bringeth forth good things; and the evil man out of the evil treasure, which is in his heart, bringeth forth evil things: for out of the abundance of the heart the lips speak. Every tree that produceth not good fruit shall be hewn down, and cast into the fire. Therefore by their fruits ye shall know them. Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of the heavens; but he that doeth the will of my Father, which is in the heavens. Many will say unto me in that day, Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in thy name, and in thy name cast out devils, and in thy name do many mighty works? Then will I say unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye servants of iniquity. Every one that cometh unto me, and heareth my words, and doeth them, I will show you to what he is In Addai, though absent from some of the Greek MSS. Addai, however, does not give it as an exact quotation, but in his speech he says : " Because that the gate of life is straight, and the way of truth is narrow, therefore few are the believers of truth," etc.

. like. He is like a wise man, that built a a house, and digged, and went deep, and laid the foundations upon the rock: and the rain descended, and the floods overflowed, and the winds blew, and shook that house; and it fell not : for its foundations had beer laid upon the rock. And every one that heareth these words of mine, and doeth them not, shall be like a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand without a founda tion: and the rain descended, and the floods overflowed, and the winds blew, and burst into that house; and it fell : and great was the fall thereof. And when Jesus had ended these words, the multitudes were astonished at his teaching: for he taught them as one having authority, not as their scribes and the Pharisees. And when he was come down from the mountain, great multitudes followed him And when Jesus had entered into Caper- * naum, the servant of a certain distinguished officer, who ivas dear unto him, was sick, and was already very near to death. And he s heard concerning Jesus, and came * unto him with the elders of the Jews, and besought b him, and said, Lord, my boy lieth in the house paralytic, and he is grievously tormented. And the elders besought him earnestly, b saying, He is worthy that this should be done for him : for he loveth our nation, and he built us even the synagogue. Jesus saith unto him, I will come and heal him. The officer answered, and saith, Lord, I am not worthy that my roof should overshadow thee: According to S. Matthew, he came himself; but according to S. Luke, lie sent the elders. Ephraem has "elders of the people." ' Or, "crippled." Omitting Luke vii. , " Wherefore neither thought I myself worthy to come unto thee." Cf. note to ver. .


. but it is enough that thou speak the word, and my boy shall be healed. For I also am a man under obedience to authority, having under me soldiers : and I say to this one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, that he should do this, and he doeth it. And when Jesus heard this, he marvelled, a and turned, and said unto the multitude that were coming with him, Verily I say unto io b you, I have not found such faith in Israel. say unto you, that many shall come from the east and the west and shall lie down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of the heavens : but the sons of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer darkness : there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. And Jesus said unto the officer, Go thy way; and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee. And the boy was healed in that hour. And the officer returned home, and found that sick servant already whole. And the day after he went to a city, II which is called Nain, and with him his disciples and an abundant multitude. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, he saw people that were attending one that was dead, the only son of his mother, and his mother was a widow : and a great multitude of the city was with her. And when Jesus saw her, he was moved with compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not. And he went, and came near to the bier : and they that were bearing him, stood still. And he saith, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. And Aphraates has " Young man " twice, and in Mark v. also he has "Maid, maid." Cf. " Martha, Martha," Luke x. j " Simon, Simon " (not in the Arabic), Luke xxii. ; also " Saul, Saul," Acts ix. . These passages suggest a tendency to reduplication in Christ's words.

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he that was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. And fear took hold on all : and they magnified God, saying, A great prophet is arisen among us : and, God hath visited his people. And this report was spread abroad into the whole of Judaea concerning him, and into all the region round about. Now when Jesus saw great multitudes about him, he gave commandment to go across. And as they were departing in b the way, one scribe came near, and saith unto him, Master, I will follow thee whither soever thou goest. Jesus said unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven ham nests; but the Son of man hath not a place, where he may lay his head. And he saith unto another, Follow me. But he said, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father. Jesus said unto him, Leave the dead to bury their own dead; but follow thou me, and announce the kingdom of God. And another saith unto him, I will follow thee, Lord; but suffer me first to go and bid farewell to my household, and I will come. Jesus said unto him, No man, putting forth his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God. And on that day, when it was become late, s he saith unto them, Let us cross over the c lake. And sending away the multitudes, Jesus | Lu ' | £ went up into a boat, and sat down, himself If the two accounts are to be identified, S. Luke's seems a better setting, when Jesus was about to leave Galilee finally, and it was a question, who would leave Galilee for his sake, and accompany Him. So Schleiermacher and Tischendorf. Addai remarks, " A husbandman, who puts his hand to the ploughshare, if he looks behind, the furrows before him cannot be straight." Continuing S. Matthew's order.

 b  a 
  a 
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. and his disciples. And other boats were with them. And a great tumult was stirred up in the sea by a whirlwind and a wind; and the boat was nigh to be sunk through the abundance of the waves. But Jesus was in the stern, asleep on the cushion : and his disciples came to him, and awoke him, say ing, Lord, save us, behold, we perish. But he arose, and rebuked the wind and the waves of the water, and said unto the sea, Be still, for thou art rebuked. And the wind was silent; and a great calm took place. And he saith unto them, Why are ye so fearful? and why have ye not faith? And they feared with a great fear; and they i Lu ' ^X marvelled, saying one to another, Who, think you, is this, that commandeth even the wind and waves and sea, and they obey him? And they departed, and came to the country of the Gadarenes, which is beyond the sea over against the land of Galilee. And when he was come forth from the ship s to the land, there met him out of the tombs b a man that had a devil now for a long time, ° and was wearing no garment, and abode not in a house but in the tombs. And no man b could bind him with chains; for as often as a he was confined with chains and fetters, he rent asunder the chains, and brake in pieces the fetters : and he was driven by the devil into the desert : and no man was able to tame him. And always day and night he was in the tombs and in the mountains, so that no man could pass by that way; and he was crying out, and cutting himself with Or, "owing to." Included with ver. in the Arabic, which follows the numbering of the Vulgate, in which there is no ver. . Arabic, " Hadarenes " throughout. One only, as at Mark v, ; not two, as at Matt. viii. .

b  b 

a b

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r b

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. stones. And when he saw Jesus from afar, he ran and worshipped him; and crying out with a loud voice, he said, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the Most High God? I adjure thee by God, torment me not. And Jesus commanded the unclean spirit to go out from the man : for for a long time he was in captivity to it. And Jesus asked nim, What is thy name? He said unto him, Legion : for many devils had entered into him. And they in treated him that he would not command them to go into the abyss. Now there was there a herd of many swine feeding on the mountain: and those demons intreated him that he would give them leave to enter into the swine. And he gave them leave. The devils therefore went out of the man, and entered into the swine : and the herd ran to the summit, and fell into b the middle of the sea, about two thousand; and they were choked in the water. And when the herdsmen saw what had happened, they fled, and told it to them that were in the cities and in the villages. And some went out to see what was come to pass; and they came to Jesus, and found the man, from whom the devils were gone out, sitting, clothed and ashamed, at the feet of Jesus : and they were afraid. And they related what they had seen, and how that man, in whom there had been a devil, had been made whole, and also concerning the swine. i b And all the multitude of the Gadarenes s besought him to depart from them; for they were holden with great fear. And Jesus went up into a boat, and I Or, Mark v. b nearly. Omitting Matt. viii. , " Art thou come hither to torment us before the time?" Probably derived from Qa<*,

. crossed over, and came into his own city. And the man, from whom the devils were gone out, besought him that he might remain with him : but Jesus sent him away, and said unto him, Return to thy house, and declare what things God hath done for thee. And he went his way, and began to publish in Decapolis how great things Jesus had done for him : and all men did marvel. And when Jesus had passed over in the i a boat across the sea, a great multitude wel- b corned him; for they were all waiting for him. And a certain man, whose name was l a Ja'irus, a ruler of the synagogue, fell down at Jesus' feet, and prayed him much, saying, I s have one daughter, and she is already very near death: but come, lay thy hand upon i b her, and she shall live. And Jesus arose, and his disciples, and followed him. And a *" great multitude came to him; and they were pressing upon him. And a woman, in whom there was an issue of blood for twelve years, and who had suffered many things of many physicians, and had spent all her means, and had made no progress, but even grew worse; when she had heard concerning Jesus, came in the press of the crowd behind, and touched his garment. For she said secretly within herself, If I touch his garment, I shall live. And straightway the fountain of her blood was dried up; and she felt in her body that she had been healed of her plague. And straightway Jesus perceived in himself, that power had gone out from him, and he turned round to the crowd, and said, Who touched my garments? And when all denied, Simon b Cephas and they that were with him, said unto him, Teacher, the multitudes press thee Lit. " her injury even increased." .

and crush thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me? But he said, Some one did touch me : for I perceived that power had gone out from me. And when the woman saw that * she was not hid from him, fearing and s trembling, because she knew what had been done in her, she came, and falling down, she /\.J h worshipped him, and declared in the presence of all the people for what cause she touched him, and how she was healed immediately. And Jesus said unto her, Daughter, be of good cheer, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole from thy b plague. While he yet spake, there came one from the ruler of the synagogue's house, and said unto him, Thy daughter is dead : trouble not the Teacher. But Jesus hearing it, said unto the father of the maid, Fear not : but believe only, and she shall be saved. And he suffered no man to go with him, save Simon Cephas, and James, and John the brother of James. And they came into the house of the ruler of the synagogue; and he saw them excited, weeping and wailing. And when he had entered in, he saith unto them. Why are ye excited, lamenting? the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed at him, knowing that she was dead. But he, having put them all forth, took the Z man spake : and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. And Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every sickness and disease. And many followed him. And when Jesus saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion for them, because they were wearied out and forsaken, as sheep not having a shepherd. And he called his twelve disciples, andjJJJ" ™ £ gave them power and great authority over Aphraates had "Maid, maid;" cf. note on xi. . The original words, " Talitha cumi," being Syriac, needed no interpreting clause in a Diatessaron for Syrian readers; hence the absence of such a clause in our text. Cf. vii. . qi note to xv# # . all devils and sickness. And he sent them two and two to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick. And he charged them, b saying, Into the way of the heathen depart not, and into the cities of the Samaritans enter not : attend chiefly to the sheep, that have perished, of the children of Israel. And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of the heavens is at hand. Heal the sick, „* cleanse the lepers, cast out devils : freely ye received, freely give. Possess no gold, nor silver, nor brass in your girdles; nor carry io a anything on the way, save a wand only; b no wallet, nor bread, neither have two coats, ^ nor shoes, nor staff; but be shod with { JJ£ x |j "£ sandals : for the labourer is worthy of his io c food. And into whatsoever city or village ye shall enter, inquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go forth. And as ye enter into the house, salute it. And if the house be worthy, your peace shall come upon it : but if it be not worthy, your peace shall return to you. And whosoever shall not s receive you, nor hear your words, as ye go forth out of that house, or out of that city, shake off the dust that is under your feet b upon them for a testimony. Verily I say unto you, There shall be rest for the land of Omitting "raise the dead." Or, "purses." The distinction which Tatian here draws between " wand " and " staff," receives no support from the Greek, where we find the same word for what was allowed according to S. Mark, and for what was forbidden according to the other synoptists. The actual Greek phrases are : Matt, finis pxphv; Mark, u pcvj pxfilov povov; Luke, fiqTe pxfihou.

Ephraem has this distinction; but it is not in the Codex Fuldensis, where the " wand " alone is mentioned, and is forbidden. According to the Armenian the word "staff" seems more applicable to what was allowed; whilst what was forbidden was a rough stick. The Peschito has the same word throughout. The Curetonian (Luke only) has also that word. The Jerusalem Syriac (Luke only) has a different word, which occurs in the Peschito of Mark xiv. .

There can be little doubt that Tatian first drew the distinction in his Syriac.


. Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment in preference to that city. I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves : be ye therefore wise as serpents, and spotless x as doves. Beware of men, who will deliver you up to councils, and scourge you in their synagogues; and before governors and before kings shall they bring you for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. But when they deliver you up, do not premeditate and consider what ye speak: but it shall be given you in that hour what ye must speak. For it is not ye that speak; but the Spirit of your Father speaketh in you. A brother shall deliver up his brother unto death, and a father his son; and sons shall rise up against their parents, and put them to death. And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake : but whosoever endureth to the end, the same shall live. When they shall cast you out of this city, flee into another. Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not complete all the cities of the people of Israel, till the Son of man come. A disciple is not superior to his master, nor a servant to his lord. For it is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, and for the servant that he be as his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of his household ! Fear them not therefore : for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; nor hidden, that shall not be shown forth, and made known. What I tell you in the darkness, speak ye in s the light : and what ye have spoken secretly b Or, "peaceable." Cf. xli. , etc. Lit. "Beelzebul." Tatian probably meant this as a continuation of Matt. x. ; as lie brings this in later at xli. b .

.

in the ears in the bedchambers, shall be proclaimed upon the housetop. I say unto a you, my friends, be not afraid of them, which kill the body, but are not able to kill the b soul. I will show you whom ye shall fear: a him, who is able to destroy both soul and c body into Gehenna: yea, I say unto you, ° Fear him especially. Are not two sparrows sold for a mite x in a noose, and not one of them falleth to the ground without your Father: but in what relates to you, even the hairs of your head are numbered. Fear not therefore : ye are better than many sparrows. Every one therefore, who shall confess me before men, him will I also confess before my Father, which is in the heavens. But whosoever shall deny me ^ before men, him will I also deny before my Father, which is in the heavens. Think ye that I am come to send peace unto the earth? I am not come to send peace but division : there shall be from henceforth five in one house; three of them shall be divided against two, and two against three. They shall be divided, the father ., against his son, and the son against his father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against her mother; the mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and the daughter-in-law against her mother in-law : and a man's foes shall be they of his own household. He that loveth father or $ mother more than me, is not worthy of me : and he that loveth son or daughter with a deeper love than me, is not worthy of me. And every one that doth not take his cross, and follow me, is not worthy of me. He Arabic, u fals "; cf. viii. . From Syriac for do-o-apiov. The same Syriac word mistranslated and added.


.

that findeth his life, shall lose it; and whosoever loseth his life for my sake, shall find it. He that receiveth you, receiveth me; and he that receiveth me, receiveth him that sent me. And he that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet, shall receive a prophet's reward : and he that receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man, shall receive a righteous man's reward. And who- s soever shall give as a drink unto one of these very little ones a cup of water only, in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, He b shall not lose his reward. And when Jesus had ended his commands to his twelve disciples, he passed over from thence to teach and preach in their cities. And as they went on their way, they entered into a certain village : and a woman named Martha entertained him in her house. And she had a sister named Mary, who came and sat at the Lord's feet, and listened to his word. But Martha was distracted about much serving; and she came, and saith unto him, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister hath left me to serve alone? bid her that she help me. Jesus answered, and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art anxious and troubled about many things : and that which is needed is one : but Mary hath chosen for herself a good part, which shall not be taken away from her. And the apostles went out, and preached unto men, that they should repent. And Or conclusion of Matt. x. . A singular displacement from S. Luke's order. It may have been put here to illustrate ver. - above. Tatian makes the sisters reside apparently in Galilee, not at Bethany. This is the natural impression conveyed by S. Luke, and it was adopted by Greswell; but the idea prevails that S. Luke has intentionally placed it too early. So Ephraem, the Curetonian, and the Peschito, .

they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many sick men, and healed them. And the disciples of John told him of all these things. And John, when he had a heard in the prison the works of the Christ, called two of his disciples, and sent them to Jesus, saying, Art thou he that cometh, or look we for another? And they came unto Jesus, and said, John the Baptist hath sent us unto thee, and said, Art thou he that cometh, or look we for another? Now in that hour he cured many of diseases, and of plagues of an evil spirit; and on many blind men he bestowed sight. Jesus; answered, and said unto them, Go, and relate to John all things which ye have seen and heard; the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead rise again, the poor have good tidings preached to them : and blessed is he whosoever shall not be made to stumble in me. And when the disciples of John were departed, Jesus began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? a reed shaken with the wind? Otherwise, what went ye out to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they which are in a costly robe and luxuries, are in king's houses. Otherwise, what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom ,, J it is written, Behold I send my messenger before thy face, To prepare a way before thee. Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women there hath not arisen a greater than John the Baptist : yet he that

. is less in the kingdom of the heavens, is greater than he. And all the people that were listening, and the publicans, justified God, for they had been baptized with the baptism of John. But the Pharisees and iy the scribes treated unjustly the counsel of God among themselves, for they had not been baptized by him. But from the days a of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of the heavens is seized with violence. The law and the prophets were until John : from thenceforth the kingdom of God is announced as good tidings, and all men push themselves forward, that they may enter; and I b those who strive hard, take it by force. All the prophets and the law prophesied until John. And if ye are willing, receive it that he is Elijah, which is about to come. He that hath ears to hear let him hear. It is easier for heaven and earth to perish, than for one point to fall from the law. • . Unto whom then shall I liken the men of i b this generation, and to whom are they like? They are like unto children sitting in the market place, which summon their companions, and say, We chaunted unto you, and ye did not dance; we mourned unto you, and ye did not weep. John the Baptist came eating no bread nor drinking wine; and ye said, He hath a devil. But the Son of man came eating and drinking; and ye said, Behold, a gluttonous man, and a winebibber, and a friend of publicans and sinners ! And wisdom was justified by all her children. And when he had said this, they came ± b into the house. And the multitudes came together unto him again, so that they The discourse of Jesus is resumed here without remark, ver. , being explanatory on the part of some person recording what took place. Or, " cease." THE DJATESSARON. could not even eat bread. And he was casting out a devil, which was dumb. And when he had cast out that devil, the dumb man spake, and the multitudes marvelled. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This man doth not cast out devils, except in Beelzebub, the prince of the devils, who is in him. And others, tempting him, sought of him a sign from heaven. But Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said unto them in parables, Every kingdom divided against itself will be brought to desolation : and every house or city divided against itself will not stand: and if Satan casteth out Satan, he is divided against himself, and will not be able to stand, but his end will be. How then shall his kingdom stand? because ye say that I cast out devils in Beelzebub. And if I in Beelzebub cast out devils, by what do your sons cast them out? therefore shall they be your judges. But if I in the Spirit of God cast out devils, then is the kingdom of God come near unto you. Or how can any one enter into the house of a strong man, and rob his goods, except he first render himself safe from the strong man? and then he will spoil his house. When the strong man armed guardeth his own court, those things which he possesseth are in peace : but if a stronger than he come upon him, he will overcome him, and will take from him his whole armour wherein he trusteth, and divide his spoils. He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me Tatian does not identify with this miracle the cure of a demoniac " blind and dumb," prefixed (Matt. xii. ) to the same discourse, but puts the latter afterwards. Teschendorf identifies the former with Matt. ix. -. Lit. " Beelzebul." Or, " that he might be put to the test." Lit. "garments."

»

 b 
b 

i b

. surely scattereth. Therefore I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto men, and the blasphemies, wherewithsoever they shall blaspheme; but whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit shall never have forgivenness, but shall be accounted worthy of eternal punishment. Because * they said, that there was in him an unclean spirit, he said again, Whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world nor in the world to come. Either ye make the tree good, and ^^ its fruit good; or ye make the tree evil, and its fruit evil : since the tree is known by its fruit. Ye offspring of vipers, how can ye, since ye are evil, speak good things? out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. The good man out of the good s treasure, which is in his heart, bringeth forth good things; and the evil man out of the evil treasure, which is in his heart, bringeth forth evil things. I say unto you, that every idle word that men shall speak, there shall be exacted from them an account of it in the day of judgment. For out of thy words?> thou shalt be justified; and out of thy words thou shalt be condemned. And he said to the multitudes, When ye see a i cloud rising This clause is made to begin the new sentence instead of closing the old. Or, "age." Apparently meant by Tatian for Matt. xii. , making the passage continuous. Luke vi. he has before identified with the Sermon on the Mount; cf. x. . Or, " the." It is very remarkable that, whereas both S. Matthew (xii. ) and S. Luke (xi. ) continue the preceding discourse with the demand for a sign from heaven, Tatian postpones that until xvi. , and inserts instead the signs of coming weather. Many commentators think the former ought to be postponed and the visit of Christ's brethren inserted here, followed by the series of parables, as in Mark iii. , etc.


o .

from the west, straightway ye say, The rain cometh; and so it cometh to pass. And when it bloweth a south wind, ye say, There will be a scorching heat; and it cometh to pass. And when it is evening, ye say, It * will be fair : for the heavens are dull. And in the morning ye say, To-day there will be a storm : for the redness of the heavens is dull.

Ye hypocrites, ye know how to judge the face of the heaven and the earth; but ye know not how to discern the signs of this time. Then was brought unto him one that had a devil, dumb and blind; and he healed him, so that the dumb and blind man spake and saw. And all the multitudes were amazed, and said, Is this, think you, the son of David? And the apostles returned unto Jesus, and recounted unto him all things, which they had done, and wrought. And he saith unto them, Come, let us go apart into a desert place, and rest a little. For there were many going and returning; and they had no leisure even to eat bread. After these things came a certain man of the Pharisees, and asked him to eat bread with him. And he entered into the Phari see's house, and reclined to meat. And there was in that city a woman, a sinner; and when she knew that he had reclined to meat in the Pharisee's house, she took a flask of ointment, and standing behind at his feet, weeping, she began to wet his feet with tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them Cf. xxiii. , where Matt. xvi. l a is made to introduce Mark viii. ll b , followed by Matt. xvi. b , etc. Cf. note to ver. . Put before Mark vi. - (death of S. John), because S. Matthew, who does not mention this return, puts that death at a later period of the history. Tatian omits Luke ix. , " belonging to the city called Bethsaida."

. l with the ointment. Now when the Pharisee, which had bidden him, saw it, he thought within himself, saying, This man, if he were a prophet, would certainly know who she is, and of what sort her character is, since the woman, that touched him, was a sinner. Jesus answered, and said unto him, Simon, I have somewhat to say unto thee. Then he saith, Master, say on. Jesus said unto him, A certain creditor had two debtors : the one owed five hundred pence, and the other owed fifty pence. When they had not from whence to pay, he forgave them both. Which ought to love him the more? Simon answered, and said, He, I suppose, to whom he forgave the more. Jesus said unto him, Thou hast rightly judged. And, turning to the woman, he said unto Simon, See this woman. I entered into thine house; and water for washing my feet thou gavest not: but she hath wetted my feet with tears, and wiped them with her hair. A kiss thou gavest me not : but she, since the time she came in, hath not ceased to kiss my feet. My head with oil thou didst not anoint : but she hath anointed my feet with ointment. On account of which I say unto thee, Many sins are forgiven her; for she loved much : but to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little. And he said unto the woman, Thy sins are forgiven thee. And they that were bidden began to say within themselves, Who is this that even forgive th sins? And Jesus said unto the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace. And many believed on him, beholding $ h Tatian having removed these remarks of the evangelist from their setting, has found it necessary to omit the first part of this verse, which applied them to a particular occasion.

. the signs which he did. But Jesus did not trust himself with them, for that he knew all men, and he had no need that any one should bear witness unto him concerning a man; for he himself knew what was in the man. Now * after these things Jesus appointed out of his disciples seventy others, and sent them two and two before his face into every country and city, whither he himself was about to come. And he said unto them, The harvest is plenteous, but the labourers are few; pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he may send forth labourers into his harvest. Go your ways : behold, I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves. Take with you no purses, nor wallet, nor shoes : and salute no man on the way. Into whatsoever house ye enter, first salute that house. And if a son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon him : and if he be not there, your peace shall turn to you again. And in the same house remain, eating and drinking of their substance : for the labourer is worthy of his hire. And cross not from house to house. And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive See note to ver. . The Codex Fuldeiisis and the Doctrine of Addai have " seventy-two. Ephraem implies the same in two places (Moesinger, pp. and ). Ephraem has, " after his own likeness," instead of " before his face." The Codex Fuldensis, cap. , goes on here with ver. , " He that heareth," etc.; and Ephraem omits all comment on the instructions to the Seventy as such, but seems to refer to them in connection with the Mission of the Twelve (xii. to xiii. ). It seems likely that Tatian harmonised the two sets of instruction at the earlier place, and these verses have been inserted here since. Addai, who is represented as one of the seventy -two, says, '* That which was ours we have forsaken, as we were commanded by our Lord to be without purses and without scrips, and carrying crosses upon our shoulders we were commanded to preach His gospel to the whole creation."

. you, eat the things which are set before you: and heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. But into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go out into the street, and say, Even the dust from your city, that clave to our feet, we do wipe off against you : howbeit know this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. I say unto you, There shall be ease for Sodom in the day of judgment but not for that city. Then began Jesus to upbraid the cities, wherein many mighty works had been done, and they had not repented. And he said, Woe unto thee, Chorazin ! woe unto thee, Bethsaida ! if the signs had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which were done in thee, they would peradventure have repented in sackcloth and ashes. Howbeit I say unto you, There shall be rest for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgment, rather than for you. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted even unto heaven, thou shalt sink down into the abyss : for if the gifts had been made to Sodom, which were made to thee, it would surely have remained even until this day. And now I say unto thee, that there shall be ease for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, rather than for you. He said again to the apostles, He that heareth you, heareth me; and he that heareth me, heareth him that sent me; and he that rejecteth you, rejecteth me; and he that rejecteth me, rejecteth him that sent me. Tatian has identified this passage with Luke x. -; this appears to be his reason for placing Luke x. -, which cannot well be dissociated from the latter, so much earlier than S. Luke did; for the evangelist clearlyintended it to belong to the final departure from Galilee; and surely no time could be more appropriate for this upbraiding, than when Jesus was about to quit the country of these ungrateful cities.

