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Diesel engines in a museum
.A diesel engine (sometimes capitalized as Diesel engine) is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber during the final stage of compression.^ A diesel engine takes in just air, compresses it and then injects fuel into the compressed air.
  • diesel, diesel engine, diesel fuel, diesel oil, 2-stroke diesel, locomotive, information, tutorials, explanation, explains, understand, understanding, tell me, students, teachers, study, educational, learns, learning, resources, k12, k-12, help, helpful 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chooseindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • diesel aero engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pilotfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the heat of the compressed air that lights the fuel in a diesel engine.
  • HowStuffWorks "Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines" 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • diesel, diesel engine, diesel fuel, diesel oil, 2-stroke diesel, locomotive, information, tutorials, explanation, explains, understand, understanding, tell me, students, teachers, study, educational, learns, learning, resources, k12, k-12, help, helpful 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chooseindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • diesel aero engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pilotfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High pressure injectors are used to spray the diesel fuel into the combustion chamber.
  • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

.This is in contrast to a petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in North America) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel, not gasoline), which uses the Otto cycle, in which an air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark plug.^ In gas-powered engines, the fuel is fed into the cylinders and then ignited by a spark from a spark plug.
  • Modern Diesel Engines—Cleaner, Quieter and more Capable 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.automedia.com [Source type: General]

^ What if gasoline is used in diesel engine can it be fix?
  • WikiAnswers - What if gasoline is used in diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Warning: Not for use in petrol engines .
  • Diesel Engine Treatment - Nulon Products Australia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC trade.nulon.com.au [Source type: Reference]

.The diesel cycle was invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel and it has the highest thermal efficiency of any regular internal or external combustion engine due to its very high compression ratio.^ Diesel Engines Wikipedia Information A Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle.
  • Diesel Engines News - The Sacramento Bee 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.sacbee.com [Source type: News]

^ German engineer Rudolf Diesel and patented by him in 1892.
  • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diesel cycle Diesel engine troub...
  • Diesel engine Definition | Definition of Diesel engine at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Diesel_engine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Low-speed diesel engines (as used in ships and other applications where overall engine weight is relatively unimportant) often have a thermal efficiency which exceeds 50%.^ Diesel engines are also used with submarines.

^ The Diesel engine has a very high thermal efficiency.
  • diesel engine@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

[1][2][3][4]
.Diesel engines are manufactured in two stroke and four stroke versions.^ Diesel Engine We manufacture and offer diesel engines .
  • Diesel Engine, Petter Type Diesel Engine, Industrial Castings, Fuel Injection System, Connecting Rods, Bearing Bushes, Manufacturers & Exporters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Choose your Diesel Engine Manufacturer.

^ Cross section of a slow-speed two-stroke diesel engine.

.They were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines.^ Why are diesel engines more efficient?
  • Why are diesel engines more efficient? - Ask.cars.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC ask.cars.com [Source type: General]

^ They also have 2 engines in them, to give them more hp.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then they replaced the old steam locomotives.
  • No. 1336: Big Diesel Engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.uh.edu [Source type: General]

.Since the 1910s they have been used in submarines and ships.^ Since boxer motors of all types are inherently balanced and Subaru engines use a counterweighted crankshaft, they run very smoothly.
  • Engine Upgrades T-3 Waterboxer, Subaru & TDI Conversions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.syncro.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are used in trucks, ships, submarines, locomotives, and in electric generating plants.
  • Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Use in locomotives, large trucks and electric generating plants followed later.^ They are used in trucks, ships, submarines, locomotives, and in electric generating plants.
  • Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inline pumps still find favour on large multi-cylinder engines such as those on trucks, construction plant, static engines and agricultural vehicles.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The Company provides diesel engines, including engines for engineering machines, trucks, buses, ships, power plants and agricultural equipment, as well as electric power generator sets.
  • Shanghai Diesel Engine Company Limited - Google Finance 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.google.com [Source type: General]

.In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in a few automobiles.^ The American public looked to diesel fuel which was more efficient and economical and they began buying diesel-powered automobiles.
  • Megawattage Diesel Generator History 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.megawattage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the 1970s, the use of diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the USA increased.^ What engines are used in what types of vehicles?

^ Only larger diesel engines are competitionsless.

^ Close Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.As of 2007, about 50 percent of all new car sales in Europe are diesel.^ Top news in Diesel Cars .
  • Diesel Efficient Cars - High MPG Diesel Vehicles | Hybrid Cars 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: News]

^ All about diesel engine's .
  • Diesel Engines - Gizmo Highway how it works Guide 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gizmohighway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesels have some 40% of the market for cars in Europe, and by 2001 represented the majority of new cars sold in a great many European countries.
  • Diesel engines and bio-diesels emissions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.energyandclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.The world's largest diesel engine is currently a Wartsila marine diesel of about 80 MW output.^ Marine diesel engines available from Mermaid .
  • Marine diesel engines available from Mermaid 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mermaid-marine.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All about diesel engine's .
  • Diesel Engines - Gizmo Highway how it works Guide 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gizmohighway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marine diesel engine Perkins Engines Inc .
  • Diesel engines - 36.9 - 186 kW - PERKINS-ENGINES-INC - Internal combustion engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]

[6]

Contents

History

.Rudolf Diesel, of German nationality, was born in 1858 in Paris where his parents were Bavarian immigrants.^ Inventor of Diesel Engine Rudolf Diesel was born in the year1858 in Paris.
  • Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not surprisingly, it was German engineer Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913)!
  • How diesel engines work - and what makes them different from gasoline engines? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rudolf Diesel was born in Paris in 1858.
  • Doxford Engine Friends Association Dr. Rudolph Christian Diesel (1858 - 1913) Page. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.doxford-engine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .He was educated at Munich Polytechnic.^ His parents were Bavarian immigrants; he was educated at Munich Polytechnic.
  • Doxford Engine Friends Association Dr. Rudolph Christian Diesel (1858 - 1913) Page. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.doxford-engine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After graduation he was employed as a refrigerator engineer but his true love lay in engine design.^ After graduation he was employed as a refrigeration engineer.
  • Doxford Engine Friends Association Dr. Rudolph Christian Diesel (1858 - 1913) Page. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.doxford-engine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, his true love lay in engine design.
  • Doxford Engine Friends Association Dr. Rudolph Christian Diesel (1858 - 1913) Page. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.doxford-engine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After graduating from Munich Polytechnic, he began working as a refrigerator engineer for the Linde Ice Machine Company in Paris, moving in 1890 to Berlin to manage the company's technical office.
  • Inventor of the Week 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel designed many heat engines, including a solar-powered air engine.^ It is the heat of the compressed air that lights the fuel in a diesel engine.
  • HowStuffWorks "Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines" 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • diesel, diesel engine, diesel fuel, diesel oil, 2-stroke diesel, locomotive, information, tutorials, explanation, explains, understand, understanding, tell me, students, teachers, study, educational, learns, learning, resources, k12, k-12, help, helpful 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chooseindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • diesel aero engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pilotfriend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Megawattage Diesel Generator History 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.megawattage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

.In 1893, he published a paper describing an engine with combustion within a cylinder, the internal combustion engine.^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internal combustion engine .
  • Diesel engines - 36.9 - 186 kW - PERKINS-ENGINES-INC - Internal combustion engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Marine diesel engines - 500 - 4 413 kW - DAIHATSU-DIESEL - Internal combustion engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See also Internal-combustion engine ] .
  • Diesel Engine - body, used, type, energy, air 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1894, he filed for a patent for his new invention, dubbed the Diesel engine.^ Filed under: Diesel News , Opinions .
  • Diesel Engine Blog | Biodiesel Truck Engines Talk & Discussion at Diesel Power Magazine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC blogs.dieselpowermag.com [Source type: General]

^ Diesel engine catalysts   New!
  • Diesel engine catalysts : Automotive Portal 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.automobil.basf.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Filed under: Diesel Engines .
  • Diesel Engines Blog, Talk & Discussion | Diesel Power Magazine Blog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC blogs.dieselpowermag.com [Source type: General]

.His engine was the first to prove that fuel could be ignited without a spark.^ His engine was the first that provided evidence that fuel could be ignited without a spark.
  • Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this test proved that fuel could be ignited without a spark.
  • Inventor of the Week 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas gasoline engines (found in the majority of present-day automobiles) use an electric spark to ignite the premixed fuel-air blend, diesel engines use compressed air to ignite the fuel.
  • Diesel Engine - body, used, type, energy, air 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: Reference]

He operated his first successful engine in 1897.
In 1898, Diesel was granted U.S. Patent 608,845 for an "internal combustion engine".
.Though best known for his invention of the pressure-ignited heat engine that bears his name, Rudolf Diesel was also a well-respected thermal engineer and a social theorist.^ Rudolf Diesel invented the Diesel engine in 1892.
  • Diesel Engines - Gizmo Highway how it works Guide 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gizmohighway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a diesel engine, the mixture is ignited by heat from compression.
  • Diesel Facts 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dsnc.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This diesel engine is well known for lightweight heavy duty performance.
  • Detroit diesel engine when the detroit diesel series 149 engine was discontinued 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fireworkszone.com [Source type: Reference]

.Diesel's inventions have three points in common: they relate to heat transfer by natural physical processes or laws; they involve markedly creative mechanical design; and they were initially motivated by the inventor's concept of sociological needs.^ Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (March 18, 1858 September 30, 1913) was a German inventor , famous for the invention of the Diesel engine.

^ How many boat owners find someone who claims to be a "diesel mechanic" when they are guessing and replacing parts needlessly.
  • Welcome to J-Way Enterprises. The Diesel Engine Specialists 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.jwayent.net [Source type: General]

^ Alternatives to diesel, such as natural gas and electricity, will be considered during the next step of the risk management process.
  • PMA - Members Bulletins & Notices Safety Bulletins 00-08: California Air Resources Board Draft Diesel Risk Reduction Plan and the Permitting Guidance for New Stationary Diesel Fueled Engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pmanet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rudolf Diesel originally conceived the diesel engine to enable independent craftsmen and artisans to compete with industry.^ Rudolf Diesel invented the Diesel engine in 1892.
  • Diesel Engines - Gizmo Highway how it works Guide 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gizmohighway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industrial Diesel Engine (654) .
  • Buy or Sell your Diesel Engine - diesel engine motor.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselenginemotor.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When he impoverished completely and didn't beleave any more in a successful advancement of his engine, he set an end to his life 1913 (see also biografie Rudolf Diesel).

[8]
.At Augsburg, on August 10, 1893, Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10-foot (3.0 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time.^ It is from a single cylinder 10 HP diesel from a...
  • Vintage Diesel Engines - SmokStak 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smokstak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rudolf Diesel's patent 1893 .

^ This is the first time that BMW has brought a diesel model to the U.S. .
  • http://www.bmwdieselcars.com/ 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bmwdieselcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel spent two more years making improvements and in 1896 demonstrated another model with a theoretical efficiency of 75 percent, in contrast to the 10 percent efficiency of the steam engine.^ See more diesel engine pictures .
  • HowStuffWorks "How Diesel Engines Work" 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keeps engine cleaner and more efficient.

^ Are diesel engines more efficient than gasoline engines?
  • Diesel Engines Results Product Details 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1898, Diesel had become a millionaire.^ Although commercial manufacture was delayed another year and even then begun at a snail's pace, by 1898 Diesel was a millionaire from franchise fees in great part international.
  • Hempcar.org-Rudolf Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hempcar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His engines were used to power pipelines, electric and water plants, automobiles and trucks, and marine craft.^ His engines were used to power pipelines, electric and water plants, automobiles and trucks, and marine craft, and soon after were used in applications including mines, oil fields, factories, and transoceanic shipping.
  • Hempcar.org-Rudolf Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hempcar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inline pumps still find favour on large multi-cylinder engines such as those on trucks, construction plant, static engines and agricultural vehicles.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Consider a marine engine replacement and enjoy the performance, economy, durability, and safety offered by diesel power while avoiding the expense of major boat hull modifications.
  • Marine Diesel Engines - Marine Diesel Engine - Marine Diesel Engine Parts - Performance Product Technologies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.perfprotech.com [Source type: General]

.They were soon to be used in mines, oil fields, factories, and transoceanic shipping.^ His engines were used to power pipelines, electric and water plants, automobiles and trucks, and marine craft, and soon after were used in applications including mines, oil fields, factories, and transoceanic shipping.
  • Hempcar.org-Rudolf Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hempcar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually they are voltage controllers and are used in various fields.
  • Diesel Engines,Single Cylinder Diesel Engines,Double Cylinder Diesel Engines,Diesel Generators,Air Cooled Diesel Generators,Water Cooled Diesel Generators,India 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They were used in older trucks to filter the lubricating oil.
  • Burning Vegetable Oil in a Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fryoil.org [Source type: General]

Diesel generator on an oil tanker
A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906

History timeline

.
  • 1892: February 23, Rudolf Diesel obtains a patent (RP 67207) titled "Arbeitsverfahren und Ausführungsart für Verbrennungsmaschinen".
  • 1893: Diesel's essay titled Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat-engine to Replace the Steam Engine and Combustion Engines Known Today
  • 1897: On August 10 Diesel builds his first working prototype in Augsburg
  • 1898 Diesel licenses his engine to Branobel, Russian oil company, that is interested in the engine which can consume non-distilled oil.^ How your diesel engine works .
    • How your diesel engine works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hshyachts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He received a patent for the device on February 23, 1892.

    ^ Finally in February of 1897, at the Augsburg Machine-Works he developed a working engine, the first diesel engine suitable for practical use.
    • Doxford Engine Friends Association Dr. Rudolph Christian Diesel (1858 - 1913) Page. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.doxford-engine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Branobel's engineers spent 4 years designing ship-mounted engine.
  • 1899: Diesel licenses his engine to builders Krupp and Sulzer, who quickly become major manufacturers.
  • 1902: until 1910 MAN produced 82 copies of the stationary diesel engine.
  • 1903: Sormovo Shipbuilding Yard launches "Vandal" oil-tanker - first ship propelled by diesel engine.
  • 1904: The French build the first diesel submarine, the Z.
  • 1908: Prosper L'Orange develops with Deutz a precisely controlled injection pump with a needle injection nozzle.
  • 1909: The prechamber with hemispherical combustion chamber is developed by Prosper L'Orange with Benz.
  • .
  • 1910: The Norwegian research ship Fram is the first ship of the world with a diesel drive, afterwards Selandia was the first trading vessel.^ Considered the world’s first horizontally opposed turbo diesel engine, the 4-cylinder power plant is expected to be offered in European Subaru vehicles in 2008.
    • Subaru Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.drive.subaru.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The world's very first diesel engine was developed to maturity in Augsburg, Germany between 1893 and 1897, in collaboration with its famous inventor.
    • Diesel Engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ For example, in large ships or in older locomotives huge diesel engines with many cylinders are used for driving.

    .By 1960 the diesel drive had displaced steam turbine and coal fired steam engines.
  • 1912: The Danish built first diesel ship MS Selandia.^ The first Diesel locomotive is built.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ First diesel engine that worked, 1897.

    ^ First automobile diesel engine is built in Germany.
    • How diesel engines work - and what makes them different from gasoline engines? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The first locomotive with a diesel engine.
  • 1913: U.S. Navy submarines use NELSECO units.^ What if gasoline is used in diesel engine can it be fix?
    • WikiAnswers - What if gasoline is used in diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
    • Megawattage Diesel Generator History 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.megawattage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The first Diesel locomotive is built.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Rudolf Diesel died mysteriously when he crossed the English Channel on the SS Dresden.
  • 1914: German U-boats are powered by MAN diesels.
  • 1919: Prosper L'Orange obtains a patent on a prechamber insert and makes a needle injection nozzle.^ German engineer Rudolf Diesel and patented by him in 1892.
    • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ THE EARLY DIESEL Rudolf Diesel obtained a German patent for the Diesel Cycle engine in 1892.
    • The Difference Between Diesel and Gasoline Engines | GreenCar.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.greencar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He was born in Paris and died on the English Channel.

    First diesel engine from Cummins.
  • 1921: Prosper L'Orange builds a continuous variable output injection pump.
  • 1922: First vehicle with (pre-chamber) diesel engine is the Agricultural tractor type 6 of Mercedes-Benz agricultural tractor OE Benz Sendling.
  • 1924: The introduction on the truck market of the diesel engine by commercial truck manufacturers in the IAA. Fairbanks-Morse starts building diesel engines.
  • 1927: First truck injection pump and injection nozzles of Bosch.^ The "BUCK" diesel engine in the test cell.
    • Diesel Engine - Planet Eureka 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.planeteureka.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Incorrect injection pump to engine timing.
    • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Buying or selling truck diesel engines?
    • Truck Diesel Engines: Cummins Caterpillar Detroit Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rctpinc.com [Source type: General]

    First passenger car prototype of Stoewer.
  • 1930s: Caterpillar starts building diesels for their tractors.
  • 1932: Introduction of strongest diesel truck of the world by MAN with 160 hp (120 kW).
  • 1933: of first passenger cars with diesel engine (Citroën Rosalie), Citroën uses an engine of the English diesel pioneer sir Harry Ricardo [1]. .The car does not go into production due to legal restrictions in the use of diesel engines.
  • 1934–35: Junkers Motorenwerke in Germany starts production of the Jumo aviation diesel engine family, the most famous of these being the Jumo 205, of which over 900 examples are produced by the outbreak of World War II.^ Used Caterpillar diesel engine 3126 .
    • Diesel Engines sent right to your door 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.actionsalvage.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 .
    • World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Diesel engines are used in cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

    .
    Rudolf Diesel's 1893 patent on his engine design
  • 1936: Mercedes-Benz builds the 260D diesel car.^ German engineer Rudolf Diesel and patented by him in 1892.
    • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Rudolf Diesel invented the Diesel engine in 1892.
    • Diesel Engines - Gizmo Highway how it works Guide 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gizmohighway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rudolf Diesel's patent 1893 .

    AT&SF inaugurates the diesel train Super Chief. .Airship Hindenburg is powered by diesel engines.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
    • Megawattage Diesel Generator History 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.megawattage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is a powerful 7.2 L medium duty diesel engine.
    • Detroit diesel engine when the detroit diesel series 149 engine was discontinued 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fireworkszone.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Consider a marine engine replacement and enjoy the performance, economy, durability, and safety offered by diesel power while avoiding the expense of major boat hull modifications.
    • Marine Diesel Engines - Marine Diesel Engine - Marine Diesel Engine Parts - Performance Product Technologies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.perfprotech.com [Source type: General]

    .First series manufactured passenger cars with diesel engine (Mercedes-Benz 260 D, Hanomag and Saurer).^ Diesel Engine We manufacture and offer diesel engines .
    • Diesel Engine, Petter Type Diesel Engine, Industrial Castings, Fuel Injection System, Connecting Rods, Bearing Bushes, Manufacturers & Exporters 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Mercedes Diesel Engine (72) .
    • Buy or Sell your Diesel Engine - diesel engine motor.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselenginemotor.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ First diesel engine that worked, 1897.

    .Daimler Benz airship diesel engine 602LOF6 for airship the LZ129 Hindenburg.
  • 1937: Soviet Union chooses diesel engine for its T-34 tank, widely regarded as the best tank of the war.
  • 1937: BMW 114 experimental airplane diesel engine development.
  • 1938: First turbo diesel engine of Saurer.
  • 1954: Turbo-diesel truck in mass production of Volvo.^ Volvo Penta Diesel Engine (18) .
    • Buy or Sell your Diesel Engine - diesel engine motor.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselenginemotor.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Does a diesel engine have to be in cooled-water?
    • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gasoline Air-cooled Engine .
    • 10HP Diesel Engine Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .First diesel engine with an overhead cam shaft of Daimler Benz.^ The first diesel powered truck was produced in 1923 by Daimler-Benz.
    • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Considered the world’s first horizontally opposed turbo diesel engine, the 4-cylinder power plant is expected to be offered in European Subaru vehicles in 2008.
    • Subaru Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.drive.subaru.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rudolf Diesel , a young German engineer, designed and patented the first compression ignition engine in 1897.
    • Diesel Facts 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dsnc.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [9]
  • .
  • 1973: DAF produces an air-cooled diesel engine.
  • 1976 February: Testing of a diesel engine of Volkswagen for the passenger car Volkswagen Golf.^ Does a diesel engine have to be in cooled-water?
    • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peugeot installs the first Diesel engine in their car.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is the company's first Diesel powered car.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Common Rail injection system was developed by the ETH Zurich from 1976 to 1992.
  • 1977: The production of the first passenger car turbo-diesels (Mercedes 300 SD).
  • 1985: ATI Intercooler diesel engine from DAF. First Common Rail system with the IFA truck type W50.
  • 1987: Most powerful production truck with a 460 hp (340 kW) MAN diesel engine.
  • 1991: European emission standards euro 1 met with the truck diesel engine of Scania.
  • 1993: Pump nozzle injection introduced in Volvo truck engines.
  • 1994: Unit injector system by Bosch for diesel engines.
  • 1995: First successful usage of common rail in production vehicle, by Denso in Japan, Hino "Rising ranger" truck.
  • 1998: BMW makes history by winning the 24 Hour Nuerburgring race with the 320d, powered by a two-litre, four-cylinder diesel engine.^ Mercedes introduces the 300D. The in-line five cylinder Diesel engine was radical for it's time.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1936, Mercedes Benz built the first automobile with a diesel engine - Type 260D. Meanwhile, America was developing a diesel industry.
    • Megawattage Diesel Generator History 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.megawattage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Diesel engines are used in cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

    .The combination of high-performance with better fuel efficiency allows the team to make fewer pit stops during the long endurance race.
  • 2002: A street-driven Dodge Dakota pickup with a 735 horsepower (548 kW) diesel engine built at Gale banks engineering hauls its own service trailer to the Bonneville Salt Flats and sets an FIA land speed record as the world's fastest pickup truck with a one-way run of 222 mph (357 km/h) and a two-way average of 217 mph (349 km/h).
  • 2004: In Western Europe, the ratio of passenger cars with diesel engine exceeds 50%.^ The diesel engine runs as good if not better on vegetable oil.
    • Burning Vegetable Oil in a Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fryoil.org [Source type: General]

    ^ High-performance, luxury SUV. Now more efficient as a diesel.
    • Diesel Efficient Cars - High MPG Diesel Vehicles | Hybrid Cars 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: News]

    ^ World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 .
    • World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system in Mercedes, Euro 4 with EGR system and particle filters of MAN.^ Particulate filters, typically muffler-like devices installed in the exhaust system, physically trap particles in the engine exhaust before they can leave the tailpipe.
    • Today's Improved Diesel Engine Technology | GreenCar.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.greencar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I recommend: Detroit Diesel explains why it chose Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology, which converts nitrogen oxide into nitrogen and water vapor, as its primary BlueTec emissions solution.
    • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's got all the latest diesel goodies including a 23,000 psi common rail injection system, EGR and a particulate filter to eliminate soot.
    • Renault and Nissan deliver new 3.0L V6 diesel engine w/VIDEO — Autoblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Piezoelectric injector technology by Bosch.
  • 2006: Audi R10 TDI wins 12 hours running in Sebring and defeats all other engine concepts.^ After winning the 12 Hours of Sebring in 2006 with their Diesel-powered R10 LMP, Audi won the 24 Hours of Le Mans, too.

