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.A dictionary or wordbook is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information;[1] or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.^ They often like one side more than the other.
  • SPARC Legal Dictionary and Reference Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.deltabravo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This list will be expanded as words from other sources are added to the Dictionary.

^ Some dictionaries give them after the definition of a word.
  • How to buy a good English dictionary | Antimoon.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.antimoon.com [Source type: General]

[1] .According to Nielsen 2008 a dictionary may be regarded as a lexicographical product that is characterised by three significant features: (1) it has been prepared for one or more functions; (2) it contains data that have been selected for the purpose of fulfilling those functions; and (3) its lexicographic structures link and establish relationships between the data so that they can meet the needs of users and fulfil the functions of the dictionary.^ Some arguably relevant terms more associated with the compilation of chart data and production control of electronic charts have been deliberately excluded as this publication is intended for a more general audience (the end user).
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ M Microprocessor - One or more integrated circuits that can be programmed with stored instructions to perform a variety of functions.
  • Miller - Welding Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.millerwelds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you need to sort the values in your Dictionary, you may be perplexed at first and wonder how to order the keys properly.
  • C# Dictionary Examples, Keys and Values 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC dotnetperls.com [Source type: Reference]

.In many languages, words can appear in many different forms, but only the undeclined or unconjugated form appears as the headword in most dictionaries.^ Choice Special Web Issue 2005] Basic Vocabulary pages Part of the All Free Dictionaries Project, the Basic Voculabary pages are standard lists of English words translated into 36 different languages.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Project::Noah It is not only important, but, in a degree necessary, that the people of this country, should have an American Dictionary of the English language; for, although the body of the language is the same as in England, and it is desirable to perpetuate that sameness, yet some differences must exist.
  • L » life › 1828-dictionary.com :: Making the First American Dictionary of the English Language Accessible 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1828-dictionary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Published in 1828, An American Dictionary of the English Language, embodied a new standard of lexicography; it was a dictionary with 70,000 entries that was felt by many to have surpassed Samuel Johnson's 1755 British masterpiece not only in scope but in authority as well.
  • L » life › 1828-dictionary.com :: Making the First American Dictionary of the English Language Accessible 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1828-dictionary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dictionaries are most commonly found in the form of a book, but some newer dictionaries, like StarDict and the New Oxford American Dictionary are dictionary software running on PDAs or computers.^ Oxford Dictionary of Computing , 5th ed.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Tom from City Dictionary ------ A few important notes, updates: Special thanks to cswriter for tipping me off to the important fact that the first "neutral ground" in New Orleans was the median of Canal Street, which formed a boundary between the old French and Spanish parts and the newer American part.

^ Online dictionaries are also  available, although some require special software.

.There are also many online dictionaries accessible via the Internet.^ The second vision, Vision::Redesign, has an intent to improve the current online accessibility to the 1828 dictionary.
  • L » life › 1828-dictionary.com :: Making the First American Dictionary of the English Language Accessible 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1828-dictionary.com [Source type: Original source]

A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz.

Contents

History

The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian-Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla (modern Syria) and dated roughly 2300 BCE.[2] The early 2nd millennium BCE Urra=hubullu glossary is the canonical Babylonian version of such bilingual Sumerian wordlists. A Chinese dictionary, the ca. .3rd century BCE Erya, was the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary, although some sources cite the ca.^ Online dictionaries are also  available, although some require special software.

^ A short Akkadian word list, from central Mesopotamia, has survived from the 7th century bce .
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these have survived from the 7th and 8th centuries—and in some cases they preserve the earliest recorded forms in English .
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.800 BCE Shizhoupian as a "dictionary", modern scholarship considers it a calligraphic compendium of Chinese characters from Zhou dynasty bronzes.^ Han'gul, Chinese characters, romanization; by subject with reference to period/dynasty of usage; English translation) MSEL Stacks: PPX935.B381 1993 .

^ Chinese Character Dictionary (can search in English, pinyin, Cantonese, character) .

Philitas of Cos (fl. .4th century BCE) wrote a pioneering vocabulary Disorderly Words (Ἄτακτοι γλῶσσαι, Átaktoi glôssai) which explained the meanings of rare Homeric and other literary words, words from local dialects, and technical terms.^ Antonyms are words that mean the opposite of each other.