. And those seventy returned with great joy, and said unto him, Lord, even the devils are made subject unto us in thy name. He saith unto them, I saw Satan as lightning, falling from heaven. Behold I have given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and over every kind of enemies, and nothing shall hurt you. Howbeit ye need not to rejoice, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rejoice, because your names are written in heaven. And in the same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, I acknowledge thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and understanding, and didst reveal them unto children : yea, Father, so was thy will. And he turned unto his disciples, and said unto them, All things have been delivered unto me of my Father : and no one knoweth who the Son is, save the Father; and who the Father is, save the Son, and he to whom soever the Son willeth to reveal him. Come unto me, all ye that are wearied and heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Carry my yoke upon you, and learn of me; f or I am meek and lowly in my heart : and ye shall find rest for your souls. For my yoke is pleasant, and my burden light. And when great multitudes were going forth with him, he turned, and said unto them, He that cometh unto me, and hateth not his father, and his mother, and brethren, and sisters, and wife, and children, yea, and his own life also, cannot be my disciple. Ephraem's copy left out " and earth." J This additional clause is found in several MSS. Or, "that." Similarity of subject with the preceding seems to be the cause of the insertion of this passage here.


THE DIATESSAROK And he that doth not bear his own cross, and follow me, cannot be my disciple. Which of you, desiring to build a palace, doth not first sit down and count his expenses, and whether he have ivlwrewith to complete it? Lest after he lays the foundations, and is not able to finish, all that see him say, This man began to build, and was not able to finish. Or what king, about to go to commit war against another king, doth not first consider, whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand? And if he is not equal to it, while he is yet a great way off, he sendeth an embassy unto him, and asketh for peace. So let every one of you, that wisheth to be my disciple, consider : for if he renounce not all that he possesseth, he cannot be my disciple. Then certain of the scribes and Phari- sees answered him, that they might tempt him, saying, Master, we wish to see a sign from thee. And he answering saith, This evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it but the sign of Jonah the prophet : for even as Jonah was a sign unto the Nine* vites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation. And even as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment against the men of this generation, and shall condemn them : for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and a better than Solomon is here. The men of Nineveh shall rise up in the judgment against this Cf. xxiii. -. See note to xiv. .

THE DATESSARN.

generation, and shall condemn it : for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and a greater than Jonah is here. When the un- Lu clean spirit goeth out of the man, it walketh and goeth about through waterless places to find rest for itself; and when it findeth it not, it saith, I will turn back unto my house, whence I went out. And if it come, and find it adorned and arranged, then it goeth, and taketh with itself seven other spirits more evil than itself; and they enter in and dwell therein : and the last state of that man becometh worse than the former. So shall it be unto this evil generation. b And as he said these things, a certain woman out of the multitude lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the breasts which gave thee milk. But he said unto her, Blessed is he that heareth the word of God, and keepeth it. While he was yet speaking to the multi- s tudes, there came to him his mother and * brethren; and they sought to speak to him, b and they could not for the crowd; and - M ^ * b standing without, they sent to call him to them. A certain man said unto him, Be- hold, thy mother and thy brethren stand without, and seek to speak to thee. He answered him that told him, Who is my mother? and who are my brethren? And motioning with his hand outstretched towards his disciples, he said, Behold, my mother, and behold, my brethren! For whosoever shall do the will of my Father, which is in the heavens, he is my brother, and sister, and mother. And after these things Jesus went round the cities and villages, preaching and announcing as good tidings the kingdom of

. God, and with him the twelve, and the women which had been healed of infirmities and of evil spirits, Mary that is called Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven devils, and Joanna the wife of Chusa, Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, which ministered unto them of their substance. And after these things Jesus went out of the house, and sat on the seashore. And there were gathered unto him great multitudes; and when the press of men around him was great, he went up, and sat in a boat; and all the multitude were standing on the seashore. And he spake unto them many things in parables, saying, He that soweth went forth to sow; and * when he sowed, some fell by the wayside, and were trodden under foot, and the birds b devoured them: and others fell upon a rock : and others, where they had not much earth : and straightway they sprang up, because they had no deepness in the earth : and when the sun was risen, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away. And some fell among the thorns; and the thorns sprang up at the same time, and choked them; and they yielded no fruit. And others fell into ground good and beautiful, and came up, and grew, and brought forth fruit, some thirty, some sixty, and others a hundred. When he had said these things, he cried, C He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. And when they were alone, his disciples came near, and asked him, and said unto him, What is this parable? and why dost thou In the Arabic idiom " some " and " others " and the words dependent on them are given in the singular form throughout this parable. "And others" added.

b


a


b . speak unto them in parables? He answer- ing saith unto them, Unto you is given the knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of God: but it is not given unto them that are without. He that hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have increase ! but he that hath not* from him shall be taken away even that which he hath. Therefore speak I to them in parables; because seeing they see not, and hearing they hear not, nor understand. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, saying, By hearing they shall hear, and shall not understand; And seeing they shall see, and shall not learn thoroughly : For the heart of this people is waxed gross, And in their ears their hearing hath become dull, And their eyes they have closed; Lest they should see with their eyes, And hear with their ears, And understand with their heart, And should turn again, And I should heal them. But ye, blessed are your eyes, which see; and your ears, which hear. Blessed are the b eyes, which see the things which ye see. Verily I say unto you, Many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which ye see, and saw them not; and to hear the things which ye hear, and heard them not. If ye know not this parable, b how shall ye know all the parables? Hear ye the parable of the sower. The sower, that soweth, soweth the word of God. Every one that heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, the evil I.e. " They shall surely hear."

. one cometh, and snatcheth away the word sown in his heart. This is he that was sown by the wayside. And he that was sown upon a rock, this is he that heareth the word, and straightway with joy receiveth it; yet, since he hath no root in himself, i» but his faith in it is for a time, whenj-^ ' *jb tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, straightway he is made to stumble. And he that was sown in the thorns, this a is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the remaining lusts enter in, and choke the word, and it is rendered unfruitful. And that which was sown into the good ground, he it is that in a pure and excellent heart heareth my word, and understancleth, and holdeth it fast, and bringeth forth fruit in patience, and produceth either a hundred- fold, or sixtyfold, or thirtyfold. And he said, So is the kingdom of God even as a man that should cast seed into the earth, and should sleep and rise night and day; and the seed should sprout and grow while he knoweth not. For the earth bringeth it through into fruit; first there will be the blade, afterwards the ear, and at length the full corn in the ear. And when the fruit ripeneth, straightway he bringeth the sickle, because the harvest is here. Another parable set he before them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man that sowed good seed in his field : but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares amidst the wheat, and went away. But when the blade had sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. And the servants of the householder came, and said unto him, Sir, didst thou not Or, "that which," as ver. . Lit. " fatteneth." .

sow good seed in thy field? whence are the tares in it? He saith unto them, An enemy hath done this? The servants said unto him, Wilt thou that we go, and pick them out? He saith unto them, Would you not perchance, when you picked out the tares, root up also the wheat with them? Let both grow together until the harvest, and at the time of the harvest I will say to the reapers, Pick out first the tares, and bind them into bundles for burning with fire: but gather the wheat into my barns. And another parable set he before them, saying, Unto what is the kingdom of God like? and whereunto shall I liken it? and with what parable shall I compare it? It is like unto a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field : and which of all things that are sown in the earth, is less than all the things that are sown, that are upon the earth; but when it hath sprung up, it is greater than all the herbs, and maketh great branches; so that the birds of the heaven build nests in its branches. And another parable set he before them. Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God? It is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and kneaded in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened. All these things spake Jesus in parables unto the multitudes, as they were able to hear them: and without parables spake he not unto them : that it might be fulfilled, which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables, And I will utter things hidden before the foundation of the world. But privately to his disciples he expounded ** all things.

i* i b

o b  s " 

°

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 b 

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Then Jesus sent the multitudes away, and   .

came into the house : and his disciples came near unto him, and said unto him, Explain unto us the parable of the tares and the field. He answered and saith unto them, He that sowed the good seed is the Son of man; and the field is the world; the good seed are the sons of the kingdom; and the tares are the sons of the evil one; and the enemy that sowed them is Satan: but the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are angels. And even as the tares are picked out, and burned with fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall pick out of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and all the workers of iniquity, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire : there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a treasure hidden in the field; which the man that findeth, hideth; and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant-man seeking pearls of great price : and having found one pearl of great price, he went and sold all that he had, and bought it. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net cast into the sea, and gathering of every kind : which, when it was filled, they drew up on the seashore; and sat down to pick them out, and they cast the good into vessels, but the bad they threw away out* Or, " injure,"

^ THE DATESSARN.

\ side. So shall it be in the end of the world : the angels shall go forth, and sever the wicked from the midst of the righteous, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire : there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They said unto him, Yea, Lord. He saith unto them, Therefore every scribe, that is a disciple of the kingdom of the heavens, is like unto a man that is a householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old. And when Jesus had finished all these parables, he passed over from thence, and * came into his own city, and taught them in their synagogues, insomuch that they were astonished. And when the sabbath was come, Jesus began to teach in the synagogue:

. and many of those that heard him were

astonished, and said, Whence are these things done unto this man? x And many envied him, and did not apply their mind to him, but said, What is this wisdom that is given unto this man, so that such mighty works are wrought by his hands? Is not this the carpenter, the son of the carpenter? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas? And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence hath this man all these things? And they were suspicious of him. But j J^'a ^ o* Jesus, knowing their thoughts, saith unto Or, " hath this man these things? " It is noticeable how Tatian has cut off part of a continuous account of a visit to Nazareth, beginning at Luke iv. , in order to harmonise it with parallel passages in S. Matthew and S. Mark belonging to a later portion of Christ's ministry. The reason for this may have been the mention of a previous visit to Capernaum not recorded earlier in S. Luke, and which had not been placed in the Diatessaron, when the first portion of this narrative was inserted at v. ,

. them, Peradventure ye will say unto me this parable, Physician, heal thyself first : all things that we have heard that thou hast done in Capernaum, do also here in thine own city. And he saith, Verily I say unto you, No prophet is accepted in his own country, nor among his own brethren : for a b prophet is not without honour save in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house. Verily I say unto you, There were many widows among the children of Israel in the days of Elijah the prophet, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, and a great famine was in all the land; and unto none of them was Elijah sent, but only to Sarepta of Sidon, unto a widow woman. And there were many lepers among the children of Israel in the days of Elisha the prophet; and no one of them was cleansed, but only Naaman the Nabathaean. And he could not do many mighty works there, because of their unbelief, save that he laid his hands upon a few sick folk, and healed them. And he marvelled a at their lack of faith. And when they that were in the synagogue had heard, they were all filled with wrath; and they rose up and brought him forth out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, that they might cast him from its summit. But he, passing through the midst of them, went away. And he went about the villages around b Nazareth, and taught in their synagogues. At that time Herod the tetrarch heard I the fame of Jesus, and all things that were J h done by his hand : and he marvelled, for I b his fame had firmly stood. And some said, ° Or, " despised." The Peschito has " Aramaean.


a

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b

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b

.

John the Baptist is risen from the dead; but others said, Elijah hath appeared; but others, Jeremiah; and others, A prophet out of the ancient prophets is risen; and others said, He is a prophet, just as one of the prophets. Herod said unto his servants, This is John the Baptist, whose head I cut off: he is risen from the dead, therefore mighty works are wrought by him. For Herod had sent forth, and laid hold upon John, and cast him into prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, whom he had married. For John said unto Herod, Thou hast no right to have thy brother's wife. And Herodias avoided him, and desired to kill him; and she could not; for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous man, and a holy; and he used to keep him safe, and hear him much, and do, and obey him gladly. And when he wished to put him to death, he feared the people, because they counted him as. a prophet. And there occurred a festival; for Herod on his birthday made a feast to his great men and to the officers and the chief men of Galilee; and the daughter of Herodias came in and danced in the midst of the assembly, and fascinated Herod and them that reclined at meat with him; and the king said unto the damsel, Ask of me what thou wilt, and I will give it thee. And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it, unto the half of my kingdom. And she went out, and said unto her mother, What shall I ask of him? She said unto her, The head of John the Baptist. And she came in straightway with haste unto the Tatian seems to have added the words, " but others Jeremiah," to the opinions which Herod heard about Jesus, copying them from the opinions which the disciples had heard about Him. Cf. xxiii. .


. J$ king, and said unto him, I will that in this hour thou give me in a dish the head of John the Baptist. And the king was exceed- ing sorry; but for the sake of the oath, and of the guests, he would not deny her. But straightway the king sent forth an executioner, and commanded that the head of John should be brought : and he went and cut off the head of John in the prison, and brought it upon a dish, and handed it to the damsel; and the damsel gave it to her mother. And when his disciples heard thereof, they came and took up his body, and buried it: and they came to tell Jesus what I b had happened. For this cause Herod had said, John I beheaded : who is this, about whom I hear these things? and he wished to see him. Now Jesus when he had heard a it, withdrew from thence in a boat to a desert place apart, to the other side of the sea of i b Galilee of Tiberius. And many saw them going, and recognised them; and hurrying on foot from all the cities went thither before them; because they saw b the signs which he did on the sick. Jesus therefore went up into the mountain, and there he sat with his disciples. Now the feast of the passover of the Jews was very near. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and saw a a great multitude coming unto him; and he b had compassion on them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and he I i b welcomed them, and spake to them of the kingdom, and them that had need of healing, he healed. And when even was come, the s disciples came to him, saying, The place is desert, and the time is already past; send away the multitudes of men, that they may Or, "by himself;" cf. ver. . Cf. xxxii. . This seems the right place for the extract.

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go into the .surrounding farms and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. But he said unto them, They have no need to go away; give ye them to eat. They said unto him, We have ij a none here. He said unto Philip, Whence b may we buy bread, that these may eat? And this he said proving him : for he him self knew what he was about to do. Philip said unto him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one may take a little. One of his disciples, to wit Andrew, the brother of Simon Cephas, said unto him, There is a lad here, which hath five barley loaves, and two fishes : but this amount, what is it for all these? but b wilt thou that we go and buy for all the people what they may eat? for we have no more than these five loaves and two fishes. Now there was much grass in that place. Jesus said unto them, Arrange them all, so that they may sit upon the grass by companies of fifty each. And the disciples did so. And they all reclined by companies, a hundred each, and fifty each. Then Jesus saith unto them, Bring hither those five loaves and the two fishes. And when they had brought them, Jesus took the loaves and the fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and the disciples set i() b before the multitudes the bread and the fish. And they did all eat and were filled. a And when they were filled, he said to his disciples, Gather up the broken pieces which remain over, that nothing be lost. And they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with the broken pieces, which remained over from them that had eaten out And parallel passages.


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of the five barley loaves and the two fishes. And they that had eaten were five thousand men, besides the women and children. And straightway he constrained his dis- ciples to go up into the boat, and to go before him across the sea to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitudes away. Now those men that had seen the sign which Jesus had done, said, This is of a truth a prophet that hath come into the world. And Jesus, knowing of their intention to come to take him by force, and make him king, left them, and went up into the mountain, himself alone, to pray. And when it was become late, his dis ciples went down unto the sea, and sitting in a boat they came across the sea unto Capernaum. And darkness prevailed, and Jesus had not come to them. Now the sea was swelling against them on account of a violent wind blowing : and the boat was many furlongs distant from the land, and they were much tossed about by the waves; for they had a contrary wind. And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus came unto them, walking upon the water. After they s had with difficulty made way about five and twenty or thirty furlongs, and when he had come nigh unto their boat, his disciples saw him walking on the water; and they were troubled, thinking that it was an apparition; and they cried out for fear. And straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. And Cephas answered, and said unto him, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee upon the So in some versions, including the Curetonian and Peschito; but cf. John vi. , from which Tatian may have taken it. Cf. also the margin of the Revised Version. Lit. " distressed." Lit. " delusive appearance."

yS . waters. And Jesus said unto him, Come. And Cephas went down from the boat, and walked upon the water, to come to Jesus. But when he saw the wind was strong, he was afraid; and when he was near to sink, he lifted up his voice, and said, Lord, save me. And immediately the Lord stretched forth his hand, and took hold of him, and said unto him, thou of little faith, where fore didst thou doubt? And when Jesus had come near, he went up into the boat, himself and Simon, and immediately the wind ceased. And they that were in the >Z boat came, and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God. And i b straightway the boat arrived at the land, to which they were going. And when they / were come out of the boat unto the land, they marvelled greatly one with another, and b were amazed among themselves; for they had not understood concerning that bread, because their heart was hard. And when the people of that country b perceived the arrival of Jesus, they ran about that whole land, and began to bring on their beds those that were sick, where they heard that he was. And whithersoever he entered into villages and into cities, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch even the fringe of his garment: and as many as touched him were made sound and whole. On the next day the multitude that stood on the other side of the sea, beheld, and there was no other boat there save that, into which the disciples had gone up; and they beheld that Jesus had not gone up with Tatian seems to have omitted the mention of Gennesareth (Mark vi. and Matt. xiv. ) as superfluous after the mention of Bethsaida in xviii. .

He slightly transposes S. Mark for better order of the combined narrative.


. his disciples into the boat; but there were other boats from Tiberias nigh unto the place, where they had eaten the bread, when Jesus blessed it. When the multitude therefore saw that Jesus was not there, nor his disciples, they went up into those boats, and came to Capernaum, and sought Jesus. And when they had found him on the other side of the sea, they said unto him, Master, when earnest thou hither? Jesus answered, and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto ' you, Ye have not sought me, because ye saw the signs, but because ye ate of the bread, and were filled. Work not for the food which perisheth, but for the food which abideth unto eternal life, which the Son of man shall give unto you : him God the Father hath sealed. They said unto him, What shall we do, that we may work the work of God? Jesus answered, and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe in him whom he hath sent. They said unto him, What sign hast thou done, that we might see and believe in thee? what hast thou wrought? Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, as it is written, He gave them bread out of heaven to eat. Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not the bread out of heaven; but my Father gave you the true bread out of heaven. The bread of >Z God is that which came down out of heaven, and giveth life unto the world. They said unto him, Lord, give us this bread always. Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life : he that cometh to me shall not hunger, and he that believeth in me shall never thirst. But I said unto you, Ye $ have seen me, and have not believed. EveryJ Or, "in." THE DlATESSAROtf.

thing which my Father hath given me shall come unto me; and him that cometh to me I will not cast out. For I am come down from heaven not to do mine own will, but to do the will of him that sent me. And this is the will of him that sent me, that I should lose nothing of what he hath given me, but should raise it up in the last day. This is the will of my Father, that every one that seeth the Son, and believeth in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up in the last day. The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he had said, I am the bread which came down out of heaven. And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? how then doth this man say, Surely I am come down out of heaven? Jesus answered, and said unto them, Murmur not with one another. No man can come to me, unless the Father which sent me draw him : and I will raise him up in the last day. It is written in the prophet, They shall all be taught of God. Everyone that listeneth to the Father, and learneth from him, cometh unto me. Not that any man seeth the Father, save he which is from God : he it is that seeth the Father. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth in me hath eternal life. I am the bread of life. Your fathers did eat the manna in the wilderness, and they died. This is the bread which cometh down out of heaven, that a man may eat thereof and not die. I am the bread of life which came down out of heaven: and if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and This is made the commencement of John vi. (us in the Vulgate), and the numbers of the remaining verses of John vi. are increased by one.


the bread which I will give, is my body, which I will deliver up for the life of the world. The Jews therefore strove one with another, saying, How can he give us his body to eat? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the body of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye shall not have life in yourselves. He that eateth of my body, and drinketh of my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up in the last day. My body is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. He that eateth my body, and drinketh my blood, abideth in me, and I in him. Even as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, he that eateth me, he also shall live because of me. This is the bread which came down from heaven : but not in that way wherein your fathers did eat manna, and died : he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever. This said he in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. And many of his disciples, when they heard this, said, Surely this saying is hard; who can hear it? But Jesus, knowing in himself that his disciples murmured about this, said unto them, Doth this cause you to stumble? What then if ye see the Son of man ascending to the place, where he was before? It is the spirit that quickeneth; but the body profiteth nothing : the saying that I speak unto you is spirit and life. But some of you do not believe. For Jesus knew beforehand who they were that believeth not, and who would betray him. And he saith unto them, For this cause Or, "questioned." Lit. "what is eaten." Lit. " what is drunk."

? .

have I said unto you, No man can come unto me, except this be given unto him of the Father. And because of this word many of the disciples turned back, and walked not with him. Jesus said therefore unto the twelve, Do ye also wish to go away? Simon Cephas answered, and saith, Lord, to whom shall we go? thou hast x the words of eternal life. And we have believed, and know that thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. Jesus said unto them, Did not I choose you, the twelve, and one of you is a devil? He said this because of Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, who, being one of the twelve, was going to betray him. And as he spake, a certain Pharisee came, and asked him to eat with him : and he went in and lay down to meat. And the Pharisee, when he saw him, marvelled that he had not first purified himself, before he ate. Jesus saith unto him, Now do ye Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, and think that ye are clean; but the inside of yourselves is full of un righteousness and wickedness. Ye foolish ones, did not he that made that which is outside, make that which is inside also? Now give your substance as alms, and all things are clean unto you. And there came up to him Pharisees and scribes from Jerusalem; and when they had seen that some of his disciples ate their bread without having washed their hands, they found fault with them. For all the Jews and Pharisees, unless they wash their hands thoroughly, eat not, because they hold to the tradition of the elders: and that which is bought from the market, except Or, " with thee are," Lit. " before his eating.'

. they wash it, they eat not : and many other things they keep of those which they have received in the way of washings of cups, and measures, and brazen vessels, and couches, And the scribes and Pharisees asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the traditions of the elders, but eat bread with out having washed their hands? Jesus answered, and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God because of your tradition? God said, * Honour thy father and mother: and, Who- lO b soever shall reproach his father or his mother, let him die the death : but ye say, II If a man shall say to his father or to his mother, Whatsoever thou receivest from me is a sacred gift, then he is free. And ye do not allow him to do anything for his father or his mother. And ye make vain and reject the word of God because of the tradition which ye have delivered. And ye command about the washing of cups and pots : and many such like things ye do. For leaving the commandment of God, ye a hold fast the tradition of men. Do ye well, when ye transgress against the commandment of God, that ye may keep your tradition? Ye hypocrites, well did Isaiah the prophet prophesy of you, saying, This people honoureth me with their lips; But their heart is very far from me. But in vain do they reverence me, Teaching the commandments of men. And Jesus called unto him the whole multi- tude, and said unto them, Hear me all of you, and understand: there is nothing out- side the man that, going into him then, can defile him: but that which proceedeth out The Arabic is corrupt : a change in the pointing only solves the difficulty.

But cf . . of him, that is what defileth the man. If any man hath ears to hear, let him hear. Then his disciples came near, and said nnto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees that heard this saying, were filled with indigna tion? He answered, and said unto them, Every planting which my Father, which is in the heavens, planted not, shall be rooted up. Let them alone: for they, whilst they are blind, lead the blind. And if a blind man guide a blind man, both fall into a pit. And when Jesus had entered into the I J a house from the multitude, Simon Cephas asked him, saying unto him, Lord, explain unto us this parable. He saith unto them, Do ye also so comprehend not? Understand ye not that everything entering the man from without cannot render him un clean; because it entereth not into his heart; it goeth into his stomach only, and from thence is cast out in purgation, which maketh all meats clean? That which proceedeth out of a man's mouth, cometh forth out of the heart; and this is what defileth the man. From within, out of the heart of men, evil thoughts proceed, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, murders, injustice, wickedness, deceit, folly, an evil glance, railing, pride, foolish ness : all these evil things proceed from within out of the heart; and these are what defile the man. But if any one eat b without having washed his hands, he is not defiled. And Jesus went out thence, and came j M ^ \ into the borders of Tyre and Sidon. And he entered into a house, and was unwilling that any one should know about him: and he could not be hid. For straight . way a woman of Canaan heard of him, whose daughter had an unclean spirit. And the woman was a Gentile from a Emesa of Syria. And she came out, b and cried after him, saying, Have mercy on me, Lord, thou son of David; my daughter is very grievously vexed with a • devil. And he answered her not a word. And his disciples came near, and besought him, saying, Send her away, for she crieth after us. He answered, and said unto them, I was not sent but unto the sheep that have wandered from the house of Israel. But she came and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me, have mercy on me. Jesus said unto her, It is not good that the children's bread should be taken, and cast to the dogs. But she said, Yea, Lord : even the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table, and live. Then Jesus saith unto her, woman, great is thy faith : be it done unto thee even as thou wilt. Go, and for this saying the devil is gone out of thy daughter. And her daughter was healed in that hour. And the woman went away unto her house, and found her daughter laid upon the bed, and that the devil was gone out of her. And again Jesus went out from the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and came unto the sea of Galilee, towards the borders of Decapolis. And they brought unto him a deaf and dumb man; and sought from him Lit. Hims, the chief city of Phoenicia, now called Horns. " Hims of Syria " may have come into the text from a corrupt reading of the Syriac for " Syro-Phoenician." The name Justa is given to this woman in the Clementine Homilies; and as the quotations from the gospel narrative in that work appear to have been taken from the Diatessaron, the name Justa may have been put there by Tatian. Omitting Mark vii. , " Let the children first be filled."