    ^ If either of these put excessive load on the engine the injector pump will deliver maximum fuel to the engine but because of the load the engine will be turning slowly and will not be able to use all the fuel.
    • Diesel engines: repair and maintenance 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hshyachts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The R10 TDI racing car, whose V12 diesel engine delivers more than 480 kW (650 hp), has won the Le Mans 24 Hours three times in a row starting in 2006.
    • Audi celebrates 20 Years of TDI Diesel Engine | Automotive.com Audi celebrates 20 Years of TDI Diesel Engine Blog & Enthusiast Discussions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC blogs.automotive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Euro 5 for all Iveco trucks.
  • 2008: Subaru introduces the first horizontally-opposed diesel engine to be fitted to a passenger car.^ All about diesel engine's .
    • Diesel Engines - Gizmo Highway how it works Guide 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gizmohighway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Truck Diesel Engine (84) .
    • Buy or Sell your Diesel Engine - diesel engine motor.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselenginemotor.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Peugeot installs the first Diesel engine in their car.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This is a Euro 5 compliant engine with an EGR system.
  • 2009: Volvo claims the worlds strongest truck with their FH16 700. An inline 6 cylinder, 16 litre 700 hp (522 kW) diesel engine producing 3150 Nm (2323,32 lb•ft) of torque and fully complying with Euro 5 emission standards.^ World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 .
    • World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Volvo Penta Diesel Engine (18) .
    • Buy or Sell your Diesel Engine - diesel engine motor.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselenginemotor.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ It is from a single cylinder 10 HP diesel from a...
    • Vintage Diesel Engines - SmokStak 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smokstak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [10]
  • .
  • 2010: Mitsubishi developes and starts mass production of it's 4N13 1.8 L DOHC I4 world's first passenger car diesel engine that features a variable valve timing system.^ World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 .
    • World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Send me the latest products for Diesel Engine .
    • Diesel Engine Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Start the cold diesel engine immediately.
    • Vessels: Buying: Inspect Any Diesel Engine | MadMariner.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC madmariner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [11][12]

How diesel engines work

Diesel engine model, leftside
Diesel engine model, rightside
.The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly compressed, hot air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug (compression ignition rather than spark ignition).^ Diesel Engines Wikipedia Information A Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle.
  • Diesel Engines News - The Sacramento Bee 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.sacbee.com [Source type: News]

^ It is the heat of the compressed air that lights the fuel in a diesel engine.
  • HowStuffWorks "Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines" 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like gasoline engines, diesels must mix air and fuel into a combustible mixture.
  • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the diesel engine, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber.^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another aspect of the diesel engine combustion is its low air utilization.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glow plugs are used in diesel engines to heat the air before the combustion chamber.
  • Burning Vegetable Oil in a Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fryoil.org [Source type: General]

.The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15 and 22 resulting into a 40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) pressure compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.4 MPa) (about 200 psi) in the petrol engine.^ With an engine at 22.5:1 compression ratio, this makes a big difference.
  • Olds FAQ -- Diesel Engine Detail 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.442.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the diesel engine, air alone is drawn into the cylinder and is compressed to a much higher ratio (14:1 to 25:1) than in the petrol engine.
  • Diesel engine - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in a diesel engine, the air is compressed by anything from 14 to 25 times.
  • How diesel engines work - and what makes them different from gasoline engines? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This high compression heats the air to 550 °C (1,022 °F).^ The atomized fuel absorbs heat from the surrounding heated compressed air, vaporizes, and mixes with the surrounding high-temperature high-pressure air.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Heat for igniting the light fuel oil is produced by compressing air.
  • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A greater number of small size droplets leads to a greater surface area that facilitates heat transfer from the hot compressed air to the small fuel volume contained in those droplets.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.At about this moment, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber.^ This noise was caused by the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber.

^ This also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.

^ The Diesel cycle uses compression ignition : the fuel ignites upon being injected into the highly compressed air in the combustion chamber...
  • Diesel Engines News - The Sacramento Bee 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.sacbee.com [Source type: News]

.This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the top of the piston or a pre-chamber depending upon the design of the engine.^ Crate Engines Depending on your perspective, crate engines are either a boon to short-track racing or a blight upon a sport founded on the ingenuity of talented engine builders.
  • 8 Diesel Myths - Diesel Engine Tech - Stock Car Racing Magazine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.stockcarracing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ALL diesel engines have a certain amount of fuel to engine oil contamination to a greater or lesser extent dependant upon many things, pre-combustion chambered engines tend to suffer less than direct injection engines.
  • DieselVeg Home - Diesel to Vegetable Oil engine conversions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselveg.com [Source type: General]

^ The fast acceleration of engine speed during this overshooting period may easily cause the engine to run into the misfiring zone.
  • White Smoke Emissions in Diesel Engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eng.wayne.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fuel injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed evenly.^ In the timing sequence, the injector squirts (at 1,200-1,800 psi) the diesel fuel into a preignition chamber where it ignites and results in power.
  • Olds FAQ -- Diesel Engine Detail 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.442.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free used cooking oil can be used but we suggest that it is well filtered down to 1 micron as it may contain salts which can contribute to engine wear and small food particles which could possibly block fuel lines or the injector pump.
  • DieselVeg Home - Diesel to Vegetable Oil engine conversions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselveg.com [Source type: General]

^ With DI, fuel is injected directly into the cylinder rather than into a small side chamber as with older indirect injection (IDI).
  • Today's Improved Diesel Engine Technology | GreenCar.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.greencar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The heat of the compressed air vaporizes fuel from the surface of the droplets.^ It is the heat of the compressed air that lights the fuel in a diesel engine.
  • HowStuffWorks "Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines" 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel is ignited by the heat of compression alone.

^ Heat for igniting the light fuel oil is produced by compressing air.
  • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the fuel in the droplets has been burnt.^ The fuel is ignited by the heat of compression alone.

^ Diesels mix fuel and air directly in the combustion chamber.
  • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Atomization, vaporization, fuel vapor-air mixing, and combustion continue until all the injected fuel has combusted.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The start of vaporisation causes a delay period during ignition, and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapor reaches ignition temperature and causes an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston.^ This eliminates the diesel knocking and rattling caused by a sudden increase in temperature.
  • Today's Improved Diesel Engine Technology | GreenCar.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.greencar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The premixed diesel combustion research focuses on low temperature combustion with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), Diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI).
  • Clean Diesel Technology Laboratory, Clean Diesel Engine Research Laboratory 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC web2.uwindsor.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ This is caused by the double rocking motion as the piston reaches Top Dead Center and starts down again.

.The rapid expansion of combustion gases then drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft.^ The term BLOW-BY denotes the escape of compression and combustion gases past the pistons and piston rings into the crankcase.

^ The oil is ignited and the rapid expansion of the gas created by the explosion forces the piston down in the working, or firing, stroke.
  • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pressurised injected fuel atomises as it mixes with the air and ignites ,causing an energy explosion which forces the piston downwards during the power stroke as the air fuel mixture combusts.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

[13]
.As well as the high level of compression allowing combustion to take place without a separate ignition system, a high compression ratio greatly increases the engine's efficiency.^ The increased compression ratio also has another effect.
  • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Carbureted compression ignition model engines .

^ His goal was to create an engine with high efficiency .
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.Increasing the compression ratio in a spark-ignition engine where fuel and air are mixed before entry to the cylinder is limited by the need to prevent damaging pre-ignition.^ The engine was fueled by powdered coal injected with compressed air.

^ The increased compression ratio also has another effect.
  • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Diesel engines need high compression ratios to generate the high temperatures required for fuel auto ignition.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and fuel is not introduced into the cylinder until shortly before top dead centre (TDC), premature detonation is not an issue and compression ratios are much higher.^ In the diesel engine, on the other hand, air alone is drawn into the cylinder and is compressed to a much higher ratio (14:1 to 25:1) than in the petrol engine.
  • How to Use Diesel Engines - Howtopedia - english 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC en.howtopedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a diesel goes into the compression stroke, and at near TDC, the air is compressed so much that it is hot enough to ignite the diesel fuel.
  • Olds FAQ -- Diesel Engine Detail 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.442.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a gasoline or diesel engine, the fuel burns inside the cylinders themselves.
  • How diesel engines work - and what makes them different from gasoline engines? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Early fuel injection systems

.Diesel's original engine injected fuel with the assistance of compressed air, which atomized the fuel and forced it into the engine through a nozzle (a similar principle to an aerosol spray).^ It is the heat of the compressed air that lights the fuel in a diesel engine.
  • HowStuffWorks "Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines" 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The injected fuel’s atomization, spray penetration, temperature, and chemical characteristics.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a diesel engine, however, the air is compressed first, and then the fuel is injected.
  • HowStuffWorks "Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines" 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nozzle opening was closed by a pin valve lifted by the camshaft to initiate the fuel injection before top dead centre (TDC).^ One of our big breakthroughs was the dual-spring injection-nozzle holder, which allowed the pre-injection of smaller fuel amounts.
  • Audi celebrates 20 Years of TDI Diesel Engine | Automotive.com Audi celebrates 20 Years of TDI Diesel Engine Blog & Enthusiast Discussions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC blogs.automotive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exhaust by-products are expelled past an opened exhaust valve, as the piston (moved by inertia from the combustion process described) approaches the top of its travel on the next cycle.
  • VW DIESEL ENGINE GOLF DIESEL ENGINE PARTS VOLKSWAGEN DIESEL ENGINES POLO ENGINES I.9 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.volkswagenspares.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scania raised the compression ratio from 18:1 to 28:1, added larger fuel injection nozzles, and altered the injection timing.
  • Scania’s Ethanol Diesel-Engine, Runs On Biodiesel Too : Gas 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC gas2.org [Source type: General]

This is called an air-blast injection. .Driving the three stage compressor used some power but the efficiency and net power output was more than any other combustion engine at that time.^ Maximum power Maximum power that the engine can output, in watts (W).
  • Model diesel fuel engine with throttle control, speed governor, and driveline output - Simulink 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mathworks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are diesel engines more efficient than gasoline engines?
  • Diesel Engines Results Product Details 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pac brakes work better on some engines than others.
  • RV.Net Open Roads Forum: Diesel Engine Auxiliary Brake Discussion.... Pac and Jake Type 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rv.net [Source type: General]

.Diesel engines in service today raise the fuel to extreme pressures by mechanical pumps and deliver it to the combustion chamber by pressure-activated injectors without compressed air.^ High pressure injectors are used to spray the diesel fuel into the combustion chamber.
  • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel service technicians and mechanics .
  • 49-3031.00 - Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.onetcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With direct injected diesels, injectors spray fuel through 4 to 12 small orifices in its nozzle.^ The liquid fuel is usually injected at high velocity as one or more jets through small orifices or nozzles in the injector tip.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the timing sequence, the injector squirts (at 1,200-1,800 psi) the diesel fuel into a preignition chamber where it ignites and results in power.
  • Olds FAQ -- Diesel Engine Detail 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.442.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel injectors feed the fuel as a fine spray into the combustion chambers of the cylinders through nozzles controlled by the engine’s engine control unit ( ECU ), which determines the pressure, when the fuel spray occurs, how long it lasts, and other functions.
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The early air injection diesels always had a superior combustion without the sharp increase in pressure during combustion.^ Diesels draw in as much as 600% more air than is needed for combustion at idle speeds and as much as 25% extra air at full throttle.
  • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By the time fuel is injected into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, the air is so hot that the fuel self-ignites without the need for a spark plug (although glow plugs and other means are sometimes used to help start cold engines).
  • Mercedes-Benz Ponton Diesel Engine Overview © www.mbzponton.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mbzponton.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The pressurised injected fuel atomises as it mixes with the air and ignites ,causing an energy explosion which forces the piston downwards during the power stroke as the air fuel mixture combusts.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

.Research is now being performed and patents are being taken out to again use some form of air injection to reduce the nitrogen oxides and pollution, reverting to Diesel's original implementation with its superior combustion and possibly quieter operation.^ Biodiesel should not be confused with straight vegetable oil, which is untreated oil that some people use as fuel in their modified diesel cars.
  • Diesel Efficient Cars - High MPG Diesel Vehicles | Hybrid Cars 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: News]

^ The original oil burning engines used very crude mechanical injection equipment so Rudolf Diesel again began using air blast to provide atomization of the fuel as well as turbulence of the mixture.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Auto Repair & Maintenance Glossary catalytic converter A pollution-control device that consumes unburned gas in the tailpipe and reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all major aspects, the modern diesel engine holds true to Rudolf Diesel's original design, that of igniting fuel by compression at an extremely high pressure within the cylinder.^ The fuel is ignited by the heat of compression alone.

^ In all major aspects, it holds true to Diesel's original design, of the fuel being ignited by compression.

^ In a gasoline or diesel engine, the fuel burns inside the cylinders themselves.
  • How diesel engines work - and what makes them different from gasoline engines? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With much higher pressures and high technology injectors, present-day diesel engines use the so-called solid injection system applied by Herbert Akroyd Stuart for his hot bulb engine.^ Used Caterpillar diesel engine 3126 .
  • Diesel Engines sent right to your door 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.actionsalvage.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Used International diesel engine DT488 .
  • Diesel Engines sent right to your door 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.actionsalvage.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Used Diesel Engines said...

.The indirect injection engine could be considered the latest development of these low speed hot bulb ignition engines.^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low-emission diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation, improved fuel injection, and other improvements burn fuel more efficiently.
  • eLCOSH : Diesel Engine Exhaust 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC elcosh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low speed torque and throttle response were improved through use of a smaller turbine wheel and nozzle which reached peak boost quickly and at lower engine speed.
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fuel delivery

.A vital component of all diesel engines is a mechanical or electronic governor which regulates the idling speed and maximum speed of the engine by controlling the rate of fuel delivery.^ Engine or component test stands — Fuel pump test stands; Governor test stands .
  • 49-3031.00 - Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.onetcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A vital component of older diesel engine systems was the governor, which limited the speed of the engine by controlling the rate of fuel delivery.

^ The solenoid valves and the fuel pump are all electronically controlled.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.Unlike Otto-cycle engines, incoming air is not throttled and a diesel engine without a governor cannot have a stable idling speed and can easily overspeed, resulting in its destruction.^ The lister diesel engine speed is controlled by a spring-loaded governor.
  • Lister Type Diesel Engine,Irrigation Pump Engine,Lister Diesel Engine,Diesel Engine For Irrigation Pump 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ashwamegh-india.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike a petrol (gasoline) engine, the incoming air is not throttled, so the engine would overspeed if this was not done.

^ The four-stroke-cycle diesel engine .
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mechanically governed fuel injection systems are driven by the engine's gear train.^ A common rail fuel injection system.
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Older injection systems were driven by a gear system from the engine (and thus supplied fuel only linearly with engine speed).

^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

[14] .These systems use a combination of springs and weights to control fuel delivery relative to both load and speed.^ If either of these put excessive load on the engine the injector pump will deliver maximum fuel to the engine but because of the load the engine will be turning slowly and will not be able to use all the fuel.
  • Diesel engines: repair and maintenance 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hshyachts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kerosene based fuels weigh more (6.8 pounds per gallon versus 6.0 for gasoline) so attention must be paid to airframe loads and gross weights must be reduced in existing designs if full fuel capacity is to be used.
  • Gas VS Diesel Engines for Airplanes - GoFastNews.com - All Racing News All the Time! 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC gofastnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Other diesel fuel systems use hydraulics, crystalline wafers, and other methods to control fuel injection, and more are being developed to produce diesel engines that are even more powerful and responsive.
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Modern, electronically controlled diesel engines control fuel delivery by use of an electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU).^ Modern electronically-controlled engines apply similar control to petrol engines and limit the maximum RPM through the electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU) - the engine-mounted "computer".

^ Used Diesel Engines said...

^ Both the engine and aftertreatment are linked by a single electronic control module.
  • Concrete Products | 2007 Diesel Engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC concreteproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed signal, as well as other operating parameters such as intake manifold pressure and fuel temperature, from a sensor and controls the amount of fuel and start of injection timing through actuators to maximise power and efficiency and minimise emissions.^ Incorrect injection pump to engine timing.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is key to minimising the emissions, and maximising the fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine.

^ Instantaneous engine speed at cold start, 5 o C ambient temperature .
  • White Smoke Emissions in Diesel Engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eng.wayne.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is a key to minimising emissions, and maximising fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine.^ Incorrect injection pump to engine timing.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.

^ Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is key to minimising the emissions, and maximising the fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine.

.The timing is measured in degrees of crank angle of the piston before top dead centre.^ The timing is usually measured in units of crank angle of the piston before Top Dead Center (TDC).

^ This technique lowers the temperature of the top ring up to 100 degrees F or more to improve sealing, reduce blowby and emissions, and to extend the life of the piston and rings.

^ It took just about three crank angle degrees (500 µs) to reach the peak heat release rate.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection, or timing, is said to be 10° BTDC.^ For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection or "timing" is said to be 10 deg BTDC. The optimal timing will depend on both the engine design as well as its speed and load.

^ Direct injection in open type combustion chamber provided in an aluminium alloy piston with long stem multihole nozzle resultsinto low fuel consumption and easy starting.
  • Basant Products :: Diesel Engine :: Petter Type :: Water Cooled 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vidhataindia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Scania raised the compression ratio from 18:1 to 28:1, added larger fuel injection nozzles, and altered the injection timing.
  • Scania’s Ethanol Diesel-Engine, Runs On Biodiesel Too : Gas 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC gas2.org [Source type: General]

.Optimal timing will depend on the engine design as well as its speed and load.^ For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection or "timing" is said to be 10 deg BTDC. The optimal timing will depend on both the engine design as well as its speed and load.

^ As long as engine speed remains below the design limit of the stock piston, most pistons will hold up fairly well to increased turbocharger boost pressures or even a brief shot of nitrous.

^ Since the description is for a specific diesel engine design operating at a moderate load condition, the quantitative information applies only to the case being considered.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Advancing the start of injection (injecting before the piston reaches TDC) results in higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and higher efficiency, but also results in elevated engine noise and increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions due to higher combustion temperatures.^ Advancing (injecting when the piston is further away from TDC) the start of injection results in higher in-cylinder pressure, temperature, and higher efficiency but also results in higher emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) due to the higher temperatures.

^ The higher combustion temperatures required to burn diesel lead to increased nitrogen-oxide emissions.
  • Technology Review: New Diesel Engine Emits Cleaner Fumes 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ It is at this point that the fuel is injected under very high pressure into the combustion chamber, where it is ignited by the super-heated air, driving the piston downward.
  • VW DIESEL ENGINE GOLF DIESEL ENGINE PARTS VOLKSWAGEN DIESEL ENGINES POLO ENGINES I.9 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.volkswagenspares.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Delaying start of injection causes incomplete combustion, reduced fuel efficiency and an increase in exhaust smoke, containing a considerable amount of particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons.^ At the other extreme, very retarded start of injection or timing causes incomplete combustion.

^ This cycle is having as a result the exhaust of water vapors, oil particulate, even some fuel droplets remained from the previous cycle.
  • White Smoke Emissions in Diesel Engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.eng.wayne.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being able to run the engine at higher temperatures gives increased fuel efficiency and a longer life to your engine.
  • How your diesel engine works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hshyachts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Major advantages

Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines:
.
  • They burn less fuel than a petrol engine performing the same work, due to the engine's higher temperature of combustion and greater expansion ratio.^ The exhaust cycle is the same as in the petrol engine.
    • VW DIESEL ENGINE GOLF DIESEL ENGINE PARTS VOLKSWAGEN DIESEL ENGINES POLO ENGINES I.9 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.volkswagenspares.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Therefore, diesel engine can do a given amount of work using less fuel than a petrol engine.
    • VW DIESEL ENGINE GOLF DIESEL ENGINE PARTS VOLKSWAGEN DIESEL ENGINES POLO ENGINES I.9 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.volkswagenspares.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The important practical advantage is that diesels are much more flexible than glow engines in adapting to a wide range of conditions, including temperature, altitude, fuel blend, propeller, etc.

    [1] .Gasoline engines are typically 25% efficient while diesel engines can convert over 30% of the fuel energy into mechanical energy.^ Diesel/gasoline Engine .
    • Diesel Engines Results Product Details 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Are diesel engines more efficient than gasoline engines?
    • Diesel Engines Results Product Details 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Includes Excursion gasoline and diesel engines.
    • Ford diesel engine Automotive Repair Tools at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

    [15]
  • .
  • They have no high-tension electrical ignition system to attend to, resulting in high reliability and easy adaptation to damp environments.^ The lack of an electrical ignition system greatly improves the reliability.

    ^ Because diesel engines don't require spark plugs and hence no electrical system to run them they are inherently more reliable especially in a marine environment where salt water and electricity do not do well together.
    • How your diesel engine works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hshyachts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But they were prone to problems due to their electric ignition.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The absence of coils, spark plug wires, etc., also eliminates a source of radio frequency emissions which can interfere with navigation and communication equipment, which is especially important in marine and aircraft applications.
  • They can deliver much more of their rated power on a continuous basis than a petrol engine.^ They also have 2 engines in them, to give them more hp.
    • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Diesel engines are much more fuel efficient than glow engines.