^ A short Akkadian word list, from central Mesopotamia, has survived from the 7th century bce .
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest dictionaries, such as those created by Greeks of the 1st century ad , emphasized changes that had occurred in the meanings of words over time.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] Apollonius the Sophist (fl. 1st century CE) wrote the oldest surviving Homeric lexicon.[2] The first Sanskrit dictionary, the Amarakośa, was written by Amara Sinha ca. .4th century CE. Written in verse, it listed around 10,000 words.^ May 5, 2009 - 10 Comments Word Lists: Sharing the Lexical Love March 24, 2009 - 1 Comment Click here to read more articles from Announcements.
  • Thinkmap Visual Thesaurus - An online thesaurus and dictionary of over 145,000 words that you explore using an interactive map. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.visualthesaurus.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s a bit like a Word of the Day screen-saver, but contains a built-in dictionary of more than 150,000 words, audio pronunciation, favorite words list, etc .
  • iPhone Dictionary App Roundup 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC theappleblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to its main dictionary with over 10,000 entries, the web site contains a listing of religious signs and conversational phrases.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.According to the Nihon Shoki, the first Japanese dictionary was the long-lost 682 CE Niina glossary of Chinese characters.^ Chinese Character Dictionary (can search in English, pinyin, Cantonese, character) .

^ Language Dictionaries :  Chinese  |  Japanese  |  Korean .

The oldest existing Japanese dictionary, the ca. 835 CE Tenrei Banshō Meigi, was also a glossary of written Chinese.
.Arabic dictionaries were compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE, organizing words in rhyme order (by the last syllable), by alphabetical order of the radicals, or according to the alphabetical order of the first letter (the system used in modern European language dictionaries).^ (The first letter might be p , and the last letter might be l .

^ If you have a specific item you're looking for, you can either jump to that letter in the dictionary using the A - Z hyperlinks, or use the "Find/Search" function in your browser (usually accessed by pressing CTRL-F) to locate the word(s) you're looking for.
  • SPARC Legal Dictionary and Reference Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.deltabravo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In this Dictionary of the Language of D’ni, since the words have all been transcribed, they have been listed in approximate Roman Alphabetical order, though a separate section is given for each separate D’ni letter.

.The modern system was mainly used in specialist dictionaries, such as those of terms from the Qur'an and hadith, while most general use dictionaries, such as the Lisan al-`Arab (13th c., still the best-known large-scale dictionary of Arabic) and al-Qamus al-Muhit (14th c.^ Dictionary A searchable database of over 2,500 definitions of the most commonly used terms encountered by the start-up entrepreneur, the small business person and the student of business theory.
  • Smallbusinessdictionary.com - A Small Business Dictionary of Business Planning Terms: Part of the SMBTN™ Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smbtn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of the term is usually restricted to those water-bearing formations capable of yielding water in sufficient quantity to constitute a usable supply for people's uses.
  • USGS Water Science Glossary of Terms 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ga.water.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Today there are various levels of dictionaries, general-purpose dictionaries being most common.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) listed words in the alphabetical order of the radicals. .The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary.^ Here is a small example using a dictionary: .
  • 5. Data Structures — Python v2.6.4 documentation 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC docs.python.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Originally "book learning" (it replaced O.E. boccrft ), the meaning "literary production or work" is first attested 1779 in Johnson's "Lives of the English Poets" (he didn't include this definition in his dictionary, however); that of "body of writings from a period or people" is first recorded 1812.
  • Online Etymology Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.etymonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thinkmap Visual Thesaurus - An online thesaurus and dictionary of over 145,000 words that you explore using an interactive map.
  • Thinkmap Visual Thesaurus - An online thesaurus and dictionary of over 145,000 words that you explore using an interactive map. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.visualthesaurus.com [Source type: General]

[4]
The earliest modern European dictionaries were bilingual dictionaries. .The earliest in the English language were glossaries of French, Italian or Latin words along with definitions of the foreign words in English.^ From Language To Language "It includes free multilingual dictionary offers bidirectional, single and multiple words translation from/to: English, German, French, Spanish, Russian, Italian and Turkish language pairs, language alphabets, languages for traveller, browser integrated language tools, anagram word game contest etc.
  • Online Dictionaries - Academic Info 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.academicinfo.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This web app also includes links to translate your word into German, French, Italian, and Spanish.
  • iPhone Dictionary App Roundup 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC theappleblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Word by word searches of a foreign language text using books are now a thing of the past thanks to the rapid and effective tools provided here.
  • LingvoSoft Online - Free Online Translation Services - online dictionary, english thesaurus, phrasebooks, flashcards, full text translators 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.lingvozone.com [Source type: Original source]