J


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JJ a

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that he would lay his hand upon him, and heal him. And leading him out from the multitude, he went away by himself, and spitting on his own fingers, put them into his ears, and touched his tongue; and looking up into heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him, Be opened. And in that hour his ears were opened, and the bond of his tongue was loosed, and he spake readily. And Jesus charged them much, that they should tell this to no man : and all things, which he forbade them, they published the more. And they were much astonished, saying, He doeth all things well : he hath made even the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak. And as he was passing through the land of Samaria, he came to a city of the Samaritans, that is called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph : and Jacob's spring of water was there. And Jesus, being wearied with the toil of his journey, sat by the spring. The time was about the sixth hour. And there came a woman of Samaria to draw water : Jesus said unto her, Give me water, that I may drink. Now his disciples were gone into the city to buy themselves food. The Samaritan woman therefore said unto him, How dost thou, since thou art a Jew, ask of me, which am a Samaritan woman, to give thee to drink? (For Jews have no MS. W d has a similar reading. Tatian seems to make this happen on the way from Galilee to Judaea, if we connect it with the opening of this chapter — this is the reverse of S. John's order (John iv. ). Yet at the close of this visit (xxi. ) Jesus departs from Sychar to Galilee, as in S. John's Gospel. Perhaps we should rather understand an interval between ver. and , during which Jesus has gone to Judaea, so that he is now on his return journey. So Ephraem. Added by Tatian for explanation, not to support Encratile views.


THE DIATESSAROM. Sy dealings with Samaritans.) Jesus answered, io and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that said to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee the water of life. The woman said unto him, Sir, thou hast no bucket, and the well is deep : from whence hast thou the water of life? Art thou greater than our father Jacob, who gave us this well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle? Jesus answered, and said unto her, Every one that drinketh of this water shall thirst again : but whosoever drinketh of the water, that I shall give him, shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him, shall become in him a spring of water springing up unto eternal life. The woman said unto him, Sir, give me of this water, that I thirst not again, nor come to draw from hence. Jesus said unto her, Go, and call thy husband, and come hither. She said unto him, I have no husband. Jesus said unto her, Thou saidst well, I have no husband: thou hast had five husbands; and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband: and in this thou spakest truly. The woman said unto him, Sir, I see that thou art a prophet. Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that at Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship. Jesus said unto her, woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, shall ye worship the Father. Ye worship that which ye know not: but we worship that which we know : for salva tion is from the Jews. But the hour shall come, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth : John iv. is made to begin here as in the Vulgate.

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for the Father also seeketh such worshippers. For God is a Spirit: and they that worship him, must worship him in spirit and truth. The woman said unto him, I know that the Messiah will come : when therefore he is come, he will teach us all things. Jesus said unto her, I that speak with thee, am he. And meanwhile his disciples came, and marvelled how he was speaking with a woman: yet no one of them said unto him, What seekest thou? or, Why speakest thou with her? And the woman left her waterpot, and went away into the city, and said to the men, Come, and see a man which told me all things that I have done. Perhaps he is the Messiah? And some went out of the city, and came to him. In the meanwhile his disciples besought him, saying unto him, Master, eat. But he said unto them, I have food to eat, that ye know not. The disciples therefore said one to another, Hath any man brought him what he could eat? Jesus said unto them, My food is to do the will of him that sent me, and to accomplish his work. Say not ye, that there are yet four months, and the harvest will come? behold, I say unto you, lift up your eyes, and see the countries, that they are white; for the harvest is come before the time. And he that reapeth receiveth his hire, and gathereth the fruit of life eternal; and he that soweth, and he that reapeth, rejoice together. For herein J is the saying true, There is one that soweth, and there is another that reapeth. I sent ^ you to reap that whereon ye have not laboured : others have laboured, and ye have entered into their labours. And from that city many of the Samari Lit. " herein is the saying of truth found."

. tans believed on him because of the word of the woman, who bare witness and said, He told me all things that I have done. And when the Samaritans were come unto him, they besought him to abide with them : and he abode with them two days. And many believed on him because of his speech; and they said to the woman, Now we be- ., lieve on him, not because of thy saying : for we ourselves have heard, and know that this is indeed the Messiah, the Saviour of the world. And after the two days Jesus went forth from thence, and departed into Galilee. And * Jesus testified that a prophet hath no honour in his own country. When a therefore he was come unto Galilee, the Galilaeans received him. And when Jesus was come to a certain village, there came near unto him a man full of leprosy : and falling down at his feet, he besought him, saying, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. And Jesus had com- passion on him, and stretched forth his hand, and touched him, and said, I will that thou be made clean. And straightway the leprosy departed from him, and he was made clean. And he strictly charged him, and sent him out, and said unto him, See thou tell no man : but go thy way, show thyself to the priests, and offer for thy cleansing an offering, even as Moses commanded, for their testimony. But he went out, and began to a publish it much, and to spread abroad the Instead of " For." Professor Fuller, in his article on Tatian in Smith's Dictionary of CJiristian Biography, suggests that this miracle may have been put so late as a continuation of the subject of cleansing begun at xx. , and which he thinks has been going on in different forms ever since. The Codex Fuldensis has it earlier.

THE DATESSARN.

news, insomuch that Jesus could not openly enter into any of the cities, because his fame was spread abroad exceedingly, but he was without in a desert place : and much people b came to him from many places to hear his word, and to be healed of their infirmities. And he withdrew himself from them into the desert, and prayed. After that there was a feast of the Jews, i and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. Now there was at Jerusalem a place prepared for bathing, which is called in Hebrew House of Mercy, having five porches. In these lay a great multitude of them that were sick, blind, lame, and withered, waiting for the moving of the water. For the angel went down at fixed seasons into the place of bathing, and moved the water. And the first who should go down after the movement of the water, all the infirmities that were in him were cured. And a certain man was there, that was already suffering from a disease for thirty and eight years. When Jesus saw him lying, and had learnt that he had it a long time, he said unto him, Wishest thou to be made whole? The sick man answered, and said, Yea, Lord, I have no man, when the water is moved, to put me into the bath : but while I am coming, another passeth before me, and goeth down. Jesus said unto him, Arise, take up thy bed, and walk. And straightway the man was made whole, and arose, and took up his bed, and walked. Now that day was Repeated xxx. . " Bait ar Rahma "—the Arabic equivalent of the Syriac Bethesda, which the translator should have left unchanged, especially after saying "in Hebrew." Or, " season after season; " lit. " in the season after the season." Lit. " had a long time."

. the sabbath. And when the Jews saw him that had been healed, they said unto him, It is the sabbath day: thou hast no right to take up thy bed. He answered, and said unto them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take up thy bed, and walk. They asked him therefore, Who is the man that said unto thee, Take up thy bed, and walk? But he that had been made whole, knew not who it was: for Jesus turned aside from that place into another because of the press of the multitude, which was there. And after two days Jesus met him in the temple, and said unto him, Behold, thou art whole, sin no more, lest something worse befall thee. And the man went away and told the Jews, that it was Jesus, who made him whole. For these things did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to kill him, because he did these things on the sabbath. But Jesus said unto them, My Father worketh until now, and I also work. And for this especially the Jews sought to kill him, not only because he brake the sabbath, but also because he said God was his Father, and made himself equal with God. Jesus answered, and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but whatsoever he seeth the Father doing: whatsoever the Father doeth, this the Son also doeth in like manner. The Father loveth his Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth : and greater works than these will he shew him, that ye may marvel. For even as the Father raiseth the dead, and quickeneth them, so the Son also quickeneth whom he will. For neither doth the Father judge any man, but he hath given all judg Lit. "exempt" Or, "cast out." . ment unto the Son; that all may honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. And he that honour eth not the Son honoureth not the Father which sent him. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth him that sent me, hath eternal life, and shall not come into judgment, but shall pass from death unto life. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour shall come, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and who soever hear shall live. For even as the Father hath life in himself, so gave he to the Son also to have life in himself: and also authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of man. Marvel not at this: namely the arrival of the hour, in which all that are in the tombs shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; but they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of judgment. I can of myself do nothing: but even as I hear, I judge : and my judgment is righteous. I seek not mine own will, but the will of him that sent me. If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true. It is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he beareth of me is true. Ye have sent unto John, and he hath borne witness unto the truth. But I seek not witness from man : howbeit I say this, that ye may be saved. He was the lamp that burnetii and shineth : and for the while ye were willing to boast in his light. But I have witness greater than that of John : the works which the Father hath given me to accomplish them, the very works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me. And

. the Father which sent me, himself hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his form. And his word is not confirmed in you : for whom he sent, him ye believe not. Seek ye the scriptures, in which ye boast that ye have eternal life; and they are they which bear witness of me; and ye are unwilling to come to me, that ye may have eternal life. I seek not glory from men. But I know you, that the love of God is ., not in you. I am come in my Father's name, and ye received me not : but if another come in his own name, him ye will receive. How can ye believe, which receive glory one of another, and seek not glory from the only God? Think ye that I am going to accuse you to the Father? there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye boast. If ye had believed Moses, ye would have believed me also; of me Moses wrote. But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words? And Jesus departed thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee; and he went up into the mountain, and sat there. And * there came unto him great multitudes, having with them the lame, blind, dumb, withered, and many others, and they cast them down at the feet of Jesus : for they had seen all the signs that he did at Jerusalem, when they were assembled on the feast day : and b he healed them all : and the multitudes wondered, when they saw the dumb speaking, the withered healed, the lame walking, and the blind seeing : and they magnified the God of Israel. Or, " seeing that ye." A passing remark of the evangelist, which Tatian displaced to improve the order.

. And Jesus called his disciples together, and said unto them, I have compassion on this multitude, because they are continuing with me three days, and have nothing to eat: and I am unwilling to send them away fasting, lest they faint in the way, for some of b them are come from far. His disciples said unto him, Whence should we have in the desert the bread, wherewith we may fill all this multitude? Jesus saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? They said unto him, Seven, and a few small fishes. And he commanded the multitudes to lie down on the ground; and he took the seven loaves and the fishes; and he blessed, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and the disciples set them before the multi tudes. And they did all eat, and were filled : and they took up seven baskets full, which remained over of the broken pieces. And they that did eat, were four thousand men, besides women and children. And when the multitudes were gone away, he went up into the boat, and came into the borders of Magheda. And the Pharisees and Sadducees came i a unto him, and began to question with him, ii b seeking of him, that he would show them a sign from heaven, tempting him. And I a Jesus sighed in himself, and said, What sign seeketh this evil and adulterous genera- b tion? it seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of Jonah the prophet. Verily I say unto I b you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation. And he sent them away, and went up into the boat; and they departed across the sea. With ver. - cf. xvi. -; see also notes to xiv. and . This is blended with Mark viii. .


. And his disciples forgot to take bread; for they had not even one loaf in the boat with them. And Jesus charged them, saying, Take heed, and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees, and of the leaven of Herod. But they reasoned among themselves, because they had taken no bread with them. And Jesus perceiving it said a unto them, ye of little faith, why reason ye within yourselves, and are anxious because J h ye have no bread? do ye not yet perceive, nor understand? is your heart still hard? Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, hear ye not? and do ye not remember, when I brake the five loaves unto the five thousand, how many baskets full of broken pieces ye took up? They said, Twelve. He said unto them, And again the seven unto the four thousand : how many baskets full of broken pieces took ye up? They said, Seven. He said unto them, How do ye j -^iq \ ^ not perceive, that I spake not to you concerning bread, but that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees? Then understood they how that he said not, that they should beware of the leaven of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees, which he called leaven. After these things he came unto Beth- saida; and they brought to him a certain blind man, and besought him to touch him. And he took hold of the blind man's hand, and brought him outside the village. And when he had spit on his eyes, and applied his own hand, he asked him, What seest thou? And the blind man looked up, and said unto him, I see men as trees walking. Arabic, " sinn." Arabic, " zumbil," a basket of palm leaves. No MSS. support this reading, which is evidently due to Tatian. Or, " considered." . And again he laid his hand upon his eyes, and they were restored, and he saw all things clearly. And he sent him away to his home, saying, Do not either enter into the village, or tell anyone in the same. And Jesus went forth and his disciples * into the villages of Caesarea Philippi: and as he was walking in the way, himself and his disciples apart, he asked his disciples, b saying, What do men say concerning me, that I, the Son of man, am? They said unto him, Some say John the Baptist; and some, Elijah; but others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. He said unto them, But ye, who say ye that I am? Simon Cephas answered, and said, Thou art the Messiah, the Son of the living God. Jesus answered, and said unto him, Blessed art thou Simon son of Jonah: flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in the heavens. And I say unto thee, that thou art the rock, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of the lower world shall not subdue it. I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven : and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. And he charged his disciples, and warned them, that they should tell no man concerning him, that he was the Messiah. And from that time Jesus began to show l a unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things, and be I b S. Luke supposes this question put shortly after the return of the twelve, who may very naturally have heard opinions expressed during their journey.

Tatian, however, preferred S. Matthew's order, which is supported by S. Mark. Cf, note to xviii. .


. rejected by the elders, and by the chief priests, and by the scribes, and be killed, and on the third day rise again. And he spake s clearly. And Simon Cephas, as if sympath- ising * with him, said, Be this far from thee, Lord: and he, turning about, and looking at * his disciples, rebuked Simon, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan : thou art a stumbling block unto me : for thou thinkest not those things which belong to God, but those which belong to men. And he called unto him the multitudes s with his disciples, and said unto them, He that wisheth to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and b follow me. And whosoever wisheth to save his life shall lose it; but whosoever loseth his life for my sake, and for the sake of my gospel, shall save it. What doth a man profit, if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul, or damage it? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? Whosoever shall deny me and my words in this sinful adulterous generation, the Son of man also shall deny him, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels. For the Son of man is about to come in the glory of his Father with his holy angels; and then shall he render unto every man according to his works. And he said unto them, Verily I say unto I you, there are indeed some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God coming in power, and the Son of man coming in his b kingdom. Or, "vexed." Called viii. as in the Vulgate, and all the verses from Mark ix. are numbered one less than in our Authorised Version; the numbers of the Authorised Version are given here.

THE DfATESSARON. And after six days Jesus took with him I Simon Cephas, and James, and John his brother, and brought them unto a high mountain, the three of them apart. And s as they were praying, Jesus was transfigured, and made into the form of another person, and his face did shine as the sun, ° and his raiment became exceeding white b as snow, and even as the brightness of lightning, so that nothing on earth can b become so white. And there appeared unto him Moses and Elijah talking with Jesus. And they thought that his decease, i b destined to be accomplished at Jerusalem, was already come. Now Simon and they that were with him were oppressed with the drowsiness of sleep, and they were scarcely awakened, and they saw his glory, and the two men that stood with him. And * when these had begun to depart from him, Simon saith unto Jesus, Master, it is a good thing that we are here : if thou wilt, let us b make here three tabernacles; one for thee, ° and one for Moses, and one for Elijah, not knowing what he said, because of the fear which had seized them. While he was yet saying this, thereupon a bright cloud over shadowed them : and when they had seen Moses and Elijah entering into the cloud, they feared again. And a voice was heard out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son, whom I have chosen; hear ye him. The Ferrar group of MSS. has this reading in Mark ix. , showing that those MSS. are influenced by the Diatessaron. Tatian used considerable freedom of harmonisation throughout this passage. " Him " is apparently an error of the Arabic for " them; " there is no such reading in any other MS. Or, " by an effort they wakened themselves." The Peschito has " Moses and Elijah; " and the Curetonian Syriac implies that they were the ones that entered the cloud. Cf. Revised Version, Luke ix. , "my chosen. '*


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b HE DIATESSARON. And when this voice was heard, Jesus was s found alone. And when the disciples heard the voice, they fell on their face for the fear which had seized them. And Jesus came, and touched them, and said, Arise, be not afraid. And lifting up their eyes they saw Jesus even as he was. And as they were coming down from the ,, mountain, Jesus commanded them, and said unto them, Tell no man what ye have seen, until the Son of man riseth again from the dead. And they kept the saying among io a themselves, and told no man in those days that which they had seen. And they io b reasoned among themselves, What is this word which he said unto us : When I shall have risen from the dead? And his disciples I i a asked him, saying, What is it then that the io b scribes say, that Elijah must first come? He saith unto them, Elijah will come first to restore all things; and how it was written of the Son of man that he should suffer many things and be rejected. But I say unto you, Elijah is come, and they knew him not, and did unto him whatsoever they wished, even as it is written of him. Even I b so the Son of man is going to suffer from them. Then understood the disciples, that he had spoken unto them of John the Baptist. And on the day whereon they came down from the mountain, there met him a multitude of many men, standing with his disciples; and the scribes were discussing with them. And when the men saw Jesus, Perhaps an allusion to "as he is" ( John iii. ). As these words are evidently due to Tatiau, this would imply that the first epistle of S. John was known to him. Or, Matt. xvii. *. Or, " put in order."

 a 

i b

 b 

j> a

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IOO .

they were terrified, and in the midst of their joy * saluted him. In that very day there came certain of the Pharisees, saying to him, Get thee out, and go hence: for Herod seeketh to kill thee. Jesus saith unto them, Go, and say to that fox, Behold, I cast out devils and perform cures to-day and to-morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected. Howbeit I must be careful to-day and tomorrow, and depart the day following : for a prophet cannot perish outside Jerusalem. And after that a man from the multitude came to him, and falling on his knees, said unto him, I beseech thee, O Lord, look upon my son; he is my only one : for a spirit cometh unexpectedly upon him, and he be cometh lunatic, and feeleth ill. And wheresoever it falleth in with him, it dasheth him down : and he foameth, and grindeth with his teeth, and trembleth. And oft-times it I C casteth him into the water and into the fire to destroy him: and it hardly departeth ° from him after it hath torn him. And I brought him to thy disciples, and they could not cure him. Jesus answered, and said, faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you? and how long shall I bear with you? bring thy son hither. And he brought him unto him: and when he saw him, straightway the spirit struck him; and falling on the ground, he raged and foamed. And Jesus asked his father, How Possibly due to a misreading of the Greek. Omitting Mark ix. , "And he asked the scribes, What question ye with them?" No reason is apparent for the insertion of this incident between the Transfiguration and the cure of the demoniac boy. Lit. "meeteth evil." * Or, "crieth out." Parts of ver. are called c and d in the Arabic.


. IOI long time is it during which he hath been so? And he said, From youth even until now : but wherein thou canst, Lord, help me, b and have compassion on me. Jesus saith unto him, If thou canst believe : then all things are possible to him that believeth. And straightway, weeping, the father of the H child cried out, saying, I believe, Lord; help thou my lack of faith. And when Jesus saw a running together of men, and their assembling together at the cry, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying unto him, Thou deaf spirit which speakest not, I command thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him. And the spirit the devil, crying out much, and rending him, went out : and the child fell as dead; and many thought that he was dead. But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up, and gave him to his father : and the boy was cured from that hour. And they were all astonished at the greatness of God. And when Jesus had entered into the house, his disciples came near, and questioning him between themselves and him, they said unto him, Why could not we cure him? Jesus said unto them, Because of your lack of faith : verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Eemove hence; and it shall remove; and nothing shall with stand you : for this kind can be cast out by nothing, save by fasting and prayer. And when he had gone forth from thence, they passed through Galilee; and he was unwilling that any man should know about him. And he taught his disciples, and said i a Lit. " the Satan." Cf. Matt. xvii. . Omitting Luke ix. b , " But while they wondered every one at all things that Jesus did."

a b i b

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unto them, Keep ye these sayings in your s ears and hearts. For the Son of man shall i b be delivered up into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and when he is killed, he shall rise again on the third day. But they knew not the word, which he said unto them, for it was hidden from them, that they should not understand it: and they were afraid to ask him about this matter. And they were exceeding sorry. ^ h In that day this questioning arose among the disciples, for they said, Who of them was the greater? And when they were come to Capernaum, and had entered into the house, Jesus saith unto them, What were ye reasoning among yourselves in the way? But they held their peace, since * they had reasoned about this. And when Simon was gone outside, they b that received the didrachma * of the tribute, came to Cephas, and said unto him, Doth not your master pay the didrachma? x He saith unto them, Certainly. And when Cephas had entered into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying unto him, What thinkest thou, Simon? the kings of the earth, from whom do they receive toll and tribute? from their sons, or from strangers? Simon said unto him, From strangers. Jesus said unto him, Therefore the sons are free.

Simon saith unto him, Yea. Jesus said unto him, Give thou also unto them as if a stranger. And lest it should distress them, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook; and when thou hast opened the mouth of the fish that first cometh up, thou shalt find a stater : that take, and give it for me and thee. In that hour came the disciples unto Jesus, and said unto hiin, Who, think you, Lit. "two dirhems." * Found in Codex Algerinae Peckover

. is the greater in the kingdom of the heavens? But Jesus, knowing the reason- * ings of their heart, called a child, and set him in the midst : and taking him into his arms, he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, Except ye turn, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens. Whosoever receiveth one * like this child in my name, receiveth me : and whosoever receiveth me, receiveth not ** me, but him that sent me: for he that is ° less among you all, the same is greater. But whosoever causeth one of these little ones which believe in me, to stumble, it were better for him if a great millstone should be hanged about his neck, and he should be sunk into the depth of the sea. John answered, and said, Teacher, we saw some one casting out devils in thy name; and we forbade him, because he followeth thee not with us. Jesus saith unto them, Forbid him not : for there is no man that doeth mighty works in my name, and is able quickly to speak evil of me. Everyone that is not against you is with you. Woe unto the world because of strifes ! x but woe to that man through whom the strife cometh ! If thy hand or thy foot causeth thee to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from thee : for it is better for thee to enter into life lame or maimed, than having two hands or two feet to be cast into the fire kindled for ever, where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not quenched. And if thine eye g a Omitting "for it must needs be that offences come." Aphraates here inserts before the missing part, " It must needs be that good come, and blessed be he by whom it cometh." It seems probable that some one struck out this latter, and in doing so erased too much. That it was originally in the Diatessaron is the more probable, as it occurs in the Clementine Homilies, xii. .

.

incite thee to strife, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is better for thee to enter \*j° into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes to fall into the fire of Gehenna, where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not quenched. Everyone shall be salted with fire; and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. How good is salt ! o a but if even the salt have lost its savour, b wherein shall it be salted? It is fit neither for the land nor for the dung; but it is cast out. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. Let there be salt in yourselves, and Mk, ° be ye at peace one with another. And he arose from thence, and came into I the borders of Judaea beyond Jordan : and great multitudes came unto him thither, and he healed them; and, as he had been wont, he taught them again. And there came unto him Pharisees, to tempt him, and say unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? He said, What did Moses "command you? They said, Moses gave us permission that, if any man wished, he might . write a certificate of divorcement, and put away his wife. Jesus answered, and said a unto them, Have ye not read this, He which b made them from the beginning, made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and they both shall be one body? So that now they are not two, but one body. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. The Pharisees said unto him, Why did Moses consent that a certificate of S. Mark's order is here preferred to S. Matthew's. The journey referred to at xxviii. is the same, according to the evangelists; yet between the two statements of it Jesus is represented as walking in Galilee (xxvii. ).

? Omitting Matt. xix. , " for every cause."

. divorcement should be given, and she should be put away? Jesus saith unto them, Moses for the hardness of your heart gave you permission to put away your wives : but in the beginning it was not so. I say unto * you, Whosoever shall put away his wife without fornication, and shall marry another, exposeth her to adultery. And when he had entered into the house, his disciples asked him also about the same thing. And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, exposeth her to adultery: and if a woman shall put away her husband, and marry another, she committeth adultery: and whosoever marrieth her b when she is put away, committeth adultery. His disciples said unto him, If between a husband and a wife there is such blame, it is not expedient for a man to marry a wife. He said unto them, All men do not endure II this saying, but he to whom it was given. There are eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb : and there are eunuchs, which were made so by men : and there are eunuchs, which made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of the heavens. He that is able to refrain, let him refrain. Then were there brought unto him little s children, that he should lay his hand on them, and pray : and the disciples rebuked b those that were bringing them. When Jesus saw it, it grieved him, and he saith unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not : for of such is the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as this little child, he shall not enter into it. And he took them up into his arms, ., and blessed them, laying his hand upon them.

. And the publicans and sinners drew near I unto him, to hear his word. And the scribes and Pharisees murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them. And Jesus, when he had perceived their murmuring, said unto them this parable, What man of you that hath a hundred sheep, if one of them wander, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go and seek the straying one, until he find it? Verily I say unto you, When he findeth it, b he rejoiceth over it more than over the ninety and nine which did not go astray. And he b layeth it on his shoulders, and bringing it home, he calleth together his friends and neighbours, saying unto them, Eejoice with me, for I have found my straying sheep. Even so your Father, which is in the heavens, willeth not that one of these little ones should perish, whom after erring he calleth to repentance. I say unto you, that even so there shall be joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth,more than over ninety and nine righteous persons, which need no repentance. And what woman having ten drachmas, and losing one of them, doth not light a lamp, and sweep the house, and seek it dili gently until she find it? And when she findeth it, she calleth together her friends and neighbours, saying unto them, Eejoice with me, for I have found my drachma, which was lost. I say unto you, that even o so there shall be joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine righteous persons, which need no repentance. Identified with Matt, xviii. -, and put with it into a position due to the preference of S. Mark's order noticed at xxv. . This clause has evidently been copied from Luke xv. , where alone this allusion to ninety-nine is appropriate.


. ioy And again Jesus saith unto them another o parable, A certain man had two sons : and the younger said unto him, Father, give me my portion of thy property that falleth to me.