    ^ Rueger: It's not much more complicated than that.
    • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

    [citation needed]
  • The life of a diesel engine is generally about twice as long as that of a petrol engine[16] due to the increased strength of parts used, also because diesel fuel has better lubrication properties than petrol.
.
Bus run by biodiesel
  • Diesel fuel is considered safer than petrol in many applications.^ Myth #1: Diesel is safer than gas.
    • Marine Engines : Power Options - Gas Versus Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC yachtsurvey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most regular diesel engines cannot use pure biodiesel fuel without some sort of modification to the engine, but many manufacturers, including Chrysler, say their clean diesel engines will be able to run 20 percent biodiesel (B20) with no modification.
    • Clean-Diesel Engine on Tap at Chrysler - MotherProof.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.motherproof.com [Source type: General]

    ^ These two factors help modern diesels achieve roughly 50 percent higher fuel economy than their gasoline counterparts.
    • Diesel Efficient Cars - High MPG Diesel Vehicles | Hybrid Cars 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: News]

    .Although diesel fuel will burn in open air using a wick, it will not explode and does not release a large amount of flammable vapor.^ Regeneration, which can be done either periodically or continuously, involves either the use of electrical heaters, passive heat from the exhaust or injection of a small amount of diesel fuel into the exhaust stream into the filters to burn off the collected particulate matter completely.

    ^ Biodiesel should not be confused with straight vegetable oil, which is untreated oil that some people use as fuel in their modified diesel cars.
    • Diesel Efficient Cars - High MPG Diesel Vehicles | Hybrid Cars 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The original oil burning engines used very crude mechanical injection equipment so Rudolf Diesel again began using air blast to provide atomization of the fuel as well as turbulence of the mixture.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The low vapor pressure of diesel is especially advantageous in marine applications, where the accumulation of explosive fuel-air mixtures is a particular hazard.
  • For any given partial load the fuel efficiency (mass burned per energy produced) of a diesel engine remains nearly constant, as opposed to petrol and turbine engines which use proportionally more fuel with partial power outputs.^ These alternators are very efficient, and produce high output at low engine rpm.

    ^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
    • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Second ,safety important , are diesel fuel in this low rpm engine.
    • Gas VS Diesel Engines for Airplanes - GoFastNews.com - All Racing News All the Time! 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC gofastnews.com [Source type: General]

    [17][18][19][20]
  • .
  • They generate less waste heat in cooling and exhaust.^ In addition, all of the heat generated and then imparted to the working fluid had to be dissipated into a cooling medium to protect the physical integrity of the engine’s components since there was no exhaust gas exiting the working fluid area.
    • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Exhaust back pressure is also less of a concern to diesels as they simply do not need to breathe as much of the fuel air mixture to produce their full power.

    ^ Diesel engines, although more fuel efficient than gasoline engines, generate more smog-producing combustion products (although they produce less greenhouse gases).
    • diesel engine Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about diesel engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    [1]
  • .
  • With a diesel, boost pressure is limited only by the strength of the engine components, not predetonation of the fuel charge as in petrol engines.
  • The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimal, therefore diesel engines are used in underground mines.^ The exhaust cycle is the same as in the petrol engine.
    • VW DIESEL ENGINE GOLF DIESEL ENGINE PARTS VOLKSWAGEN DIESEL ENGINES POLO ENGINES I.9 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.volkswagenspares.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Therefore, diesel engine can do a given amount of work using less fuel than a petrol engine.
    • VW DIESEL ENGINE GOLF DIESEL ENGINE PARTS VOLKSWAGEN DIESEL ENGINES POLO ENGINES I.9 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.volkswagenspares.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Used Diesel Engines said...

    [21]
  • Biodiesel is an easily synthesized, non-petroleum-based fuel (through transesterification) which can run directly in diesel engines, while gasoline engines either need adaptation to run synthetic fuels or else use them as an additive to gasoline (e.g., ethanol added to gasohol), making diesel engines the clearly preferred choice for sustainability.

Mechanical and electronic injection

.Many configurations of fuel injection have been used over the past century (1900–2000).^ It uses a single injection cylinder driven from an axial cam plate, which injects into the individual fuel lines via a rotary distribution valve.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Increased use of electronics as well as introducing novel means for creating the required high injection pressures are helping control the high cost of diesel fuel injection equipment.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the fuel type (chemical structure), temperature, and pressure conditions, ignition delay is also affected by injection pressure and injector nozzle orifice diameter [ Kobori 2000 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most present day (2008) diesel engines make use of a camshaft, rotating at half crankshaft speed, lifted mechanical single plunger high pressure fuel pump driven by the engine crankshaft.^ It rotates at half crankshaft speed in a conventional four-stroke engine.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Used Diesel Engines said...

^ The rail is fed by a high pressure fuel delivery pump.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.For each cylinder, its plunger measures the amount of fuel and determines the timing of each injection.^ The pump has a central plunger system (usually consisting of two opposing plungers) that provides fuel to every cylinder during the required injection period.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Scania raised the compression ratio from 18:1 to 28:1, added larger fuel injection nozzles, and altered the injection timing.
  • Scania’s Ethanol Diesel-Engine, Runs On Biodiesel Too : Gas 2.0 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC gas2.org [Source type: General]

^ It uses a single injection cylinder driven from an axial cam plate, which injects into the individual fuel lines via a rotary distribution valve.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.These engines use injectors that are very precise spring-loaded valves that open and close at a specific fuel pressure.^ Close Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ These engines use simple injectors which are basically very precise spring-loaded valves which will open and close at a specific fuel pressure.

^ The fuel injectors feed the fuel as a fine spray into the combustion chambers of the cylinders through nozzles controlled by the engine’s engine control unit ( ECU ), which determines the pressure, when the fuel spray occurs, how long it lasts, and other functions.
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For each cylinder a plunger pump is connected with an injector with a high pressure fuel line.^ The rail is fed by a high pressure fuel delivery pump.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ In-Line Injection Pumps An injection pump with a separate cylinder and plunger for each engine cylinder.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ High pressure fuel injection pump faulty.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

.Fuel volume for each single combustion is controlled by a slanted groove in the plunger which rotates only a few degrees releasing the pressure and is controlled by a mechanical governor, consisting of weights rotating at engine speed constrained by springs and a lever.^ Engine speed is controlled by a third disc, which rotates only a few degrees and is controlled by the throttle lever.

^ The fuel injectors feed the fuel as a fine spray into the combustion chambers of the cylinders through nozzles controlled by the engine’s engine control unit ( ECU ), which determines the pressure, when the fuel spray occurs, how long it lasts, and other functions.
  • How Do Diesel Engines Work? - For Dummies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Engineers in several innovative companies have been able to remove weight from the engine block by careful analysis of the stress paths insuring strength is only where it needs to be.
  • Gas VS Diesel Engines for Airplanes - GoFastNews.com - All Racing News All the Time! 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC gofastnews.com [Source type: General]

.The injectors are held open by the fuel pressure.^ Low injector opening pressure.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The valve has a single aperture to the pressurized fuel on one side, and one aperture for each injector on the other.

^ The injection pump passes the fuel at high pressure to the injectors in a precise sequence and with a timing to match the position of the pistons in the cylinder.
  • How your diesel engine works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hshyachts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On high speed engines the plunger pumps are together in one unit.^ Together with the heat released more torque is produced at lower engine speeds than in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AMT line of Engine Driven Trash pumps are designed for applications which require high flow efficiency and solids...
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the reasons for the engine’s sluggish acceleration was attributed to the high accessory load and parasitic losses incurred by the gas generator shaft, since it had to drive most of the engine’s accessories.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .Each fuel line should have the same length to obtain the same pressure delay.^ When you put the pump back on, loosen the pump fuel input line and gently pressurize the return line to the tank to prime everything.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, a line of emission data obtained by testing the same heavy-duty gasoline engine when equipped with a 3-way catalyst is also provided in Table 1, for comparative purposes.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the fuel type (chemical structure), temperature, and pressure conditions, ignition delay is also affected by injection pressure and injector nozzle orifice diameter [ Kobori 2000 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.A cheaper configuration on high speed engines with fewer than six cylinders is to use an axial-piston distributor pump, consisting of one rotating pump plunger delivering fuel to a valve and line for each cylinder (functionally analogous to points and distributor cap on an Otto engine).^ The pump assembly consists of a pump which pressurizes the fuel, and a disc-shaped valve which rotates at half crankshaft speed.

^ Incorrect valve or fuel pump timing.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

[14] .This contrasts with the more modern method of having a single fuel pump which supplies fuel constantly at high pressure with a common rail (single fuel line common) to each injector.^ This contrasts with the more modern method of having a separate fuel pump (or set of pumps) which supplies fuel constantly at high pressure to each injector.

^ As with the 2002 engine, it had high-pressure, common rail injection.
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel supply line blocked or primer pump inoperative.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

.Each injector has a solenoid operated by an electronic control unit, resulting in more accurate control of injector opening times that depend on other control conditions, such as engine speed and loading, and providing better engine performance and fuel economy.^ Each injector then has a solenoid which is operated by an electronic control unit, which enables more accurate control of injector opening times depending on other control conditions such as engine speed and loading, resulting in better engine performance and fuel economy.

^ The solenoid valves and the fuel pump are all electronically controlled.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Excellent performance and fuel economy, who could ask for more?
  • diesel engine Resources | ZDNet 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC updates.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.This design is also mechanically simpler than the combined pump and valve design, making it generally more reliable, and less noisy, than its mechanical counterpart.^ This design is also mechanically simpler than the combined pump and valve design, making it generally more reliable, and less noisy, than its mechanical counterpart.

^ Make sure your supplier provides reliable engines, and find a mechanic who knows diesel engine specifications.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets , alternative fuel generators , Isuzu propulsion engines , portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both mechanical and electronic injection systems can be used in either direct or indirect injection configurations.^ Mechanical and electronic injection .

^ Both mechanical and electronic injection systems can be used in either direct or indirect injection configurations.

^ In midyear 1998, a 24-valve head replaced the old 12-valve unit, and a new electronically controlled fuel injection system replaced the mechanical system (both used high pressure direct injection).
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, albeit very inefficiently, as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake.^ Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, albeit very inefficiently as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake.

^ Don’t run diesel engines near the air intake of building ventilation systems.
  • eLCOSH : Diesel Engine Exhaust 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC elcosh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

.This was often a consequence of push starting a vehicle using the wrong gear.^ This was often a consequence of Bump starting a vehicle using the wrong gear.

.Large ship diesels can run either way.^ We would not run these lightweight parts on our diesel equipped Suzukis and don't force you to either.
  • Suzuki Samurai Turbo Diesel conversion kit for Suzuki Samurai 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rocky-road.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you plan to do much overighting at anchor with a generator running, diesel is definitely the way to go.
  • Marine Engines : Power Options - Gas Versus Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC yachtsurvey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel service technicians and mechanics repair large trucks to keep them running smoothly.
  • Diesel Service Technicians and Mechanics 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indirect injection

.An indirect injection diesel engine delivers fuel into a chamber off the combustion chamber, called a pre-chamber or ante-chamber, where combustion begins and then spreads into the main combustion chamber, assisted by turbulence created in the chamber.^ This noise was caused by the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber.

^ Begins experimenting with diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This system allows for a smoother, quieter running engine, and because combustion is assisted by turbulence, injector pressures can be lower, about 100 bar (10 MPa; 1,500 psi), using a single orifice tapered jet injector.^ This system allows smoother, quieter running, and because combustion is assisted by turbulence, injector pressures can be lower, which in the days of mechanical injection systems allowed high-speed running suitable for road vehicles (typically up to speed of around 4,000 rpm).

^ If either of these put excessive load on the engine the injector pump will deliver maximum fuel to the engine but because of the load the engine will be turning slowly and will not be able to use all the fuel.
  • Diesel engines: repair and maintenance 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hshyachts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A gear-driven fuel pump was electronically controlled and provided pressures up to 23,200 psi (1600 Bar); it was less dependent on engine speed than traditional systems for cleaner combustion and higher low-speed torque with better vehicle response.
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mechanical injection systems allowed high-speed running suitable for road vehicles (typically up to speeds of around 4,000 rpm).^ This system allows smoother, quieter running, and because combustion is assisted by turbulence, injector pressures can be lower, which in the days of mechanical injection systems allowed high-speed running suitable for road vehicles (typically up to speed of around 4,000 rpm).

^ This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometery turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500-3000 rpm.

^ Exhaust Gas Recirculation fault (may log ecu fault codes eg, P0400 ) Road speed limiter incorrectly set or system fault.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

.The pre-chamber had the disadvantage of increasing heat loss to the engine's cooling system, and restricting the combustion burn, which reduced the efficiency by 5%–10%.^ The prechamber had the disadvantage of increasing heat loss to the engine's cooling system and restricting the combustion burn, which reduced the efficiency by between 5-10% in comparison to a direct injection engine, and nearly all require some form of cold-start device such as glow plugs.

^ Being able to run the engine at higher temperatures gives increased fuel efficiency and a longer life to your engine.
  • How your diesel engine works 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.hshyachts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low-emission diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation, improved fuel injection, and other improvements burn fuel more efficiently.
  • eLCOSH : Diesel Engine Exhaust 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC elcosh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Indirect injection engines were used in small-capacity, high-speed diesel engines in automotive, marine and construction uses from the 1950s, until direct injection technology advanced in the 1980s.^ Close Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Modern diesel engines make use of one of the following direct injection methods: .

.Indirect injection engines are cheaper to build and it is easier to produce smooth, quiet-running vehicles with a simple mechanical system.^ Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, albeit very inefficiently as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake.

^ Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications.

^ The '200Tdi' 2.5-litre 4-cylinder turbodiesel (of 111 horsepower) was used by Land Rover in their vehicles from 1989, and the engine used an aluminium cylinder head, Bosch two-stage injection and multi-phase glow plugs to produce a smooth-running and economical engine while still using mechanical fuel injection.

.In road-going vehicles most prefer the greater efficiency and better controlled emission levels of direct injection.^ With electronic injection systems, indirect injection engines are still used in some road-going vehicles, but most prefer the greater efficiency of direct injection.

^ Low-emission diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation, improved fuel injection, and other improvements burn fuel more efficiently.
  • eLCOSH : Diesel Engine Exhaust 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC elcosh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is key to minimising the emissions, and maximising the fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine.

Direct injection

Modern diesel engines make use of one of the following direct injection methods:
.Direct injection injectors are mounted in the top of the combustion chamber.^ In the injector, several hundred tiny piezo disks are stacked on top of each other, and the expansion of this stack is transferred directly to the injection needle.
  • Audi celebrates 20 Years of TDI Diesel Engine | Automotive.com Audi celebrates 20 Years of TDI Diesel Engine Blog & Enthusiast Discussions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC blogs.automotive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first incarnations of direct injection diesels used a rotary pump much like indirect injection diesels, however the injectors were mounted in the top of the combustion chamber rather than in a separate pre-combustion chamber.

^ A 1994 revised combustion chamber "bowl" in the piston crown worked with the injection pump to lower engine-out emissions.
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The problem with these vehicles was the harsh noise that they made.^ The problem with these vehicles was the harsh noise that they made and particulate (smoke) emissions.

^ Those using or selling such vehicles have to design these engines so they meet government clean engine specifications.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fuel consumption was about 15 to 20 percent lower than indirect injection diesels, which for some buyers was enough to compensate for the extra noise.^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

^ Fuel consumption was about fifteen to twenty percent lower than indirect injection diesels, which for some buyers was enough to compensate for the extra noise.

^ Its about 40% more miles per gallon that you typically get with diesel compared with a similar size gasoline engine, or 30% less fuel consumption if you look at it as Europe does, as in liters per 100 kilometers.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.This type of engine was transformed by electronic control of the injection pump, pioneered by the FIAT in 1988 (Croma).^ Incorrect injection pump to engine timing.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Incorrect injection pump timing , or electronic control system fault.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This type of engine was transformed by electronic control of the injection pump, pioneered by Volkswagen Audi group with the Audi 100 TDI introduced in 1989.

.The injection pressure was still only around 300 bar (30 MPa; 4,400 psi), but the injection timing, fuel quantity, EGR and turbo boost were all electronically controlled.^ Cummins unveils PT (pressure-time) fuel injection system.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The injection pressure was still only around 300 bar, but the injection timing, fuel quantity, exhaust gas recirculation and turbo boost were all electronically controlled.

^ In the timing sequence, the injector squirts (at 1,200-1,800 psi) the diesel fuel into a preignition chamber where it ignites and results in power.
  • Olds FAQ -- Diesel Engine Detail 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.442.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This gave more precise control of these parameters which made refinement more acceptable and lower emissions.^ This gave much more precise control of these parameters which made refinement much more acceptable and emissions acceptably low.

^ A family of engines that are modular indesign, these engines are lighter, more compact, more powerful, more durableand more emissions friendly.
  • Diesel Engine - Planet Eureka 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.planeteureka.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Moreover diesels develop their power at a relatively lower rpm which allows for the use of a larger propeller and these are more efficient at converting power into thrust.

Unit direct injection

.Unit direct injection also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.^ This also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.

^ Unit direct injection .

^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

.In this system the injector and the pump are combined into one unit positioned over each cylinder controlled by the camshaft.^ Valve configuration , which controls the injector position.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in this system the injector and the pump are combined into one unit positioned over each cylinder.

^ Top piston ring position , which controls the dead space between the piston top land (area between top piston ring groove and the top of the piston crown), and the cylinder liner.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Each cylinder has its own unit eliminating the high pressure fuel lines, achieving a more consistent injection.^ Each cylinder thus has its own pump, feeding its own injector, which prevents pressure fluctuations and allows more consistent injection to be achieved.

^ High pressure fuel injection pump faulty.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ An in-line high pressure fuel injection pump replaced the rotary pump; the higher pressure atomized the fuel into finer droplets, which burned more completely and reduced particulate emissions (presumably also increading fuel economy).
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This type of injection system, also developed by Bosch, is used by Volkswagen AG in cars (where it is called a Pumpe-Düse-System—literally pump-nozzle system) and by Mercedes Benz ("PLD") and most major diesel engine manufacturers in large commercial engines (CAT, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Volvo). .With recent advancements, the pump pressure has been raised to 2,400 bar (240 MPa; 35,000 psi)[24], allowing injection parameters similar to common rail systems.^ Common rail injection .
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As with the 2002 engine, it had high-pressure, common rail injection.
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A gear-driven fuel pump was electronically controlled and provided pressures up to 23,200 psi (1600 Bar); it was less dependent on engine speed than traditional systems for cleaner combustion and higher low-speed torque with better vehicle response.
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Common rail direct injection

.In common rail systems, the separate pulsing high pressure fuel line to each cylinder injector is also eliminated.^ High pressure system loss of pressure.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ As with the 2002 engine, it had high-pressure, common rail injection.
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With common rail technology, the fuel is injected at a very high pressure, very precisely.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.Instead, a high-pressure pump pressurizes fuel at up to 2,000 bar (200 MPa; 29,000 psi),[26] in a "common rail". The common rail is a tube that supplies each computer-controlled injector containing a precision-machined nozzle and a plunger driven by a solenoid or piezoelectric actuator.^ Instead an extremely high pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure - up to 1,800 bar (180 MPa, 26,000 psi) - in a "common rail", basically a tube which in turn branches off to computer-controlled injector valves, each of which contains a precision-machined nozzle and a plunger driven by a solenoid,or even by piezo-electric actuators, which are found on experimental diesel race car engines.

^ As with the 2002 engine, it had high-pressure, common rail injection.
  • Cummins 5.9 liter and 6.7 liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.allpar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With common rail technology, the fuel is injected at a very high pressure, very precisely.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

Cold weather

Starting

.In cold weather, high speed diesel engines that are pre-chambered, can be difficult to start because the mass of the cylinder block and cylinder head absorb the heat of compression, preventing ignition due to the higher surface-to-volume ratio.^ Durability Compression ratio in diesel engines is approximately twice as high as in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Precombustion chamber loose in cylinder head.
  • Diesel Engine Service Repair,Car,Van,Truck,Telford ,Shropshire,UK,Diesel pump diagnostics, fuel injection, 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoelectrics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ HP Diesel Engine with 20:1 Compression Ratio and 296cc Displacement .
  • Diesel Engine Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.Pre-chambered engines therefore make use of small electric heaters inside the pre-chambers called glowplugs.^ Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) plugged into the utility grid are often used when an engine is shut down for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear.

^ The petrol engine is widely used for small vehicles and light applications whereas diesel engines are more suited to continuous running for lengthy periods at higher load ratings and are therefore used more widely for stationary applications and commercial vehicles.
  • Diesel engine - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • How to Use Diesel Engines - Howtopedia - english 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC en.howtopedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ KraftPower.com Small Diesel Engines Get Small Diesel Engines Search for Small Diesel Engines Ask.com Diesel Engine - JDM * Source for used Japanese engines , transmissions, diesel engines ~* www.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These engines also generally have a higher compression ratio of 19:1 to 21:1. Low speed and compressed air started larger and intermediate speed diesels do not have glowplugs and compression ratios are around 16:1. Some engines use resistive grid heaters in the intake manifold to warm the inlet air until the engine reaches operating temperature.^ The engine takes about 10 minuets to reach operating temperature.
  • Burning Vegetable Oil in a Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fryoil.org [Source type: General]

^ The compression is increased until the engine starts running.

^ Close Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) connected to the utility grid are often used when an engine is turned off for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear.^ Reduce engine idling time.
  • eLCOSH : Diesel Engine Exhaust 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC elcosh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) plugged into the utility grid are often used when an engine is shut down for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear.

^ The engines, though more than capable of supplying sufficient power, were not a fan-favorite for long.
  • 6.5 Diesel Engine | New/Crate High Performance diesel engine for GM Cars, Trucks, Pickups & Marine/Boats (6.2 & 6.5) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.automotix.net [Source type: General]

.In the past, a wider variety of cold-start methods were used.^ In the past, Caterpillar and John Deere used a small gasoline "pony" motor in their tractors to start the primary diesel motor.