An early non-alphabetical list of 8000 English words was the Elementarie created by Richard Mulcaster in 1592.[5][6]
.The first purely English alphabetical dictionary was A Table Alphabeticall, written by English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey in 1604. The only surviving copy is found at the Bodleian Library in Oxford.^ The first purely English dictionary was Robert Cawdrey’s A Table Alphabetical (1604), treating some 3,000 words.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OED = Oxford English Dictionary , ed.
  • Dictionary: Southern Appalachian English 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cas.sc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxford English Dictionary , 2nd ed.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

Yet this early effort, as well as the many imitators which followed it, was seen as unreliable and nowhere near definitive. Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield was still lamenting in 1754, 150 years after Cawdrey's publication, that it is "a sort of disgrace to our nation, that hitherto we have had no… standard of our language; our dictionaries at present being more properly what our neighbors the Dutch and the Germans call theirs, word-books, than dictionaries in the superior sense of that title." [7] It was not until Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language (1755) that a truly noteworthy, reliable English Dictionary was deemed to have been produced, and the fact that today many people still mistakenly believe Johnson to have written the first English Dictionary is a testament to this legacy.[8] .By this stage, dictionaries had evolved to contain textual references for most words, and were arranged alphabetically, rather than by topic (a previously popular form of arrangement, which meant all animals would be grouped together, etc.^ It’s a bit like a Word of the Day screen-saver, but contains a built-in dictionary of more than 150,000 words, audio pronunciation, favorite words list, etc .
  • iPhone Dictionary App Roundup 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC theappleblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All forms of mass transport except diffusion can be neglected in its operation, as long as the electrolyte layer is thinner than the diffusion layer .

^ In practice, more than one cell will be connected in series , and the process will be carried out in several stages since it would not be efficient to remove all the salt in one step.

). .Johnson's masterwork could be judged as the first to bring all these elements together, creating the first 'modern' dictionary.^ En Banc - All the judges of a court sitting together.
  • JURIST - Legal Dictionaries 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jurist.law.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As disinterested third parties, these folks are useful in bringing parties closer together.
  • SPARC Legal Dictionary and Reference Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.deltabravo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ireland ( absentee in this sense is in Johnson's dictionary); modern ref.
  • Online Etymology Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.etymonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[8]
.Johnson's Dictionary remained the English-language standard for over 150 years, until the Oxford University Press began writing and releasing the Oxford English Dictionary in short fascicles from 1884 onwards.^ OED = Oxford English Dictionary , ed.
  • Dictionary: Southern Appalachian English 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cas.sc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxford English Dictionary , 2nd ed.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The -re spelling, like -our , however, had the authority of Dr. Johnson's dictionary behind it and remained in Britain, where it came to be a point of national pride, contra the Yankees.
  • Online Etymology Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.etymonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.It took nearly 50 years to finally complete the huge work, and they finally released the complete OED in twelve volumes in 1928. It remains the most comprehensive and trusted English language dictionary to this day, with revisions and updates added by a dedicated team every three months.^ OED = Oxford English Dictionary , ed.
  • Dictionary: Southern Appalachian English 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cas.sc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxford English Dictionary Online OED Online is a highly-regarded etymological dictionary of the English language.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Using 2.5 million quotations from a wide range of international English language sources, OED provides usage, both past and present, of over 600,000 words.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.One of the main contributors to this modern day dictionary was an ex-army surgeon, William Chester Minor, a convicted murderer who was confined to an asylum for the criminally insane.^ One associated with another in a crime, having guilty knowledge and complicity, as an attorney who defends a criminal, knowing him guilty.
  • The Devil's Dictionary: A 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alcyone.com [Source type: Original source]

[9]

Specialized dictionaries

.According to the Manual of Specialized Lexicographies a specialized dictionary (also referred to as a technical dictionary) is a lexicon that focuses upon a specific subject field.^ Strategy 1: Browse the reference section (ML 100s) Strategy 2: Do a Subject Heading or Keyword search in HOMER for dictionaries specific to your topic (e.g., dictionaries on Canadian composers, early music, specific instruments, or women musicians).
  • Dictionaries & Encyclopedias for Musicians 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC spirit.lib.uconn.edu [Source type: General]

^ "Dover Publications has graciously allowed to use 170 terms from the `Technical Manual and Dictionary of Classical Ballet'."
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Music-specific foreign-language and pronunciation dictionaries are in the Music Reference section in the ML 108's.
  • Dictionaries & Encyclopedias for Musicians 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC spirit.lib.uconn.edu [Source type: General]

.Following the description in The Bilingual LSP Dictionary lexicographers categorize specialized dictionaries into three types.^ The general order for searching is as follows: exact match pattern match (in reverse order) optional recursion into the enclosing (parent) dictionaries.
  • OpenFOAM programmer's C++ documentation 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC foam.sourceforge.net [Source type: Reference]