And he divided unto them his substance. And after a few days the younger son gathered all together that belonged to him, and took his journey into a far country : and there he squandered his substance in living extravagantly. And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that country, and he was reduced to want, and went and joined himself unto one of the citizens of that country; and he sent him into a field to feed swine. And he longed to fill his ., belly with the pods that those swine were eating : and no man gave unto him. But when he came to himself, he said, How many now of hired servants in my father's house abound in bread, and I am perishing with hunger ! I will arise and go to my father's house, and will say unto him, My father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight : I am not worthy now to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants. And he arose, and came to his father. But while he was yet afar off, his father saw him, and had compassion on him, and made haste, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. And his son said unto him, My father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight : and I am not worthy to be called thy son. His father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and with shoes clothe his feet : and bring the fatted calf, and kill it, that we may eat, and make merry: for this my son was dead, and is alive; he was lost, and is found. iAnd they began to feast. Now his elder son was hi the field : and as he came, .

and drew nigh to the house, he heard the sound of the singing of many. And he called one of the lads, and asked him, What is this? He said unto him, Thy brother hath arrived; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath found him well. And he was angry, and would not go in : and his father came out, and intreated him to enter. But he said to his father, So many years do I serve thee as a slave; and I never transgressed thy commandment : and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might feast with my friends : and after this thy son came, having squandered thy substance with harlots, thou killedst for him the fatted calf. His father said unto him, My son, thou art ever with me, and all mine is thine. But it was meet to rejoice and to feast, since this thy brother, that was dead, is now alive : and that was lost, hath been found. And he spake a parable unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man, and he had a steward, and he was denounced unto him, that he had wasted his substance. His lord therefore called him, and saith unto him, What is this that I hear of thee? give me the account of thy stewardship; for now thou wilt not be able to be my steward. The steward saith within himself, What shall I do, seeing that my lord taketh away the stewardship from me? I cannot dig; and to beg I am ashamed. I know what I will do, that when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. Therefore calling unto him each one of his lord's debtors, he said unto the first, How much owest thou unto my lord? He said unto him, A hundred jars of oil. He said Or, " canst not be my steward." Or, " vessels."

unto him, Take thy bond, sit down, and write quickly fifty jars. And he said to the next, but how much owest thou unto my lord? He said unto him, A hundred cors of wheat. He said unto him, Take thy account, sit down and write fourscore cors. And his lord commended the steward of unrighteousness, because he had done a wise deed : for the sons of this world are in their own generation wiser than the sons of the light. And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends from the money of this unrighteousness; that, when it shall fail, they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles. He that is faithful over a little is faithful also in much : and he that is unrighteous over a little is unrighteous also in much. If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous money, who will commit to your trust the true? If therefore ye have not been found faithful in that which is not your own, who will give you what is your own? Therefore have I likened the kingdom of the heavens unto a certain king, that wished to make a reckoning with his servants. And when he had begun to make it, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten talents. But as he had not wherewith to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. And the servant, falling down and worshipping, said unto him, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. And the lord of that servant had ., Or, "bill:" lit. "writing." A " cor " contained about gallons. s Or, " peculiar to you." In ver. - of this chapter Tatian has dealt very freely with the internal arrangement of passages relating to offences. Arabic " badra :" valued by some at , drachmas each.


IIO .

mercy, and released him, and forgave him his debt. But that servant went out and found one of his fellowservants, which owed him a hundred pence : and he laid hold on him, and treated him with hardness, saying, Give me what thou owest. And the fellowservant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Grant me delay, and I will satisfy thee. And he would not : but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt. And when the fellowservants of both saw what had happened, they were very displeased, and came and told unto their lord all that had been done. Then his lord called him unto him, and saith to him, Thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt because thou besoughtest me: shouldest not thou also have had mercy on thy fellow servant, even as I had mercy on thee? And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay everything that he owed. So shall also my Father which is in heaven do unto you, if a man forgive not his brother from his heart his trespasses. Take heed to yourselves: if thy brother sin, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him. And if he sin against thee seven times in the day, and seven times in the day turn again to thee, saying, I repent, forgive him. And if thy brother sin against thee, go and reprove him between thee and him alone : if he hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he hear thee not, take with thee one or two; for in the mouth of two or three every word standeth. And if he hear not even them, tell it unto the church : and if he hear not the church also, let him be unto thee as a publican and a heathen. Verily I say unto Or, " is confirmed."

THE DIATESSAROK III you, What things soever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven : and whatsoever ye loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Again I say unto you, If two of you shall agree on earth to ask anything, it shall be done for them by my Father which is in heaven. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Then Cephas came near, and said unto him, Lord, how often, if my brother sin against me, shall I forgive him? until seven times? Jesus said unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times; but, Until seventy times seven times. For the servant, which knew his Lord's will, and prepared not for him according to his will, shall be punished much; but he that knew not, and did something worthy of punishment, shall be punished little. And every one, to whom much is given, of him shall much be required: and every one, to whom much is committed, at his hand much will be sought. I came to cast fire upon the earth; and I could wish that it were already kindled. And I have a baptism to be baptized with; and I am much straitened till it be accomplished. See that ye despise not one of these little ones, which believe in me; verily I say unto you, Their angels always see the face of my father which is in heaven. The Son II of man came to save that which was lost. And after these things Jesus walked in I Galilee : for he would not walk in Judaea, because the Jews sought to kill him. Lit. " seventy times seven, seven." The Peschito adds " and seven times." Ephraem has " seventy times seven seven times." Addai alludes to this, saying, " Let your solicitude for the young lamba be great, for their angels behold the face of the invisible Father."

 .  Now there came some which told him of    I 

the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate mingled with their sacrifices. Jesus answered, and ,, said unto them, Think ye that these Galilaeans were sinners more than all the Galilaeans, so that this happened unto them? Nay: verily I say unto you, Except ye also all repent, ye shall in like manner perish. Or those eighteen, upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and killed them, think ye that they were guilty more than all the men that dwell in Jerusalem? Nay : verily I say unto you, Except ye all repent, ye also shall perish even as they. And he spake this parable unto them, A certain man had a fig-tree planted in his vineyard; and he came seeking fruit thereon, and found none. And he said unto the husbandman, Behold, for three years I come seeking fruit on this fig-tree, and find none : cut it down; why doth it leave the ground unoccupied? The husbandman said unto him, Sir, let it alone this year also, that I may dig about it, and dung it : and if indeed it bear fruit, well : but if not, next year cut it down. And when Jesus was teaching on the sabbath day in a certain synagogue, there was a woman there, which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years; and she was bowed together, and could not raise herself up. And when Jesus saw her, he called her, and saith unto her, woman, be set free from thine in firmity. And he laid his hand upon her : and immediately she was raised up, and glorified God. The ruler of the synagogue, being moved with indignation because Jesus had healed on the sabbath, answered and said to This passage seems correctly put before leaving Galilee for the Feast of Tabernacles.


. the multitudes, There are six days in which men ought to work : in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the day of the sabbath. But Jesus answering saith unto him, Ye hypocrites, doth not each one of you on the sabbath day loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and go away to give him water? Ought not this woman, that is a daughter of Abraham, and whom Satan hath bound for eighteen years, to have been loosed from this bond on the day of the sabbath? And as he said this, all his adversaries standing by were put to shame : and all the people rejoiced in all the marvellous things that were done by him. At that time the Jews' feast of Taber- Jm nacles was at hand. And the brethren of Jesus said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judaea, that thy disciples may see the works which thou doest. Surely no man doeth anything in secret, and wisheth to be known openly. If thou doest this, manifest thyself to the world. For until this time even the brethren of Jesus did not believe in him. Jesus said unto them, My time is not yet come; but your time is always ready. The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I bear witness of it, that its works are evil. Go ye up unto this feast : but I go not up now unto this feast, because my time is not yet accomplished. He said this, and remained in Galilee. But when his brethren were gone up unto io a the feast, he removed from Galilee, and came i b into the borders of Judaea beyond Jordan; } and great multitudes followed him; and he healed them all there. And he departed, I b and went to the feast, not openly, but like one who conceals himself. Now the Jews II Cf. note to xxv. .


ii THE DIATESSAROU sought him at the feast, and said, Where is he? And much murmuring took place there concerning him in the great multitude, which had come to the feast : for some said, He is good; and others said, Nay, but he leadeth the people astray. Howbeit no man spake an open word concerning him for fear of the Jews. But when the days of the feast of Tabernacles were now dividing in half, Jesus went up into the temple and taught. And the Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters, since he hath not learned? Jesus answered, and said, My teaching is not mine, but his that sent me. Whosoever desireth to do his will, he shall know my teaching, whether it be of God, or whether I speak from myself. He that speaketh from himself, seeketh glory for himself : but he that seeketh glory for him that sent him, is true, and unrighteousness is not found in his heart. Did not Moses give you the law, and no one of you keepeth the law? Why do ye seek to kill me? The multitude answered, and said unto him, Thou hast a devil: who seeketh to kill thee? Jesus answered, and said unto them, I did one work, and ye all marvel because of this.

Moses hath given you circumcision (not

that it is of Moses but of the fathers); and on the sabbath ye circumcise a man. And if a man is circumcised on the day of the sabbath, so that the law of Moses may not be broken; are ye wroth with me because I made an entire man whole on the day of the sabbath? Judge not according to appearance, but give a righteous decision. And some out of Jerusalem said, Is not Arabic, " sunna. n

this he whom they seek to kill? And lo,    

he spcaketh openly to them, and they say nothing unto him. Think you, that our elders know that this man is really the Messiah? But this man is known whence he is : now when the Messiah cometh, no man will know whence he is. But Jesus lifting up his voice, while he was teaching in the temple, said, Ye both know me, and know whence I am; and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not. But I know him; because I am from him, and he sent me. And they sought to take him : and no man laid his hand on him, because his hour was not yet come. "But of the multitude many „*■ believed in him; and they said, Will the Messiah when he cometh, do more signs than those which this man doeth? And a certain man out of that multi- tude said unto the Lord, Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me. Jesus said unto him, Man, who appointed me a judge and a divider over you? And he said unto his disciples, Beware of every evil: for life consisteth not in the abund ance of possessions. And he set this parable before them, The ground of a certain rich man brought forth abundant fruits : and he reasoned within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have not a place where I can collect my fruits? And he said, This will I do : I will pull down the buildings of my barns, and build again, and make greater ones; and there will I collect all my corn and my goods. And I will say to my soul, Repeated xxxiv. . This passage seems to have been asserted here on account of its similarity of subject with what follows at ver. , etc. It is thus made to appear as if the incident happened at the Feast of Tabernacles.

- .

Soul, thou hast many goods laid up for many years; take thine ease; eat, drink, enjoy thyself. God said unto him, destitute of understanding, this night thy soul shall be taken away from thee; and the things which . thou hast prepared, whose shall they be? So is he that layeth up treasures for himself, and is not rich toward God. And when Jesus had walked on his way, Mk^lO there came near to him a young man of the rulers, and fell upon his knees, and asked him, saying, Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may have eternal life? Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? whereas there is none good save one, even God. Thou knowest the commandnlents : , a if thou desirest to enter into life, keep the b commandments. The young man said unto i a him, Which commandments? Jesus said unto him, Do not commit adultery, Do not ig h steal, Do not kill, Do not speak false witness, Do not defraud, Honour thy father and thy mother, and, Love thy neighbour as thyself. The young man said unto him, All these things have I guarded from my youth : what is there then that I lack? And Jesus looking upon him loved him, and said unto him, If thou desirest to be perfect, one thing thou lackest, go away, sell all that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven : and take up thy cross, and follow me. At this word the young man frowned, and he went away Tatian here resumes the thread of the common order of S. Matthew and S. Mark, which he dropped at the close of xxv., but whether Jesus has meanwhile returned to the place, where they represent this as happening, viz. "the borders of Judaea beyond Jordan," is not made clear. Omitting " running." Arabic, " awamir." Arabic, " was-aya," primarily meaning a commission from one dying, but used also of the " ten commandments."

i b

))

I a


b

THE DIA TESSARON. sad; for he was very rich. And Jesus | L ^ \t seeing his sadness, looked towards his dis- ciples, and saith unto them, How difficult it is for them that have riches to enter into the kingdom of God ! Verily I say unto you, It is difficult for $ h a rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven. And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to press through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. And the dis- ciples were amazed at these words. But Jesus answered again, and said unto them, My children, how difficult it is for them that trust in their possessions to enter into the kingdom of God. And they that heard were the more astonished, saying among themselves, being now afraid, Who, think you, can be saved? And Jesus looking upon them, said unto them, With men this is not possible, but with God. God can do all things. Simon Cephas saith unto him, Lo, we have left all, and followed thee : what then shall we have? Jesus saith j^' *t unto them, Verily I say unto you, Ye which have followed me, in the new world when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, and shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel. Verily I say unto you, There is C) b no man that leaveth houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or kindred, or lands, for the kingdom of God's sake, or for my sake, and for my gospel's sake, and that doth not receive twice as many in this time and in the world to come inherit eternal life : now in this b time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecution; and in the world to come ever b

Il . lasting life. Many that are first shall be last; and the last first. And when the Pharisees had heard all these things, because they loved riches, they scoffed at him. But Jesus knowing what was in their hearts, said unto them, Ye are they that justify yourselves in the sight of men; but God knoweth your hearts : for that which is exalted among men, is small in the sight of God. And he began to say, A certain man was rich, and was clothed in silk and purple, and enjoyed himself surpassingly every day: and there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, who lay at the rich man's gate afflicted with sores, and longed to fill his belly out of the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table; so that the dogs came and licked his sores. And it happened that the beggar died, and the angels carried him into Abraham's bosom : and the rich man also died, and was buried. And while he was tormented in the lower world, he lifted up his eyes from afar off, and saw Abraham, and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried with a loud voice, and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may wet the tip of his finger with water, and moisten my tongue; for behold, I am scorched in this flame. Abraham said unto him, My son, remember that thou receivedst good things in thy lifetime, and Lazarus his calamities : but now behold, he resteth here, but thou art tormented. Add to all these things, that between us and you a great This passage appears to have been removed to this position for the purpose of comparing its teaching about the use of riches with that of the passages which here precede and follow it. The words "all these things" are thus applied differently. Cf. pp. , . Aphraates adds " and no man gave unto him; " cf. Luke xv. .


. I abyss hath been placed, so that they that wish to cross from hence to you may not be able, nor to cross over from thence to us. He said unto him, I beseech thee therefore, my father, to send him unto my father's house: for I have five brethren; that he may go, lest they also sin, and come into this place of torments. Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. He said unto him, Nay, my father Abraham : but if one of the dead go to them, they will re pent. Abraham saith unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, not even if one of the dead rise again, will they believe him. The kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vine yard. And when he had made an agreement with the labourers for a penny a day for each labourer, he sent them into his vine yard. And he went out about the third hour, and seeing others standing in the marketplace idle, he said unto them, Go ye also into my vineyard, and that which is fair I will give you. And they went their way. And again he went out at the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise, and sent them. And about the eleventh hour he went out, and finding others standing idle, he said unto them, Why stand ye all the day idle? They said unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He said unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and that which is fair ye shall Or, "is placed." Mr. Rendel Harris accounts for this peculiar reading as arising from the confusing of two similar Greek words. " And . . . receive is omitted in the Revised Version as deficient in MS. authority. It seems to have been added from the preceding verses to

ISO . receive. And when even was come, the lord S of the vineyard said unto his overseer, Call the labourers, and pay them their hire: begin indeed from the last, and continue until the first. And the labourers of the eleventh hour came and received every man a penny. And when the first were come, they supposed that they were going to receive more; but they also received every man a C penny. And when they received it, they murmured against the householder, saying, These last have laboured one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the scorching heat of the day and its burden. He answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong : didst not thou agree with me for a penny? Take up that , which is thine, and go thy way; but it is my will to give unto this last, even as I have given unto thee. Either have I not a right to do what I will about mine own business? or perchance is thine eye evil, because I am good? So the last shall be first, and the first last : many are called, and few chosen. And when Jesus entered into the house of a certain ruler of the Pharisees on a sabbath, day to eat bread, they were watch- \ \ ing him to see what he would do. And there * was before him a certain man which had the dropsy. Jesus answered, and said unto the lawyers and Pharisees, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath? But they held their peace. However he took him, and healed him, and let him go. And he said unto them, Of which of you shall a son or an ox fall into a well on a sabbath day, and he will, not straightway draw him up, and give make the eleventh hour correspond to the others mentioned. But, in fact, the eleventh was an exceptional hour, not being one of the regular quartets of the day. I '."

. \\ him to drink? And they could not answer him a word unto these things. And he set a parable before those which were bidden there, because he saw them choosing out the chief couches : When any one bids thee to a feast, do not go to recline in the chief place of the assembly; lest haply a more honourable man than thou be there, and he that bade you, come and say to thee, Give this man place; and thou be put to shame in the presence of them that stand by, and another place shall receive thee. But when thou art bidden, go and lie down last; that when he that hath bidden thee cometh, he may say to thee, Friend, go up higher : and thou shalt have glory in the presence of all them that are invited with thee. For everyone that exalteth himself j, II shall be humbled, and every one that humbleth; himself shall be exalted. And he said to him that had bidden him, When thou makest a supper or a breakfast, > ' call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, nor thy kinsmen, nor rich neighbours; lest haply they also bid thee, and a recompense be made thee. But when thou makest a feast, bid the poor, the weak, the lame, and the blind : and thou shalt be blessed; because , " they have not from whence they may recom- I pense thee : that thy recompense may be made in the resurrection of the righteous. : I ': When one of them that were bidden had heard these things, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. Jesus answering again in parables, said, T Cf. xxxii. taken from Luke xviii. , and xl. taken from Matt, xxiii. . Tatian is at variance with most modern harmonists in combining as one the two parables of S. Matthew and S. Luke. The position he assigns to the result is not at variance with S. Luke, but is earlier than S. Matthew places it.

. The kingdom of the heavens is likened unto a certain king, which made a feast for his son, and prepared a great banquet, and i b invited many : and he sent forth his servants at the time of the banquet to signify to them that were bidden, Come; for all things are ready for you: and they would not come. b But they all began with one mouth x to excuse themselves. The first saith unto them, Tell him, I have bought a farm, and I am obliged to go out to see it: I beseech thee, let me go, for I am excused. And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to look at them : I beseech thee to let me go, for I am excused. And another said, I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come. Again the king sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them that are bidden, My feast is prepared : my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready : come to the banquet. But they disregarded it, and went their ways, one to his farm, and an other to his merchandise : but the rest laid hold on his servants, and entreated them shamefully, and killed them. And one of l a the servants came, and told his lord that which had happened. But the king, when he heard it, was wroth; and he sent his armies, and they destroyed those murderers, and burned their cities. Then saith he to his servants, The banquet is ready; and they that were bidden were not worthy. Go out i b quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor and sick and lame and blind. And the servants did as the king had commanded them; and they came, and said unto him, Lord, we have done whatsoever thou didst command, and yet Or, " saying."

. there is room here. And the lord said unto * his servants, Go out into the highways and lanes and wider roads, and whomsoever ye g h shall find, invite to the banquet, and con- ** strain them to come in, that my house may be filled. I say unto you, that no one of those men which were invited shall taste of my breakfast. And the servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all that they found, good and bad : and the banqueting house was filled with those re clining. But when the king came in to see those reclining, he saw there a man not clothed in a wedding-garment: and he saith unto him, Friend, how earnest thou in hither not having a wedding-garment? And he was speechless. Then the king said to the M attendants, Bind his hands and feet, and cast him out into the outer darkness; there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. Many are called, and few chosen. After these things was the Jews' feast of i a unleavened bread; and Jesus went forth to go unto Jerusalem. And as he was making the journey there met him ten leprous men, which stood afar off : and they lifted up their cry, saying, Jesus, Master, have mercy on us. And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go and shew yourselves unto the priests. And when they went, they were cleansed. And one of them, when he saw that he was cleansed, turned back, and with a loud voice praised God; and he fell upon his face before the feet of Jesus, giving him thanks: and he was a Samaritan. Jesus ij answered, and said, Were not they that were cleansed ten? and the nine, where are they? Repeated from xxii. with variation. Part only, and varied. Varied : omitting " through the midst of Samaria and Galilee." Or, " going in the way."

t . Not even one of them hath turned aside to come and give glory to God, save this one, who is of an alien tribe. He saith unto him, Arise, go thy way: thy faith hath made thee whole. And as they were in the HO way, going up to Jerusalem, Jesus was going before them : and they were amazed; and they were following him afraid. And he took ' his twelve disciples apart, and began to make known to them, between himself and them, the things that were going to ) happen unto him. For he saith unto them, i b We are going up to Jerusalem, and all the things that are written in the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished. He shall be delivered unto the chief priests and the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him unto the Gentiles : and they shall mock him, and scourge him, and shall spit into his face : they shall condemn him : they shall crucify and kill him: and the third day he shall ! rise again. And they understood none of these things; but this saying was hid from them, and they knew not these things that ,; were said. Then came near to him the mother of

I the sons of Zebedee, herself and both her

sons, and worshipped him, and asked something of him. He said unto her, What wilt i a thou? And there came near unto him James and John, her sons, and said unto I him, Teacher, we wish that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall ask. He saith unto them, What will ye that I should do for you? They said unto him, Grant J unto us that one may sit on thy right, and the other on thy left, in thy kingdom and glory. But Jesus saith unto them, Ye Varied : resuming S. Mark's order from xxix. .

b

H

a


know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink the cup that I am going to drink? and to be baptized with the baptism that I am going to be baptized with? They said unto him, We are able. Jesus saith unto them, The cup that I am going to drink ye shall drink; and with the baptism that I.

am going to be baptized with shall ye be , baptized: but that ye should sit on my right and on my left is not mine to give : but it is for them for whom my Father hath prepared it. And when the ten had heard it, they were moved with indignation at James and John. And Jesus called them, and said unto them, Ye know that the chiefs of the Gentiles are their lords, and their rulers are those who have dominion over them. It shall not be so among you : j but whosoever shall wish to become the greater among you, let him be your minister : and whosoever shall wish to be the first of you, let him be the servant of all. Even as Mt the Son of man also came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life as a ransom for many. He said these things, and went round the villages and cities, and taught, and made a journey unto Jerusalem. And a certain man asked him, Are they few that shall be saved? Jesus answered, and saith unto them, Strive to enter in through the narrow gate : for I say unto you, Many shall seek to enter in, and shall not find it. From the hour, when the master of the house shall rise up, and shut the door, ye shall be standing without, and shall knock at the door, and shall begin to say, Lord, open to us; , and he shall answer and say, I say unto you, I know you not whence "I tell you" removed from ver. . ' . ye are; and ye shall begin to say, We did Lu eat in thy presence, and drink, and thou didst teach in our streets; and he shall say unto you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from me, ye servants of iniquity. There shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, but yourselves cast forth without. And they shall come from the east and west, and from the north and south, and shall recline in the kingdom of God. And then the last shall become first, and the first shall become last. And when Jesus had entered and walked through Jericho, a certain man Zacchaeus by name, a rich man, and the chief of the publicans, wished to see Jesus, who he was; and could not for the closeness of the crowd, because Zacchaeus was little in stature. And he made haste and went before Jesus, and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see Jesus : for so he was going to pass by. And when Jesus was come to the place, he saw him, and said unto him, Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down; to-day I must be in thy house. And he made haste, and came down, and received him joyfully. And when i they had all seen it, they murmured, saying, He hath gone in to a man that is a sinner, and remained. But Zacchaeus stood still, and said unto Jesus, Behold, the half of my goods, Lord, I give to the poor; and what I have taken in excess from each man I restore fourfold. Jesus saith unto him, To-day is salvation come to this house, forasmuch as he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of man came to seek and to save that which was lost. Or, " lies. On this displacement of S. Luke's order see note to xxxi. .


. And when Jesus went out from Jericho, * himself and his disciples, a great multitude b followed him, and a blind man was sitting by the wayside begging : and his name was b Bartimaeus, the son of Timaeus. And hear- ing the sound of a multitude going by, he inquired who it was. They said unto him, Jesus of Nazareth passeth by. And when s he had heard that it was Jesus, he cried with a loud voice, saying, Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me. And they that s were going in front of Jesus rebuked him, that he should hold his peace: but he cried b out the more, saying, Thou son of David, have mercy on me. And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called. And they called the blind man, saying unto him, Be of good cheer: rise, for behold, he calleth thee. And the blind man, casting away his garment, stood up, and came to Jesus. Jesus said unto him, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? And the blind man said unto him, My lord and master, that thou mayest open mine eyes, and I may see thee. And Jesus had mercy on s * him, and touched his eyes, and said unto him, Keceive thy sight: thy faith hath ° made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed him, praising God : and all the people that saw it, gave praise unto God. Or Mark x. a . Placed after leaving Zacchaeus's house in accordance with S. Mark's account, from which the words "went out" are taken. Arabic, " Ibn-Timi." Or Luke xviii.* b . This reading is in the Curetonian Syriac of S. Matthew and S. Luke.

Ephraem and Aphraates do not quote it, but Ephraem's comment is " that He might be visible and manifest unto him," etc. And at Moes. p. , he says, " who could open the eyes of the blind, that they might see Him" We may conclude that this reading is due to Tatian.

$ THE DIA TESSARON. And he' employed a parable, for the n b reason that he was near Jerusalem, and j because they supposed that the kingdom of God would be made known at that time. He saith unto them, A certain man of a noble family went into a far country, to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return. And when he had called his ten servants, ,? he gave them ten minas, and saith unto them, Trade ye herewith until my arrival. But his citizens hated him, and sent ambassadors after him, saying, We do not wish this man to reign over us. And when he came back again, having received the kingdom, he commanded the servants, unto whom he gave the money, to be called to him, that he might know how much each one had traded. And the first came, saying, Lord, thy mina hath acquired ten minas more. The king said unto him, thou good and faithful servant, who hast been found faithful in a very little, be thou holding authority over ten districts. And another came, saying, Lord, thy mina hath <■ gained five minas. And to this man he said, Thou also shalt be holding authority -- over five districts. And another came, sayr ing, Lord, behold thy mina, which I kept laid up in a napkin: I feared thee, because thou art an austere man : thou takest up that which thou layedst not down, thou exactest that which thou gavest not, and , reapest that which thou sowedst not. His lord said unto him, Out of thy mouth I judge thee, thou wicked servant, negligent and unfaithful. Thou knewest }| Tatian does not identify this parable with that of the talents (Matt. xxv.; -), which he inserts at xliii. -.