^ But it really is no use heating veg oil and squirting it into a cold unmodified engine, the net effect is cold start problems as outlined in the following paragraph.
  • DieselVeg Home - Diesel to Vegetable Oil engine conversions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselveg.com [Source type: General]

^ Using existing conditions and then converted into biodiesel through a pilot plant using a cold press method.
  • Diesel engine - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some engines, such as Detroit Diesel engines and Lister-Petter engines, used a system to introduce small amounts of ether into the inlet manifold to start combustion.^ Diesel oil is used in diesel engines, a type of internal combustion engine .

^ Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Saab-Scania marine engines, Field Marshall tractors (among others) used slow-burning solid-fuel 'cigarettes' which were fitted into the cylinder head as a primitive glow plug.^ This also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ The original oil burning engines used very crude mechanical injection equipment so Rudolf Diesel again began using air blast to provide atomization of the fuel as well as turbulence of the mixture.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lucas developed the Thermostart, where an electrical heating element was combined with a small fuel valve in the inlet manifold.^ A commonly applied advance is to electrically heat the fuel filter and fuel lines.

^ Another hybrid heat engine/electric, introduced by Toyota, is equipped with a combination heat engine and electric motor generally similar to that of the Honda hybrid.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A greater number of small size droplets leads to a greater surface area that facilitates heat transfer from the hot compressed air to the small fuel volume contained in those droplets.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Diesel fuel slowly dripped from the valve onto the hot element and ignited.^ In all major aspects, it holds true to Diesel's original design, of the fuel being ignited by compression.

^ "Hot Fuel Proof" paints are not required with diesel fuel.

^ Gas turbine (GT) Spark ignited gasoline engine (SI) Sterling hot-air engine DI and IDI diesel engines Fuel cells Figure 5.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The flame heated the inlet manifold and when the engine was cranked, the flame was drawn into the cylinders to start combustion.^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Navigator Yanmar series also introduces the new Aqua Shield manifold cover, which dramatically reduces manifold heat reflection and prevents potential water leakage into the engine head .
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.International Harvester developed a tractor in the 1930s that had a 7-litre 4-cylinder engine which started as a gasoline engine then ran on diesel after warming up.^ The Diesel engine and it's development .
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cylinder head had valves which opened for a portion of the compression stroke to reduce the effective compression ratio, and a magneto produced the spark.^ In the petrol engine the petrol and air mixture is drawn into the cylinder, compressed (compression ratio ranging from 4:1 to 10:1), and ignited by a spark introduced by an electrical system.
  • Diesel engine - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the engine turns the valve discs will line up and deliver a burst of pressurized fuel to the injector at the cylinder about to enter its power stroke.

^ Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than gasoline engines, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine.

.An automatic ratchet system automatically disengaged the ignition system and closed the valves once the engine had run for 30 seconds.^ These engines use simple injectors which are basically very precise spring-loaded valves which will open and close at a specific fuel pressure.

^ Once the engine is running continuously reduce compression to where it is miss firing from undercompression, then adjust the needle (in whichever direction is needed) for slightly faster running.

^ To finish the oil change, just close the valve, replace the cap, change the filter, and add new oil to the engine.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The operator then switched off the petrol fuel system and opened the throttle on the diesel injection system.^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

^ It's got all the latest diesel goodies including a 23,000 psi common rail injection system, EGR and a particulate filter to eliminate soot.
  • Renault and Nissan deliver new 3.0L V6 diesel engine w/VIDEO — Autoblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.autoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continuing on Fritz Lang 's injection system, Robert Bosch simplifies and improves the fuel injection system for it's debut in the Mercedes Benz OM5 truck.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recently direct-injection systems advanced to the extent that pre-chambers systems were not needed using a common rail fuel system with electronic fuel injection.^ Common rail injection .
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common rail direct injection .

^ Both mechanical and electronic injection systems can be used in either direct or indirect injection configurations.

Gelling

.Diesel fuel is also prone to waxing or gelling in cold weather; both are terms for the solidification of diesel oil into a partially crystalline state.^ They can even grow in cold weather when fuel tank heaters are installed.

^ This noise was caused by the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber.

^ Both diesel and slow engines tend to cool off and "load" up with unburnt fuel and oil when left idling for prolonged periods of time.

.The crystals build up in the fuel line (especially in fuel filters), eventually starving the engine of fuel and causing it to stop running.^ Free used cooking oil can be used but we suggest that it is well filtered down to 1 micron as it may contain salts which can contribute to engine wear and small food particles which could possibly block fuel lines or the injector pump.
  • DieselVeg Home - Diesel to Vegetable Oil engine conversions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselveg.com [Source type: General]

^ Engines should be run as closely as possible to their rated speed to avoid poor efficiency and build up of engine deposits due to incomplete combustion, which will lead to higher maintenance and running costs.
  • Diesel engine - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • How to Use Diesel Engines - Howtopedia - english 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC en.howtopedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is expensive to build transformers and overhead cables above the railway lines, but the engines are much more powerful and less heavy than Diesel engines because they don't have to carry their fuel around.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Low-output electric heaters in fuel tanks and around fuel lines are used to solve this problem.^ Heater WVO fuel lines .
  • Burning Vegetable Oil in a Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fryoil.org [Source type: General]

^ It uses a single injection cylinder driven from an axial cam plate, which injects into the individual fuel lines via a rotary distribution valve.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ They can even grow in cold weather when fuel tank heaters are installed.

.Also, most engines have a spill return system, by which any excess fuel from the injector pump and injectors is returned to the fuel tank.^ R RODI Power Systems Manufacturer of diesel engines and fuel injectors.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bigger turbochargers, more turbo chargers, air boxes, exhaust systems, emissions systems, and fuel pumps all go here.
  • Diesel Place - Duramax Diesel Discussion Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselplace.com [Source type: General]

^ When you put the pump back on, loosen the pump fuel input line and gently pressurize the return line to the tank to prime everything.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once the engine has warmed, returning warm fuel prevents waxing in the tank.^ When you put the pump back on, loosen the pump fuel input line and gently pressurize the return line to the tank to prime everything.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once this position is established, you may connect up the fuel tank and experiment for a needle setting which will continue to run after starting on the prime as before.

^ Of course, once developed, fuel cells can fulfill the role of the combustion engine in hybrids and if hydrogen is their fuel, then both energy efficiency and clean air can both be accomplished.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to improvements in fuel technology, with additives waxing rarely occurs in all but the coldest weather when a mix of diesel and kerosene should be used to run a vehicle.^ Cetane improvers are fuel additives that are designed to readily decompose to give precursors to combustion and thus enhance the rate at which auto-ignition occurs.
  • Understanding the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ WSJ: The use of biodiesel is growing in the U.S. though the fuel typically sold as biodiesel is a mixture of petroleum diesel and biodiesel.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, if such vehicles should reduce the global warming phenomenon, their electric energy should not be produced from fossil fuel.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Types

Early

.Rudolf Diesel intended his engine to replace the steam engine as the primary power source for industry.^ His invention came while the steam engine was the predominant power source for large industries.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubota engine, Norpro .
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As such, diesel engines in the late 19th and early 20th centuries used the same basic layout and form as industrial steam engines, with long-bore cylinders, external valve gear, cross-head bearings and an open crankshaft connected to a large flywheel.^ Close Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

.Smaller engines would be built with vertical cylinders, while most medium- and large-sized industrial engines were built with horizontal cylinders, just as steam engines had been.^ The inline-6 is the most prolific in medium- to heavy-duty engines, though the V8 and straight-4 are also common.

^ His invention came while the steam engine was the predominant power source for large industries.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was certainly much more efficient than Watt’s steam engine and was a major threat to England’s coal industry.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Engines could be built with more than one cylinder in both cases.^ The engines, though more than capable of supplying sufficient power, were not a fan-favorite for long.
  • 6.5 Diesel Engine | New/Crate High Performance diesel engine for GM Cars, Trucks, Pickups & Marine/Boats (6.2 & 6.5) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.automotix.net [Source type: General]

^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles or more without a rebuild.

.The largest early diesels resembled the triple-expansion reciprocating engine steam engine, being tens of feet high with vertical cylinders arranged in-line.^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ Nordberg Radial Diesels In the late 1940's-early 1950's, Nordberg produced some rather large diesel and gas engines in a...
  • Vintage Diesel Engines - SmokStak 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smokstak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercedes introduces the 300D. The in-line five cylinder Diesel engine was radical for it's time.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These early engines ran at very slow speeds—partly due to the limitations of their air-blast injector equipment and partly so they would be compatible with the majority of industrial equipment designed for steam engines; maximum speeds of between 100 and 300 rpm were common.^ From it, Rudolph Diesel would design his engine.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The engine ran very smoothly.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Engines were usually started by allowing compressed air into the cylinders to turn the engine, although smaller engines could be started by hand.^ As a result of this compression the air is heated to a temperature of 700 – 900 o C. Only then is a certain quantity of diesel fuel injected in to the cylinder and the fuel ignites because of the high temperature.
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combustion process in the petrol engine and the diesel engine differ in the following significant features: in the petrol engine the petrol and air mixture is drawn into the cylinder, compressed (compression ratio ranging from 4:1 to 10:1), and ignited by a spark introduced by an electrical system.
  • How to Use Diesel Engines - Howtopedia - english 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC en.howtopedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[27]
.In the early decades of the 20th century, when large diesel engines were first being used, the engines took a form similar to the compound steam engines common at the time, with the piston being connected to the connecting rod by a crosshead bearing.^ Close Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ This engine was very similar to engines being used today.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following steam engine practice some manufactures made double-acting two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines to increase power output, with combustion taking place on both sides of the piston, with two sets of valve gear and fuel injection.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Get a replacement diesel engine made by the vehicle's manufacturer whenever possible.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By definition, two-stroke engines require two strokes for each power stroke in the combustion cycle.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While it produced large amounts of power and was very efficient, the double-acting diesel engine's main problem was producing a good seal where the piston rod passed through the bottom of the lower combustion chamber to the crosshead bearing, and no more were built.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel engines are much more fuel efficient than glow engines.

.By the 1930s turbochargers were fitted to some engines.^ Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications.

.Crosshead bearings are still used to reduce the wear on the cylinders in large long-stroke main marine engines.^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ Normally, banks of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration.

^ Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) plugged into the utility grid are often used when an engine is shut down for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear.

Modern

A Yanmar 2GM20 marine diesel engine, installed in a sailboat.
.As with petrol engines, there are two classes of diesel engines in current use: two-stroke and four-stroke.^ Most IC engines use the four stroke cycle.
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two main types of IC engine defined by the type of fuel used; petrol (gasoline) or diesel.
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used Diesel Engines said...

.The four-stroke type is the "classic" version, tracing its lineage back to Rudolf Diesel's prototype.^ Figure 2: The four-stroke Diesel cycle.
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The four-stroke-cycle diesel engine .
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 10, Sulzer starts building it's first Diesel engine A four stroke, 260mm cylinder, developing 14.7 kW. .
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also the most commonly used form, being the preferred power source for many motor vehicles, especially buses and trucks.^ Therefore, as illustrated in Figure 9, producing hydrogen as the energy source for future fuel cell powered vehicles will require further development [ Jost 2000 ] .
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This narrow band is a reason why a vehicle such as a truck may have a gearbox with as many as 16 or more gears, to allow the engine's power to be used effectively at all speeds.

^ Norpro manufactures a full line of alternative fuel based generators using Nissan and General Motors power plants.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much larger engines, such as used for railroad locomotion and marine propulsion, are often two-stroke units, offering a more favourable power-to-weight ratio, as well as better fuel economy.^ By definition, two-stroke engines require two strokes for each power stroke in the combustion cycle.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today’s engines provide much better fuel economy, and are easier to drive and maintain.” .
  • Diesel engines will remain the predominant power source for commercial trucks 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC fleetowner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel engines are much more fuel efficient than glow engines.

.The most powerful engines in the world are two-stroke diesels of mammoth dimensions.^ World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 .
  • World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By definition, two-stroke engines require two strokes for each power stroke in the combustion cycle.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]
.Two-stroke diesel operation is similar to that of petrol counterparts, except that fuel is not mixed with air before induction, and the crankcase does not take an active role in the cycle.^ The method for mixing and injecting air and fuel is different for the two cycle types.
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel is mixed adiabatically with air late in the compression stroke.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 2: The four-stroke Diesel cycle.
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The traditional two-stroke design relies upon a mechanically driven positive displacement blower to charge the cylinders with air before compression and ignition.^ As a result of this compression the air is heated to a temperature of 700 – 900 o C. Only then is a certain quantity of diesel fuel injected in to the cylinder and the fuel ignites because of the high temperature.
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A mechanically driven air pump, based on a German patent developed under the supervision of Professor Max Berchtold at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intake port design , which has a strong influence on charge air motion (especially as it enters the cylinder) and ultimately the mixing rate in the combustion chamber.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The charging process also assists in expelling (scavenging) combustion gases remaining from the previous power stroke.^ Air is admitted just before the compression begins, and the burnt gases are exhausted near the end of the power stroke.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process is also called short-circuiting, meaning that a portion of the fresh charge bypasses the combustion process and goes directly into the exhaust system.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By definition, two-stroke engines require two strokes for each power stroke in the combustion cycle.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The archetype of the modern form of the two-stroke diesel is the Detroit Diesel engine, in which the blower pressurizes a chamber in the engine block that is often referred to as the "air box". The (much larger) Electromotive prime mover used in EMD diesel-electric locomotives is built to the same principle.^ Diesel engines are used in cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

^ The first Diesel locomotive is built.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used Diesel Engines said...

.In a two-stroke diesel engine, as the cylinder's piston approaches the bottom dead centre exhaust ports or valves are opened relieving most of the excess pressure after which a passage between the air box and the cylinder is opened, permitting air flow into the cylinder.^ At the opening of the exhaust valve, excess air along with the combustion products are exhausted, which explains the oxidizing nature of diesel exhaust.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Two-stroke Small Gasoline Engine .
  • Diesel Engine Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ During most of the intake stroke, filtered air is inducted into the cylinder.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29][30][31] .The air flow blows the remaining combustion gases from the cylinder—this is the scavenging process.^ The kinetic energy of the air flowing into the pre-chamber creates the turbulence that is credited with mixing fuel and air for proper combustion.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remaining fuel that is not involved in the premixed combustion has not been injected, evaporated, or mixed with air and may be too lean or too rich to burn.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Intake port design , which has a strong influence on charge air motion (especially as it enters the cylinder) and ultimately the mixing rate in the combustion chamber.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.As the piston passes through bottom centre and starts upward, the passage is closed and compression commences, culminating in fuel injection and ignition.^ Fuel is sucked through the filter by the transfer pump built into the injection pump.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The water cooled, ringed piston, fuel injection, single cylinder engine ran on cheap kerosene.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Refer to two-stroke diesel engines for more detailed coverage of aspiration types and supercharging of two-stroke engine.^ Types of diesel engines .

^ What type of vehicles need a diesel engine?
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

.Normally, the number of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration.^ Normally, banks of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration.

^ Using a 27mm socket, rotate the engine so that the Number 1 (front) cylinder is on TDC or top dead center (at this point both cam lobes for the No.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inline-six cylinder design is the most prolific in light to medium-duty engines, though small V8 and larger inline-four displacement engines are also common.^ The inline-6 is the most prolific in medium- to heavy-duty engines, though the V8 and straight-4 are also common.

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ For safety sakes any time the engine brake is activated the brake lights on most coaches will be illuminated...
  • RV.Net Open Roads Forum: Diesel Engine Auxiliary Brake Discussion.... Pac and Jake Type 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rv.net [Source type: General]

.Small-capacity engines (generally considered to be those below five litres in capacity) are generally four or six cylinder types, with the four cylinder being the most common type found in automotive uses.^ Most IC engines use the four stroke cycle.
  • Diesel Engines - Technical Information Online - Practical Answers 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC practicalaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ The inline-6 is the most prolific in medium- to heavy-duty engines, though the V8 and straight-4 are also common.

.Five cylinder diesel engines have also been produced, being a compromise between the smooth running of the six cylinder and the space-efficient dimensions of the four cylinder.^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, albeit very inefficiently as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake.

^ Gains will be driven by the lower price of diesel fuel relative to gasoline in Western Europe, and the greater fuel efficiency of diesel engines versus gasoline engines in general.
  • World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

.Diesel engines for smaller plant machinery, boats, tractors, generators and pumps may be four, three or two cylinder types, with the single cylinder diesel engine remaining for light stationary work.^ It is from a single cylinder 10 HP diesel from a...
  • Vintage Diesel Engines - SmokStak 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smokstak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Types of diesel engines .

^ How diesel engines work .

.Direct reversible two-stroke marine diesels need at least three cylinders for reliable restarting forwards and reverse.^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ They go on to develop their two stroke, reversing engine.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two-stroke engines are popular in applications where small one- or two-cylinder engines are needed [ Blair 1996 ] .
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four-stroke engines need at least six cylinders, providing repeated power strokes at 120 degrees.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ By contrast, it takes four strokes for each power stroke in the four-stroke engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

.The desire to improve the diesel engine's power-to-weight ratio produced several novel cylinder arrangements to extract more power from a given capacity.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ Converting a car to use a diesel engine can mean a car can last longer and possibly get more miles to the gallon.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The uniflow opposed-piston engine uses two pistons in one cylinder with the combustion cavity in the middle and gas in- and outlets at the ends.^ Normally, banks of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration.

^ I have also used two long screwdrivers with a piece of vacuum line on the ends of them for traction and put one on either side of the started plug and use them to thread it in until you need the wrench to actually tighten it down.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a gas is compressed, its temperature rises (see the combined gas law); a diesel engine uses this property to ignite the fuel.

.This makes a comparatively light, powerful, swiftly running and economic engine suitable for use in aviation.^ The heat engine power would be used at highway cruising speeds to conserve electric energy.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recommendations Recommended for use with all types of heavy- and light-duty, on- or off-road and marine diesel engines.
  • Diesel Fuel Additives for all diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.oilsandlube.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Making the Diesel engine run smoother and quieter, but with a slight loss of fuel economy.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An example is the Junkers Jumo 204/205. .The Napier Deltic engine, with three cylinders arranged in a triangular formation, each containing two opposed pistons, the whole engine having three crankshafts, is one of the better known.^ Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles or more without a rebuild.

^ Opposed pistons were connected by linkages instead of crankshafts.

^ Ancient Etablissment Sautter-Harle of Paris, licensed by Diesel in 1899, builds the first opposed piston, reversing engine.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gas generator

.Before 1950, Sulzer started experimenting with two-stroke engines with boost pressures as high as 6 atmospheres, in which all the output power was taken from an exhaust gas turbine.^ By definition, two-stroke engines require two strokes for each power stroke in the combustion cycle.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M.A.N. Begins development on their exhaust gas turbine.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two-stroke Small Gasoline Engine .
  • Diesel Engine Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.The two-stroke pistons directly drove air compressor pistons to make a positive displacement gas generator.^ The two-stroke pistons directly drove air compressor pistons to make a positive displacement gas generator.

^ Most modern locomotives use a two-stroke diesel mated to a generator, which produces current to drive electric motors, eliminating the need for a transmission.

^ Two-stroke engines are generally less fuel efficient than four-stroke engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Opposed pistons were connected by linkages instead of crankshafts.^ Opposed pistons were connected by linkages instead of crankshafts.

.Several of these units could be connected to provide power gas to one large output turbine.^ Several of these units could be connected together to provide power gas to one large output turbine.

^ This assistance can include a variety of functions from operating most on-board systems to providing supplemental power for acceleration, hill climbing, or any combination of these functions.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro builds portable power generators, industrial and marine pumps along with natural gas standby power units.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The overall thermal efficiency was roughly twice that of a simple gas turbine.^ The overall thermal efficiency was roughly twice that of a simple gas turbine.

^ Increased fuel expense doomed the gas-turbine, which could not operate with the fuel efficiency of the diesel.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, thermal efficiency should not be exchanged for the total efficiency of the engine since it is only one of many other efficiencies that make up the overall energy conversion efficiency of the engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .This system was derived from Raúl Pateras Pescara's work on free-piston engines in the 1930s.^ [No way was ever found to cool the turbine blades like a piston engine cooling system so the turbine had to operate at a lower less efficient temperature than a diesel.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Advantages and disadvantages versus spark-ignition engines

Power and fuel economy

.The MAN S80ME-C7 low speed diesel engines use 155 gram fuel per kWh for an overall energy conversion efficiency of 54.4%, which is the highest conversion of fuel into power by any internal or external combustion engine.^ Diesel oil is used in diesel engines, a type of internal combustion engine .

^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power, resulting in lower fuel consumption.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ R RODI Power Systems Manufacturer of diesel engines and fuel injectors.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power, resulting in lower fuel consumption.

.A common margin is 40% more miles per gallon for an efficient turbodiesel.^ Its about 40% more miles per gallon that you typically get with diesel compared with a similar size gasoline engine, or 30% less fuel consumption if you look at it as Europe does, as in liters per 100 kilometers.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ A common margin is 40% more miles per gallon for an efficient turbodiesel; for example, the current model Skoda Octavia, using Volkswagen engines, has a combined Euro mpg of 38.2 mpg for the 102 bhp petrol engine and 53.3 mpg for the 105 bhp and heavier diesel engine.

^ The combined diesel/electric powertrain takes advantage of the vehicle reduced weight to give an average of more than 60 miles per gallon (3.92 L/100 km).
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the current model Škoda Octavia, using Volkswagen Group engines, has a combined Euro rating of 6.2 L/100 km (38 miles per US gallon, 16 km/L) for the 102 bhp (76 kW) petrol engine and 4.4 L/100 km (54 mpg) for the 105 bhp (78 kW) diesel engine.^ Used Diesel Engines said...

^ Close Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Stores with used diesel engines .
  • Used Diesel Engines - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.However, such a comparison doesn't take into account that diesel fuel is denser and contains about 15% more energy by volume.^ Its about 40% more miles per gallon that you typically get with diesel compared with a similar size gasoline engine, or 30% less fuel consumption if you look at it as Europe does, as in liters per 100 kilometers.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the calorific value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45.3 MJ/kg (megajoules per kilogram) to gasoline at 45.8 MJ/kg, diesel fuel is much denser and fuel is sold by volume, so diesel contains more energy per litre or gallon.