.A multi-field dictionary broadly covers several subject fields (e.g., a business dictionary), a single-field dictionary narrowly covers one particular subject field (e.g., law), and a sub-field dictionary covers a singular field (e.g., constitutional law).^ Restatement - A publication which tells what the law is in a particular field, as compiled from statutes and decisions.
  • JURIST - Legal Dictionaries 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC jurist.law.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most accurate sources is the `Dictionary of Law consisting of Judicial Definitions and Explanations of Words, Phrases and Maxims'.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Pairs of dictionary values are compared using the comparison method specified by comparator ; the comparator message is sent to one of the values and has as its single argument the other value from the dictionary.
  • iPhone Dev Center: NSDictionary Class Reference 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC developer.apple.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, the 23-language Inter-Active Terminology for Europe is a multi-field dictionary, the American National Biography is a single-field, and the African American National Biography Project is a sub-field dictionary.^ Noah Webster ’s dictionary of Americanisms in the early 19th century sprang from a recognition of the changes and variations within language.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The close juxtaposition of languages in Europe led to the appearance, from the early Middle Ages on, of many bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Oxford American Desk Dictionary & Thesaurus is a combination of two of the most useful language tools available a dictionary and a thesaurus.
  • Windows Mobile dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.handster.com [Source type: General]

.In terms of the above coverage distinction between "minimizing dictionaries" and "maximizing dictionaries", multi-field dictionaries tend to minimize coverage across subject fields (for instance, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions) whereas single-field and sub-field dictionaries tend to maximize coverage within a limited subject field (The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology).^ OED = Oxford English Dictionary , ed.
  • Dictionary: Southern Appalachian English 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cas.sc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxford English Dictionary , 2nd ed.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This source is supplemented by the Collins Essential English Dictionary, Second Edition , etymologies, translations, illustrations, usage examples, and many other features.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

See also LSP dictionary.

Glossaries

.Another variant is the glossary, an alphabetical list of defined terms in a specialised field, such as medicine or science.^ This is a defined term in various statutes.
  • Dictionary | Sutton 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sutton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The following pages are an alphabetical compilation of terms commonly used in the graphic arts field, with emphasis on book manufacturing terminology."
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ "This glossary defines many terms you'll encounter in your songwriting and musical performing career."
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

The simplest dictionary, a defining dictionary, provides a core glossary of the simplest meanings of the simplest concepts. .From these, other concepts can be explained and defined, in particular for those who are first learning a language.^ Hertz, Heinrich (1857 - 1894) A German physics professor who did the first experiments with generating and receiving electromagnetic waves , in particular radio waves.
  • Imagine the Universe! Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In English, the commercial defining dictionaries typically include only one or two meanings of under 2000 words.^ The English Pro Dictionary is an extensive dictionary and treasures with over 90,000 words, geared to the needs of a wide range of users.
  • Windows Mobile dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.handster.com [Source type: General]

^ Salvific Exclusivism): the historical Christian view that the Bible is God's word and that the person and work of Jesus Christ is the only means of salvation.
  • Summit Ministries: Resources - Worldview Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.summit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1746–47 Samuel Johnson undertook the most ambitious English dictionary to that time, a list of 43,500 words.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With these, the rest of English, and even the 4000 most common English idioms and metaphors, can be defined.^ The first known English-English glossary grew out of the desire of the supporters of the Reformation that even the most humble Englishman should be able to understand the Scriptures.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pronunciation

.Dictionaries for languages for which the pronunciation of words is not apparent from their spelling, such as the English language, usually provide the pronunciation, often using the International Phonetic Alphabet.^ Spelling dictionary for Catalan language .

^ Choice Special Web Issue 2005] Basic Vocabulary pages Part of the All Free Dictionaries Project, the Basic Voculabary pages are standard lists of English words translated into 36 different languages.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ If you have a specific item you're looking for, you can either jump to that letter in the dictionary using the A - Z hyperlinks, or use the "Find/Search" function in your browser (usually accessed by pressing CTRL-F) to locate the word(s) you're looking for.
  • SPARC Legal Dictionary and Reference Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.deltabravo.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, the definition for the word dictionary might be followed by the (American English) phonemic spelling: /ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/.^ Oxford English Dictionary -- Traces the evolution of words, giving the earliest quotations of a word through more recent usage.
  • Dictionaries & Encyclopedias for Musicians 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC spirit.lib.uconn.edu [Source type: General]