Pf.-Matt. xxv. , "slothful." Curetonian Syriac, " that art not faithful"

THE DIA TESSARON. that I am an austere man, taking up that which I laid not down, and reaping that which I sowed not; wherefore didst thou not place my money at the bank, so that at my coming I might have exacted it with interest? And he said unto them that \ stood by, Take away from him the mina, and give it unto him that hath the ten minas. They said unto him, Lord, he hath ten minas. He saith unto them, I say unto you, Unto every one that hath shall be given; but from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away from him. Howbeit those mine enemies, which did not wish me to reign over them,.

bring hither, and slay them before me. l And when Jesus had entered Jerusalem, I a he went up into the temple of God; and he * found there oxen, sheep, and doves. And i b when he saw them that sold and bought, b

and the money changers sitting, he made

for himself a scourge of cords, and cast all of them out of the temple, the sheep also, and the oxen, and the money changers, whose money he poured out, and overthrew the tables, and the seats of them that sold C the doves; and he was teaching and saying ' » unto them, Is it not written, My house is a house of prayer for all nations: but ye have made it a den of robbers? And to them that sold the doves he said, Take these things hence; and make not my Father's house a house of merchandise. And he . . .

suffered not that any man should carry vessels through the temple. And his dis- ciples remembered the scripture, The zeal Most modern harmonists agree in recognising two Cleansings; but Tischendorf admits that it is a great question.

xi. seems to agree more closely with the text than the reference

given in the Arabic. ."-'..■.!

T . of thine house hath eaten me up. The Jews answered and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, that thou shouldest do this? Jesus answered, and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. The Jews said unto him, In forty and six years was this temple built, and wilt thou raise it up in three days? But x he spake unto them I of the temple of his body : that when they destroyed it, he would raise it up in three days. And when he rose again from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this; and they believed the scriptures, and the saying that Jesus spake. And Jesus sat down over against the treasury, and observed how the multitudes cast their offerings into the treasury : and many that were rich cast in much. And there came s a poor widow, and she cast in two mites. And Jesus called his disciples, and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, This poor widow cast in more than they all into the treasury : for all these did cast in of the superfluity of their substance into the ark of the offering of God; but she of her want did cast all that she possessed. And he set before them this parable about certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised the rest. Two men went up into the temple ,, to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other Aphraates has, " And his disciples understood that he spake of his body, in that he would, after they had broken it, raise it up in three days." Placed a little earlier than the evangelists have it, but during the same visit to Jerusalem. Omitting Mark xii. b , " which make a farthing."

  • Or Mark xii. slightly varied. * Lit. " house." Omitting " even all her living." S. Luke puts this parable before the arrival at Jericho. Tatian seems to

have thought it likely from its nature to have been spoken in the temple.


THE JDIATESSARON, a publican. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, Lord, I thank thee, that I am not as the rest of men, unjust, adulterers, extortioners, or even as this publican. But I fast twice in the week, and I give tithes of all my substance. And the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up even his eyes unto heaven, but smote his breast, saying, Lord, be propitious to me the sinner. I say unto you, This man went down to his house justified more than the Pharisee: Every one that exalteth himself shall be humbled; and every one that humbleth himself shall be exalted. And when evening was come, he left -I Mt '* them all, and went forth outside the city to Bethany, himself and the twelve, and was there. And all the people, because they knew the place, came unto him; and he received them; and he healed those that had need of healing. And on the morning after, when he returned from Bethany to the city, he hungered. And he saw from afar beside the road a fig-tree having leaves, and he came to it, that he might find something on it: and when he was come, he found nothing on it but leaves; for it was not the season of figs. And he said unto it, Henceforward and for ever no man shall eat fruit from thee. And his disciples heard it. And they came to Jerusalem. Now {jn k ' * T there was there a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews: Cf xxx. and xl. . Tatian may have meant this for Mark xi. % especially as Mark xi. follows in ver. . He gives Mark xi. at xxxiii. . Repeated with variations from xviii. . Tatian exercised considerable freedom with general statements of this class. Omitting Matt. xxi.  : " And presently the fig-tree withered away." The account of this interview is naturally moved along with S. John's

IJ . this man came to Jesus by night, and Jn f said unto him, Teacher, we know that thou wast sent from God as a teacher: for no man can do these signs that thou doest, except he with whom God is. Jesus answered, and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, except a man be born anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus said unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he again enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born? Jesus answered, and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and the Spirit, he cannot ,, enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born anew. The wind bloweth where it will, and thou nearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh, and whither it goeth : so is every one that is born of the Spirit.

' Nicodemus answered, and said unto him, How can this be? Jesus answered, and said unto him, Art thou a teacher of Israel, and art ignorant of these things? Verily, II verily, I say unto thee, We speak that which we know, and testify that which we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. If I told you earthly l things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you heavenly things? And no man hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended out of heaven, version of the Cleansing of the Temple, since they clearly belong to the same visit to Jerusalem. From its nature such an interview would seem more likely, when Jesus was well known, and had come to stay at Jerusalem.

Professor Fuller observes, " This position ignores John vii. ; and has not been imitated." This is not accurate, since that allusion to Nicodemus does not occur in the Diatessaron until xxxv. . Lit. u what is in the earth." Lit. " what is in heaven."

even the Son of man, which is in heaven. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so is the Son of man about to be lifted up: that everyone that believe th on him may not perish, but have eternal life. God so loved the world that he gave his • only Son, that everyone that believe th in him should not perish, but have eternal life. God sent not his Son into the world to judge the world; but that the world should be saved through him. He that believcth in him is not judged : he that believeth not is judged already, because he believeth not in the name of the only Son of God. This is the judgment : the light is come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. Everyone that worketh infamies hateth the light, and cometh not to the light, that his works may not be reproved. But he that worketh truth cometh to the light, that his works may be recognised, that they have been wrought in God. And when the evening was come, Jesus ll went forth outside the city, himself and his disciples. And as they passed by in the morning, the disciples saw that fig-tree withered away from the root. And as they b went by, they said, How did the fig-tree wither away already? And Simon, calling to remembrance, said unto him, Teacher, behold, that fig-tree which thou cursedst, is withered away. And Jesus answering saith Ephraem omits " which is in heaven; " this does not prove that he had not this clause; but that is probable, as it is wanting in some of the best Greek MSS. The Codex Fuldensis inserts here John viii. - (the Woman taken in Adultery), followed by the Cursing of the Fig-tree given above, ver. -. Part of this verse occurred at xxxii. a . See note there. Or, " Master." .

unto them, Let the faith of God be in you. Verily I say unto you, If ye shall believe, and shall not be undecided in your hearts, and shall hold it as certain, that whatsoever ye shall say is coming to pass, whatsoever ye shall say shall come to pass unto you. Even if ye shall say unto this mountain, l b Eemove, and fall into the sea, it shall be done. And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask of God in prayer, believing, he shall give you. And the apostles said unto the Lord, In- crease our faith. He said unto them, If there be in you faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this fig-tree, Be thou rooted up, and be thou transplanted into the sea, and it shall obey you. Who is there of you, having a servant guiding oxen or feeding sheep, to whom, when he cometh from the field, he saith straightway, Go, and lie down to meat f But he will say unto him, Make ready for me wherewith I may sup, and gird thy loins, and serve me, until I eat and drink; and afterward thou also shalt eat and drink? Will that servant who did the

thing that he had commanded him, receive his thanks? I think not. Even so ye also,

when ye shall have done all the things that are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants; we have done that which it was our duty to do. Therefore I say unto you, All things, whatsoever ye pray and ask for, believe that ye shall receive them, and they shall be unto you. And when ye stand for praying, forgive that which ye have in With the first part of Matt. xxi. . S. Luke is not very definite as to when this occurred. Tatian has put it where it would illustrate the previous narrative. Perhaps equivalent to the Authorised Version, " plowing."

. your heart against any man; and your Father which is in the heavens shall forgive you also your trespasses. And if ye for- give not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive you also your trespasses. And he set forth also a parable unto Lu, them to the end that they should always pray, and not be slothful. There was in . a city a judge, which feared not God, and regarded not men: and there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, saying, Avenge me of mine adversary. And he would not for a long time: afterwards he said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard men, yet because of the importunity of this widow, I will avenge her, that she may not come per petually, and bring me weariness. And our Lord said, Hear what the judge of un righteousness said. And shall not God perform still more the avenging of his elect, which cry to him day and night, and be longsuffering in respect to them? I say unto you, He will perform the avenging of them speedily. When the Son of man cometh, think you he will find faith on the earth? \ And they came again to Jerusalem. And \ ^ ' * j it came to pass, on one of the days, as Jesus was walking, and teaching the people in the temple, and announcing the good tidings, there stood near him the chief - - priests and the scribes with the elders; and they said unto him, Tell us: By what a authority doest thou this? and who gave b Or, "follies." Placed here because it relates to the subject of prayer now being referred to. Or, " tarry." A mistake for a . Cf. xxxii. a .

& THE JDIATESSARON. thee this authority to do this? And Jesus {***• g ^ saith unto them, I also will ask you one word; and if ye tell me, I also will tell ye by what authority I do this. The bap- s * tism of John, whence was it? from heaven or from men? tell me. But they reasoned JJ^ || °* among themselves, saying, If x we shall say unto him, From heaven, he will say unto us, Why did ye not believe him? But if a we shall say, From men, we fear that all b the people may stone us: for all held, that * John was a true prophet. They answered, and said unto him, We know not. Jesus

. saith unto them, Neither tell I you by

what authority I do these things. What think ye? A certain man had two sons; and he came to the first, and said unto him, My son, go to-day, and work in the vineyard. He answereth, and saith, I will ' not: but at last he repented himself, and \ went. And he came to the other, and said unto him likewise. And he answered and said, Yea, sir : and went not. Which of these two did the will of his father? They said unto him, The first. Jesus saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, The publicans and the harlots go before you into the king-. dom of God. John came unto you in the , way of righteousness, and ye believed him not: but the publicans and the harlots believed him : but ye, not even after ye had seen it, did ye at last repent, that ye might believe him. Hear another parable: There was a man, s a householder, which planted a vineyard, and ' set a hedge about it, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower in it, and granted it , b to husbandmen, and was abroad for a long time. And when the season of the fruits Ver, begins here as in the Vulgate. Or, "till," < '

. v; had come near, he sent his servant to the husbandmen, that they might send him of the fruits of his vineyard. But these hus- bandmen beat him, and sent him away empty. And again he sent unto them another servant; and they stoned and wounded him, and sent him away shamefully handled. And a again he sent another; and him they killed : and many other servants sent he unto them. And the husbandmen took his servants, &; and beat one, and stoned another, and killed another. Again, he sent other servants more than the former: and they did unto them in like manner. And the lord of the £ ! vineyard said, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son: for perchance they ' v will see him, and reverence him. At last he sent unto them his beloved son. But the . ■< V. husbandmen, when they saw the son, said among themselves, This is the heir; and they said, Let us kill him, and the inherit ance will be ours. And they took him, and brought him forth outside the vineyard, and killed him. When therefore the lord of the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen? They said unto him, He will miserably destroy the miserable men, and will let out the vineyard unto other husbandmen, who will render him the fruits in their seasons. Jesus said unto them, Did. s OS ye never read in the scripture, The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made into the head of the J h corner : Arabic, "servants," but see " him" in ver. . Ver. , appear to repeat from S. Matthew the substance of ver. -. Lit. " his beloved son which was his." Omitting Luke xx. b : " And when they heard it, they said, God forbid." Or continuation of Matt, xxi, , . , . :

a 
s 

I b

^ This was done by God; ° And it is marvellous in our eyes? ! Therefore I say unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken away from you, and shall be given to a nation bringing forth fruits. And whosoever falleth on this stone, shall be broken to pieces : but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder. And when the chief priests and the Pharisees had heard his parables, they perceived that he spake of them. And I they sought to lay hold on him; and they feared the multitudes, because they regarded rt , him as a prophet. Then the Pharisees went away r and took . counsel how they might catch him in his > I talk, and deliver him up to the authority b of. the court, and to the authority of the governor. And they sent to him their disciples with the Herodians, saying unto him, Teacher, we know that thou art true,

I; and teachest the way of God in truth, and

carest not for anyone: for thou regardest ' \ not man. Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? Shall we give, or shall * we not give? But Jesus, knowing their craftiness, saith unto them, Why tempt ye i b me, ye hypocrites? Show me the tribute penny. And they brought unto him a penny. Jesus saith unto them, Whose is this image and inscription? They said unto him, Caesar's. He said unto them, Pender unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's. And they could not bring it to pass that Omitting Luke xx. , " the same hour." • Omitting Luke xx. , " spies, which should feign themselves just men." Part of this is called b , as in the Vulgate. " Bring . . . fall," or " succeed in making him slip."

. he should fall in his speech before the people: I and they marvelled at his saying, and restrained themselves. On that day there came Sadducees, and said unto him, The dead have no life : and they asked him, saying unto him, Master, Moses said unto us, If a man die, haviDg no children, let his brother marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. Now there * were with us seven brethren: and the first C) b took a wife, and died without children; and the next took his wife, and died without children; and the third also took her; and likewise all the seven, and they died without leaving a child. And at the last of all of them the woman also died. In the resur- .

rection therefore whose wife shall she be of these seven? for they all took her. Jesus answered, and saith unto them, Do ye j Jg ~~ ^K not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, nor the power of God? The sons b of this age marry wives; and the women are delivered up to husbands: but they that shall be accounted worthy of that age, and the resurrection from the dead, shall not marry wives; nor shall the women be for husbands: nor shall they be able to die any more : but they shall be even as the angels and the sons of God, because they have been made sons of the resurrection. Moreover, * concerning the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read in the book of Moses, how b God said unto him out of the bramble bush, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living : . Omitting Matt. xxii. , " and left him, and went their way." Omitting Matt. xxii. , " left his wife unto his brother." Omitting Mark xii. , " when they shall rise." Omitting Mark xii. , " which are in heaven." .

for all live with him. Ye therefore do J h greatly err. And when the multitudes heard it, they were astonished at his teaching. And eer- tain of the scribes answering said unto him, Teacher, thou hast well said. But all the Pharisees, when they had seen that he had put the Sadducees to silence in this way, assembled themselves together against him, to strive with him. And one of the scribes, * a doctor of the law, when he had seen the b appropriateness of his answer to them, wished to tempt him, saying, What shall I b do to inherit eternal life? and which is the x ° greater and first commandment in the law? Jesus said unto him, The first commandment of all is, Hear, Israel; The Lord our God, the Lord is one: and: Thou shalt love )t s the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy mind, b and from all thy strength. This is the greatest and first commandment. But there is a second, which is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is no other commandment greater than these. From these two commandments hangeth the law, and the prophets. The scribe saith unto him, An excellent opinion, Master ! with truth thou hast said that God is one, and there is none other but he: and that a man should love him from all his heart, and from all his mind, and from all his soul, and from all his strength, and that he should love his neighbour as himself, is a better thing than all the burnt offerings and sacrifices. And when Jesus saw that he had answered s discreetly, he answered, and said unto him, Modern harmonisers do not combine these passages, but assign to S. Luke's incident an earlier place in the narrative, and thus avoid combining the two questions. Tatian puts the result in the order of the two first evangelists.


. Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. Thou hast said the right word : this do, and b thou shalt live. But he, desiring to justify himself, said unto him, And who is my neighbour? Jesus said unto him, A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho; and robbers fell upon him, which plundered him, and having beaten him departed, leaving him half dead. And it happened that a certain priest was going down the same way : and when he saw him, he passed by. In like manner came a Levite also, and when he reached the place, and saw him, he passed on. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, when he came to the place where he was, and saw him, had compassion on him, and came near, and bound up his wounds, pouring on them wine and oil; and he set him on an ass, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. And on the next day he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, and saith unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, I, when I come back again, will repay thee. Which of these three seems to thee to have been more a- neighbour unto him that fell among the robbers? He said unto him, He that $ had compassion on him. Jesus saith unto - him, Go, and do thou likewise. And no man b ventured to ask him anything after that. And he was teaching daily in the temple. But the chief priests and the scribes and the elders of the people sought to destroy him : and they could not do anything to him; for all the people were in suspense to hear him. Now of the multitude many believed on Lit. " with only his soul left in him." Repeated from xxviii. .

.


him, and said, Will the Messiah, when he cometh, do more signs than those which this man doeth? And the Pharisees heard the multitudes saying these things concerning him; and the chief priests sent soldiers to take him. And Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while am I with you, and I shall go unto him that sent me. And ye shall seek me, and shall not find me : and where I am, ye cannot come. The Jews said among themselves, Whither is this man about to go, so that we shall not be able to go? Do you think, that he is about to go unto the countries of the Gentiles, and teach the heathen? What is this word that he said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me : and where I am, ye cannot come? Now on the great day, the last of the festival, Jesus stood, crying and saying, If any man is thirsty, let him come unto me, and drink. Everyone that believe th on me, even as the scriptures say, out of his belly shall flow rivers of sweet water. This spake he signifying the Spirit, which they that believed on him were about to receive : for the Spirit had not yet been given, because Jesus had not yet been glorified. And many of the multitude that heard his words, said, This is of a truth the prophet. And some said, This is the Messiah. But others said, Shall the Messiah come from Galilee? Doth not the scripture say that the Messiah shall come of the offspring of David, and from Bethlehem the village of David? So there arose a disagreement in the multitude because of him. And some of them wished to take him; and no man laid hand on him. And the soldiers came to the chief priests and Pharisees; and the priests said unto them, Why did ye not bring him? The

soldiers said, Never man so spake, as this man speaketh. The Pharisees said unto them, Are ye also led astray? Hath anyone of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed in him? except this multitude which knoweth not the law, who are accursed? Mcodemus, one of themselves, who came to Jesus by night, said unto them, Doth our law judge a man, except it shall before have heard from himself, and known what he doeth? They answered, and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and see, for from Galilee ariseth no prophet. Now when the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question, saying, What say ye of the Messiah? whose son is he? They said unto him, The son of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in the Holy Spirit call him Lord, for he saith, The Lord said unto my Lord, i Sit thou on my right hand, That I may put thine enemies underneath thy feet. If David then calleth him Lord, how is he his son? And no one was able to answer .- him; neither did any man venture from that day forth to ask him about any matter. And again Jesus spake unto them, saying, I am the light of the world : he therefore that followeth me, doth not walk in the darkness, but shall find the light of life. The Pharisees said unto him, Thou bearest witness of thyself; thy witness is not genuine. Jesus answered, and said unto them, If I bear witness of myself, my witness is genuine; for I know whence I came, and whither I go; but ye know not whence I came, nor whither I go. For ye judge a material "; \\ judgment; but I judge no man. And if I .

judge, my judgment is genuine; for I am not alone, but I and my Father that sent me. And in your law it is written, that the witness of two men is genuine. I am he that beareth witness of myself; and my Father that sent me beareth witness of me. They said unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, and saith unto them, Ye know me not, nor my Father: for if ye knew me, ye would know my Father. These words spake he in the treasury, as he taught in the temple : and no man took \ him, because his hour was not yet come. Jesus said again unto them, I go away indeed; and ye shall seek me, and shall not find me, and shall die in your sins: and whither I go ye cannot come. The Jews said, Will he kill himself, that he may say, Whither I go ye cannot come? He saith unto them, Ye are from beneath; but I am from above: ye are of this world; and I am not of this world. I said unto you, Ye ,; shall die in your sins: if ye believe not that [' I am he} ye shall die in your sins. The Jews said, And who art thou? Jesus said unto them, If I begin to speak unto you, I : have many things to speak concerning you,; and to judge : but he that sent me is true; and the things which I heard from him, \ these speak I in the world. And they „, .': understood not that he referred to the Father in this. Jesus said again unto them, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye perceive that I am he} and that I do nothing of myself, but as the Father taught me, so I speak. And he that sent me is with me; for my Father hath not left me alone; for , I do always the ' things that are pleasing to him. As he J Lit. "I ami."

. spake these things many believed on him. And Jesus said to those Jews which believed on him, If ye abide in my word, ye shall be truly my disciples; and ye shall know the truth; and the truth shall make you free. They said unto him, We are the ^^ offspring of Abraham, and have never served any man as bondsmen : how then sayest thou, Ye shall be free children? Jesus w said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Everyone that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin. And the bondservant abideth not in the house for ever : but the son abideth for ever. If therefore the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free chil dren indeed. I know that ye are the off- $ spring of Abraham; yet ye seek to kill me, because ye are unequal to x my word. For I speak that which I have seen with my Father : and ye do that which ye have seen with your father. They answered, and said unto him, Our father is Abraham. Jesus said unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham. Now, behold, ye seek to kill me, a man that speaketh the truth with you, which I have heard from God: this did not Abraham. But ye do the works of your father. They said unto him, We are not of fornication; we have one father, which is God. Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would certainly have loved me. I came forth from God, and came down; nor have I come of myself, but he sent me. For why do ye not perceive my word? Even because ye cannot hear my word. Ye are of your father the devil, and the desire of your father ye wish to do, who is a murderer from the beginning, and abideth nob in the Or, "too weak for." Or, " standetli." .

truth, because there is no truth in him : and when he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own : for he is a liar, and the father of lies. And I, that speak in the truth, ye believe me not. Which of you rebuketh me of sin? And if I say the truth, ye do not believe me. He that is of God heareth the words of God : for this cause ye hear them not, because ye are not of God. The Jews answered, and said unto him, Said we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil? Jesus saith unto them, I certainly have not a devil; but I honour my Father, and ye dishonour me. I seek not mine own glory: here is one who seeketh and judgeth. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever keepeth my saying shall never see death. The Jews said unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil.

Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, Whosoever keepeth my saying shall never taste death. Art thou greater than our father Abraham, which is dead? and the prophets, which are dead? whom makest thou thyself? Jesus saith unto them, If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing : it is my Father that glorifieth me, of whom ye say, He is our God; and ye know him not : but I know him; and if I say, I know him not, I shall be a liar like unto you: but I know him, and keep his saying. Your father Abraham longed with burning eagerness to see my day; and he saw it, and was glad. The Jews said unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am. And they took stones to stone him : but Jesus hid himself, and Or, " earnestly longed."

. ; went out of the temple, and * passing among them went away. And as he passed by, he saw a man blind from his mother's womb. And his disciples asked him, Master, who did sin, this man or his parents, that he was born blind? Jesus saith unto them, Neither did this man sin, nor his parents : but that the works of God may be made manifest in him. I must work the works of him that sent me, while the day lasts : the night will come, and no man will be able to work at will. As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world. When he had said these things, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and rubbed it upon the eyes of the blind man, and said unto him, Go, wash in the bath of Siloam. He went away therefore, and washed, and came seeing. And his neighbours which had seen him beg aforetime, said, Is not this he that sat begging? Some said, It is he : and others said, Not at all, but he is exactly like him. He said, I am he. They said unto him, How then were thine eyes opened? He answered, and saith unto them, A man whose name is Jesus made clay, and rubbed it upon mine eyes, and said unto me, Go, and wash in the water of Siloam; so I went away, and washed, and received sight. They said unto him, Where is he? He saith, I know not. And they brought to the Pharisees him that had before been blind. Now the day on which Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes, was the day of the sabbath. And again the Pharisees asked him : How didst thou receive thy sight? He said unto them, He put clay upon mine eyes; and I washed, and received sight. Some of the Pharisees The rest of this verse is called , and is absent from the Vulgate.

.

said, This man is not from God, because he keepeth not the sabbath. But others said, How can a man that is a sinner do these signs? And a division took place among them. And again they said unto the blind man, What sayest thou of him that opened thine eyes for thee? He said unto them, I say, that he is a prophet. And the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and had received his sight, until they called the parents of him that had received his sight; and they asked them: Is this your son, of whom ye say, that he was born blind? how then doth he now see? His parents answered, and said, We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind : but how he now seeth, or who opened his eyes, we know not : ask him; he is already arrived at the age of manhood, and he may speak for himself. These things said his parents, because they feared the Jews : for the Jews had decided already, that if any man should confess him to be the Messiah, they would expel him from the synagogue. Therefore said his parents, He is arrived at the age of manhood; ask him. And they called a second time him that had been blind, and said unto him, Give glory to God : we know that this man is a sinner. He answered, and saith unto them, Whether he be a sinner I know not: one thing I know, that, whereas I was blind, now I see. They said again unto him, What did he to thee? how opened he thine eyes for thee? He saith unto them, I told you, and ye did not hear: wherefore do ye wish to hear it again? do ye also wish to become his disciples? And they despised him, and said unto him, Thou art his disciple; but we are disciples of Moses. For we know that God

. hath spoken unto Moses : but as for this man, we know not whence he is. The man answered, and said unto them, Therefore indeed is the marvel, that ye know not whence he is, and yet he opened mine eyes. And we know that God heareth not the voice of sinners : but he that f eareth him, and doeth his will, him he heareth. From eternity it was never heard that anyone opened the eyes of a blind man, born in blindness. Therefore if this man were not from God, he could not do this. They answered, and said unto him, Thou wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they cast him out. And Jesus heard of his casting out; and finding him, he said unto him, Dost thou believe on the Son of God? He that had been made whole, answered, and said, Who is he, Lord, that I may believe on him? Jesus said unto him, Thou hast seen him, and he it is that speaketh with thee. He saith, Lord, I believe. And he fell down worshipping him. And Jesus said, For judging the world am I come, that they which see not may see; and that they which see may become blind. And some of the Pharisees which were with him, heard this, and said unto him, Are we blind? Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, surely ye would have no sin : but now ye say, We see : and for this cause your sin remaineth. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that I entereth not by the door into the fold of the sheep, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. And to him the porter openeth the door; and the sheep hear his voice : and he calleth his own rams by name, and they

I . go out unto him. And when he hath sent forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and his rams follow him : for they know his voice. And a stranger the sheep do not follow, but flee from him : for they hear not the voice of a stranger. This proverb spake Jesus unto them : but they understood not what he spake unto them. Jesus said unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep. For all, as many as came, are thieves and robbers : but the sheep did not hear them. am the door : and if any man enter in through me, he shall live, and shall go in and out, and shall find pasture. Now the thief cometh not, but that he may steal, and kill, and destroy; I assuredly came that they may have life, and may have what is more excellent. I am the good shepherd : n now the good shepherd giveth his life for his sheep. But the hireling, who is not a shepherd, and whose the rams are not, when he seeth the wolf coming, leaveth the sheep, and fleeth; and the wolf cometh, and snatcheth, and scattereth the sheep. Now the hireling fleeth, because he is a hireling, and hath no care for the sheep. I am the good shepherd; and I know mine own; and mine own know me. Even as my Father knoweth me, I also know my Father; and I lay down my life for my sheep. And other sheep also I have, which are not of this fold : them also must I call, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall become one flock and one shepherd. Therefore doth the Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. No one shall take it away from me; but I lay it down of my own accord; and I have a right to lay it down, and I have a right to take it.