^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the calorific value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45.3 MJ/kg (megajoules per kilogram) than petrol at 45.8 MJ/kg, liquid diesel fuel is significantly denser than liquid petrol.^ Although the calorific value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45.3 MJ/kg (megajoules per kilogram) to gasoline at 45.8 MJ/kg, diesel fuel is much denser and fuel is sold by volume, so diesel contains more energy per litre or gallon.

^ I recommend: BDPedia.com outlines several shortcomings of biodiesel, including those listed above, plus potentially greater expense due to higher cost than regular petrol diesel and slightly lower fuel mileage.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember this is a Volkswagen diesel engine, so it needs a bit more care with procedures than a Volvo petrol engine.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is important because volume of fuel, in addition to mass, is an important consideration in mobile applications. No vehicle has an unlimited volume available for fuel storage.
.Adjusting the numbers to account for the energy density of diesel fuel, the overall energy efficiency is still about 20% greater for the diesel version.^ Gains will be driven by the lower price of diesel fuel relative to gasoline in Western Europe, and the greater fuel efficiency of diesel engines versus gasoline engines in general.
  • World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The ERDA's Energy Research Center in Oklahoma backs ups research by other independent researchers, confirming the dramatic fuel savings of the efficient Diesel engine comparatively to its gas counterparts.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, thermal efficiency should not be exchanged for the total efficiency of the engine since it is only one of many other efficiencies that make up the overall energy conversion efficiency of the engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While higher compression ratio is helpful in raising efficiency, diesel engines are much more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines when at low power and at engine idle.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Durability Compression ratio in diesel engines is approximately twice as high as in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The higher compression ratio is helpful in raising efficiency, but diesel fuel also contains approximately 10-20% more energy per unit volume than gasoline.

.Unlike the petrol engine, diesels lack a butterfly valve (throttle) in the inlet system, which closes at idle.^ Unlike the petrol engine, diesels lack a butterfly valve (choke) in the inlet system, which closes at idle.

^ I know its not a Vintage Diesel Engine but its close.
  • Vintage Diesel Engines - SmokStak 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smokstak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [No way was ever found to cool the turbine blades like a piston engine cooling system so the turbine had to operate at a lower less efficient temperature than a diesel.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This creates parasitic loss and destruction of availability on the incoming air, reducing the efficiency of petrol engines at idle.^ This creates parasitic drag on the incoming air, reducing the efficency of petrol/gasoline engines at idle.

^ One of the reasons for the engine’s sluggish acceleration was attributed to the high accessory load and parasitic losses incurred by the gas generator shaft, since it had to drive most of the engine’s accessories.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the petrol engine, diesels lack a butterfly valve (choke) in the inlet system, which closes at idle.

.In many applications, such as marine, agriculture, and railways, diesels are left idling unattended for many hours or sometimes days.^ In many applications, such as marine, agriculture and railways, diesel-engined vehicles are left idling unattended for many hours or sometimes days.

^ Diesel two-strokes are ideal for such applications because of their high power density--with twice as many power strokes per crankshaft revolution compared to a four-stroke, they are capable of producing much more power per displacement.

^ Similarly, "untaxed" diesel is available in the United States, which is available for use primarily in agricultural applications such as for tractor fuel.

.These advantages are especially attractive in locomotives (see dieselisation).^ These advantages are especially attractive in locomotives.

^ It turns out to be very difficult to build these to handle the large loads involved, so all modern locomotives [in the United States - see below] are of the diesel-electric variety.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Weight can be an issue, since diesel engines are typically heavier than petrol engines of similar power output.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold).

.This is essentially because the diesel must operate at lower engine speeds.^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figures of 43%, 25%, 35% in savings are declared, as well the cleaner burning Diesel gains popularity because of its lower emissions.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gains will be driven by the lower price of diesel fuel relative to gasoline in Western Europe, and the greater fuel efficiency of diesel engines versus gasoline engines in general.
  • World Diesel Engines & Parts to 2005 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

[33] .Even more than that, the high weight of a diesel is mandated by the need to make parts stronger to resist the higher operating pressure from the high compression ratio of the engine, as well as the large amounts of torque generated to the crankshaft.^ Durability Compression ratio in diesel engines is approximately twice as high as in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than gasoline engines, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine.

^ High performance diesel engines operate best with cetane values of 50 or higher.
  • Diesel Fuel Additives for all diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.oilsandlube.com [Source type: Reference]

.In many instances, diesel engines are also heavier as a result of their intended benefits.^ PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AMSOIL Cetane Boost Additive improves diesel fuel quality that benefits all diesel engines, especially high performance designs.
  • Diesel Fuel Additives for all diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.oilsandlube.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Recommendations Recommended for use with all types of heavy- and light-duty, on- or off-road and marine diesel engines.
  • Diesel Fuel Additives for all diesel engines 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.oilsandlube.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Emissions Although diesel engines have been much maligned in many circles, they are indeed very efficient powerplants as described earlier.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesels have historically been known for their long lives and reliability, which are important in industrial applications such as the diesel is often used for.^ For this reason, diesel engines are known for their long useful life which may be three to four times that of gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many applications, such as marine, agriculture and railways, diesel-engined vehicles are left idling unattended for many hours or sometimes days.

^ Reliability One of the major reasons for diesels popularity in commercial applications is their superior reliability.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stronger parts last longer than lighter parts, albeit making the average diesel have a poorer power-to-weight ratio.^ Converting a car to use a diesel engine can mean a car can last longer and possibly get more miles to the gallon.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combined diesel/electric powertrain takes advantage of the vehicle reduced weight to give an average of more than 60 miles per gallon (3.92 L/100 km).
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is a harder task.

.For most industrial or nautical applications, reliability is considered more important than light weight and high power.^ It was certainly much more efficient than Watt’s steam engine and was a major threat to England’s coal industry.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a modern four axle engine (80 t) can easily have a power of more than 6 MW. The electric engines don't need a mechanical transmission because the motors can develop high power at all speeds.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason, injection pressure in IDI applications does not have to be too high as mixing depends on the kinetic energy of the air much more than on fuel atomization.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel fuel is injected just before the power stroke.^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under extreme conditions when autoignition of most of the injected fuel occurs, an audible knocking sound (‘diesel knock’) occurs.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This noise was caused by the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber.

.As a result of this, the fuel cannot burn completely unless it has a sufficient amount of oxygen.^ The initial sharp rise in the heat release rate results from burning the premixed portion of the fuel.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, if the lean mixture mixes with a rich mixture or more fuel and reaches a stoichiometric condition, it will then burn completely.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, as long as motion still exists inside the cylinder, mixing will continue to occur and provide opportunities for the fuel as well as partially-burned products to completely burn.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.This can result in incomplete combustion and black smoke in the exhaust if more fuel is injected than there is air for it the be burned by.^ The term premixed combustion refers to the rapid premixed combustion of a portion of the fuel injected during the ignition delay period.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As most of the fuel-rich premixed fuel-air mixture is consumed, the burning fuel jet transitions from the premixed burn phase dominated by fuel-rich premixed burning to the mixing controlled burn phase (9.0°ASI) where mixing controlled burning dominates (inset Figure 7).
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 9 shows a spray formed by injecting fuel from a single hole in stagnant air [ Henein 1972 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Modern engines with electronic fuel delivery can adjust the timing and amount of fuel delivery (by changing the duration of the injection pulse), and so operate with less waste of fuel.^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

^ The exact timing of starting this fuel injection into the cylinder is controlled electronically in most of today's modern engines.

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.In a mechanical system, the injection timing and duration must be set to be efficient at the anticipated operating rpm and load, and so the settings are less than ideal when the engine is running at any other RPM than what it is timed for.^ Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, albeit very inefficiently as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake.

^ Indirect injection engines are cheaper to build and it is easier to produce smooth, quiet running vehicles with a simple mechanical system, so such engines are still often used in applications which carry less stringent emissions controls than road-going vehicles, such as small marine engines, generators, tractors, pumps.

^ [No way was ever found to cool the turbine blades like a piston engine cooling system so the turbine had to operate at a lower less efficient temperature than a diesel.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The electronic injection can "sense" engine revs, load, even boost and temperature, and continuously alter the timing to match the situation.^ The exact timing of starting this fuel injection into the cylinder is controlled electronically in most of today's modern engines.

^ For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection or "timing" is said to be 10 deg BTDC. The optimal timing will depend on both the engine design as well as its speed and load.

^ Each injector then has a solenoid which is operated by an electronic control unit, which enables more accurate control of injector opening times depending on other control conditions such as engine speed and loading, resulting in better engine performance and fuel economy.

.In the petrol engine, air and fuel are mixed for the entire compression stroke, ensuring complete mixing even at higher engine speeds.^ The engine was fueled by powdered coal injected with compressed air.

^ Fuel is mixed adiabatically with air late in the compression stroke.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This turbulence is credited with mixing air in the main chamber with the remaining unburnt fuel as well as the hot by-products from the pre-chamber.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel engines usually have longer stroke lengths to achieve the necessary compression ratios.^ HP Diesel Engine with 20:1 Compression Ratio and 296cc Displacement .
  • Diesel Engine Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.As a result piston and connecting rods are heavier and more force must be transmitted through the connecting rods and crankshaft to change the momentum of the piston.^ As a result, the reciprocating mass (the piston and connecting rod), and the resultant forces to accelerate and to decelerate these masses, are substantially higher the heavier, the bigger and the stronger the part, and the laws of diminishing returns of component strength, mass of component and inertia - all come into play to create a balance of offsets, of optimal mean power output, weight and durability.

^ Opposed pistons were connected by linkages instead of crankshafts.

^ Complete Engine Overhaul Kits including: pistons, liners, piston rings, piston pins, piston pin retainers, connecting rod bearings, main crankshaft bearings, thrust bearings, camshaft bearings, piston pin bearings, engine gasket and seal kit.
  • EngNet - Diesel Engine Parts - Parts Supply Corporation 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.engnetglobal.com [Source type: Reference]

.This is another reason that a diesel engine must be stronger for the same power output.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another hybrid was the 2-and 3-power diesel-electric.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold).

.Yet it is this build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications.^ Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications.

^ The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine greatly assists in increasing fuel economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air intake speed limit mentioned above for a given engine displacement.

^ However it should be said that any modification that raises the amount of fuel and air put through a diesel engine will increase its operating temperature which will reduce its life and increase its service interval requirements.

.A petrol engine of similar size cannot put out a comparable power increase without extensive alterations because the stock components would not be able to withstand the higher stresses placed upon them.^ A gasoline engine of similar size cannot put out a comparable power increase without extensive alterations because the stock components would not be able to withstand the higher stresses placed upon them.

^ Its about 40% more miles per gallon that you typically get with diesel compared with a similar size gasoline engine, or 30% less fuel consumption if you look at it as Europe does, as in liters per 100 kilometers.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications.

.Since a diesel engine is already built to withstand higher levels of stress, it makes an ideal candidate for performance tuning with little expense.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since a diesel engine is already built to withstand higher levels of stress, it makes an ideal candidate for performance tuning with little expense.

^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it should be said that any modification that raises the amount of fuel and air put through a diesel engine will increase its operating temperature which will reduce its life and increase service requirements.^ Used Diesel Engines said...

^ However it should be said that any modification that raises the amount of fuel and air put through a diesel engine will increase its operating temperature which will reduce its life and increase its service interval requirements.

^ Fuel and air mixture preparation in modern diesel engines has greatly reduced this problem.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are issues with newer, lighter, high performance diesel engines which are not "overbuilt" to the degree of older engines and are being pushed to provide greater power in smaller engines.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are issues with newer, lighter, "high performance" diesel engines which aren't "overbuilt" to the degree of older engines and are being pushed to provide greater power in smaller engines.

^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

.The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine greatly assists in increasing fuel economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air intake speed limit mentioned above for a given engine displacement.^ The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine greatly assists in increasing fuel economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air intake speed limit mentioned above for a given engine displacement.

^ The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold).

^ Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications.

.Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than petrol engines, due to the latter's susceptibility to knock, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine.^ Biodiesel has a higher gel point than petrodiesel, but is comparable to diesel #2.

^ HP Diesel Engine with 20:1 Compression Ratio and 296cc Displacement .
  • Diesel Engine Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than gasoline engines, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine.

.Because the burned gases are expanded further in a diesel engine cylinder, the exhaust gas is cooler, meaning turbochargers require less cooling, and can be more reliable, than on spark-ignition engines.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

^ Its about 40% more miles per gallon that you typically get with diesel compared with a similar size gasoline engine, or 30% less fuel consumption if you look at it as Europe does, as in liters per 100 kilometers.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.With a diesel, boost pressure is essentially unlimited.^ Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than gasoline engines, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine.

It is literally possible to run as much boost as the engine will physically stand before breaking apart.
.The increased fuel economy of the diesel engine over the petrol engine means that the diesel produces less carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit distance.^ The increased fuel economy of the diesel over the gasoline engine means that the diesel produces less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) per unit distance.

^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

^ WSJ: So by using a smaller diesel engine you use less fuel and produce less emissions.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.Recently, advances in production and changes in the political climate have increased the availability and awareness of biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower net-sum emission of CO2, due to the absorption of CO2 by plants used to produce the fuel.^ Recently, advances in production and changes in the political climate have increased the availability and awareness of biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower net-sum emission of CO 2 , due to the absorption of CO 2 by plants used to produce the fuel.

^ WSJ: So by using a smaller diesel engine you use less fuel and produce less emissions.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Figures of 43%, 25%, 35% in savings are declared, as well the cleaner burning Diesel gains popularity because of its lower emissions.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although concerns are now being raised as to the negative effect this is having on the world food supply, as the growing of crops specifically for biofuels takes up land that could be used for food crops and uses water that could be used by both humans and animals.^ However, at recent environmental world meetings where concerns over the global effects of emissions were discussed, new commitments were made to collectively work at reducing CO 2 emissions.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are used to provide power for life-support systems aboard space shuttles, power homes and businesses, and now they are being considered as propulsion systems for clean transportation.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pantographs for DC are those mounted in `front' of each locomotive, the standard type Faiveley AM is used, in the DC system both of them are raised.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of waste vegetable oil, sawmill waste from managed forests in Finland funded by Nokia venture capital, and the development of the production of vegetable oil from algae, demonstrate great promise in providing feed stocks for sustainable biodiesel, that are not in competition with food production.^ In 1912 he stated: "The diesel engine can be fed with vegetable oils and would help considerably in the development of agriculture of the countries which use it" and that "The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new venture buys all patents and is tasked with the further developments and management of the new engine.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frybrid LLC begins selling kits to convert modern diesel engines to run on waste vegetable oil .
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel engines have lower power output than equivalent size petrol engine because its speed is limited by the time required for combustion.^ Their submarines were already powered by diesel engines.
  • Frybrid Vegetable Oil Fuel Systems -- History of the Diesel Engine 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.frybrid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As mentioned above, diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds than gasoline engines.

^ By definition, two-stroke engines require two strokes for each power stroke in the combustion cycle.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .A combination of improved mechanical technology (such as multi-stage injectors which fire a short "pilot charges" of fuel into the cylinder to warm the combustion chamber before delivering the main fuel charge), higher injection pressures that have improved the atomisation of fuel into smaller droplets, and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures), have mostly mitigated these problems in the latest generation of common-rail designs, while greatly improving engine efficiency.^ This also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.

^ Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is key to minimising the emissions, and maximising the fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine.

^ It atomizes into small droplets and penetrates into the combustion chamber.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Poor power and narrow torque bands have been addressed by superchargers, turbochargers, (especially variable geometry turbochargers), intercoolers, and a large efficiency increase from about 35% for IDI to 45% for the latest engines in the last 15 years.^ The prototype of Dr. Diesel engine first ran on its own power on August 10, 1893 after 13 years of intensive development.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A sample of about 15 heavy-duty gasoline engines calibrated to meet the 1991 US Federal emission standards were tested according to EPA specifications.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel has been around for a long time as a more fuel-efficient option, but emissions regulations have limited their availability in the U.S. market for the last couple of years.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.Even though diesel engines have a theoretical fuel efficiency of 75%, in practice it is less.^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

^ Its about 40% more miles per gallon that you typically get with diesel compared with a similar size gasoline engine, or 30% less fuel consumption if you look at it as Europe does, as in liters per 100 kilometers.
  • Bosch's Johannes-Joerg Rueger On Why Diesel Engines Are Hip - WSJ.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles or more without a rebuild.

.Engines in large diesel trucks, buses, and newer diesel cars can achieve peak efficiencies around 45%,[35] and could reach 55% efficiency in the near future.^ Diesel engines are used in cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

^ Any business that uses large trucks, buses or marine vessels relies on diesel engines.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .However, average efficiency over a driving cycle is lower than peak efficiency.^ [No way was ever found to cool the turbine blades like a piston engine cooling system so the turbine had to operate at a lower less efficient temperature than a diesel.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diesel engines involved in that study were mostly indirect-injected engines that are lower in fuel efficiency than their direct-injected counterparts by about 10 to 15%.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power, resulting in lower fuel consumption.

For example, it might be 37% for an engine with a peak efficiency of 44%.[37]

Emissions

.Diesel engines produce very little carbon monoxide as they burn the fuel in excess air even at full load, at which point the quantity of fuel injected per cycle is still about 50% lean of stoichiometric.^ The engine was fueled by powdered coal injected with compressed air.

^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

^ They can feed on the diesel fuel.

.However, they can produce black soot (or more specifically diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust.^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emission of soot in particulate matter results from the nature of the heterogeneous combustion process or diffusion type combustion that is prevalent in diesel engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crude oil in its natural state contains sulphur, which contributes to the soot you see in diesel exhaust.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The black smoke consists of carbon compounds that were not combusted, because of local low temperatures where the fuel is not fully atomized.^ The fuel path shows low-temperature combustion followed by a premixed combustion.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The injected fuel’s atomization, spray penetration, temperature, and chemical characteristics.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This condition would lead to excessive smoke (incomplete combustion) because of depriving the fuel of access to the air available in the combustion bowl (chamber).
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.These local low temperatures occur at the cylinder walls, and at the outside of large droplets of fuel.^ Furthermore, in-cylinder turbulence can recycle formed and cooled soot particles into areas with higher temperatures and sufficient oxygen concentration leading to oxidation of these particles.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low cetane number fuels have a longer ignition delay and more fuel is injected before ignition occurs.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pre-ignition reactions (low temperature heat release) occur at multiple sites in the premixed vapor region and are uniformly distributed volumetrically.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.At these areas where it is relatively cold, the mixture is rich (contrary to the overall mixture which is lean).^ However, if the lean mixture mixes with a rich mixture or more fuel and reaches a stoichiometric condition, it will then burn completely.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The combustion paths of three types of mixtures—rich, stoichiometric, and lean—are presented in Figure 5 [ Gerpen 2001 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although combustion occurs after vaporized fuel mixes with air, forms a locally rich but combustible mixture, and the proper ignition temperature is reached, the overall A/F ratio is lean.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The rich mixture has less air to burn and some of the fuel turns into a carbon deposit.^ This indicates that the initial premixed burn is fuel-rich.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Instantaneous ignition of some premixed fuel and air occurs after the ignition delay period.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A and n are constants, E A is the apparent activation energy for the autoignition process, T is the absolute temperature of the fuel-air mixture and R is the universal gas constant.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Modern car engines use a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to capture carbon particles and then intermittently burn them using extra fuel injected into the engine.^ Diesel engines are used in cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

^ This also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.

^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

.The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit". Beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely combusted, as the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric.^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke.^ The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit", beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely combusted; as the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric it is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke, so this is only done in specialised applications (such as tractor pulling) where these disadvantages are of little concern.

^ Electrical transmission from the power source is best done at high voltage since this reduces losses due to resistance and can be accomplished with lighter cables (since the current is reduced).
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This contrasts with the more modern method of having a separate fuel pump (or set of pumps) which supplies fuel constantly at high pressure to each injector.

.This is only done in specialized applications (such as tractor pulling competitions) where these disadvantages are of little concern.^ The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit", beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely combusted; as the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric it is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke, so this is only done in specialised applications (such as tractor pulling) where these disadvantages are of little concern.

^ Similarly, "untaxed" diesel is available in the United States, which is available for use primarily in agricultural applications such as for tractor fuel.

.Likewise, when starting from cold, the engine's combustion efficiency is reduced because the cold engine block draws heat out of the cylinder in the compression stroke.^ Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) plugged into the utility grid are often used when an engine is shut down for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear.

^ The prechamber had the disadvantage of increasing heat loss to the engine's cooling system and restricting the combustion burn, which reduced the efficiency by between 5-10% in comparison to a direct injection engine, and nearly all require some form of cold-start device such as glow plugs.

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The result is that fuel is not combusted fully, resulting in blue and white smoke and lower power outputs until the engine has warmed through.^ The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold).

^ Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications.

^ Today’s technology has relegated those machines to dinosaur status: the sluggish, noisy smoke factories replaced by quieter, smoother running vehicles with increased power and fuel economy, far lower emissions, and drivability comparable to gasoline-powered engines.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is especially the case with indirect injection engines, which are less thermally efficient.^ [No way was ever found to cool the turbine blades like a piston engine cooling system so the turbine had to operate at a lower less efficient temperature than a diesel.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, thermal efficiency should not be exchanged for the total efficiency of the engine since it is only one of many other efficiencies that make up the overall energy conversion efficiency of the engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is key to minimising the emissions, and maximising the fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine.

.With electronic injection, the timing and length of the injection sequence can be altered to compensate for this.^ The exact timing of starting this fuel injection into the cylinder is controlled electronically in most of today's modern engines.

^ The injection pressure was still only around 300 bar, but the injection timing, fuel quantity, exhaust gas recirculation and turbo boost were all electronically controlled.

.Older engines with mechanical injection can have mechanical and hydraulic governor control to alter the timing, and multi-phase electrically controlled glow plugs, that stay on for a period after start-up to ensure clean combustion—the plugs are automatically switched to a lower power to prevent their burning out.^ Significant break-up of the spray starts after a period of time: .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, albeit very inefficiently as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake.

^ Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) plugged into the utility grid are often used when an engine is shut down for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear.