^ THE following dictionary provides definitions for 153 business terms useful for entrepreneurs who are planning to start a small business.
  • Smallbusinessdictionary.com - A Small Business Dictionary of Business Planning Terms: Part of the SMBTN™ Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smbtn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English Language Online Reference -- Find dictionaries with definitions, usage, idioms, proverbs, grammar, and more.
  • Dictionaries & Encyclopedias for Musicians 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC spirit.lib.uconn.edu [Source type: General]

.American dictionaries, however, often use their own pronunciation spelling systems, for example dictionary [dĭkʹshə-nârʹē] while the IPA is more commonly used within the British Commonwealth countries.^ A Projected Income Statement is used more often than a pro forma income statement.
  • Smallbusinessdictionary.com - A Small Business Dictionary of Business Planning Terms: Part of the SMBTN™ Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smbtn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dictionary A searchable database of over 2,500 definitions of the most commonly used terms encountered by the start-up entrepreneur, the small business person and the student of business theory.
  • Smallbusinessdictionary.com - A Small Business Dictionary of Business Planning Terms: Part of the SMBTN™ Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smbtn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gage height is often used interchangeably with the more general term, stage, although gage height is more appropriate when used with a gage reading.
  • USGS Water Science Glossary of Terms 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ga.water.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Yet others use an ad hoc notation; for example, dictionary may become [DIK-shuh-nair-ee].^ "A dictionary of Geordie words and other words used in the North East of England."
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Each key is copied (using copyWithZone: ; keys must conform to the NSCopying protocol), and the copy is added to the new dictionary.
  • iPhone Dev Center: NSDictionary Class Reference 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC developer.apple.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I hope that this site can answer some of your herbal healing questions, and other questions you may have regarding medicinal herbs and their many uses.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Some on-line or electronic dictionaries provide recordings of words being spoken.^ The first purely English dictionary was Robert Cawdrey’s A Table Alphabetical (1604), treating some 3,000 words.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Variations between dictionaries

Prescription and description

Lexicographers apply two basic philosophies to the defining of words: prescriptive or descriptive. .Noah Webster, intent on forging a distinct identity for the American language, altered spellings and accentuated differences in meaning and pronunciation of some words.^ Project::Noah It is not only important, but, in a degree necessary, that the people of this country, should have an American Dictionary of the English language; for, although the body of the language is the same as in England, and it is desirable to perpetuate that sameness, yet some differences must exist.
  • L » life › 1828-dictionary.com :: Making the First American Dictionary of the English Language Accessible 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1828-dictionary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vision::Reprint The first vision, Vision::Reprint, has an intent to make a modern printing of the first dictionary of the American language available to the public for under $25.
  • L » life › 1828-dictionary.com :: Making the First American Dictionary of the English Language Accessible 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1828-dictionary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The third vision, Vision::Recapture, has an intent to evoke the importance of Noah Webster in our American Heritage.
  • L » life › 1828-dictionary.com :: Making the First American Dictionary of the English Language Accessible 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1828-dictionary.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is why American English now uses the spelling color while the rest of the English-speaking world prefers colour.^ "This English-French dictionary of sailing terms may be useful to English speakers sailing in French-speaking waters.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The dictionary follows British English, which may differ slightly in spelling and usage from other English-speaking countries."
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ PE 1519 .Y68 1991 (Ref Stacks) Note : Uses American English pronunciation and includes American slang and colloquialisms.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.(Similarly, British English subsequently underwent a few spelling changes that did not affect American English; see further at American and British English spelling differences.^ For further information and quotations on all terms, see Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English , ed.
  • Dictionary: Southern Appalachian English 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cas.sc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dictionary follows British English, which may differ slightly in spelling and usage from other English-speaking countries."
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

) .Large 20th-century dictionaries such as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and Webster's Third are descriptive, and attempt to describe the actual use of words.^ Oxford English Dictionary , 2nd ed.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The immense Oxford English Dictionary was begun in the late 19th century.
  • dictionary (reference work) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxford English Dictionary Online OED Online is a highly-regarded etymological dictionary of the English language.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