. This commandment received I from my Father. And there arose a disagreement among the Jews because of these sayings. And many of them said, He hath a devil, and suffereth from epilepsy; why are ye silent in his presence? And others said, These are not the words of them that have a devil. Can a devil open the eyes of the blind? And the feast of the dedication in Jeru salem arrived : and it was winter; and Jesus was walking in the temple in Solomon's porch. And the Jews came round about him, and said unto him, How long wilt thou torment our hearts? If thou art the Messiah, tell us plainly. He answered, and said unto them, I told you, and ye believe not : and the works that I do in my Father's name, themselves bear witness of me. But ye believe not, because ye are not of my rams. Even as I told you, My rams hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: and I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish; and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. For the Father, which hath given them unto me, is greater than all; and no one is able to take them away out of my Father's hand. I and my Father are one. And the Jews took up stones to stone him. Jesus saith unto them, Many good works have I showed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me? The Jews said unto him, Not for good works ^^ do we stone thee, but because thou blasphemest, and, being a man, makest thyself God. Jesus said unto them, Is it not written ., The preceding words, "Even . . . you," which in the Greek and the Authorised Version are part of John x. , and belong to that sentence, are here removed to the next verse, and made to commence the new sentence.

They are absent from the Revised Version.

. thus in your law, I said, Ye are gods. And if he called them gods, because the word of God came unto them (and nothing can be broken in the scripture), tell ye him, whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, that he blasphemeth; because I said unto you, I am the Son of God? For if I do $ not the works of my Father, believe me not. But if I do them, even though ye believe not me, believe the works : that ye may know and believe that my Father is in me, and I in my Father. And they sought again to take him : and he went forth out of their hands. And he went away beyond Jordan into the place where John was before baptizing; and there he abode. And many men came unto him; and they said, John did not even one sign : but all things whatsoever John spake of this man are true. And many believed on him. Now a certain man was sick, Lazarus by name, of the village of Bethany, the brother of Mary and Martha. Now Mary is she who anointed the feet of Jesus with ointment, and wiped them with her hair, whose brother was Lazarus the sick man. His sisters therefore sent unto Jesus, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. But Jesus said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God may be glorified thereby. Now Jesus loved Martha, and Mary, and Lazarus. When therefore he heard that he was sick, he abode two days in the place where lie was. And after these things he said to his disciples, Come, let us go into Judaea. His disciples said unto him, Master, the Jews now wish to stone thee; and goest thou thither again? Jesus said unto them, Are

 there not twelve hours in the day? If any 

man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of the world. But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because the brightness is not in him. These things said Jesus : and afterwards he said unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; x but I go that I may awake him out of sleep. His disciples said unto him, Lord, if he is sleeping, he will get well. Jesus had spoken this of his death : but they thought that he spake of taking rest in sleep. Then Jesus said unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead. And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, in order that ye may believe; nevertheless let us go thither. Thauma, who is called Thoma, said unto his fellow-disciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him. Jesus therefore came to Bethany, and found that he had been in the tomb four days. Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, and was distant from it fifteen furlongs; and many of the Jews came to Mary and Martha, to console their heart concerning their brother. Martha therefore, when she heard that Jesus was coming, went out to meet him : but Mary was sitting at home. Martha therefore said unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother would not have died. But now I know that, whatsoever thou shalt ask of God, he will give thee. Jesus said unto her, Thy brother shall rise. Martha said unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day. Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life; he that believeth in Or, " restetli; " cf. ver. , " taking rest." Or, " resting; " cf. ver. . Arabic, Thawama. Arabic, Thama : cf. liv *.

THE DIAT&SSARON. me. even though he die, shall live: and everyone that liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this? She said unto him, Yea, Lord : I believe that thou art the Messiah, the Son of God, who art come into the world. And when she had said this, she went away, and called Mary her sister secretly, and said unto her, The Master is come, and calleth thee. And Mary, when she heard it, arose quickly, and came unto him. For Jesus was not yet come into the village, but was in that place where Martha had met him. The Jews also which were with her in the house to console her, when they saw Mary rising up quickly and going out, followed her, supposing that she was about to go unto the tomb to weep. Mary therefore, when she was come where Jesus was, and had seen him, fell down at his feet, and said unto him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother would not have died. And Jesus came, and when he saw her weeping, and the Jews which were with her, weeping also, he was distressed in his soul, and sighed, and said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see. And the tears of Jesus were shed. The Jews there fore said, See how much he loved him ! And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of that blind man, also have caused that this man should not die? Jesus therefore, being distressed in his soul, cometh to the tomb. Now the tomb was a cave, and a stone was laid at the mouth of it. Jesus saith, Take ye away this stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, said unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh : for he hath been dead four days. Jesus said unto her, Said I not unto thee, If thou believest, thou shalt see the glory of

.

God? So they moved away the stone.    

And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, My Father, I thank thee that thou heardest me. indeed know that thou hearest me always : but because of this multitude which standeth by I say this to thee, that they may believe that thou didst send me. When he had said these things, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. And the dead man came forth, bound hand and foot with bandages; and his face was wrapped up in a napkin. Jesus said unto them, Loose him, and let him go. And many of the Jews, which were come to Mary, when they saw what was done by Jesus, believed in him. But some of them went away to the Pharisees, and told them all the things which Jesus had done. And the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered together, and they said, What do we? for, behold, this man doeth many signs. For if we let him thus alone, all men will believe in him : and the Eomans will come and take away our country and nation. But one of them, Caiaphas by name, who was the high priest of that year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, nor do ye take into account that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not. Now this he said not of himself: but as he was the high priest of that year, he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the people; and not only for the people, but that he might also gather together at one time the children of God that had been scattered abroad. So from that day forth they took counsel to put him to death. Jesus therefore walked not openly among the Jews, but departed thence into a place .

near to the wilderness, into a hermitage which is called Ephraem; and there he was going about with his disciples. Now the passover of the Jews was near: and many went up to Jerusalem out of the villages before the feast, to purify themselves. And they sought for Jesus, and said one to another in the temple, What think ye of his lateness for the feast? Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given commandment, that, if any man knew where he was, he should disclose it unto them, that they might take him. And when the days of his going up were fulfilled, he prepared himself to go to Jeru salem, and sent messengers before him: and they went, and entered into a village of Samaria, to make ready for him. And they did not receive him, because he was prepared to go to Jerusalem. And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said unto him, Lord, wilt thou that we bid fire to come down from heaven, and uproot them, even as Elijah did? And Jesus turned, and rebuked them, saying, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. Surely the Son of man came not to destroy lives, but to save them.

And they went to another village. Jesus therefore six days before the pass- over came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, Arabic, " kirh." Or, " absence from." Included in ver. , as in Vulgate. Referred by Tatian to the last visit, six days before the crucifixion, perhaps because of the first part of this verse. Tatian here follows S. John, who fixes the exact time of the Anointing by Mary, and puts it before the Triumphal Entry. In internal harmonisation, however, he displaces John xii. - for the sake of neatness in the combined account. Ephraem follows the same peculiarities of order (Moes. p. ).

The mention of Simon's house is followed by the plot to kill Lazarus before the Anointing. The Codex Fuldensis identifies this anointing with that in Luke vii. , etc.


. whom Jesus raised from the dead. And a breakfast was made for him there : and Martha served; but Lazarus was one of them that reclined at meat with him. And while a Jesus was at Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, a great multitude of the Jews heard that Jesus was there : and they came, not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he raised from the dead. But the chief priests took counsel that they might put Lazarus also to death, because by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and believed on Jesus. Now Mary took a case of ointment of the * best bard, very costly, and opened it, and ° poured it upon the head of Jesus, as he reclined at meat; and anointed his feet, b and wiped them with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment. But one of the disciples, Judas Iscariot, who was going to betray him, said, Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor? He said this, not because of his care for the . poor; but because he was a thief, and having the bag himself carried the things that were put therein. The rest of the disciples also were vexed at this among themselves, and said, To what purpose is this ointment wasted? For it might have been sold for much, and given to the poor. And they murmured at Mary. But Jesus perceiving it, saith unto them, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath performed a good work on me. She hath kept it for the day of my burying. For the poor are always with you; and when ye will ye can do them good : but I am not always with you. On that account, when pouring this ointment upon my body, she did it as it were for my

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T^e DIATESSARON.

burial, and came beforehand to anoint my b body. Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this my gospel shall be preached in the whole world, that which this woman hath done shall be related for a memorial of her. And when he had said these things, Jesus went forth slowly to proceed to Jerusalem. And when he was arrived at Bethphage and s Bethany, near the mount that is called the mount of Olives, Jesus sent two of his disciples, saying unto them, Go into the village that is over against you, and when ye are entered into it, ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her, whereon no man ever yet sat: loose it, and bring them unto me. And if anyone say unto you, Why do ye loose them? say thus unto him, We seek them for the Lord; and straightway send them both hither. All this is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, Meek, and sitting upon an ass, And upon a colt the foal of an ass. This understood not his disciples at that time : but after Jesus was glorified, his disciples remembered that these things had been written of him,and that they did these things unto him. And the disciples went, and found evenj^-?l * as he had said unto them, and they did as b Omitting a : " She hath done what she could." S. John's order continued. Or, " rode." So in the Arabic. The dual form is used, " send ye both them both." Ciasca has taken the alternative rendering, " they both sent them both" which, however, is contrary to the meaning here. This verse being a comment of the evangelist, and not a part of the history, is put earlier by Tatian in connection with the prophecy which in a different form S. John puts after the bringing of the ass. Omitting Mark xi.  : " and found the colt tied by the door without, in a place where two ways met."

Jesus had commanded them. And when    

they had loosed them, the owners thereof said unto them, Why loose ye them? They said unto them, We seek them for our Lord; and they let them go. b And they brought the ass and the colt, and put their garments upon the colt; and Jesus rode thereon. And the most part of the multitude spread their garments before him on the ground; and others cut branches from the trees, and spread them in the way. And when he drew near his descent of the mount of Olives, all the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works which they had seen; saying, Glory in the highest: glory to the son of David : blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord : and blessed is the kingdom which cometh, even our father David's : peace in heaven, and glory in the highest. And a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they had heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took the branches of the palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried out, saying, Praise : blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel. And some of the Pharisees from the multitudes said unto him, Master, rebuke thy disciples. He saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, If these held their peace, the stones would cry out. And when he drew nigh, and had seen the city, he wept over it, saying, Would that thou hadst known the things which are for thy peace in this thy day ! this now is hidden from thine eyes. The days shall x come unto thee, when thine enemies shall compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, and shall take possession of thee, Cf. note to xli. .

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and of thy children that are within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation. And when Jesus had entered into Jeru- Mt io salem, all the city was stirred, saying, Who is this? And the multitudes said, This is I l Jesus, the prophet from Nazareth of Galilee. And the multitude that was with him bare ij witness, that he had called Lazarus out of the tomb, and raised him from the dead. For this cause many multitudes went out to meet him, for they heard the sign that he had done. And when Jesus had gone into the temple, they brought unto him the blind and the lame; and he healed them. But when the chief priests and the Pharisees saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children that were crying in the temple, and saying, Praise to the son of David; they were annoyed, and said, Hearest thou what these are saying? Jesus said unto them, Yea : did ye never read, Out of the mouth of children and babes thou hast selected my praise? The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Lo, see you not, that we get no advantage? for, lo, the whole world followeth him. Now there were also among them certain Gentiles, that had come up to worship at the feast : these therefore came to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying unto him, Sir, we wish to see Jesus. Philip came and told Andrew : and Andrew and Philip told Jesus. And Jesus answered, and said unto them, The hour is near in which the Son of man shall be glori fied. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a grain of wheat fall and die in the earth,

. it abideth by itself alone; but if it die, it beareth much fruit. He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal. If any man serve th me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be : and whosoever serveth me, him will the Father honour. Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? My Father, save me from this hour. But for this cause came unto this hour. My Father, glorify thy name. And a voice was heard out of heaven, saying, I have glorified it, and will glorify it. The multitude therefore, that stood by, heard it, and said, This is thunder. Others said, An angel speak eth to him. Jesus answered, and said unto them, This voice hath not come for my sake, but for your sakes. Now is the judgment of this world: and the prince of this world shall now be cast out. And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto myself. This he said to signify by what manner of death he was going to die. The multitudes said unto him, We have heard from the law that the Messiah abideth for ever : how then sayest thou, that the Son of man is going to be lifted up? who is this Son of man? Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while will the light be with you. Walk while ye have the light, that darkness overtake you not : for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. While ye have the light, be- * lieve on the light, that ye may be sons of light. And when some of the Pharisees had asked Jesus, When will the kingdom of God come? he answered, and said unto them, The Arabic begins ver. here as the Vulgate does. Or, " deliver." The Syriac word implied in the Arabic has also the meaning, " lay hold of;" cf. i, .

.

The kingdom of God will not come with expectation : neither shall they say, Lo, here it is ! and, Lo, there ! For the kingdom of God is within you. And by day he was teaching in the temple; but at night he went out, and passed the night on the mount that is called the mount of Olives. And all the people arrived before him in the temple to hear his word. Then spake Jesus to the multitudes and to his disciples, saying unto them, The scribes and the Pharisees have sat down on Moses' seat : all things therefore whatsoever they shall bid you to observe, these keep and do : but do not ye according to their works; for they say, and do not. For they bind heavy burdens, and lay them on men's shoulders; but are unwilling to move one of their fingers towards them. And all their works s they do to be seen of men. And all the $ h multitude heard these things with gladness. And in his teaching he said unto them, Beware ye of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love to be saluted in the streets, and to sit on chief seats in the synagogues, and chief couches at feasts: for b they make broad their phylacteries, and lengthen the fringes of their garments, and J b love to be called of men, Master. But they devour widows' houses, under the pretence of making their prayers long; these truly shall receive greater condemnation. But be not ye called masters: for one is your master, and all ye are brethren. And call no man father on the earth : for one is your Father, which is in the heavens. Neither be ye called directors : for one is your Omitting " and grievous to be borne; " cf . Revised Version, marginal note, the Peschito has " guides."

director, even the Messiah. But he that is    

greater among you shall be your minister. He that exalteth himself shall be humbled; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted. Woe unto you Pharisees! for ye love the front seats in the synagogues, and the salutation in the streets. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, for ye devour widows' houses by reason of your long prayers : and therefore ye shall receive greater condemnation. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, s hypocrites ! because ye shut the kingdom of God against men. Woe unto you, lawyers! s for ye have hidden the keys of knowledge : ye enter not in yourselves, neither suffer ye i$ h them that are entering in to enter. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye compass sea and land to draw away one proselyte; and when he is become so, ye make him twofold more a son of Gehenna than yourselves. Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold, that is in the temple, he is accountable. Ye blind ignorant ones : for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the offering that is upon it, he is accountable. Ye blind ignorant ones : whether is greater, the offering, or the altar that sanctifieth the offering? He therefore that sweareth by the altar, Cf. xxx. and xxxii. . Some of the statements regarding the scribes and Pharisees already made in this chapter are now repeated as "woes." Matt, xxiii. is omitted in the Revised Version.

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sweareth by it, and by all things that are thereon. And he that sweareth by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein. And he that sweareth by the heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! that tithe mint and rue, anise and cummin, and all herbs, and leave undone the weightier matters of the law, judgment, and mercy, and faith, and the love of God : these ye ought to do, and not to leave those undone. Ye blind guides, which strain out the gnat, and adorn x the camel. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of iniquity and unrighteousness. Ye blind Pharisees, cleanse first the inside of the cup and of the platter, and the outside of them will be clean. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which outwardly appear beautiful, but within are full of dead men's bones and of all uncleanness. Even so ye also outwardly appear unto men as if righteous, but within ye are full of iniquity and hypocrisy. One of the scribes, answering, said unto him, Teacher, in this thy speech thou makest a reproach against us. He said, Woe unto you also, ye scribes ! for ye lade men with heavy burdens, and ye yourselves touch not those burdens even with one of your fingers. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, * hypocrites ! in that ye build the sepulchres of the prophets, whom your fathers killed, b and adorn the tombs of the righteous, C) b Mr. Rendel Harris attributes this peculiar reading to the transposition of two letters of the Arabic word for "swallow."

and say, If we had been in the days of    

our fathers, we should not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. See therefore ! ye bear witness against yourselves, that ye are sons of them that slew the prophets; and ye are finishing the path of your fathers. Ye serpents, ye ^^ offspring of vipers, whither shall ye flee fzom the judgment of Gehenna? There- x fore, behold, I, the wisdom of God, send unto you prophets, and apostles, and wise men, and scribes : and some of them shall ye kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and cast out from city to city : that upon you may come all the blood of righteous men that hath been shed on the earth, from the blood of Abel the innocent unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the sanctuary and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the slayer of the prophets, and the stoner of them that were sent unto her ! how often have I wished to gather thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not ! Your house shall be left unto you deserted. Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. And of the rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did Or omit " shall " throughout this verse; cf . Luke xi. . This remarkable change of reading seems connected with Gnostic ideas. The Doctrine of Addai has " Behold, your house is left desolate." It is remarkable that this statement should come after the account of the use of these very words by the multitudes; cf. xxxix. . John xii. - is here inserted before John xii. b -; cf. xli. -.

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not confess it, lest they should become outside the synagogue: for they loved the glory of men more than to glory of God. And Jesus cried, and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. And he that seeth me, seeth him that sent me. I am come a light into the world, every man therefore that believeth on me, abideth not in the darkness. And whosoever heareth my sayings, and keepeth them not, I judge him not : for I came not to judge the world, but to give life to the world. He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my sayings, there is one that judge th him : the saying that I spake, the same shall judge him in the last day. I speak not from myself; but the Father which sent me, he hath given me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. And I know that his commandment is life eternal : the things therefore which I speak now, even as the Father hath said unto me, so I speak. And when he said these things unto them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to be angry in their malice, and to find fault with his words, and to vex him in many things; seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they might be able to accuse him. Now when many multitudes were gather- ing together, so that they almost trode one upon another, Jesus began to say unto his disciples, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. But there is nothing covered up, except that it will be Of these verses , are a comment of the evangelist, which might be placed at any point in the account of this visit. Ver. - naturally follow them, and with the verses from S. Luke following them, they explain in a very natural way why Jesus went and hid himself, John xii. b .


revealed : nor hidden, except that it will be known. All things that ye have said in the darkness, shall be heard in the light : and that which ye have whispered in the ears in the chambers, shall be proclaimed npon the housetops. These things spake Jesus, and he departed, b and hid himself from them. And though he had done all these signs before them, they believed not on him: that the saying of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed, that he may hear us? And the arm of the Lord, to whom hath it been revealed? For this cause they could not believe, for Isaiah said again, Blind ye their eyes, and bring darkness to their heart; Lest they should see with their eyes, and understand with their heart, And should turn, And I should heal them. These things said Isaiah, when he saw his glory, and spake of him. And Jesus went out from the temple; and some of his disciples came to him, and showed him the buildings of the temple, and its beauty and magnificence, and the strength of l b the stones used in it, and the elegance of its construction, and how it was adorned with b costly stones and beautiful colours. Jesus a answered, and said unto them, See ye these great buildings? Verily I say unto you, the days will surely come, and there shall * Lu ' ™% not be left here in them one stone upon another, that is not thrown down. See note to xiii. b . No doubt Tatian meant this for Luke xxi. b; cf. xxxix. ,

.  And two days before the passover of the    i 

unleavened tread the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him with sub til ty, and kill him: but they said, Not during the feast, lest haply the people make a disturbance. And as Jesus sat on the mount of Olives over against the temple, Simon Cephas and James and John and Andrew came unto him, and said unto him * between themselves and him, Teacher, tell -j^' us, when shall these things be? and what shall he the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world? Jesus answered, and said * unto them, The days will come, when ye b shall desire to see one day of the days of the Son of man, and ye shall not see it. Take heed that no man lead you astray. b Many shall come in my name, saying, I am a the Messiah; and they shall say, The time b is at hand; and shall lead many astray : b go ye not therefore after them. When *j££ ^?J therefore ye shall hear of wars and rumours of insurrections, see that ye be not troubled : •these things must come to pass first; but the end hath not yet come. Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be great earth- quakes in divers places, and famines, and pestilences, and commotions : terrors and No more convenient place could be found for these two verses, in view of the fact that the prolonged discourse which follows immediately is at once followed by a reference made by Jesus to this date; cf. xliv. and . The placing Mark xiv. , before Mark xiii. does not involve a chronological error, since xliv. shows that the same day is still present. Besides taking Luke xxi. as the parallel to Matt. xxiv. and Mark xiii., Tatian inserts passages from other parts of S. Luke which deal with the same subject, though their position in the third Gospel implies that they were spoken earlier. In this way he is enabled to present to his readers a more complete account of our Lord's teaching upon this important subject, Omitting Luke xxi. a : " Then said he unto them," « Or Luke xxi. b .

"

b


T

. tremblings shall there be, and great signs shall appear from heaven; and great storms M shall there be. All these things are the beginning of troubles. And before all these things, they shall lay hands on you, and shall persecute you, and deliver you up to the synagogues and prisons, and shall drag you before kings and governors for my name's sake. And this shall be unto you for a testimony. And my gospel must first be preached unto all the nations. And when they bring you into the synagogues before the rulers, and the authorities, be not anxious beforehand how to plead, or what ye shall say: for it is not ye that speak, but the i b Holy Spirit. Put it therefore in your heart, not to meditate beforehand what to say: for I will give you understanding and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to withstand. For then shall they deliver you up unto tribulation, and shall kill you : and ye shall be hated of all the nations for my name's sake. And then shall many be caused to stumble, and shall hate one another, and shall deliver up one another to death. And your parents, and brethren, and kinsfolk, and friends shall deliver you up : and some of you shall they put to death. And a lock of the hair of your head shall not perish. In your patience ye shall possess your souls. And many false prophets shall arise, and shall lead many astray. And because of the abundance of iniquity, the love of many shall grow weak. But whosoever endureth to the end, the same shall be saved. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached Omitting Mark xiii.  : " But take heed to yourselves." For the substance of ver. see above in xli.

I JO .

in the whole world for a testimony unto all the nations; and then shall come the end of all. But when ye see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that her desolation is at hand. At that time let them that are in Judaea flee unto the mountain; and let them that are in the midst of her flee; and let not them that are in the districts enter therein. For these days are the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. When therefore ye see the abominable desolation, which was spoken of in Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let him that readeth understand), then let them that are in Judaea flee unto the mountain : and let him that is on the housetop not go down, nor enter in, to take anything out of his house : and let him that shall be in the field not return back to take his cloke. Woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days ! there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people. And they shall fall on the edge of the sword, and shall be led captive into every country : and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. Then if any man shall say unto you, The Messiah is here; or, Lo, he is there; believe it not. Then shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall do signs and portents; so as to lead into error, if they could, even the elect. Therefore take ye heed: for I have already told you all things beforehand. If therefore they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the wilderness; go not forth, that Or, " unclean." Cf. xli. , . There is a little displacement of internal order here.


. iji ye may not be seized : and if they shall say unto you, Behold he is in the chamber; be lieve it not. For as the lightning appeareth hi the east, and is visible even unto the west; so shall be the coming down of the Son of man. But first must he suffer many things, and be rejected of this genera tion. And pray ye that your flight may not take place in the winter, nor on a sabbath day : then shall be great tribulation, of which there hath not been the like from the beginning of the world until now, nor shall take place. And except the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh would have been saved : but for the elect's sake, whom he chose, he shortened those days. And Lu, there shall be signs in sun and moon and stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, and wringing of hands for the roaring of the noise of the sea and of the earthquake. Men's souls shall depart for the fear, which shall come upon the earth. But in those days, immediately after the tribulation of those days, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven : and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall look at the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great majesty. And he shall send forth his angels with a great trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the end of heaven even to the end thereof. But when these things begin to come to pass, be of good cheer, and lift up your heads; because your deliverance draweth nigh. This passage is considerably altered from S. Luke.