.Particles of the size normally called PM10 (particles of 10 micrometres or smaller) have been implicated in health problems, especially in cities.^ Particles of the size normally called PM10 (particles of 10 micrometres or smaller) have been implicated in health problems, especially in cities.

.Some modern diesel engines feature diesel particulate filters, which catch the black soot and when saturated are automatically regenerated by burning the particles.^ I have just bought a motor-home that has a 230 hp 5.9 liter Cummins diesel I am wondering what the fuel burn is for this engine.

^ In addition, the development of diesel particulate filters promises to eliminate it altogether.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The characteristic noise of the diesel engine is also associated with this premixed burn phase.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other problems associated with the exhaust gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides) can be mitigated with further investment and equipment; some diesel cars now have catalytic converters in the exhaust.^ Other problems associated with the exhaust gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides) can be mitigated with further investment and equipment; some diesel cars now have catalytic converters in the exhaust.

^ Converting a car to use a diesel engine can mean a car can last longer and possibly get more miles to the gallon.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I recommend: Detroit Diesel explains why it chose Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology, which converts nitrogen oxide into nitrogen and water vapor, as its primary BlueTec emissions solution.
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All diesel engine exhaust emissions can be significantly reduced by using biodiesel fuel.^ Used Diesel Engines said...

^ By 2011, all diesel fuel will be ULSD. .
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Find a used diesel engine for sale .
  • Diesel Engines Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oxides of nitrogen do increase from a vehicle using biodiesel, but they too can be reduced to levels below that of fossil fuel diesel, by changing fuel injection timing.^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

^ They can feed on the diesel fuel.

^ Recently, advances in production and changes in the political climate have increased the availability and awareness of biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower net-sum emission of CO 2 , due to the absorption of CO 2 by plants used to produce the fuel.

Power and torque

.For commercial uses requiring towing, load carrying and other tractive tasks, diesel engines tend to have better torque characteristics.^ Used Diesel Engines said...

^ For commercial uses requiring towing, load carrying and other tractive tasks, diesel engines tend to have more desirable torque characterstics.

^ This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometery turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500-3000 rpm.

.Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600 and 2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a truck).^ Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600-2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a lorry or truck).

^ Diesel engines are used in cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

^ Used Diesel Engines said...

.This provides smoother control over heavy loads when starting from rest, and, crucially, allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at low speeds than a petrol engine, making them much more economical for these applications.^ This provides smoother control over heavy loads when starting from rest, and crucially allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at low speeds than a petrol/gasoline engine, which makes them much more economical for these applications.

^ As mentioned above, diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds than gasoline engines.

^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometry turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500–3000 rpm.^ Diesel engines are used in cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats and locomotives.

^ This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometery turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500-3000 rpm.

^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

.While diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds than petrol engines, diesel engines tend to have a narrower power band than petrol engines.^ Together with the heat released more torque is produced at lower engine speeds than in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power, resulting in lower fuel consumption.

^ Naturally-aspirated diesels tend to lack power and torque at the top of their speed range.

.Naturally-aspirated diesels tend to lack power and torque at the top of their speed range.^ Naturally-aspirated diesels tend to lack power and torque at the top of their speed range.

^ Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600-2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a lorry or truck).

^ Friction Losses The power output of an engine is proportional to the product of its torque and speed.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This narrow band is a reason why a vehicle such as a truck may have a gearbox with as many as 18 or more gears, to allow the engine's power to be used effectively at all speeds.^ This narrow band is a reason why a vehicle such as a truck may have a gearbox with as many as 16 or more gears, to allow the engine's power to be used effectively at all speeds.

^ The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold).

^ Using all gear driven pumps, the Buck engineswill run with no belts, without risk of damage, as only the alternator andother peripherals require belts.
  • Diesel Engine - Planet Eureka 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.planeteureka.org [Source type: Academic]

.Turbochargers tend to improve power at high engine speeds; superchargers improve power at lower speeds; and variable geometry turbochargers improve the engine's performance equally by flattening the torque curve.^ As mentioned above, diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds than gasoline engines.

^ Turbochargers tend to improve power at high engine speeds, intercoolers do the same at lower speeds, and variable geometry turbochargers improve the engine's performance equally (or make the torque curve flatter).

^ The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold).

Noise

.The characteristic noise of a diesel engine is variably called diesel clatter, diesel nailing, or diesel knock.^ The characteristic noise of the diesel engine is also associated with this premixed burn phase.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels (characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold).

^ Empirical correlations of experimental data for liquid length in evaporating sprays are also available that explicitly account for the variables that affect liquid penetration in diesel engines.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[38] .Diesel clatter is caused largely by the diesel combustion process, the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber causes a pressure wave.^ A simple definition of DI combustion is that the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under extreme conditions when autoignition of most of the injected fuel occurs, an audible knocking sound (‘diesel knock’) occurs.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Engine designers can reduce diesel clatter through: indirect injection; pilot or pre-injection; injection timing; injection rate; compression ratio; turbo boost; and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).^ Does your car have Exhaust Gas Recirculation?
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the description is for a specific diesel engine design operating at a moderate load condition, the quantitative information applies only to the case being considered.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After everything is back on then you must do proper engine timing of front and rear timing belts, injection pump, cold start device.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Common rail diesel injection systems permit multiple pre-injections as an aid to noise reduction.^ The 2.0-liter TDI diesel engine uses a common-rail system with an injection pressure of 1,800 bar and delivers 350 Nm between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm, with 125 kW (170 bhp) power.

^ After injections have also been noted in common rail injectors [ Kastengren 2007 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In DI diesel engines equipped with modern fuel injection systems that provide high injection pressures, SMD can be as low as 6 to 15 microns.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Diesel fuels with a higher cetane rating modify the combustion process and reduce diesel clatter.^ Researchers at Syracuse University (New York) have developed a method to prepare, inject and combust supercritical (SC) diesel fuel.

^ The balance of fuel that had not participated in premixed combustion is consumed in the rate-controlled combustion phase.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Emission of soot in particulate matter results from the nature of the heterogeneous combustion process or diffusion type combustion that is prevalent in diesel engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .CN (Cetane number) can be raised by distilling higher quality crude oil, or by using a cetane improving additive.^ As a hydrocarbon mixture, it is obtained in the fractional distillation of crude oil between 250 C and 350 C at atmospheric pressure.

^ Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel.

Some oil companies market high cetane or premium diesel. .Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than petrodiesel, typically 55CN for 100% biodiesel.^ Higher cetane number fuels have shorter ignition delays and ignition occurs before most of the fuel is injected.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In modern diesel engines, the droplet Weber number are typically in excess of 100 indicating that stripping and catastrophic regimes are the most important modes of secondary breakup.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.A combination of improved mechanical technology such as multi-stage injectors which fire a short "pilot charges" of fuel into the cylinder to initiate combustion before delivering the main fuel charge, higher injection pressures that have improved the atomisation of fuel into smaller droplets, and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures), have mostly mitigated these problems in the latest generation of common-rail designs, while improving engine efficiency.^ After injections have also been noted in common rail injectors [ Kastengren 2007 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cummins’ Light Duty Efficient Combustion technology is designed to scale down across smaller light-duty engines.

^ Engine speed, load and injection timing can all affect the proportion of fuel burned in this premixed phase.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

Reliability

The lack of an electrical ignition system greatly improves the reliability. .The high durability of a diesel engine is also due to its overbuilt nature (see above), a benefit that is magnified by the lower rotating speeds in diesels.^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It follows that heat released in diesels occurs at lower speeds than in gasolines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than petrol so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles (400,000 km) or more without a rebuild.^ Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles or more without a rebuild.

^ Fuel injection in diesel engines .

^ Six cylinder marine diesel engine .

.Due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is harder.^ Unfortunately, due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is a harder task.

^ The compression is increased until the engine starts running.

^ When a gas is compressed, its temperature rises (see the combined gas law); a diesel engine uses this property to ignite the fuel.

.More torque is required to push the engine through compression.^ More torque is required to push the engine through compression.

^ Together with the heat released more torque is produced at lower engine speeds than in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is a harder task.

.Either an electrical starter or an air start system is used to start the engine turning.^ Either an electrical starter or an air start system is used to start the engine turning.

^ The heat engine power would be used at highway cruising speeds to conserve electric energy.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some smaller military diesels can be started with an explosive cartridge, called a kaufman starter, that provides the extra power required to get the machine turning.

.On large engines, pre-lubrication and slow turning of an engine, as well as heating, are required to minimise the amount of engine damage during initial start-up and running.^ On large engines, pre-lubrication and slow turning of an engine, as well as heating, are required to minimize the amount of engine damage during initial start-up and running.

^ My very well maintained turbo diesel would start up badly in the morning and smoke, the colder outside the more smoke, lots and lots of smoke.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in ignition and utilized a small clutch and transmission to actually spin up the diesel engine.

.Some smaller military diesels can be started with an explosive cartridge, called a Coffman starter, which provides the extra power required to get the machine turning.^ Some smaller military diesels can be started with an explosive cartridge, called a kaufman starter, that provides the extra power required to get the machine turning.

^ Diesel was embroiled for some years in various patent disputes and arguments over priority, but in the end he prevailed, and his invention came to be called the diesel engine.

^ Unfortunately, due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is a harder task.

.In the past, Caterpillar and John Deere used a small petrol pony motor in their tractors to start the primary diesel motor.^ The second approach is the series hybrid arrangement, where the electric motor is used as the primary power source.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We Manufacture Diesel Generators from 5KW thru 400KW using John Deere, Isuzu, Yanmar and Kubota diesel engines.

^ In a diesel-electric they are used to power electric generators, and the electricity is used to drive electric motors.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in ignition and used a small clutch and transmission to spin up the diesel engine.^ The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in ignition and utilized a small clutch and transmission to actually spin up the diesel engine.

^ Used Diesel Engines said...

^ Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600-2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a lorry or truck).

.Even more unusual was an International Harvester design in which the diesel motor had its own carburetor and ignition system, and started on petrol.^ Even more unusual was an International Harvester design in which the diesel motor had its own carburetor and ignition system, and started on gasoline.

^ The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in ignition and utilized a small clutch and transmission to actually spin up the diesel engine.

^ I believe the diesel engines (motors) are still built in the US. There are also overseas licensees of GM designs / parts: e.g.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once warmed up, the operator moved two levers to switch the motor to diesel operation, and work could begin.^ Diesel-mechanic locomotives are those that work just like a diesel car or lorry, they have a motor, gear box, etc.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They claim that the ATF is a superb detergent injector cleaner, the motor will start and run quite well on it, and the fuel incoming from the tank quickly dilutes the ATF so that the car is completely drivable by the time it's beginning to warm up.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On these early diesel engines, most railroads felt that about 12 or 14 percent adhesion was the best you could expect for day to day operations.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These engines had very complex cylinder heads, with their own petrol combustion chambers, and were vulnerable to expensive damage if special care was not taken (especially in letting the engine cool before turning it off).^ Intake port design , which has a strong influence on charge air motion (especially as it enters the cylinder) and ultimately the mixing rate in the combustion chamber.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemiluminescence from these excited state radicals as they relax to ground state OH forms the basis of measuring lift-off length in optically accessible combustion chambers [ Higgins 2001 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For the heavy-duty engine, liquid is likely to impinge on combustion chamber surfaces only during cold start conditions.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

Quality and variety of fuels

.Petrol/gasoline engines are limited in the variety and quality of the fuels they can burn.^ I have just bought a motor-home that has a 230 hp 5.9 liter Cummins diesel I am wondering what the fuel burn is for this engine.

^ This is essentially because the diesel cannot operate as quickly the "rev limit" is lower because getting the correct fuel-air mixture into a diesel engine quickly enough is more difficult than a gasoline engine [1] .

^ Modern electronically-controlled engines apply similar control to petrol engines and limit the maximum RPM through the electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU) - the engine-mounted "computer".

.Older petrol engines fitted with a carburetor required a volatile fuel that would vaporise easily to create the necessary air-fuel ratio for combustion.^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This condition would lead to excessive smoke (incomplete combustion) because of depriving the fuel of access to the air available in the combustion bowl (chamber).
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Temperatures created when air is compressed cause the small amount of highly atomized injected fuel to evaporate.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because both air and fuel are admitted to the cylinder, if the compression ratio of the engine is too high or the fuel too volatile (with too low an octane rating), the fuel will ignite under compression, as in a diesel engine, before the piston reaches the top of its stroke.^ Durability Compression ratio in diesel engines is approximately twice as high as in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The engine was fueled by powdered coal injected with compressed air.

^ Fuel is mixed adiabatically with air late in the compression stroke.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.This pre-ignition causes a power loss and over time major damage to the piston and cylinder.^ Air is drawn into the cylinder of a diesel engine and compressed by the rising piston at a much higher compression ratio than for a spark-ignition engine, up to 25:1.

^ As the piston continues to move closer to top dead center, the mixture temperature reaches the fuel’s ignition temperature, causing ignition of some premixed quantity of fuel and air.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The need for a fuel that is volatile enough to vaporise but not too volatile (to avoid pre-ignition) means that petrol engines will only run on a narrow range of fuels.^ When engine is almost bare enough only then you can first unbolt carefully oil sump followed by oil feeding pipe inside.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember this is a Volkswagen diesel engine, so it needs a bit more care with procedures than a Volvo petrol engine.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During a phase known as ignition delay, the fuel spray atomizes into small droplets, vaporizes, and mixes with air.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.There has been some success at dual-fuel engines that use petrol and ethanol, petrol and propane, and petrol and methane.^ For instance, if the heat engine can be downsized, there will be ample opportunity for minimizing fuel consumption and emission levels.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a gas is compressed, its temperature rises (see the combined gas law); a diesel engine uses this property to ignite the fuel.

^ With electronic injection systems, indirect injection engines are still used in some road-going vehicles, but most prefer the greater efficiency of direct injection.

.In diesel engines, a mechanical injector system vaporizes the fuel directly into the combustion chamber or a pre-combustion chamber (as opposed to a Venturi jet in a carburetor, or a Fuel injector in a fuel injection system vaporising fuel into the intake manifold or intake runners as in a petrol engine).^ This noise was caused by the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber.

^ This also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.

^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This forced vaporisation means that less-volatile fuels can be used.^ Increased use of electronics as well as introducing novel means for creating the required high injection pressures are helping control the high cost of diesel fuel injection equipment.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The increased fuel economy of the diesel over the gasoline engine means that the diesel produces less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) per unit distance.

^ This has been proposed as a means of separating the fission product palladium from PUREX raffinate which comes from used nuclear fuel .

.More crucially, because only air is inducted into the cylinder in a diesel engine, the compression ratio can be much higher as there is no risk of pre-ignition provided the injection process is accurately timed.^ Also there is no any marks on timing belts.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no more Turbos in Canada.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, the majority of the air inducted into the cylinder of a diesel engine is compressed and heated, but never engages in the combustion process.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.This means that cylinder temperatures are much higher in a diesel engine than a petrol engine, allowing less volatile fuels to be used.^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is expensive to build transformers and overhead cables above the railway lines, but the engines are much more powerful and less heavy than Diesel engines because they don't have to carry their fuel around.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel fuel is a form of light fuel oil, very similar to kerosene/paraffin, but diesel engines, especially older or simple designs that lack precision electronic injection systems, can run on a wide variety of other fuels.^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [No way was ever found to cool the turbine blades like a piston engine cooling system so the turbine had to operate at a lower less efficient temperature than a diesel.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some of the most common alternatives are Jet A-1 or vegetable oil from a very wide variety of plants. .Some engines can be run on vegetable oil without modification, and most others require fairly basic alterations.^ Most engines that I have rebuilt have the pump located close to oil level or submerged.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike conventional engine block heaters, Wolverine heaters attach externally to the engine oil pan, without any need to drain coolant from the engine or remove a freeze plug.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can do this by opening the fuel return line and then run the engine long enough to get the required fuel.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Biodiesel is a pure diesel-like fuel refined from vegetable oil and can be used in nearly all diesel engines.^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [No way was ever found to cool the turbine blades like a piston engine cooling system so the turbine had to operate at a lower less efficient temperature than a diesel.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased use of electronics as well as introducing novel means for creating the required high injection pressures are helping control the high cost of diesel fuel injection equipment.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only limits on the fuels used in diesel engines are the ability of the fuel to flow along the fuel lines and the ability of the fuel to lubricate the injector pump and injectors adequately.^ Apart from that the only other source of drain down is perished rubber hoses on the fuel lines between pump and left hand chassis member where the fuel lines affix, or perished hos connections at the rear hwere they enter the tank.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is expensive to build transformers and overhead cables above the railway lines, but the engines are much more powerful and less heavy than Diesel engines because they don't have to carry their fuel around.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inline mechanical injector generally pumps tolerate poor-quality or bio-fuels better than distributor-type pumps.^ These features contribute to DIs having as much as 10 to 15% better fuel economy than IDIs.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two-stroke engines are generally less fuel efficient than four-stroke engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, indirect injection engines generally run more satisfactorily on bio-fuels than direct injection engines.^ It is expensive to build transformers and overhead cables above the railway lines, but the engines are much more powerful and less heavy than Diesel engines because they don't have to carry their fuel around.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Together with the heat released more torque is produced at lower engine speeds than in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is partly because an indirect injection engine has a much greater 'swirl' effect, improving vaporisation and combustion of fuel, and because (in the case of vegetable oil-type fuels) lipid depositions can condense on the cylinder walls of a direct-injection engine if combustion temperatures are too low (such as starting the engine from cold).^ The fuel path shows low-temperature combustion followed by a premixed combustion.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternative options to the internal combustion engine include electric energy which is a subject that has received much attention in recent years.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is often reported that Diesel designed his engine to run on peanut oil, but this is not the case.^ I believe the diesel engines (motors) are still built in the US. There are also overseas licensees of GM designs / parts: e.g.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: One of the early GE diesels engines was initially designed and manufactured by a company called "Cooper-Bessemer".
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, the number of complaints from engine breakdowns is much smaller in the case of diesel than in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel stated in his published papers, "at the Pairs Exhibition in 1900 (Exposition Universelle) there was shown by the Otto Company a small diesel engine, which, at the request of the French Government ran on Arachide (earth-nut or pea-nut) oil (see biodiesel), and worked so smoothly that only a few people were aware of it.^ GE built 44 of these boxcabs where the diesel engine ran at constant speed, charging storage batteries from which traction current could also be drawn.
  • Diesel-Electric Engine Operation - NE Rails 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.northeast.railfan.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prototype of Dr. Diesel engine first ran on its own power on August 10, 1893 after 13 years of intensive development.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The engine was constructed for using mineral oil, and was then worked on vegetable oil without any alterations being made.^ We know how it feels when a used truck engine or that hard-to-find used car transmission doesn't work right.
  • Automotix® Used Engines & Transmissions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.automotix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only are you out all your work and time in acquiring that used auto engine but you have to do it all and pay for it all over again.
  • Automotix® Used Engines & Transmissions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.automotix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence, longer engine life in our D24's when using synthetic oil.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The French Government at the time thought of testing the applicability to power production of the Arachide, or earth-nut, which grows in considerable quantities in their African colonies, and can easily be cultivated there." Diesel himself later conducted related tests and appeared supportive of the idea.[40]
.Most large marine diesels (often called cathedral engines due to their size) run on heavy fuel oil (sometimes called "bunker oil"), which is a thick, viscous and almost flameproof fuel which is very safe to store and cheap to buy in bulk as it is a waste product from the petroleum refining industry.^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The facility, located in the midst of the sugarcane processing industry, secures the final development step before full commercial production of Amyris’s renewable fuels and chemicals.

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The fuel must be heated to thin it out (often by the exhaust header) and is often passed through multiple injection stages to vaporise it.^ Fuel is sucked through the filter by the transfer pump built into the injection pump.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atomized fuel absorbs heat from the surrounding heated compressed air, vaporizes, and mixes with the surrounding high-temperature high-pressure air.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fill the new filter as full as you can (Note: see Diesel Fuel Injector Cleaner tip below) to reduce the amount of air the injection pump must pass through when you start up.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fuel and fluid characteristics

.Diesel engines can operate on a variety of different fuels, depending on configuration, though the eponymous diesel fuel derived from crude oil is most common.^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under extreme conditions when autoignition of most of the injected fuel occurs, an audible knocking sound (‘diesel knock’) occurs.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The engines can work with the full spectrum of crude oil distillates, from natural gas, alcohols, petrol, wood gas to the fuel oils from diesel oil to residual fuels.^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The maximum liquid jet penetration under typical diesel engine conditions can be shown to be a function solely of factors that affect the mixing of ambient gas with the liquid jet emerging from the fuel injector.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Tips from Dimitar Vlahov] I will try to give a list of neccessary work to change oil pump gasket on VW/Volvo diesel so that can be compared with gas cousin.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
.The type of fuel used is a combination of service requirements, and fuel costs.^ Increased use of electronics as well as introducing novel means for creating the required high injection pressures are helping control the high cost of diesel fuel injection equipment.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next best choice, obtaining hydrogen from methanol, will require onboard fuel refining using a device known as reformer.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Good-quality diesel fuel can be synthesised from vegetable oil and alcohol.^ Cetane number, as well as other methods developed to characterize the ignition quality of diesel fuels are described in the papers on diesel fuel and, in more detail, on ignition quality testing.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Diesel fuel can be made from coal or other carbon base using the Fischer-Tropsch process.^ Cetane number, as well as other methods developed to characterize the ignition quality of diesel fuels are described in the papers on diesel fuel and, in more detail, on ignition quality testing.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To perform this process, oxygen must be made available to the fuel in a specific manner to facilitate combustion.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Increased use of electronics as well as introducing novel means for creating the required high injection pressures are helping control the high cost of diesel fuel injection equipment.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Biodiesel is growing in popularity since it can frequently be used in unmodified engines, though production remains limited.^ Other, more practical limitations exist that make it difficult to use Sterling engines in transportation.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another limitation is that, after shutting the engine down, heat from the heater head escapes into the environment without producing any useful work.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recently, biodiesel from coconut, which can produce a very promising coco methyl esther (CME), has characteristics which enhance lubricity and combustion giving a regular diesel engine without any modification more power, less particulate matter or black smoke, and smoother engine performance.^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ Another problematic pollutant associated with diesel engines is particulate matter.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Philippines pioneers in the research on Coconut based CME with the help of German and American scientists. Petroleum-derived diesel is often called petrodiesel if there is need to distinguish the source of the fuel.
.Pure plant oils are increasingly being used as a fuel for cars, trucks and remote combined heat and power generation especially in Germany where hundreds of decentralised small- and medium-sized oil presses cold press oilseed, mainly rapeseed, for fuel.^ Another hybrid heat engine/electric, introduced by Toyota, is equipped with a combination heat engine and electric motor generally similar to that of the Honda hybrid.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Get top quality used car & truck engines/transmissions!
  • Automotix® Used Engines & Transmissions 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.automotix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The heat engine power would be used at highway cruising speeds to conserve electric energy.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is a Deutsches Institut für Normung fuel standard for rapeseed oil fuel.
.Residual fuels are the "dregs" of the distillation process and are a thicker, heavier oil, or oil with higher viscosity, which are so thick that they are not readily pumpable unless heated.^ As the liquid fuel jet emerges from the injector tip after the start-of-injection (ASI), it entrains air that has been heated by the compression process (~950 K) along its entire length (1.0-3.0°ASI).
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main reason for the fuel inefficiency in two-stroke engines is the scavenging process where residual exhaust is scavenged using, in part, the fresh charge.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They represent good efficiency through minimized exhaust heat loss, but they also present a challenge to exhaust aftertreatment which often requires higher temperatures for their efficient operation.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Residual fuel oils are cheaper than clean, refined diesel oil, although they are dirtier.^ Emissions Although diesel engines have been much maligned in many circles, they are indeed very efficient powerplants as described earlier.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diesel engines involved in that study were mostly indirect-injected engines that are lower in fuel efficiency than their direct-injected counterparts by about 10 to 15%.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A side effect of cleaning up diesel exhaust can be a drop in fuel efficiency and a need to do diagnostics of whether the systems are operating in their design states.