A dictionary open at the word "Internet", viewed through a lens
.While descriptivists argue that prescriptivism is an unnatural attempt to dictate usage or curtail change, prescriptivists argue that to indiscriminately document "improper" or "inferior" usages sanctions those usages by default and causes language to "deteriorate". Although the debate can become very heated, only a small number of controversial words are usually affected.^ Because the UWB signal energy is distributed over a very wide frequency range, the interference it causes to other signals operating within the UWB frequency band is extremely small.
  • Wireless Dictionary - More than 10,000 wireless industry terms and definitions with listings of trade show events, trade magazines, and other reference information. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wirelessdictionary.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The language of sailing is a living language if there ever was one, and usage changes every season.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ However, WDM usually refers to optical channels that have very small spacing between them and OFDM refers to multiple optical channels that can have any amount of wavelength spacing between them.
  • Wireless Dictionary - More than 10,000 wireless industry terms and definitions with listings of trade show events, trade magazines, and other reference information. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wirelessdictionary.com [Source type: Reference]

.But the softening of usage notations, from the previous edition, for two words, ain't and irregardless, out of over 450,000 in Webster's Third in 1961, was enough to provoke outrage among many with prescriptivist leanings, who branded the dictionary as "permissive."^ This source is supplemented by the Collins Essential English Dictionary, Second Edition , etymologies, translations, illustrations, usage examples, and many other features.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The prescriptive/descriptive issue has been given so much consideration in modern times that most dictionaries of English apply the descriptive method to definitions, while additionally informing readers of attitudes which may influence their choices on words often considered vulgar, offensive, erroneous, or easily confused.^ Choice Special Web Issue 2005] Basic Vocabulary pages Part of the All Free Dictionaries Project, the Basic Voculabary pages are standard lists of English words translated into 36 different languages.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Dictionary A searchable database of over 2,500 definitions of the most commonly used terms encountered by the start-up entrepreneur, the small business person and the student of business theory.
  • Smallbusinessdictionary.com - A Small Business Dictionary of Business Planning Terms: Part of the SMBTN™ Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smbtn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English Pro Dictionary is an extensive dictionary and treasures with over 90,000 words, geared to the needs of a wide range of users.
  • Windows Mobile dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.handster.com [Source type: General]

Merriam-Webster is subtle, only adding italicized notations such as, sometimes offensive or nonstand (nonstandard.) American Heritage goes further, discussing issues separately in numerous "usage notes." Encarta provides similar notes, but is more prescriptive, offering warnings and admonitions against the use of certain words considered by many to be offensive or illiterate, such as, "an offensive term for..." or "a taboo term meaning..."
.Because of the broad use of dictionaries, and their acceptance by many as language authorities, their treatment of the language does affect usage to some degree, even the most descriptive dictionaries providing conservative continuity.^ This source is supplemented by the Collins Essential English Dictionary, Second Edition , etymologies, translations, illustrations, usage examples, and many other features.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Project::Noah It is not only important, but, in a degree necessary, that the people of this country, should have an American Dictionary of the English language; for, although the body of the language is the same as in England, and it is desirable to perpetuate that sameness, yet some differences must exist.
  • L » life › 1828-dictionary.com :: Making the First American Dictionary of the English Language Accessible 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1828-dictionary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Published in 1828, An American Dictionary of the English Language, embodied a new standard of lexicography; it was a dictionary with 70,000 entries that was felt by many to have surpassed Samuel Johnson's 1755 British masterpiece not only in scope but in authority as well.
  • L » life › 1828-dictionary.com :: Making the First American Dictionary of the English Language Accessible 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1828-dictionary.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the long run, however, usage primarily determines the meanings of words in English, and the language is being changed and created every day.^ Oxford English Dictionary -- Traces the evolution of words, giving the earliest quotations of a word through more recent usage.
  • Dictionaries & Encyclopedias for Musicians 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC spirit.lib.uconn.edu [Source type: General]

^ "The English language contains a rich array of slang words and phrases.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The language of sailing is a living language if there ever was one, and usage changes every season.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.As Jorge Luis Borges says in the prologue to "El otro, el mismo": "It is often forgotten that (dictionaries) are artificial repositories, put together well after the languages they define.^ Low energy x-rays, often from about 0.1 keV to 10 keV. The dividing line between soft and hard x-rays is not well defined and can depend on the context.
  • Imagine the Universe! Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High energy x-rays, often from about 10 keV to nearly 1000 keV. The dividing line between hard and soft x-rays is not well defined and can depend on the context.
  • Imagine the Universe! Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An experimental collaborative net project to put together slang dictionaries for several dozen languages.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

The roots of language are irrational and of a magical nature.
"

Science Dictionary

.Science Dictionaries have existed from the 6th century BCE when the Chinese started organizing all of their scientifically important knowledge, and combining them into scrolls.^ McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms , 6th ed.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Descriptions of international organizations with links (if they exist) to their on-line home pages and to other important materials describing the organizations.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Humanism: the belief that humanity is the highest of all beings and that truth and knowledge thus rest in science and human reason.
  • Summit Ministries: Resources - Worldview Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.summit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The amount and type of information ranged from theories, species, experiments, essays, research, and various other forms of knowledge.^ These companies sell that information to lenders and other businesses in the form of a credit report.
  • Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.360realty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Payment Cap: For an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) or other variable rate loan, a limit on the amount that payments can increase or decrease during any one adjustment period.
  • Dictionary 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.360realty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A chemical species that is taking part in a chemical reaction by reacting (sometimes by itself, but usually with other reactants) to form the products of the reaction.