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a

a 

. From the fig-tree learn the parable: for when its branches are tender, and it putteth forth leaves, ye know that the summer is nigh; even so ye also, when ye see these things begin to take place, know ye that the kingdom of God hath arrived at the door. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all these things take place. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. Take heed to yourselves, lest haply your hearts be at any time overcharged with iniquity and drunkenness, and cares of the age, and that day come on you suddenly: for just as a blow shall it strike all them that dwell on the face of all the earth. Watch ye at every season, and pray, that ye may be counted worthy to escape all these things that are going to take place, and to stand before the Son of man. Of that day and of that hour knoweth no one, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father. Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when that time is. Even as a man, who went abroad, and left his house, and gave his authority to his servants, and left each one at his own work, and com manded the porter to be watchful. Watch therefore : for ye know not when the lord of the house shall come, whether at even, or at midnight, or at cockcrowing, or in the morning; lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping. What I say unto you, I say unto ) you all, Be watchful. For even as it happened in the days of Noah, so shall be the coming of the Son of man. Even as before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and delivering up to marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and they knew not

until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall be the coming of the Son of man. And likewise even as it came to pass in the days of Lot; they ate and they drank, they sold and they bought, they planted and they builded; hut in the same day wherein Lot went out from Soclom, the Lord rained both fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all : so shall it be in the day wherein the Son of man shall appear. And in that day, he which shall be on the housetop, and his garments in the house, let him not go down to take them away: and he which shall be in the field, let him not return HI back. Eemember Lot's wife. He that shall | L ^ ^ wish to save his life shall lose it : but he that shall lose his life shall save it. Verily I say unto you, In that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left. And there shall be two women grinding in one mill; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left. And there shall be two men in the same field; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left. They answered, > and said unto him, Where, Lord? He x said unto them, Wherever the body is, thither will the eagles be gathered together. Watch therefore; for ye know not in what hour your Lord will come. This know, If the master of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would certainly have watched, and his house could not have been digged through. Therefore be ye also ready : for in an hour that ye think not the Son of man will come. In the Arabic ver. begins here, as in the Vulgate, and ver. , as marked in the present text. Or, "vultures." . Simon Cephas saith unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even unto all men? Jesus said unto him, * Who, think you, is the faithful and wise overseer of the house, whom his lord hath set over his household, to give them food in its season? Blessed is that servant, whom when his lord is come, he shall find so doing. Verily I say unto you, that he will set him j M l J' b over all that he hath. But if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord will delay his coming; and shall begin to beat b his menservants and the maidservants of his lord, and shall begin to eat and drink with b the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in a day wherein he thinketh not, and in an hour which he knoweth not, and shall a judge him, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites, and with the unfaithful: there j M l J' ci*> shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then shall the kingdom of heaven be like unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom and the bride. Five of them were wise, and five were foolish. Now these foolish ones, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them : but the wise took oil in vessels with the lamps. Now while the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. But at midnight a cry was made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh ! Go ye forth to meet him. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. The foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps The preceding parable is very like that in Luke xii. , , hence the sequence now; the order is that of S. Matthew. Cf. Luke xii. b . Or Matt. xxiv. ». Lit. " burning-lamps," a different word from that translated " lamps " in ver. and , but used in ver. .

are gone  out. The wise answered, saying,   g 

Peradventure there may not be enough for us and you: go ye to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. And when they had io gone to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage feast: and the door was shut. But at last came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. He answered, and saith unto them, Yerily I say unto you, I know you not. Watch therefore; for ye know not that day nor that hour. Even as a man, going abroad, called his own servants, and delivered unto them his goods. And unto one he gave five talents, and to another two, but to another one; to each according to his particular ability; and he went on his journey immediately. Now he that had received the five talents went and traded with them, and gained five others. In like manner he also that had received the two gained two others. But he that had received the one went away and digged into the earth, and hid his lord's money. But after a long time the lord of those servants came, and made a reckoning with them. And he that had received the five talents came and paid five others, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents : lo, I have gained five others beside them. His lord saith unto him, Well done, good and faithful servant : thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will set thee over many things : enter thou into the joy of thy lord. And he that had received the two talents came, and saith, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents : lo, I have gained two others beside them. His lord saith unto him, Well Not " going out," as the Revised Version and the margin of the Authorised Version.


^ .

done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will set thee over many things : enter thou into the joy of thy lord. And he also that had received the one talent came, and said, Lord, I know that thou art a hard man, thou reapest where thou dost not sow, and gatherest where thou dost not scatter: and I was afraid, and went away, and hid thy talent in the earth : lo, thou hast what is thine. His lord answered, and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knowest me, that I reap where I did not sow, and gather where I did not scatter; thou oughtest to have put my money at the bank, and at my coming I should have exacted it with interest. Take ye away therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him that hath the ten talents. Unto him that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance : but from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away from him. And cast ye out the unprofitable servant into the outer darkness : there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. Let your loins be girded about, and your lamps burning; and be ye yourselves like unto men looking for their lord, when he returns from the feast; that, when he cometh and knocketh, they may straightway open unto him. Blessed are those servants, > whom their lord when he cometh shall find watching : verily I say unto you, that he shall gird his loins, and make them lie down to meat, and shall pass by and serve them. And if he shall come in the second watch, Mr. Rendel Harris thinks the saying, "Be approved money-changers," was in the Diatessaron near here. See note on ver. . These verses from Lnke xii. serve as a kind of summary of the preceding lessons.


or in the third, and find them so, blessed are those servants. But when the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all his holy angels with him, then shall he sit on the throne of his majesty: and before him he shall gather all the nations : and he shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd separateth the rams from the kids: and he shall set the rams on his right, but the kids on the left. Then shall the King say unto them that shall be on his right, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world : I was hungry, and ye gave me to eat : I was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink : I was a stranger, and ye took me in : I was naked, and ye clothed me : I was sick, and ye visited me : I was in prison, and ye took care of me. Then shall the righteous > say unto him, Lord, when saw we thee hungering, and fed thee? or thirsting, and gave thee a drink? And when saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? And when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and took care of thee? The King shall answer, and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye did unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye did unto me. Then shall he say also unto them that shall be on his left, Depart from me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his armies: I was hungry, and ye gave me not to eat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink : I was a stranger, and ye took me not in : I was naked, and ye clothed me not : I was sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. Then shall they also answer, saying, In the Arabic idiom, "answered and said." .

Lord, when saw we thee hungering, or thirsting, or naked, or a stranger, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? Then shall he answer, and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, When ye did it not unto one of these lesser ones, ye did it not even unto me also. And these shall go into eternal punishment : but the righteous into eternal life. And when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, Ye know that after two days the passover will take place, and the Son of man will be delivered up to be crucified. Then were gathered together the chief priests and scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the court of the high priest, who is called Caiaphas; and they took counsel concerning Jesus that they might take him by subtilty, and kill him. But they said, Not during the feast, lest peradventure a tumult arise among the people; for they feared the people. b And Satan entered into Judas surnamed Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve. And he went away, and had a * conversation in the temple with the chief priests and scribes and rulers, saying unto them, What are ye willing to give me, and b I will deliver him unto you? And they, n a when they heard it, were glad, and they ° appointed unto him thirty silver drachmas. And he promised them: and from that time he sought opportunity to deliver Jesus unto them without the multitudes. And on the first day of the feast of un- leavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus, The order of " naked " and " stranger " is here reversed from ver. , , and . Cf. xli. . Arabic, " dirhems of money." This verse seems superfluous here; cf. ver. .


and said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and make ready for thee that thou mayest eat the passover? Now before the feast of the passover Jesus knew that the hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto his Father, and he loved his own in this world, and he loved them unto the end. And at supper time, Satan having put into the heart of Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, to betray him, and Jesus, knowing that the Father had delivered all things into his hands, and that he came forth from the Father, and was going unto the Father, rose from supper, and laid aside his garments; and he took a towel, and girded his loins. And he poured water into the bason, and began to wash his disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he had girded his loins. And when he was come to Simon Cephas, Simon said unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet? Jesus answered, and said unto him, What I do now thou knowest not; but thou shalt know hereafter. Simon said unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus saith unto him, If I wash thee not, thou shalt have no part with me. Simon Cephas said unto him, Then, Lord, wash not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. Jesus said unto IO him, He that is bathed needeth not save to wash his feet; then he is entirely clean: and ye are clean, but not all. For Jesus knew II who was his betrayer; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean. So after he had washed their feet, he took Tatian divides ver. - of this chapter of S. John from the remainder, and makes the meal here referred to take place before the hiring of the guestchamber (xliv. , etc.), and consequently also before the meal, which preceded the institution of the Lord's Supper (xliv. ).

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his garments, and, sitting down, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you? Ye call me, Master, and, Lord: and ye say well; so I am. If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet, how much more fit is it, that ye should wash one another's feet? Fori have given you this example, that ye also may so do, as I have done to you. Verily, verily, I say unto you, A servant is not greater than his lord; neither is an apostle greater than he that sent him. If ye know these things, happy shall ye be if ye do them. This my saying is not for you all : for I know whom I have chosen : but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me. From henceforth I tell you before it come to pass, that when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am he. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me. Which is greater, he that reclineth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that reclineth at meat? I am in the midst of you as he that serveth. But ye are they which have continued with me in my sorrows, and I promise unto you, even as my Father promised unto me, a kingdom, that ye may * eat and drink upon the table of my kingdom. And the first day of the feast of unleavened bread came, on which the Jews are wont to kill the passover. And Jesus sent two of his disciples, Cephas and John, saying unto them, Go and make ready for us the passover, that we may eat. And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we make ready for thee? He said unto them, Go, | M ^ j J b Omitting " and sit on thrones judging the Twelve Tribes of Israel." But cf. xxix. . Cf. ver. .

IO b i i!

[ a


II b

,

I a i b

. ll enter into the city; and as ye are entering -in, there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water; follow him; and where he entereth in, say to the householder, Our Master saith, -j -^ My time is come; and I keep the passover with thee. Where is then the lodging, where I may eat it with my disciples? And he will show you a large upper room furnished and prepared : and there make ready for us. And his two disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found even as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover, as he had commanded them. And when the evening was come, and it was the hour, Jesus came and lay down to meat, and the twelve apostles with him. And he saith unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before suffer : I say unto you, henceforth I will not eat it, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. Saying this, Jesus was troubled in the l a spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, One of you that eateth with i b me, he shall betray me. And they were very sorrowful, and began to say unto him one by one, Is it I, Lord? He answereth, and saith unto them, One of the twelve, that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, he shall betray me. And behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is on the table. And the Son of man shall go, even as it is written of him : but woe unto that man through whom the Son of man shall be betrayed ! better were it for that man if he had not been born. And the disciples observed one another, not knowing whom he signified. And they began to question See note to ver. .

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among themselves, which of them it was that was going to do this thing. Now there was reclining in his bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. Simon Cephas beckoned to him, that he should ask him who this was of whom he spake. That disciple therefore leaned back on Jesus' breast, and said unto him, Lord, Who is he? Jesus answered, and saith, He it is to whom I shall give the bread wJien it is dipped. And Jesus dipped the bread, and gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. And after the bread Satan entered into him. And Jesus said unto him, What thou wishest to do, make haste to do. Now no one of those reclining understood this, for what intent he spake unto him. And some thought, because Judas had the bag, that he commanded him to buy what was needed for the feast; or that he should give something to the poor. Judas the betrayer answered, and said, Is it I, Master? Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said. And Judas straightway received the bread, and went out : and it was night. And Jesus said, Now shall the Son of man be glorified, and God shall be glorified in him; and if God shall be glorified in him, God shall also glorify him in himself, and straightway shall he glorify him. And a as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and b blessed, and brake, and gave it to his disciples, and said unto them, Take, and eat; this is my body. And when he had taken * a cup, he gave thanks, and blessed it, and gave it to them: and said, Take, and drink j h ye all of this; and they all drank of it. b The Doctrine of Addai has " Beliold now is the Son of man glorified, and God glorifies Himself in Him by miracles and by wonders, and by honour of being at the right hand." Retaining the clause omitted in the Revised Version.


THE DIATESSAROK And he said unto them, This is my blood, { Mt * *f the new testament, shed for many unto remission of sins. I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this juice of the vine, until the day when I shall drink it new with you in the kingdom of God; and so do for my remembrance. I b And Jesus saith unto Simon, Simon, behold, Satan desires that he may sift you as wheat : but I make supplication for thee, that thou lose not thy faith : and do thou also, when once thou hast turned again, stablish thy brethren. My children, yet a little while I am with you; and ye shall seek me : and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; I say now unto you also. A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another; and even as I have loved you, love ye also each other. By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another. Simon Cephas said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered, and said unto him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt come afterwards. Then said Jesus unto them, All ye shall forsake me this night : it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad. But after my resurrection I will go before you into Galilee. Simon Cephas answered, and saith unto him, Lord, if all forsake thee, I will Aphraates adds here " as often as ye come together," showing clearly that Tatian borrowed from the account in Cor. xi. in compiling the Diatessaron.

The insertion of the Lord's Supper after the departure of Judas involved a displacement of the subject of Luke xxii. - from that evangelist's order.

The preference was therefore given to other Gospels, only the last clause of Luke xxii. being retained. S. Matthew and S. Mark put this after the arrival at Gethsemane.

. never withdraw from thee: with thee I k am ready for prison and for death, and I $y h will lay down my life for thee. Jesus said s unto him, Wilt thou lay down thy life for me? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, that b thou to-day, even this night, before the cock crow twice, shalt thrice deny that thou b knowest me. But Cephas kept speaking further, Even if I come to death with thee, I will not deny thee, Lord. And in like manner also said all the disciples. Then saith Jesus unto them, Let not your hearts be troubled : believe in God, and believe in me. In my Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go away to prepare a place for you, I will return again, and receive you unto myself; and where I am, there shall ye also be. And the place whither I go, ye know, and the way ye know. Thauma said unto him, Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how shall we have a way to perceive this? Jesus said unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life : and no one cometh unto my Father, but by me. And if ye had known me, ye would have known my Father : and from henceforth ye have known him, and have seen him. Philip said unto him, ., Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. Jesus said unto him, All this time am I. with you, and have ye not yet known me? Philip, he that seeth me hath seen the Father; how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in Omitting John xiii.  : " why cannot I follow Thee now? I Cf. xlix .

a Addai alludes to this, saying, " He is gone to prepare for his worshippers blessed mansions, in which tliey may dwell."

my Father, and my Father is in me? for the words that I speak I speak not from myself : but my Father, who abideth in me, he doeth these works. Believe that I am in my Father, and my Father is in me : or else believe for the works' sake. Yerily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do. I go unto the Father: and whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, I will do with you, that the Father may be glorified in his Son. If therefore ye ask in my name, I will do it. If ye love me, keep my commandments. And I will pray my Father, and he shall send you another Paraclete, that he may be with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive; for it hath not seen him, neither known him : but ye know him; for he abideth with you, and is in you. I will not leave you orphans: I will come unto you. Yet a little while, and the world shall not see me; but ye shall see me : because I live, ye shall live also. And in that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you. He n that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me : and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself unto him. Judas (not the Iscariot) said unto him, Lord, what is the meaning of thy resolution to manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? Jesus answered, and said unto him, He that loveth me will surely keep my saying : and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. But he that loveth me not keepeth not my saying: and this This Greek form is retained in the Arabic: it is equivalent to "Comforter."

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saying which ye hear is not my saying, but the Father's who sent me. These things have I spoken unto you, while yet abiding with you. But the Paraclete, even the Holy Spirit, whom my Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all whatsoever I say unto you. Peace I leave with you; my peace I give unto you : but not as this world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be seized with forebodings, neither let it be fearful. Ye heard how I said to you, I go away, and I will come unto you. If ye had loved me, would ye not surely have rejoiced, because I go unto my Father? for my Father is greater than I. And now I tell you before it come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe on me. I will not now speak much with you, the prince of the world shall come, and shall have nothing in me; but that the * world may know that I love my Father, and as my Father gave me commandment, so I do. And he saith unto them, When I sent you forth without purses, and wallets, and shoes, lacked ye anything? They said unto him, Nothing. He said unto them, Henceforth he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet also : and he that hath no sword, let him sell his coat, and buy himself a sword. I say unto you, that this which is written must yet be fulfilled in me, for I shall be reckoned with transgressors : for all things that were said concerning me are fulfilled in me. His disciples said unto him, Lord, behold, here are two swords. He said unto them, They are enough. Arise, let us go hence. i b And they rose up, and when they had Plural : so also in the Doctrine of Addai.


given thanks, they went out, and went, according to their custom, unto the mount of Olives, he and his disciples. And he saith unto them, I am the true I vine, and my Father is the husbandman. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit, he will take it away : and that which beareth fruit, he will cleanse, that it may bear much fruit. Already ye are clean because of the saying which I have spoken unto you. Abide in me, and I in you. For even as the branch of the vine cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; so neither can ye, except ye abide in me. I am the vine, and ye are the branches : He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit : for without me ye can do nothing. But if any man abide not in me, he shall be cast forth as a withered branch, which is gathered, and cast into the fire to burn. If ye abide in me, and my word abide in you, whatsoever ye shall wish to ask shall be done unto you. And herein shall the Father be glorified, that ye bear much fruit, and be my disciples. And even as the Father hath loved me, I also have loved you: abide ye in my love. If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father's commandments, and abode in his love. These II things have I spoken unto you, that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be fulfilled. This is my commandment, that ye love one another, even as I have loved you. And there is no greater love than this, that a man give his life for his friends. Ye are my friends, if ye do all things which I have commanded you. I will not now call you servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth : but I have called you

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friends; for all things whatsoever I heard from my Father I have made known unto you. Ye did not choose me, but I selected you, and appointed you, that ye also should go and bring fruit, and that your fruit should abide : and whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he will give it you. This I command you, that ye love one another. And if the world hateth you, v know that it hath hated me before it hated you. For if ye had been of the world, the world would love what is its own : but ye are not of the world. I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. Eemember the saying that I spake unto you, A servant is not greater than his lord. If therefore they cast me out, they will cast you out also; and if they kept my word, they will keep your words also. But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me. For if I had not come and spoken unto them, they would not have had sin : but now they have no excuse for their sins. He that hateth me hateth my Father also. And if I had not done before them the works which none other did, they would not have had sin : but now have they seen and hated both me and my Father, that the saying may be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause. But when the Paraclete is come, whom I will send unto you from my Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from my Father, he shall bear witness of me: and ye shall bear witness, because ye are with me from the beginning. These tilings have I spoken unto you, that I ye should not be disquieted. For they shall put you out of their synagogues : and the

hour will come, that every one that shall kill you will think that he presenteth an offering unto God. And these things will they do unto you, because they know not me, nor my Father. These things have I spoken unto you, that when the hour is come, ye may remember them, how that I told you. And these things I said not unto you before, because I was with you. And now I go unto him that sent me; and none of you asketh me, whither I go. Now I have spoken these things unto you, and sorrow hath come, and seized your hearts. Nevertheless I tell you the truth : It is expedient for you that I go away : for if I go not away, the Paraclete will not come unto you; but if I go, I will send him unto you. And when he cometh, he will convict the world in respect of sin, and of righteous ness, and of judgment: of sin, because they believed not on me; but of righteousness, because I go to my Father; and of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged. And I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. And when the Spirit of truth is come, he shall bring all the truth to your remembrance : x he shall not speak anything from himself; but what things soever he shall hear, them shall he speak: and he shall teach you those things that are about to come. And he shall glorify me : for he shall take from me, and shall show it unto you. All things that my Father hath are mine : therefore said I unto you, that he shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you. A little while, and ye shall not see me; and again a little while, and ye shall see me, because I go to the Father. His disciples Cf. John xiv. .

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therefore said one to another, What is this that he said unto us, A little while, and ye shall not see me; and again a little while, and ye shall see me : and, I go to the Father? And they said, What is this little while which he said? We know not what he saith. And Jesus perceived that they were desirous to ask him, and said unto them, Do ye inquire of one another, because I said unto you, A little while, and ye shall not see me; and again a little while, and ye shall see me? Verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye shall lament and be sad, but the world shall rejoice : and ye shall be sorrowful, but your grief shall be turned into joy. For a woman, when the time of bearing draweth near unto her, the coming of the day of her delivery oppresseth her : but when she hath brought forth the child, she remembereth not the anguish, for the joy that a man is born into the world. Even ye therefore are sad now : but I will surely see you, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no one shall take away from you. And in that day ye shall ask me nothing. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall ask of my Father in my name, he will give it you. Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name : ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full. Now have I spoken unto you in proverbs: but an hour and a time shall come, when I shall not speak unto you in proverbs, but shall reveal to you the Father by an open revelation. In that day ye shall ask in my name : and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you; for the Father loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came out from my Father. I came out from my Father, and

. am come into the world : and I leave the world, and go unto my Father. His dis- ciples said unto him, Lo, now thy words are clear, and thou hast spoken nothing in a proverb. Lo, now know we that thou knowest all things, and needest not that any man should ask thee : and by this we believe that thou earnest out from God. I Jesus said unto them, Believe that an hour \ n * * shall come, and is already come, and ye shall be scattered, every man to his own place, and shall leave me alone : and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. These things have I spoken unto you, that in me ye may have peace. For in the world distress shall overtake you: but be of good cheer, for I have overcome the world.

. This spake Jesus; and lifting up his eyes I to heaven, he said, My Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son may glorify thee: even as thou gavest him authority over all flesh, that everything, that thou hast given him, to it he should give eternal life. And this is life eternal, that they may know that thou art the only true God, and that he, whom thou didst send, is ' Jesus the Messiah. I have glorified thee on the earth, and I have accomplished the work which thou gavest me to do. Now therefore, thou Father, glorify me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was. I taught thy name unto the men whom thou gavest me out of the world : thine they were, and thou gavest them to me; and they have kept thy say ing. Now they know that all things which thou hast given me are from thee : and the words which thou gavest me I have presented unto them; and they received them, and knew of a truth that I came out from .

thee, and they believed that thou didst send me. And I pray for them: and my Q petition is not for the world, but for these whom thou hast given me; for they are thine : and all my things are thine, and all i o thine are mine : and I am glorified in them. And now I am not in the world, and these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep them in thy name, whom thou hast given me, that they may be one, even as we are. When I was with them in the world I kept them in thy name. For those, whom thou hast given me, have I guarded, and not one of them perished, but the son of perdition; * that the scripture might be fulfilled. Now I turn to thee; and this I speak in the world, that they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves. I have given them thy saying; and the world hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. For I seek not this, that thou shouldest take them from the world, but that thou shouldest keep them from the evil one. They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. Father, sanctify them in the truth : for thy saying is truth. And even as thou didst send me into the world, I also send them into the world. And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in the truth. And not for them only do I pray, but for them that are about to believe on me through their word; that they may all be one; even as thou art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us : that the world may believe that thou diclst send me. And the glory which thou hast given me I have given unto them; that they may be one, even as we are one; I in them, and Lit. " perishing."

. thou in me, that they may be perfected into one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and that I have loved them, even as thou hast loved me. Father, those whom thou hast given me, I will that, where I am, they also may be with me; that they may see my glory, which thou hast given me : for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world. my righteous Father, the world knew thee not, but I know thee; and these knew that thou didst send me; and I made known unto them thy name, and will make it known; that the love wherewith thou lovedst me may be in them, and I may be in them. This spake Jesus, and went forth with his I disciples to the place which is called Gethsemane, over the brook Cedron, to the mountain, the place wherein was a garden, into which he entered, himself and his disciples. Now Judas the betrayer knew that place : for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. And when Jesus * had arrived at the place, he said unto his disciples, Sit ye here, that I may go and pray. b Pray that ye enter not into temptation. said unto him, Then thou art a king? Jesus saith unto him, Thou sayest it, because I am a king. And for this cause have I been born, and for this am I come into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. And every one that is of the truth heareth my voice. Pilate said unto him, $&* And what is truth? And when he had said this, he went out

. again unto the Jews. And Pilate saith unto the chief priests and the multitudes, I have found nothing against this man. But they cried out, and said, He stirreth up our people with his teaching in all Judaea, beginning from Galilee even unto this place. But Pilate, when he heard the name of Galilee, asked, Is this man a Galilaean? And when he knew that he was under Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him unto Herod, for he was at Jerusalem in those days. Now Herod, when he saw Jesus, was exceeding glad : for he was of a long time desirous to see him, because he had heard many things about his deeds; and he ex pected to see some sign from him. And he questioned him in many words; but Jesus answered him nothing. And the scribes and the chief priests stood, accusing him violently. And Herod with his attendants set him at nought, and after he had mocked him, he arrayed him in a scarlet robe, and sent him to Pilate. And Pilate and Herod became friends on that day : for before there was enmity between them. And Pilate called together the chief priests and the rulers of the people, and said unto them, Ye brought unto me this man, as one that perverteth your people: and I examined him before you, and found no fault in this man out of all the things whereof ye accuse him : nor did Herod also : for I sent him unto him; and he hath done nothing whereby he deserve th death. I will therefore chastise him, and release him. The whole multitude cried out, saying, Away with him from us, away with him. And the chief priests and elders accused him of many things. And when he was accused by them, he answered not a word.


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. Then saith Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against , thee? And he did not answer him even with one word : and Pilate marvelled thereat. And when the governor was sitting upon ,} ..» the place of judgment, his wife sent unto him, saying unto him, Take heed that thou hurt not that righteous man : for I have suffered many things this day in my dream because of him. Now at every feast the governor was wont to release unto the people one prisoner, whom they would. And there was in their prison a notable prisoner, who was called Barabbas. When therefore they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Ye have a custom that I should release unto you a prisoner at the passover: will ye that I release unto you the king of the Jews? And they all cried out, and said, Do not release unto us this man, but release unto us Barabbas. Now this Barabbas was a robber, who for insurrection and murder done in the city had been cast into prison. And all the people cried out, and began to ask him to do unto them even as custom allowed. And Pilate answered, and said unto * them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? I J h Barabbas, or Jesus, which is called Messiah, the King of the Jews? For Pilate knew that envy had moved them to deliver him up. Now the chief priests and the elders besought the multitudes that they should ask for the release of Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. The governor answered, and saith unto them, Which of the two will ye that I release Chronological order is not affected by the displacement of this verse from its setting; whilst greater continuity is given to the combined narrative which follows. Cf. Mark xv. .