.Their main considerations are for use in ships and very large generation sets, due to the cost of the large volume of fuel consumed, frequently amounting to many tonnes per hour.^ Increased use of electronics as well as introducing novel means for creating the required high injection pressures are helping control the high cost of diesel fuel injection equipment.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets , alternative fuel generators , Isuzu propulsion engines , portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets, alternative fuel generators, Isuzu propulsion engines, portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The poorly refined biofuels straight vegetable oil (SVO) and waste vegetable oil (WVO) can fall into this category, but can be viable fuels on non common rail or TDI PD diesels with the simple conversion of fuel heating to 80 to 100 degrees Celsius to reduce viscosity, and adequate filtration to OEM standards.^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amyris’s initial products include a renewable diesel fuel with performance properties that equal or exceed those of petroleum-sourced fuels and currently available biofuels.

^ The 2.0-liter TDI diesel engine uses a common-rail system with an injection pressure of 1,800 bar and delivers 350 Nm between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm, with 125 kW (170 bhp) power.

.Engines using these heavy oils have to start and shut down on standard diesel fuel, as these fuels will not flow through fuel lines at low temperatures.^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soot precursor (PAH) formation starts almost simultaneously with the beginning of fuel break-down and soot formation starts ~140 µs later.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Moving beyond that, use of low-grade fuels can lead to serious maintenance problems because of their high sulphur content.^ This condition would lead to excessive smoke (incomplete combustion) because of depriving the fuel of access to the air available in the combustion bowl (chamber).
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With the EPA mandated low sulfur fuels it is important to use an additive in the fuel to make up for the lost lubrication provided by the sulfur.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased use of electronics as well as introducing novel means for creating the required high injection pressures are helping control the high cost of diesel fuel injection equipment.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most diesel engines that power ships like supertankers are built so that the engine can safely use low-grade fuels due to their separate cylinder and crankcase lubrication.^ The prototype of Dr. Diesel engine first ran on its own power on August 10, 1893 after 13 years of intensive development.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Normal diesel fuel is more difficult to ignite and slower in developing fire than petrol because of its higher flash point, but once burning, a diesel fire can be fierce.^ Remember this is a Volkswagen diesel engine, so it needs a bit more care with procedures than a Volvo petrol engine.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, if the lean mixture mixes with a rich mixture or more fuel and reaches a stoichiometric condition, it will then burn completely.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After exploring the subject of fuel economy, it may be appropriate to review other advantages of the diesel engines and perhaps expound more on the reasons for the superior fuel economy of diesels.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fuel contaminants such as dirt and water are often more problematic in diesel engines than in petrol engines.^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Together with the heat released more torque is produced at lower engine speeds than in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Water can cause serious damage, due to corrosion, to the injection pump and injectors; and dirt, even very fine particulate matter, can damage the injection pumps due to the close tolerances that the pumps are machined to.^ There is also a small bleeder screw on the top of the filter housing that can be opened to assist in bleeding air out of the filter, be sure to close the bleeder screw prior to cranking the engine or you will suck air into the injection pump that could cause even bigger problems in starting the car.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Injection velocities are very high in modern engines which lead to a flame standing off from the injector and allowing significant air entrainment upstream of the diffusion flame zone.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The extremely low profile of the 1/2" drive part of the tool(at upper left in the picture) allowed me to squeeze between the injector and the injection pump.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All diesel engines will have a fuel filter (usually much finer than a filter on a petrol engine), and a water trap.^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Renault Introducing New Fluence Sedan Line; Diesels All Less Than 119 gCO2/km, All-Electric Model in 2011 .

^ It was certainly much more efficient than Watt’s steam engine and was a major threat to England’s coal industry.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The water trap (which is sometimes part of the fuel filter) often has a float connected to a warning light, which warns when there is too much water in the trap, and must be drained before damage to the engine can result.^ [Response: Gutzy] You can get the fuel filter at a Volvo dealer or major parts supplier (may have to order it) Fram P8043 is just one of the aftermarket fuel filters available.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The air bleed screw on the housing top is normally used only to drain water from the bottom of the filter.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fuel filter must be replaced much more often on a diesel engine than on a petrol engine, changing the fuel filter every 2-4 oil changes is not uncommon for some vehicles.^ In Europe where diesel is sort of reasonably priced, gasoline is 4 times the USA cost, gas stations are much more likely to also have diesel fuel, then my arguments can easily be beaten with simple economics.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Together with the heat released more torque is produced at lower engine speeds than in gasoline engines.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Safety

Fuel flamibility

.Diesel fuel has low flammability, leading to a low risk of fire caused by fuel in a vehicle equipped with a diesel engine.^ However, no matter what else is worth praise in the diesel engine, its fuel economy and its durability will always be the foundation of its strength.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low maintenance and repair cost is another advantage of Beta Marine diesels, as engine parts are available worldwide at any Kubota farm tractor dealer.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new 2143 cc diesel engine with direct fuel injection produces 150 kW/204 hp and 500 N·m (369 lb-ft) of torque.

.In yachts diesels are used because petrol engines generate combustible vapors, which can accumulate in the bottom of the vessel, sometimes causing explosions.^ The diesel engine is an embodiment of the internal combustion engine.
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the 2003 Miami Boat Show Norpro introduced its newest line of generators powered by the popular Yanmar series of diesel engines.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore ventilation systems on petrol powered vessels are required.^ Therefore, as illustrated in Figure 9, producing hydrogen as the energy source for future fuel cell powered vehicles will require further development [ Jost 2000 ] .
  • The Case for the Diesel Engine [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]
.The United States Army and NATO use only diesel engines and turbines because of fire hazard.^ Since the description is for a specific diesel engine design operating at a moderate load condition, the quantitative information applies only to the case being considered.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This Florida based company designs and builds ultra-compact small marine diesel generators using small kubota engines of 3.5KW and 5.5KW capacity.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both models use Kubota fresh water cooled diesel kubota engines, and Stamford/Newage generator ends.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel fuel does not explode in a manner such as petrol does, it just slowly burns.^ If you are in an area that does NOT have this, then in cold climates VW allows you to mix the diesel with 30% gasoline to prevent the diesel fuel from getting too thick.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 19 shows one such φ-T graph for a diesel-like fuel.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

US Army gasoline-engined tanks during World War II were nicknamed Ronsons, because it only took a single spark to ignite 50 or more gallons of highly volatile gasoline.

Maintenance hazards

.Fuel injection introduces potential hazards in engine maintenance due to the high fuel pressures used.^ Injection velocities are very high in modern engines which lead to a flame standing off from the injector and allowing significant air entrainment upstream of the diffusion flame zone.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Engine speed, load and injection timing can all affect the proportion of fuel burned in this premixed phase.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Warren Erickson] While many people use normal 15W-40 dino oil in their D24 engines, you might consider a synthetic oil due to a design flaw leading to low startup oil pressure.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Residual pressure can remain in the fuel lines long after an injection-equipped engine has been shut down.^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Indeed, injection pressure has been shown to have little impact on the maximum penetration of the liquid-phase of the fuel jet.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When you put the pump back on, loosen the pump fuel input line and gently pressurize the return line to the tank to prime everything.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This residual pressure must be relieved, and if it is done so by external bleed-off, the fuel must be safely contained. .If a high-pressure diesel fuel injector is removed from its seat and operated in open air, there is a risk to the operator of injury by hypodermic jet-injection, even with only 100 psi pressure.^ There is also a small bleeder screw on the top of the filter housing that can be opened to assist in bleeding air out of the filter, be sure to close the bleeder screw prior to cranking the engine or you will suck air into the injection pump that could cause even bigger problems in starting the car.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When this occurs the injector needle valve bounces off of its seat and opens for a short time after the end of the main injection.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximum liquid jet penetration under typical diesel engine conditions can be shown to be a function solely of factors that affect the mixing of ambient gas with the liquid jet emerging from the fuel injector.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[43] .The first known such injury occurred in 1937 during a diesel engine maintenance operation.^ Low maintenance and repair cost is another advantage of Beta Marine diesels, as engine parts are available worldwide at any Kubota farm tractor dealer.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BorgWarner VTG turbochargers are the first to help industrial diesel engines for the off-highway market meet new emissions regulations while improving fuel economy.

^ The new 1.3 Multijet II (Euro5) diesel engine, with Start&Stop fitted as standard, is making its first appearance on the Fiat 500 and 500C models.

[44]

Diesel applications

The characteristics of diesel have different advantages for different applications.

Passenger cars

.Diesel engines have long been popular in bigger cars and this is spreading to smaller cars.^ At the 2003 Miami Boat Show Norpro introduced its newest line of generators powered by the popular Yanmar series of diesel engines.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel engines tend to be more economical at regular driving speeds and are much better at city speeds.^ In Europe where diesel is sort of reasonably priced, gasoline is 4 times the USA cost, gas stations are much more likely to also have diesel fuel, then my arguments can easily be beaten with simple economics.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember this is a Volkswagen diesel engine, so it needs a bit more care with procedures than a Volvo petrol engine.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets , alternative fuel generators , Isuzu propulsion engines , portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their reliability and life-span tend to be better (as detailed). .Some 40% or more of all cars sold in Europe are diesel-powered where they are considered a low CO2 option.^ Powered by a 70 kW/95 hp 1.3 CDTI diesel engine boosted by a turbo with a variable geometry, the new Corsa ecoFLEX offers 28% more power than the previous generation Corsa ecoFLEX even though fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions are cut by some 10%.

^ I bought and sold and repaired lots of VW Diesels in Europe.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wonderful change over in Diesel fuel a few years ago was also a real joy as upwards of %25 of all diesel cars on the road had their pump die shortly after the cutover.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mercedes-Benz in conjunction with .Robert Bosch GmbH produced diesel-powered passenger cars starting in 1936 and very large numbers are used all over the world (often as "Grande Taxis" in the Third World).^ My very well maintained turbo diesel would start up badly in the morning and smoke, the colder outside the more smoke, lots and lots of smoke.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wonderful change over in Diesel fuel a few years ago was also a real joy as upwards of %25 of all diesel cars on the road had their pump die shortly after the cutover.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was now a manufacturer and its reputation for building a quality product that was highly reliable and affordably priced fueled its growth to a company that now distributes power generation products all over the world.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Railroad rolling stock

.Diesel engines have eclipsed steam engines as the prime mover on all non-electrified railroads in the industrialized world.^ BorgWarner VTG turbochargers are the first to help industrial diesel engines for the off-highway market meet new emissions regulations while improving fuel economy.

^ Kubota has a complete line of compact diesel engines to meet the needs of all industrial, construction, agricultural and generator applications.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the new DRIVe models are equipped with a conventional diesel engine and manual gearbox optimized for extra-low fuel consumption.

The first diesel locomotives appeared in the early 20th century, and diesel multiple units soon after.
While electric locomotives have now replaced the diesel locomotive almost completely on passenger traffic in Europe and Asia, diesel is still today very popular for cargo-hauling freight trains and on tracks where electrification is not feasible.
.Most modern diesel locomotives are actually diesel-electric locomotives: the diesel engine is used to power an electric generator that in turn powers electric traction engines with no mechanical connection between diesel engine and traction.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ Norpro manufactures a full line of alternative fuel based generators using Nissan and General Motors power plants.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the 2003 Miami Boat Show Norpro introduced its newest line of generators powered by the popular Yanmar series of diesel engines.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other transport uses

Larger transport applications (trucks, buses, etc.) also benefit from the diesel's reliability and high torque output. .Diesel displaced paraffin (or tractor vaporising oil, TVO) in most parts of the world by the end of the 1950s with the U.S. following some 20 years later.^ Assembly is obvious following the manual (it is easy to say but not so easy to not forget some part or assembly timing).
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low maintenance and repair cost is another advantage of Beta Marine diesels, as engine parts are available worldwide at any Kubota farm tractor dealer.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In merchant ships and boats, the same advantages apply with the relative safety of diesel fuel an additional benefit. The German pocket battleships were the largest diesel warships, but the German torpedo-boats known as E-boats (Schnellboot) of the Second World War were also diesel craft. .Conventional submarines have used them since before the First World War, relying on the almost total absence of carbon monoxide in the exhaust.^ Oxygen in the excess air helps oxidize gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, reducing them to extremely small concentrations in the exhaust gas.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.American World War II diesel-electric submarines operated on two-stroke cycle as opposed to the four-stroke cycle that other navies used.^ Designed as a two-phased study, the ARDD involved laboratory testing followed by real-world use of the diesel blends by Alberta trucking fleets.

^ [Brandon] Diesel starter is an easy affair: two bolts plus electrical connections and then wrestle it out.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Military fuel standardisation

.NATO has a single vehicle fuel policy and has selected diesel for this purpose.^ We also offer radiator cooled industrial generators for land and vehicle applications, for use with diesel, natural gas, or propane fuel.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We also offer radiator cooled residential & industrial generators for land and vehicle applications, for use with diesel, natural gas, or propane fuel .
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We also offer Norpro radiator cooled residential & industrial generators for land and vehicle applications, for use with diesel, natural gas, or propane fuel.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The use of a single fuel simplifies wartime logistics. .NATO and the United States Marine Corps have even been developing a diesel military motorcycle based on a Kawasaki off road motorcycle, with a purpose designed naturally aspirated direct injection diesel at Cranfield University in England, to be produced in the USA, because motorcycles were the last remaining gasoline-powered vehicle in their inventory.^ This Florida based company designs and builds ultra-compact small marine diesel generators using small kubota engines of 3.5KW and 5.5KW capacity.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mondelci had introduced Isuzu diesel engines five years earlier and was now setting up a company whose sole purpose was to distribute Isuzu diesel products to the Northeastern United States.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The NEW direct injection diesel engines from VW in the 850 are supposed to be really excellent.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before this, a few civilian motorcycles had been built using adapted stationary diesel engines, but the weight and cost disadvantages generally outweighed the efficiency gains.^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the 2003 Miami Boat Show Norpro introduced its newest line of generators powered by the popular Yanmar series of diesel engines.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Engine speeds

Within the diesel engine industry, engines are often categorized by their rotational speeds into three unofficial groups:
  • High speed engines,
  • medium speed engines, and
  • slow speed engines
High and medium speed engines are predominantly four stroke engines. .Medium speed engines are physically larger than high speed engines and can burn lower grade (slower burning) fuel than high speed engines.^ An examination of several correlations found that the mass of fuel burned in the premixed burn phase (m f-id ) increased linearly with the product of engine speed (N) and ignition delay time [ Alkidas 1986 ] : .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In DI diesel engines equipped with modern fuel injection systems that provide high injection pressures, SMD can be as low as 6 to 15 microns.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When autoignition occurs, the premixed fuel burns at a very high rate, producing high temperature and high rates of pressure rise in the combustion chamber [ Gerpen 2001 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Slow speed engines are predominantly large two stroke crosshead engines, hence very different from high and medium speed engines.^ This produces a large premixed burn and very rapid burning rates once combustion starts, with high rates of pressure rise and high peak pressures.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Injection velocities are very high in modern engines which lead to a flame standing off from the injector and allowing significant air entrainment upstream of the diffusion flame zone.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For good engine performance it is rather important that all 6 cylinders has close compression results, 6-8 bar difference between any two.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the lower rotational speed of slow and medium speed engines, there is more time for combustion during the power stroke of the cycle, and these engine are capable of utilising lower fuel grades (slower burning) fuels than high speed engines.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ This series features an optional new and technically advanced engine and generator management/monitoring system featuring more than 13 engine shutdown parameters, routine service reminders, along with remote auto start and on-demand starting capability.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember this is a Volkswagen diesel engine, so it needs a bit more care with procedures than a Volvo petrol engine.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

High-speed engines

.High-speed (approximately 1,000 rpm and greater) engines are used to power trucks (lorries), buses, tractors, cars, yachts, compressors, pumps and small electrical generators.^ Boats up to 10,000 pounds may use the Beta Marine 13.5 hp engine.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro manufactures a full line of alternative fuel based generators using Nissan and General Motors power plants.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the 2003 Miami Boat Show Norpro introduced its newest line of generators powered by the popular Yanmar series of diesel engines.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2008, most high-speed engines have indirect injection.^ In DI diesel engines equipped with modern fuel injection systems that provide high injection pressures, SMD can be as low as 6 to 15 microns.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Injection systems that sustain high injection pressure over most of the injection duration will most likely support a larger number of small droplets.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Injection velocities are very high in modern engines which lead to a flame standing off from the injector and allowing significant air entrainment upstream of the diffusion flame zone.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many modern engines, particularly in on-highway applications, have common rail direct injection, which is not as reliable due to required electric power but is cleaner burning.^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After injections have also been noted in common rail injectors [ Kastengren 2007 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In DI diesel engines equipped with modern fuel injection systems that provide high injection pressures, SMD can be as low as 6 to 15 microns.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

Medium-speed engines

.Medium speed engines are used in large electrical generators, ship propulsion and mechanical drive applications such as large compressors or pumps.^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets , alternative fuel generators , Isuzu propulsion engines , portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets, alternative fuel generators, Isuzu propulsion engines, portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We also offer radiator cooled industrial generators for land and vehicle applications, for use with diesel, natural gas, or propane fuel.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medium speed diesel engines operate on either diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil by direct injection in the same manner as low speed engines.^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The poewrtrain comprises an 800cc, 2-cylinder TDI (turbo-diesel), electric motor and 7-speed Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG).

^ Since the description is for a specific diesel engine design operating at a moderate load condition, the quantitative information applies only to the case being considered.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Engines used in electrical generators run at approximately 300 to 1000 rpm and are optimized to run at a set synchronous speed depending on the generation frequency (50 or 60 hertz) and provide a rapid response to load changes.^ It is easy to change the belt for someone who has some general experience fixing engines.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets , alternative fuel generators , Isuzu propulsion engines , portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets, alternative fuel generators, Isuzu propulsion engines, portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Typical synchronous speeds for modern medium speed engines are 500/514 rpm (50/60 Hz), 600 rpm (both 50 and 60 Hz), 720/750 rpm, and 900/1000 rpm.
.As of 2009, the largest medium speed engines in current production have outputs up to approximately 20 MW (27,000 hp).^ Boats up to 10,000 pounds may use the Beta Marine 13.5 hp engine.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boats between 10,000 and 14,000 pounds need the 20 hp Beta Marine engine.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boats between 14,000 and 18,000 pounds require the 28 hp Beta Marine engine.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and are supplied by companies like MAN B&W, Wartsila,[45] and Rolls-Royce (who acquired Ulstein Bergen Diesel in 1999). .Most medium speed engines produced are four-stroke machines, however there are some two-stroke medium speed engines such as by EMD (Electro-Motive Diesel), and the Fairbanks Morse OP (Opposed-piston engine) type.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ The new 2143 cc diesel engine with direct fuel injection produces 150 kW/204 hp and 500 N·m (369 lb-ft) of torque.

^ Norpro expanded their product line by producing portable diesel gensets , alternative fuel generators , Isuzu propulsion engines , portable pump sets and more.
  • Kubota Diesel Engine , Kubota Power Units, replacement kubotaengine, Norpro 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.soundmarinediesel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typical cylinder bore size for medium speed engines ranges from 20 cm to 50 cm, and engine configurations typically are offered ranging from in-line 4 cylinder units to V configuration 20 cylinder units.^ Then, left and right engine mounts are going off in order to pull engine out of bay for about 20-30 cm up.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The all-turbo powertrain line-up is the broadest ever offered by Saab, carrying forward Saab’s rightsizing engine strategy through the development of efficient four-cylinder turbo engines.

^ The 2-cylinder engine is the first of a range that will expand to include 4- and 6-cylinder engines.