.However it wasn't until the first century BCE when they started organizing each and every scroll to form a dictionary of scientific knowledge.^ PFS (Progression-free survival): The time measured from when a patient enrolls in a trial until they die or their disease progresses, whichever comes first.
  • DICTIONARY & Page-Minyanville 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.minyanville.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dictionaries were ordered from "most important" to "least important" by Chinese standards, and reached up to 8,000 entries long.^ Dictionary A searchable database of over 2,500 definitions of the most commonly used terms encountered by the start-up entrepreneur, the small business person and the student of business theory.
  • Smallbusinessdictionary.com - A Small Business Dictionary of Business Planning Terms: Part of the SMBTN™ Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smbtn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is usually ordered with increasing standard electrode potentials (most negative on top).

^ If each key in the dictionary responds to compare: , the entries are listed in ascending order by key, otherwise the order in which the entries are listed is undefined.
  • iPhone Dev Center: NSDictionary Class Reference 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC developer.apple.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some versions have been found where the dragon (one of the most ancient and powerful creatures of Chinese legend) was the first entry[10] in the science dictionaries.^ I checked the first 50 entries in the dictionary and found 3 errors; there are over 5400 color names in total.
  • Color-Name Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dictionary of Environment and Conservation GE 10 .P375 2007 (Ref Stacks) Facts on File Dictionary of Marine Science , New ed.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition to its main dictionary with over 10,000 entries, the web site contains a listing of religious signs and conversational phrases.
  • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.However, that since the notion of searching up entries one by one based on importance, was too much of a confusion (also because, the Chinese scientists couldn't agree upon a good definition for each article) they abandoned the task, and it had never gained momentum to be a worldwide success.^ One commentator called these courts “anti-law” courts because they were able to circumvent unfair laws.
  • SPARC Legal Dictionary and Reference Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.deltabravo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As a practical matter, even if the court takes into account expectancies, they are generally not given much weight, especially if one’s parents are healthy.
  • SPARC Legal Dictionary and Reference Page 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.deltabravo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (Sugarlands TN) They'd bunch up if you was sick and come work your corn for you and make quiltings and roll logs and grubbings, one thing and another, and help you when you was sick and disabled or you couldn't help yourself, but they don't do that anymore.
  • Dictionary: Southern Appalachian English 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cas.sc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Major English dictionaries

.For languages other than modern English, see the article about that language.^ A search engine for finding translations back and forth between English and several other languages.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ "Includes more than 2,000 English language terms and definitions for Sun software, hardware and terminology."
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This site has been designed to make accessible to teachers, students, and other interested English- language readers translations of articles from the Encyclopdie edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert in the 18th century.
  • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

See also articles such as Japanese dictionaries.

Others

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Webster's New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition, 2002
  2. ^ a b "Dictionary - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwbLyr75. 
  3. ^ Peter Bing (2003). "The unruly tongue: Philitas of Cos as scholar and poet". Classical Philology 98 (4): 330–48. doi:10.1086/422370. 
  4. ^ "Ḳāmūs," J. Eckmann, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed., Brill
  5. ^ 1582 - Mulcaster's Elementarie, Learning Dictionaries and Meaning, The British Library
  6. ^ A Brief History of English Lexicography, Peter Erdmann and See-Young Cho, Technische Universität Berlin, 1999.
  7. ^ Jack Lynch, “How Johnson's Dictionary Became the First Dictionary” (delivered 25 August 2005 at the Johnson and the English Language conference, Birmingham) Retrieved July 12, 2008
  8. ^ a b Lynch, "How Johnson's Dictionary Became the First Dictionary"
  9. ^ Simon Winchester, The Surgeon of Crowthorne.
  10. ^ Science Bucket Science Bucket
  11. ^ The Science Dictionary Science Dictionary