. unto you? They said, Barabbas. Pilate a said unto them, What then shall I do concerning Jesus, which is called Messiah? They all cried out, saying, Crucify him. And Pilate spake unto them again, for he desired to release Jesus; but they cried out, saying, Crucify, crucify him, and release unto us Barabbas. And Pilate said unto them the third time, What evil hath this man done? I have found no cause deserving of death in him : I will chastise him and release him. But they were the more urgent with a loud voice, demanding that he should crucify him. And their voice, and the voice of the chief priests prevailed. Then Pilate released unto them Barabbas, \ ^ a who for insurrection and murder had been cast into prison, whom they asked for; but Jesus he scourged. b Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus, and brought him into the Praetorium, and gathered unto him the whole band. And they stripped him, and clothed him in a scarlet cloke, and arrayed him in a purple garment; and plaited a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and a reed b in his right hand; and, mocking and deriding him, they kneeled down before him, and did obeisance, saying, Hail, King of the Jews ! And they spat into his face, and took the reed from his hand, and smote his head, and they struck his cheeks. And j Pilate went out again, and said unto the Jews, I bring him out to you, that ye may know that I find no cause for his condemna tion. Jesus therefore went out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment.

Pilate said unto them, Behold, the man ! The last clause of this verse is omitted, and its equivalent is supplied from S. John at li. , . And when the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate said unto them, Take him yourselves, and crucify him : for I find no cause in him. The Jews said unto him, We have a law, and according to our law he is deserving of death, because he made him self the Son of God. And when Pilate heard this saying, he was the more afraid; and he entered into the judgment-hall again, and said unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus answered him not a word. Pilate said unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to release thee, and have power to crucify thee? Jesus saith unto him, Thou wouldest have no power against me, except it were given thee from above : therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath a greater sin than thy sin. And because of this word Pilate wished to release him : but the Jews cried out, If thou release him, thou art not Caesar's friend : for every one that maketh himself a king opposeth Caesar. And when Pilate had heard this saying, he brought Jesus out, and sat down on the tribunal, at the place called The Pavement, but in Hebrew it is called Gabbatha. Now that day was the Friday of the passover : and it was about the sixth hour; and he said unto the Jews, Behold your king ! But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him, crucify him. Pilate said unto them, Shall I crucify your king? The chief priests said unto him, We have no king but Caesar. And when Pilate saw that he prevailed nothing, but rather that a tumult increased, he took water, and washed Arabic, " riwak." Arabic, mimbar. Or, "assembly."

. his hands before the people, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this righteous man : see ye to it. And all the people answered, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. Then Pilate commanded that i a consent should be given to their petition, and he delivered Jesus up to be crucified according to their wish. Then Judas the betrayer, wher he had seen Jesus condemned, went away, and gave back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, saying, I have sinned in ., that I betrayed innocent blood. They said unto him, What is that to us? see thou to it. And he cast down the money in the temple, and departed; and he went away, and hanged himself. And the chief priests took the money, and said, We have no right to put it into the ark of offerings, for it is the price of blood. And they took counsel, and bought with it a potter's field for the burial of strangers. Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood, unto this day. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken through the prophet, saying, I took the thirty pieces of silver for the price of the great one, which was fixed by the children of Israel; and I paid them for the potter's IO field, as the Lord commanded me. And the Jews took Jesus, and went away j Jj^ o*> to crucify him : and when he had taken up a his cross and gone out, they took off from l b Or, " assailed." Judas could scarcely have had this interview with the chief priests before the condemnation by Pilate. Tatian's displacement here would seem therefore to be an improvement. As Ephraem refers to the account in Acts i. , it has been thought that his copy of the Diatessaron contained part of that verse, which was afterwards omitted. At the close of the present verse he adds, "and died." Omitting " Jeremiah," as the Peschito does; " Jeremiah " is a mistake in our Gospel for Zechariah.

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him the purple and scarlet garment, with which he was clothed, and clothed him with his own garments. And as they were going away with him, s they found a man of Cyrene, coming from the country, Simon by name, the father of i b Alexander and Euf us; him they impressed, that he might bear the cross of Jesus. And Lu, b they took up the cross, and laid it on him, that he might bear it, and come after Jesus.

And Jesus went on with his cross behind him. And there followed him much people, and women who lamented and were excited on account of Jesus. But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not over me, weep over yourselves, and over your children. The days will come, in which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that bare not, and the breasts that gave not suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. For if they do thus in the green tree, what shall be done in the dry? And they brought with Jesus two others of the malefactors to be put to death. And when they were come unto the place which is called, The skull, and is called in Hebrew Golgotha: there they crucified him. With him they crucified those two malefactors, one on the right and the other on the left. And the scripture was fulfilled, which said, He was reckoned with transgressors. And they gave him wine to drink and myrrh, and vinegar mingled with gall; and when Cf. Mark xv. . As a comment of the evangelist himself, Tatian considered himself at liberty to remove this verse, from its position in S. Mark, to a more convenient situation.


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. he had tasted it, he would not drink; and * he received it not. And the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and divided them into four parts, to each band of soldiers a part. Now his coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore one to another, Let us not divide it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be.

And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, They parted my garments among them; And for my vesture did they cast lots. This the soldiers did; and they sat, and kept guard over him there. And Pilate wrote on a tablet the cause of his death, and put it on the wood of the cross above his head. And there was written thus in it : THIS IS JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. And this board read many of the Jews : for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, in Greek, and in Latin. The chief priests therefore said to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but, He who said, I am King of the Jews. Pilate said unto them, What is written, is written. And the people stood beholding. s And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Oh! thou j?JJ; fl ° a b that destroyed the temple, and buildest it again in three days ! save thyself, if thou b art the Son of God, and come down from the cross. In like manner also the chief priests, and scribes and elders, and the Pharisees mocked him, and laughed to each other, saying, The saviour of others cannot save himself: If he is the Messiah, the chosen of God, and the King of Israel; let him now come down from the cross, that we may see, and believe on him. Having

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trusted in God, let him deliver him now, if he hath pleasure in him : for he said, I am the Son of God. And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar, saying unto him, If thou art ^> the King of the Jews, save thyself. In like manner the robbers also that were crucified with him reproached him. And one of the two criminals which were crucified with him railed on him, saying, If thou art the Messiah, deliver thyself, and deliver us also. But his companion rebuked him, saying unto him, Dost not even thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same con demnation? We indeed justly, and even as we have deserved, and according as we have done are we rewarded : but this man hath done nothing really deserving of blame. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comes t into thy kingdom. Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in Paradise. Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary, who is named after Cleophas, and Mary Magda lene. And Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple, whom he loved, standing by, and said unto his mother, Woman, behold, thy son ! And he saith to the disciple, Behold, thy mother! And from that hour the disciple took her unto himself. Now from the sixth hour darkness covered * the whole land until the ninth hour; and s ll ' ' ^L the sun was darkened. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Jail, Jaili, why hast thou forsaken me? that Ephraem has, " in the garden of delight." The Curetonian Syriac has, " in the garden of Eden " and " Eden " means " delight." Or, "kinswoman of." Cf. lii. . Really lli, since Ja is Arabic for .


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is, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? And some of them that stood there, when they heard it, said, This man calleth Elijah. After these things Jesus, knowing that all things were accomplished, and that the scripture might be accomplished, said, I thirst. Now there was set there a vessel * full of vinegar: and in that hour one of a them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with the vinegar, and fastening it to a reed, r b held it near his mouth to give him to drink. And when Jesus had received the vinegar, * he said, Everything is finished. But the rest said, Let him be; let us see whether Elijah cometh to deliver him. And Jesus * said, My Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And Jesus, crying s again with a loud voice, said, My Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit. This he said; and he bowed his head, and gave up his spirit. And straightway the face of the door of the temple was rent in twain from top to bottom; and the earth did quake; and the rocks were rent; and the tombs were opened; and the bodies of many saints that slept rose up, and went forth; and after his resurrection they entered into the holy city, and appeared unto many. Now the centurion s Or Matt, xxvii. continued. A marginal note opposite this verse, in an eleventh century MS., No. in the British Museum, says that in the historical Gospel of Diadorus and Tatian there followed the words, " but another took a spear and pierced his side, and there came out water and blood." Cf. John xix. . As no such person or Gospel is known, Diadorus may be a mistake for Diatessaron. Cf. Hi. . Tatian puts this saying later than S. Luke, and connects it less directly with the Roman soldiers, thus making it applicable to all His persecutors, and uttered when He had endured everything. Tatian's object may, in part, have been to group together the sayings from the cross. Omitting Mark xv.  : " which stood over against him," and " that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost."

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and they that were with him guarding Jesus, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceed ingly, and glorified God, saying, This man was righteous: and, Truly he was the Son b of God. And all the multitudes that were come together to the sight, when they beheld what had happened, returned smiting their breasts. Now the Jews, because it was the Friday, said, Let not these bodies remain on the wood, for it is the dawn of the sabbath : for that sabbath day was a great day. They asked therefore of Pilate that they might break the legs of them that had been crucified, and take them away. The soldiers therefore came, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him: but when they came to Jesus, they saw that he was dead already; and they brake not his legs : howbeit one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and straightway there came out blood and water. And he that hath seen hath borne witness, and his witness is true : and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye also may believe. These things came to pass that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, A bone shall not be broken in him: and also the scrip- J ture which saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced. And all the acquaintance of Jesus stood s afar off, and the women that had come with Ephraem here has, " Woe was it, woe was it to us : this was the Son of God!" The Curetonian Syriac here adds, " and saying, Woe to us, what is this ! Woe to us for our sins ! " One Latin Codex has a similar reading. A very interesting discussion of the original form of this passage in the Diatessaron will he found in Mr. Rendel Harris's Essay, pp. , . Cf. also Professor Robinson, The Gospel according to Peter, pp. , .


. him from Galilee, who were those who were i b following him, and ministering unto him : of s whom one was Mary Magdalene, and Mary b the mother of James the less and of Joses, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee, c and Salome, and many other women which! °° had come up with him unto Jerusalem; and they saw these things. , And when the evening of the Friday was come, on account of the entrance of the sabbath, there came a man named Joseph, rich and a councillor, of Arimathaea, a city of Judaea, who was a good man and upright, and a disciple of Jesus, who concealed him- b self, being afraid of the Jews; but he had not consented to the counsel and deeds of the accusers, and was looking for the kingdom of God. This man then came, and went in b unto Pilate, and requested of him the body of Jesus. And Pilate marvelled how he had already died. And calling unto him the centurion, he asked him about his death before the usual time. And when he had * learned it, he commanded him to deliver up b his body to Joseph. And Joseph bought a s clean linen cloth, and took down the body of Jesus, and wound him in it. They came $& d therefore, and took it away. And there came unto him also Nicodemus, who had before come to Jesus by night, bringing with him a mixture of myrrh and aloe, about a hundred pounds. So they took the body of Jesus, and wrapped it in linen cloths and spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury. Now in the place where Jesus was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new tomb hewn out in the rock, wherein no man had ever yet been laid. There then, because the sabbath had entered in, and because the tomb was nigh at hand, they . left Jesus: and they rolled a great stone, o b and thrust it to the door of the tomb, and departed. And Mary Magdalene and Mary s named after Joses came after them unto the tomb, and sat down over against the b tomb, and saw how they brought in and placed the body there. And they returned, s and bought spices and ointments, and turned b back that they might come and anoint it. But on the day which was the day of the b sabbath, they left off because of the commandment. Now the chief priests and the Pharisees b came together unto Pilate, and said unto him, Sir, we remember that that misleader said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again. And now be beforehand in guarding the sepulchre until three days, lest haply his disciples come and steal him by night, and they will say unto the people, He is risen from the dead : and the last error will be worse than the former. He said unto them, Have ye not a guard? go your way, guard it as ye know how. And they went, and made the sepulchre sure, and sealed the stone, together with the guards. Now on the evening of the sabbath which is the dawn of the first day, at very early dawn, behind the rest came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary and the other women to see the sepulchre, carrying with them the spices which they had prepared. And they said among themselves, Who shall remove for us the stone from the door of the tomb? for it was exceeding great. And when they -! Mt ' s *» said so, a great earthquake took place; and Or, "kinswoman of." Cf. li. . The second leaf missing from the Vatican MS. seems to have extended from this verse to liii. inclusive, this passage being obtained from the Borgian MS. only. an angel descended from heaven, and came and rolled away the stone from the door. And they came and found the stone removed from the tomb, and the angel sitting upon the stone. And his appearance was as lightning, and his raiment white as snow : and for fear of him the guards were terrified, and became as dead men. And when he was gone away, the women entered the tomb, and found not the body of Jesus : but they saw there a young man sitting on the right side, arrayed in a white robe; and they were amazed. And the angel answered, and said unto the women, Fear not ye : for I know that ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which hath been crucified. He is not here; for he is risen, even as he said. Come and see * the place where our Lord was laid. And while they were perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood above them in dazzling apparel; and as they were seized with terror, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living one among the dead? He is not here; he is risen : remember what he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, saying, The Son of man is going to be delivered up into the hands of sinners, and to be crucified, and to rise again the third day. But go quickly, * and tell his disciples and Cephas, that he is risen from the dead; and lo, he goeth before you into Galilee; and there shall ye see him, where he said unto you; lo, I have told you. And they remembered his words; The marks of division for this new chapter are omitted from the Borgian MS., whilst the passage is absent from the Vatican MS. In S. Matthew these words are a continuation of hi. , and spoken by an "angel," called by S. Mark a "young man;" but here they are spoken by "two men." Cf. liii. . Modem harmonisers have felt the same difficulty as Tatian did. and they departed quickly from the tomb with joy and great fear, and hastened and went their way running; for perplexity and quaking had come upon them : and they said nothing to any one; for they were afraid. But Mary ran, and came to Simon Cephas, and to that other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and said unto them, They have taken away our Lord out of the tomb, and I know not where they have laid him. Simon therefore went forth and that other disciple, and they came to the tomb. And they ran both together : and that disciple hastened and got before Simon, and came first to the tomb; and looking in, he saw the linen cloths laid; yet entered he not in. After him came Simon, and he entered into the tomb; and saw the linen cloths laid, and the napkin, that had been wrapped about his head, was not with the linen cloth, but rolled up and laid on the opposite side in a certain place. Then entered in that disciple, which had come first to the tomb, and he saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not from the scriptures, that the Messiah was going to rise again from the dead. And those two disciples went away unto their own place. But Mary was standing near the tomb weeping : so, as she wept, she looked for ward into the tomb; and she saw two angels in white sitting, one on the side of his cushion, and the other on the side of his feet, where the body of Jesus had been laid. And they said unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She said unto them, They have carried away my Lord, and know not Omitting "stooping down;" according to Tatian no stooping was necessary; cf. ver. . No stooping, cf. ver. .


. where they have laid him. While saying these words, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus said unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? And she, supposing him to be the gardener, said, Sir, if thou hast taken him, tell me where thou hast laid him, that I may go, and take him away. Jesus said unto her, Mary. And she turned herself, and said unto him in Hebrew, Eabboni, which is interpreted The Teacher. Jesus said unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father : go unto my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, my God and your God. And on the first day, the day whereon he rose, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven devils. And some of the guards came into the city, and told unto the chief priests all the things that had happened. And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave no little money unto the guards, saying unto them, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away, while we slept. And if the governor hear this, we will answer with him, and make you safe from blame. And when they had taken the money, they did as they had taught them: and this saying was spread abroad among the Jews, and continueth until this day. And then came Mary Magdalene, and told The guards would naturally go to report at the same time as the women.

It is therefore, historically, a matter of indifference which fact is related first. But it was convenient to Tatian to group the appearance of the Saviour to the women on their way with a series of His other appearances not reported by S. Matthew. To do this he naturally related the proceedings of the guard first.

THE DJATESSARON.

the disciples, that she had seen our Lord; and that he had said these things unto her. And as those women were going on the b way to tell the disciples, Jesus met them, g saying, All hail ! And they came, and took hold of his feet, and worshipped him. Then io said Jesus unto them, Fear not : but go, tell my brethren to go into Galilee, and there . shall they see me. And those women re- turned, and told all these things to the eleven, and to the rest of the disciples, and io b to them that had been with him; for they were sad and weeping. And they were Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and the rest of those that were with them: and these were they that spake unto the apostles. And they, when they had heard them saying that he was alive, and had appeared unto them, believed not. And these words were in their eyes as i a the words of madness. After these things he was manifested unto I a two of them on that very day, and as they i^ h were going to a village named Emmaus, which was at a distance of threescore fur longs from Jerusalem, and were talking with each other of all these things which had happened. Tor while they communed and questioned together, Jesus came, and arrived even unto them, and walked with them. But their eyes were holden, that they should not recognise him. And he said unto them, What communications are these that ye address one to another, as ye walk, and are sad? One of them, whose name was Cleophas, answered, and said unto him, Art thou alone a stranger to Jerusalem, since thou hast not known the things which are come to pass in it in these days? He said unto them, What hath happened? They

. said unto him, Concerning that Jesus who was from Nazareth, which was a prophet, and mighty in speech and deeds before God and all the people, whom the chief priests Ln. and elders delivered up for condemnation to death, and crucified him. But we thought that he was going to deliver Israel. And all these things came to pass three days ago. Yet certain women also of our company told us, that they had gone to the tomb; and when they found not his body, they came, and said, that they had seen angels there, which said of him, that he was alive. And certain also of our company went to the tomb, and found it even so, as the women said, except that they did not see him. Then said Jesus unto them, O destitute of understanding, and of a heavy heart to believe ! Was * it not in all the sayings of the prophets that the Messiah must suffer these things, and enter into his glory? And beginning from Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted concerning himself to them out of all the scriptures. And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they were going : and he made them suppose that he was about to go into a more distant neighbourhood. And they constrained him, saying unto him, Abide with us : for the day hath already declined towards darkness. And he went in to stay with them. And when he reclined with them to meat, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. And straightway their eyes were opened, and they recognised him; and he vanished from them. And they said one to another, Was not our heart heavy within us, while he conversed with us in the way, and The change of reading makes it difficult to end the verse at the usual place.


l . interpreted to us the scriptures? And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them; and they said, the Lord is really risen, and hath appeared to Simon. But they rehearsed the things that had been done in the way, and how they recognised him, when he brake the bread; neither believed they these things. i b And whilst they were talking, and thel^ lL?* ^ J ° ( evening of that day was come, which was the first day, and the doors were shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst of them, and said unto them, Peace be with you; it is I, ** be not afraid. And they were disquieted t> and affrighted, and supposed that they saw a spirit. Jesus said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do reasonings arise into your hearts? See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself : feel me, and know that a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. And when he had said this, he shewed them his hands and feet and side. And while they still disbelieved for joy and astonishment, he said, Have ye here anything to eat? And they gave him a piece of a ,. broiled fish and honey. And he took it, and did eat before them. And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, when I was with you, how that all things must needs be fulfilled, which are written in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me. Then opened he their mind, that they might understand the scriptures; The words, " it is I, be not afraid," are a part of this verse in several MSS including the Peschito and the Harclean, but not the Curetonian, Syriac. Cf. John xx. . This is the whole of our ver. ; but the Vulgate has more in the verse.


. and he said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved the Messiah to suffer, and to rise again from the dead the third day; and that repentance unto remission of sins should be preached in his name unto all the nations : but the beginning shall be from Jerusalem. And ye shall be witnesses of this. And I will send forth the promise ** of my Father unto you. The disciples, when b they heard this, were glad. And Jesus said unto them again, Peace be with you : as the Father hath sent me, I also send you. When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said unto them, Eeceive ye the Holy Spirit: if ye forgive any one's sins, they shall be forgiven him; if ye retain any one's sins, they shall be retained. But Thauma, one of the twelve, who is called Thoma, was not there with the disciples, when Jesus came. The disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen our Lord. He said unto them, Except I see in his hands the prints of the nails, and put my fingers upon them, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe. And after eight days, on the next first day, again the disciples were assembled within, and Thauma with them. And Jesus came, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said unto them, Peace be with you. And he said to Thauma, Eeach hither thy finger, and see my hands; and put forth thy hand, and spread it upon my side : and Or, " are." Part of this verse is repeated in lv. . Of. xxxvii. n. for the Arabic forms : these have no meaning in Arabic; but they are transliterations of the regular Syriac words for " Thomas " and " Twin," i.e. Didymus. There is no mention of nails in the feet either here or in S. John. Ephraem distinctly implies in his remarks (Moes. p. ) that the hands only were pierced by nails. And in The Gospel according to Peter, in describing the removal of our Lord from the cross, it says, " they drew out the nails from the hands.'

  be not faithless, but believing. Thauma    

answered, and said unto him, My Lord, and my God. Jesus said unto him, Now because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed. And many other signs did Jesus in the sight of his disciples, which are not written in this book : but these are both written, that ye may believe on Jesus, the Messiah, the Son of God; and that believing ye may have eternal life in his name. And after these things Jesus shewed him- self again to his disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and he manifested himself to them on this wise. There were together Simon Cephas, and Thauma, who is called Thoma, and Nathanael, who was of Cana of Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples. Simon Cephas said unto them, I go to catch fishes. They said unto him, We also come with thee. And they went forth, and went up into the boat; and that night they caught nothing. But when morning came, Jesus stood on the seashore : but the disciples knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus therefore said unto them, Children, have ye anything to eat? They said unto him, No. He said unto them, Cast your net on the right side of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast therefore; and they were unable to draw the net for the multitude of fishes, that were come into it. And that disciple, whom Jesus loved, said unto Cephas, This is our Lord. And Simon, when he heard that it was our Lord, took up his coat, and girded it up to his loins (for he was naked), and cast himself into the sea, that he might come to Jesus. But the other disciples came in the ship

(for they were not far from land, but about two hundred cubits off), dragging the net S full of fishes. And when they went up unto the land, they saw live coals laid, and a fish laid thereon, and bread. Jesus said, unto them, Bring of these fish, which ye have now caught. Simon Cephas therefore went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fishes, a hundred and fifty and three : and with so great a weight, the net was not rent. Jesus said unto them, Come, and sit down. And no one of the disciples dared to ask, who he was, knowing that it was our Lord : yet he did not appear unto them in his own form. And Jesus came and took the bread and the fish, and gave unto them. This is the third time that Jesus was manifested to his disciples, since he had risen from the dead. So when they had broken their fast, Jesus said to Simon Cephas, Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me more than these? He said unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus said unto him, Feed my lambs for me. He said to him also r again, Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me? He said unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He said unto him, Feed my rams for me. He said unto him also the third time, Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me? And Cephas, being grieved because he said three times, Lovest thou me? said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Tatian seems to have based this addition upon Mark xvi. , "in another form." Cf. xxiv. . In the Arabic no distinction is drawn throughout this passage corresponding to the dyanolit and (pihslv of the Greek. Or, " recognisest; " a different Arabic word from that rendered " knowest " in other parts of this narrative.

.

Jesus said unto him, Feed my sheep for me. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest : but when thou art old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and bring thee whither thou wiliest not. This he said unto him to signify by what manner of death he was going to glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Come after me. But Simon Cephas, turning about, saw the disciple whom Jesus loved following him — that one which leaned back on the breast of Jesus at the supper, and said, Lord, who is he that shall betray thee? When therefore Cephas had seen him, he said to Jesus, Lord, and this man, what shall be concerning him? Jesus said unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? follow thou me. And this saying was spread abroad among the brethren, That disciple will not die : and Jesus said not, that he should not die; but, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? This is that disciple which beareth witness of these things, and wrote them: and we know that his witness is true. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, unto the mountain where Jesus had appointed them. And when they saw him, they wor- shipped him : but some of them doubted. And as they sat there, he appeared again unto them, and upbraided them with their lack of faith and hardness of heart, because they believed not them, which had seen that he was risen again. Then saith Jesus unto i b them, All authority hath been given unto me in heaven and on earth : for even as my i b Repeated from liv. .


. Father sent me, so I also send you. Go ye therefore into all the world, and preach my gospel to every creature; and teach all the nations, and baptize them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit : teaching them to observe all things that I commanded you : and lo, I am with you all the days unto the end of the world. For he that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that disbelieveth shall be condemned. And these signs shall follow ij them that have believed on me : in my name shall they cast out devils; and they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if they drink a deadly poison, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. But tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high. And our Lord Jesus, after he had spoken unto them, led them out unto Bethany : and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And while he blessed them, he was separated from them, and ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. And they worshipped him, and returned to Jeru salem with great joy; and they were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.

And they went forth from thence, and preached everywhere, the Lord helping them, and confirming their sayings with the signs which they did.

And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which if they should be written one by one, according to my opinion even the world itself would not contain the books that must be written. "From thence" is added in connection with "Jerusalem," which was mentioned in ver. Inser tformul ahere

CONCLUDING NOTE IN THE BORGIAN MS.

The Gospel is concluded, which Tatian compiled out of the four Gospels of the four holy apostles the blessed evangelists, on whom be peace, and which he named Diatessaron, that is, That which is composed of four. The excellent and learned presbyter, Abu--Faraj Abdullah Ibn-at-Tayyib, with whom may God be pleased, translated it from Syriac into Arabic, from a copy written by the hand of Gubasi ibn All Al-mutayyib, a disciple of Hunain ibn Ishalc, on both of whom may God have mercy.

Amen.

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