.Most larger medium speed engines are started with compressed air direct on pistons, using an air distributor, as opposed to a pneumatic starting motor acting on the flywheel, which tends to be used for smaller engines.^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For the smaller bore light-duty engine, liquid impingement is likely not only at cold start conditions but at light load conditions as well.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As the liquid fuel jet emerges from the injector tip after the start-of-injection (ASI), it entrains air that has been heated by the compression process (~950 K) along its entire length (1.0-3.0°ASI).
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is no definitive engine size cut-off point for this.^ Using a 27mm socket, rotate the engine so that the Number 1 (front) cylinder is on TDC or top dead center (at this point both cam lobes for the No.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no marks on crankcase or crank dampener but there is alignment point on flywheel.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It should also be noted that most major manufacturers of medium speed engines make natural gas fueled versions of their diesel engines, which in fact operate on the Otto cycle, and require spark ignition, typically provided with a spark plug.^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under extreme conditions when autoignition of most of the injected fuel occurs, an audible knocking sound (‘diesel knock’) occurs.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximum liquid jet penetration under typical diesel engine conditions can be shown to be a function solely of factors that affect the mixing of ambient gas with the liquid jet emerging from the fuel injector.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[41] .There are also dual (diesel/natural gas/coal gas) fuel versions of medium and low speed diesel engines using a lean fuel air mixture and a small injection of diesel fuel (so called "pilot fuel") for ignition.^ A team of researchers from Purdue University and diesel engine manufacturer Cummings have shown that, with engine parameter modulation including lower AFR (air/fuel ratio), higher EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) fraction, and earlier start of main injection (SOI), it is possible to mitigate the biodiesel-NO x effect with blends of soy-based biodiesel in a modern diesel engine.

^ There is also a small bleeder screw on the top of the filter housing that can be opened to assist in bleeding air out of the filter, be sure to close the bleeder screw prior to cranking the engine or you will suck air into the injection pump that could cause even bigger problems in starting the car.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.In case of a gas supply failure or maximum power demand these engines will instantly switch back to full diesel fuel operation.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ The maximum liquid jet penetration under typical diesel engine conditions can be shown to be a function solely of factors that affect the mixing of ambient gas with the liquid jet emerging from the fuel injector.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the description is for a specific diesel engine design operating at a moderate load condition, the quantitative information applies only to the case being considered.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[41][46][47]

Low-speed engines

.
The MAN B&W 5S50MC 5-cylinder, 2-stroke, low-speed marine diesel engine.
^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In DI diesel engines equipped with modern fuel injection systems that provide high injection pressures, SMD can be as low as 6 to 15 microns.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diesel engines have an excellent reputation for their low fuel consumption, reliability, and durability characteristics.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

This particular engine is found aboard a 29,000 tonne chemical carrier.
.Also known as slow-speed, or traditionally oil engines, the largest diesel engines are primarily used to power ships, although there are a few land-based power generation units as well.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ The 2.0-liter TDI diesel engine uses a common-rail system with an injection pressure of 1,800 bar and delivers 350 Nm between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm, with 125 kW (170 bhp) power.

^ Combustion in diesel engines is very complex and until recently, its detailed mechanisms were not well understood.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.These extremely large two-stroke engines have power outputs up to approximately 85 MW (114,000 hp), operate in the range from approximately 60 to 200 rpm and are up to 15 m (49 ft) tall, and can weigh over 2,000 short tons (1,800 t).^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ The 2.0-liter TDI diesel engine uses a common-rail system with an injection pressure of 1,800 bar and delivers 350 Nm between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm, with 125 kW (170 bhp) power.

^ Most, if not all, of these steps are physical in nature and are generally completed in an extremely short period of time.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.They typically use direct injection running on cheap low-grade heavy fuel, also known as Bunker C fuel, which requires heating in the ship for tanking and before injection due to the fuel's high viscosity.^ The new 2143 cc diesel engine with direct fuel injection produces 150 kW/204 hp and 500 N·m (369 lb-ft) of torque.

^ With the EPA mandated low sulfur fuels it is important to use an additive in the fuel to make up for the lost lubrication provided by the sulfur.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They claim that the ATF is a superb detergent injector cleaner, the motor will start and run quite well on it, and the fuel incoming from the tank quickly dilutes the ATF so that the car is completely drivable by the time it's beginning to warm up.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The heat for fuel heating is often provided by waste heat recovery boilers located in the exhaust ducting of the engine, which produce the steam required for fuel heating.^ Heat required to bring the fuel to SC states is recovered from the exhaust gas of the engine.

^ The new 2143 cc diesel engine with direct fuel injection produces 150 kW/204 hp and 500 N·m (369 lb-ft) of torque.

^ At this location, a standing fuel-rich premixed flame has developed that partially consumes the fuel-air mixture produced by the evaporating liquid jet.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Provided the heavy fuel system is kept warm and circulating, engines can be started and stopped on heavy fuel.^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For the heavy-duty engine, liquid is likely to impinge on combustion chamber surfaces only during cold start conditions.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In DI diesel engines equipped with modern fuel injection systems that provide high injection pressures, SMD can be as low as 6 to 15 microns.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Large and medium marine engines are started with compressed air directly applied to the pistons.^ As the liquid fuel jet emerges from the injector tip after the start-of-injection (ASI), it entrains air that has been heated by the compression process (~950 K) along its entire length (1.0-3.0°ASI).
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, the majority of the air inducted into the cylinder of a diesel engine is compressed and heated, but never engages in the combustion process.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Air is applied to cylinders to start the engine forwards or backwards because they are normally directly connected to the propeller without clutch or gearbox, and to provide reverse propulsion either the engine must be run backwards or the ship will utilise an adjustable propeller.^ That is needed because to reach oil pump pipe bolts oil sump must be off (and that is not possible with engine in place).
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After everything is back on then you must do proper engine timing of front and rear timing belts, injection pump, cold start device.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it is difficult to draw a distinct line separating the physical and chemical processes because they overlap, an estimate can often be made of the point at which the chemical process starts to dominate.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.At least three cylinders are required with two-stroke engines and at least six cylinders with four-stroke engines to provide torque every 120 degrees.^ The E 250 BlueTEC combines a four-cylinder CDI engine and SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) emissions technology to comply with US Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions standards.

^ If the belt breaks you will almost certainly require at least a new cylinder head and possibly a complete reconditioned engine.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The all-turbo powertrain line-up is the broadest ever offered by Saab, carrying forward Saab’s rightsizing engine strategy through the development of efficient four-cylinder turbo engines.

.Companies such as MAN B&W Diesel, (formerly Burmeister & Wain) and Wärtsilä (which acquired Sulzer Diesel) design such large low speed engines.^ Since the description is for a specific diesel engine design operating at a moderate load condition, the quantitative information applies only to the case being considered.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In DI diesel engines equipped with modern fuel injection systems that provide high injection pressures, SMD can be as low as 6 to 15 microns.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diesel engines have an excellent reputation for their low fuel consumption, reliability, and durability characteristics.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

They are unusually narrow and tall due to the addition of a crosshead bearing. .As of 2007, the 14 cylinder Wärtsilä-Sulzer 14RTFLEX96-C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine built by Wärtsilä licensee Doosan in Korea is the most powerful diesel engine put into service, with a cylinder bore of 960 mm (37.8 in) delivering 114,800 hp (85.6 MW).^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

It was put into service in September 2006, aboard the world's largest container ship Emma Maersk which belongs to the A.P. Moller-Maersk Group. Typical bore size for low speed engines ranges from approximately 35 to 98 cm (14 to 39 in). .As of 2008, all produced low speed engines with crosshead bearings are in-line configurations; no Vee versions have been produced.^ Engine speed, load and injection timing can all affect the proportion of fuel burned in this premixed phase.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

Supercharging and turbocharging

Most diesels are now turbocharged and some are both turbo charged and supercharged. .Because diesels do not have fuel in the cylinder before combustion is initiated, more than one bar (100 kPa) of air can be loaded in the cylinder without preignition.^ Intake port design , which has a strong influence on charge air motion (especially as it enters the cylinder) and ultimately the mixing rate in the combustion chamber.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amyris’s initial products include a renewable diesel fuel with performance properties that equal or exceed those of petroleum-sourced fuels and currently available biofuels.

.A turbocharged engine can produce significantly more power than a naturally aspirated engine of the same configuration, as having more air in the cylinders allows more fuel to be burned and thus more power to be produced.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ Remember this is a Volkswagen diesel engine, so it needs a bit more care with procedures than a Volvo petrol engine.
  • Engine-Diesel 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vcoa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new 2143 cc diesel engine with direct fuel injection produces 150 kW/204 hp and 500 N·m (369 lb-ft) of torque.

.A supercharger is powered mechanically by the engine's crankshaft, while a turbocharger is powered by the engine exhaust, not requiring any mechanical power.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ Heat required to bring the fuel to SC states is recovered from the exhaust gas of the engine.

^ It has a significant impact on the combustion process, mechanical stresses, engine noise and exhaust emissions.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Turbocharging can improve the fuel economy[48] of diesel engines by recovering waste heat from the exhaust, increasing the excess air factor, and increasing the ratio of engine output to friction losses.^ Heat required to bring the fuel to SC states is recovered from the exhaust gas of the engine.

^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ In turbocharged diesel engines the A/F ratio at idle may exceed 160:1.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

A two-stroke engine does not have an exhaust and intake stroke. These are performed when the piston is at the bottom of the cylinder. Therefore large two-stroke engines have a piston pump, or electrical driven turbo at startup. Smaller two stroke engines (for example, Detroit 71 series) are fitted with turbochargers and a mechanically driven supercharger. .Because turbocharged or supercharged engines produce more power for a given engine size as compared to naturally aspirated engines, attention must be paid to the mechanical design of components, lubrication, and cooling to handle the power.^ Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine.

^ The droplet size distribution given in Figure 11 is for a fuel spray produced from a nozzle hole at different times from the start of injection [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This approach is promising and can produce results that compare favorably with more complex CFD approaches and with experimental results under conditions where the mixing controlled hypothesis is valid [ Pastor 2008 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

Pistons are usually cooled with lubrication oil sprayed on the bottom of the piston. .Large diesels may use water, sea water, or oil supplied through telescoping pipes attached to the cross head.^ This may be accomplished by heat transfer from the water jacket to the charge air through the intake port surface area.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

Other applications

Current and future developments

.As of 2008, many common rail and unit injection systems already employ new injectors using stacked piezoelectric wafers in lieu of a solenoid, giving finer control of the injection event.^ After injections have also been noted in common rail injectors [ Kastengren 2007 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The 2.0-liter TDI diesel engine uses a common-rail system with an injection pressure of 1,800 bar and delivers 350 Nm between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm, with 125 kW (170 bhp) power.

^ Others have measured injection lags in common rail systems ranging from 0.30 to 0.75 ms [ Laguitton 2002 ] [ Kastengren 2008 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[49]
.Variable geometry turbochargers have flexible vanes, which move and let more air into the engine depending on load.^ The engine features a new third-generation direct common-rail injection system; new generation combustion chamber; dual variable geometry turbochargers; exhaust gas recirculation; and an alternator which recovers energy during deceleration and braking.

This technology increases both performance and fuel economy. Boost lag is reduced as turbo impeller inertia is compensated for.[50]
.Accelerometer pilot control (APC) uses an accelerometer to provide feedback on the engine's level of noise and vibration and thus instruct the ECU to inject the minimum amount of fuel that will produce quiet combustion and still provide the required power (especially while idling).^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The balance of fuel that had not participated in premixed combustion is consumed in the rate-controlled combustion phase.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Wide cone angles may also cause the fuel to be sprayed on the cylinder walls, rather than inside the combustion bowl where it is required.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[51]
.The next generation of common rail diesels is expected to use variable injection geometry, which allows the amount of fuel injected to be varied over a wider range, and variable valve timing (see Mitsubishi's 4N13 diesel engine) similar to that on petrol engines.^ The engine features a new third-generation direct common-rail injection system; new generation combustion chamber; dual variable geometry turbochargers; exhaust gas recirculation; and an alternator which recovers energy during deceleration and braking.

^ In diesel engines, fuel is often injected into the engine cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, just a few crank angle degrees before top dead center [ Heywood 1988 ] .
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under extreme conditions when autoignition of most of the injected fuel occurs, an audible knocking sound (‘diesel knock’) occurs.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Particularly in the United States, coming tougher emissions regulations present a considerable challenge to diesel engine manufacturers.^ This paper will review the most established combustion model for the conventional diesel engine to help readers gain an appreciation of diesel combustion and how it impacts performance and emission formation.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The engine is the centerpiece of the research project NEMo (Niedrigst-Emissions-LKW-Dieselmotor), the German acronym for “lowest emission truck diesel engine.” .

^ BorgWarner VTG turbochargers are the first to help industrial diesel engines for the off-highway market meet new emissions regulations while improving fuel economy.

.Ford's HyTrans Project has developed a system which starts the ignition in 400 ms, saving a significant amount of fuel on city routes, and there are other methods to achieve even more efficient combustion, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, being studied.^ The green arrows in Figure 19 indicate the path followed by a typical fuel element in the case of “ideal” homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In direct injection HCCI combustion engines, the mixture will not be perfectly homogeneous at the start of combustion and the actual fuel element paths will differ.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This rich but combustible mixture is present throughout the jet cross section and there are no regions of pure or almost pure fuel downstream of the liquid jet tip.
  • Combustion in Diesel Engines [subscription] 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[52][53]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Low Speed Engines, MAN Diesel.
  2. ^ www.ansys.com/assets/testimonials/siemens.pdf
  3. ^ http://pepei.pennnet.com/display_article/152601/6/ARTCL/none/none/1/New-Benchmarks-for-Steam-Turbine-Efficiency/
  4. ^ https://www.mhi.co.jp/technology/review/pdf/e451/e451021.pdf
  5. ^ "European Automobile Production Grows by 5.3% in 2007; Diesel Accounts for 53.3% of New Car Registrations". http://www.greencarcongress.com/2008/02/european-automo.html. 
  6. ^ http://www.claverton-energy.com/worlds-largest-diesel-engine-wartsila.html
  7. ^ Donald E. Thomas - Diesel: Technology and Society in Industrial Germany, University of Alabama Press, 1987, ISBN 0817302956, ISBN 9780817302955
  8. ^ Moon, John F. (1974), Rudolf Diesel and the Diesel Engine, London: Priory Press, ISBN 978-0-85078-130-4
  9. ^ | 1954–1959 || W120 (180 D) || 180 D || OM636 VII || Dieselvariante des 180, ab 1958 Ausstellfenster. Leistung: 43 PS.
  10. ^ "Volvo FH16 700 - New Car and Used Car Pictures on". Lincah.com. January 9, 2009. http://www.lincah.com/volvo-fh16-700. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Geneva 2010: Mitsubishi ASX (Outlander Sport) Debuts in Geneva", autoguide.com
  12. ^ Mitsubishi Motors UK Geneva motor show 2010 presskit
  13. ^ Combined gas law
  14. ^ a b c American Bosch Diesel Information Service Manual, fig.3-4, 3-5; Robert Bosch type VE Diesel injection pump
  15. ^ Kraushaar, Jack J. & Ristinen, Robert A. (2006). Energy and the Environment (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0471739890.
  16. ^ When used under identical operating conditions, a diesel engine will likely produce at least twice the engine life of a gas engine.
  17. ^ "Triple-Fuel Honda Powered 12 kW Generator". Centralmainediesel.com. http://www.centralmainediesel.com/order/H11000E5.asp?page=H11000E5. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Approximate Diesel Generator Fuel Consumption Chart". Dieselserviceandsupply.com. http://www.dieselserviceandsupply.com/Diesel_Fuel_Consumption.aspx. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  19. ^ "15.0 jc fuel consumption - Onan Generators". Smokstak.com. http://www.smokstak.com/forum/showthread.php?t=44995. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  20. ^ Ransome-Wallis, Patrick (2001). Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives. Courier Dover Publications. p. 32 fg. 5
  21. ^ Diesel (compression ignition) engines run with an excess of air and often produce less than 1,200 ppm CO.
  22. ^ "Diesel injection pumps, Diesel injectors, Diesel fuel pumps, turbochargers, Diesel trucks all at First Diesel Injection LTD". Firstdiesel.com. http://www.firstdiesel.com. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  23. ^ Ashley, Steven. "Diesel cars come clean". Mechanical Engineering Magazine, August 1997. "As combustion proceeds from the swirl or prechamber, you get throttle losses and heat losses, which are the major reasons for the lower efficiency compared to DI,"
  24. ^ "Pumpe-Düse-Einspritztechnik". http://www.volkswagen.de/vwcms/master_public/virtualmaster/de3/unternehmen/mobilitaet_und_nachhaltigkeit/service/glossar_kopie/pumpe-duese-einspritztechnik.index.html. Retrieved May 17, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Diesel, The efficient pump injector unit". http://www.boschautoparts.co.uk/pcDies6.asp?c=2&d=1. Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  26. ^ Audi press release
  27. ^ "Marine & other Hot-Bulb Oil Engines". Oldengine.org. http://www.oldengine.org/members/diesel/Marine/othmarin.htm. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  28. ^ "The Most Powerful Diesel Engine in the World". People.bath.ac.uk. http://people.bath.ac.uk/ccsshb/12cyl/. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  29. ^ standard p-v diagrams.
  30. ^ Two-stroke engine
  31. ^ http://www.bath.ac.uk/~ccsshb/12cyl/
  32. ^ Modern High-Speed Oil Engines, Volume II by C. W. Chapman, published by The Caxton Publishing Co. Ltd. Reprinted in July 1949
  33. ^ "Engine Genetics". Perkins Engines Company Limited. 2006. http://www.perkins.com/cda/components/fullArticleNoNav?ids%20=%20284124&languageId%20=%207. 
  34. ^ "Harry Ricardo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Ricardo. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Medium and Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicle Modeling Using a Fuel Consumption Methodology" (PDF). US EPA. 2004. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/ngm/may04/crc0304c.pdf. 
  36. ^ "Motivations for Promoting Clean Diesels" (PDF). US Department Of Energy. 2006. http://www.epa.gov/midwestcleandiesel/publications/presentations/il-finance-09-06/eberhardt.pdf. 
  37. ^ Michael Soimar (April 2000). "The Challenge Of CVTs In Current Heavy-Duty Powertrains". Diesel Progress North American Edition. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FZX/is_4_66/ai_62371160/print?tag=artBody;col1. 
  38. ^ a b Combustion in IC (Internal Combustion) Engines. pp. Slide 37. http://web.archive.org/web/20050430145007/http://me.queensu.ca/courses/MECH435/6.+Combustion+in+IC+Engines.ppt. Retrieved November 1, 2008. 
  39. ^ "Engine & fuel engineering - Diesel Noise". http://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=139341&page=7. Retrieved November 1, 2008. 
  40. ^ The Biodiesel Handbook, Chaper 2 - The History of Vegatable Oil Based Diesel Fuels, by Gerhard Knothe, ISBN 1893997790
  41. ^ a b c "Dual-fuel-electric LNG carriers" (PDF). http://www.thedigitalship.com/powerpoints/SMM06/lng/Barend%20Thijssen,%20wartsila.pdf. 
  42. ^ Yacht Safety Bureau The Yacht Safety Bureau, Inc.in the State of New York
  43. ^ Agha, F.P. (1978). "High-pressure paint gun injuries of hand: clinical and roentgen aspects". NY State Journal of Medicine 78: 1955–6. 
  44. ^ Rees, C.E. (1937). "Penetration of Tissue by Fuel Oil Under High Pressure from a Diesel Engine". Journal of the American Medical Association 109: 866–7. 
  45. ^ Wärtsilä 64 Technology Review
  46. ^ Payne, F. William. User's Guide to Natural Gas Technologies. 
  47. ^ "Man Diesel Se - Press->Press & Trade Press Releases->Trade Press Releases ->Stationary Power->Medium-Speed". Manbw.com. November 19, 2008. http://www.manbw.com/article_009496.html. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  48. ^ Heywood Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals Figure 15-40 shows better, and much bigger, efficiency of turbo engine versus NA version
  49. ^ "Diesel Fuel Injection". http://www.denso.com.au/products/aftermarket_automotive_components/diesel_fuel_injection. Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  50. ^ "Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT)". http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/etv/vgt-eng.htm. 
  51. ^ "Accelerometer Design and Applications". http://www.analog.com/en/technical-library/faqs/design-center/faqs/CU_faq_MEMs/resources/fca.html. 
  52. ^ Craig Goodfellow; cited in Neil Beasley. (2004). Engineering at the Cutting Edge. [documentary television series]. The Discovery Channel. 
  53. ^ "ABG Tech analysis and driving impression: GM's HCCI Engine". http://www.autobloggreen.com/2007/08/26/abg-tech-analysis-and-driving-impression-gms-hcci-engine/. 

External links

Patents

  • US Patent 845140 Combustion Engine, dated February 26, 1907.
  • US Patent 502837 Engine operated by the explosion of mixtures of gas or hydrocarbon vapor and air, dated August 8, 1893.
  • US Patent 439702 Petroleum Engine or Motor, dated November 4, 1890.
  • www.invention-protection.com/pdf_patents/pat608845.pdf - Similar

Simple English

The name diesel is given to an engine invented by a German named Rudolf Diesel in the late 19th century.

Most engines need a system called an ignition system - one that uses an electric spark - in order to burn the mix of fuel and air and make power. Other types of ignition systems used compressed air from an outside source such as an air compressor. A diesel does not. It burns a diesel fuel similar to heating oil through very high compression or pressing together of the mix. A tiny bit of fuel is injected, or forced, into the engine's cylinders at just the right moment. Since gases heat when they are pressed together, the compression of the air and fuel mix cause the mix to explode within the cylinder.

Diesel engines make very good use of the fuel they burn. They also make lots of torque (pronounced "tork"), or twisting power. An engine with a lot of torque will be able to spin it's shaft even if it is very hard to do. This makes a diesel engine a good choice in heavy equipment like trucks, trains and construction machines. The very big trucks on the road have diesels in them. So do trains, unless they are steam-powered. Sometimes, even the torque of a diesel engine is not enough to run such big machines. To boost power, large diesels often have a device called a turbocharger attached. A turbocharger is a type of turbine - something used to move a lot of air very quickly. Jet engines also contain a turbine. In the diesel, pressure from the exhaust spins the turbocharger at very high speed. Fresh air is then forced back into the engine. Since any engine is a sort of air pump, the more air you can put through it, the more power it makes. That's where the turbocharger helps. A diesel engine fitted with a turbocharger is called a turbodiesel. The whistling sound sometimes heard near one of these engines is caused by the turbocharger, or "turbo" for short.

A diesel engine can also be made to run on vegetable oil made from old cooking oil. This type of fuel is called biodiesel. Running a diesel engine on biodiesel fuel makes the exhaust smell like food.

Running a diesel engine on vegetable oil is not a new idea. The engine that Rudolf Diesel used to demonstrate his new idea ran on peanut oil.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Diesel engine, which are similar to those in the above article.








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