Relevant literature

  • Bergenholtz, Henning & Tarp, Sven (eds.) (1955) Manual of Specialised Lexicography, Benjamins Publishing Co.
  • "A Brief History of English Lexicography". http://angli02.kgw.tu-berlin.de/lexicography/data/b_history.html. .Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  • Landau, Sidney I. (1998) Dictionaries, The Art and Craft of Lexicography, Simon & Schuster, hardcover, ISBN 0-684-18096-0.
  • Nielsen, Sandro (1994) The Bilingual LSP Dictionary, Gunter Narr Verlag.
  • Nielsen, Sandro (2008) "The effect of lexicographical information costs on dictionary making and use", Lexikos 18, 170-189.
  • Winchester, Simon (1998) The Professor and the Madman.^ "Dover Publications has graciously allowed to use 170 terms from the `Technical Manual and Dictionary of Classical Ballet'."
    • Online Dictionaries, Glossaries and Encyclopedias 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ CNE-core-2007.txt is a subset of the CNE dictionary containing only the 212 "widely used", and "less commonly used" colors.
    • Color-Name Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC people.csail.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Information Outlook May 2008] Artlex Artlex is an online art dictionary edited by Michael Delahunt.
    • Other Useful Resources -- Dictionaries 20 September 2009 11:51 UTC www.lib.lsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    A Tale of Murder, Insanity, and the Making of the Oxford English Dictionary
    , HarperPerennial, New York, trade paperback, ISBN 0-06-017596-6 (published in the UK as The Surgeon of Crowthorne).

External links


1911 encyclopedia

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
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Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has articles on:
A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz.

Etymology

Mediaeval Latin dictionarium from Latin dictionarius from dictio (speaking) from dictus, perfect past participle of dīcō (speak) + -arium (room, place).

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
dictionary
dictionary (plural dictionaries)
  1. A publication, usually a book, with a list of words from one or more languages, normally ordered alphabetically and explaining each word's meaning and sometimes containing information on its etymology, usage, translations, and other data.
  2. (computing) An associative array, a data structure where each value is referenced by a particular key, analogous to words and definitions in a physical dictionary.

Derived terms

See also

Translations


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|250px|Latin dictionary]] A dictionary is a book which explains the meanings of words or, more precisely, lexemes. The words are arranged in alphabetical order so that they can be found quickly. The word “dictionary” comes from the Latin “diction” (“word”).

There are several types of dictionaries: dictionaries which explain words and how they are used, dictionaries which translate words from one language to another, dictionaries of biography which tell about famous people, technical dictionaries which explain the meanings of technical words or words connected to a particular subject (sometimes called a thesaurus). Some of these come close to being an encyclopedia, but an encyclopedia gives a lot of extra information about things (knowledge) and does not explain the use of the language.

Contents

Dictionaries which explain the meaning of words

Dictionaries which explain what words mean will give a clear "definition" of the word (e.g. hippopotamus : a hoofed mammal with thick skin, large mouth and short legs that lives in rivers and lakes of Africa.)

Good dictionaries will also give more information about the word. It will explain how it is pronounced. Usually the International Phonetic Alphabet is used for this. It will explain how the word is used. This is not a problem for a word like "hippopotamus", but a word like "put" has so many different meanings that a large dictionary may have a whole page or more to explain how it can be used. It will also explain what language the word comes from (e.g. Greek "hippos" horse and "potamus" river).

A dictionary may also give the form of the word in different tenses, plural form etc.

Dictionaries which translate into foreign languages

There are also dictionaries which translate words into foreign languages. Very often one volume (one book) will translate both ways, so half the book will be translating from English to Dutch and the other half from Dutch to English.

When using a dictionary to find out how to say something in another language one has to be careful to choose the right word. A word like “right” has two basic meanings in English: 1) “correct”, and 2) the opposite of “left”. Other languages are not like English: they will have different words for these different meanings. A word like “put” has many meanings. A good dictionary will have a large list of these meanings to help people find the word they want. In many languages, for example, the word “put” will be different according to whether something is being put onto something (e.g. a table) or into something (e.g. a cupboard).

Updating dictionaries

Dictionaries need to be updated frequently because of the way language changes. New words are often brought into a language (e.g. lots of computer terms) or words change their meanings (e.g. “gay” or “cool”). The most famous English Dictionary is the Oxford English Dictionary (or OED). Words are always being added to the OED, they are never taken out even if they are obsolete (not used any more). The OED can be accessed online (with a subscription).

Relevant literature

  • Henning Bergenholtz/Sven Tarp (eds.): Manual of Specialised Lexicography. Benjamins 1995.
  • Sandro Nielsen: The Bilingual LSP Dictionary. Gunter Narr 1994.

Other websites

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Online-dictionaries


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Dictionary, which are similar to those in the above article.








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