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Digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom encompasses over 100 television, radio and interactive services broadcast via the UK's terrestrial television network and receivable with a standard television aerial. The majority of services, including those from the existing five analogue broadcasters, are broadcast free-to-air, and a further selection of encrypted Pay-TV services (such as ESPN) are also available.

Digital Terrestrial services are often referred to with the Freeview name, however this is only a brand name adopted by the broadcasters of free-to-air services. Freeview channels account for most, although not all, of the total available channels broadcast on digital terrestrial television, available at no extra cost and requiring no subscription other than payment of the annual TV licence fee.

The digital broadcasting technology adopted in the UK is the DVB-T system (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial) carrying compressed digital audio, video and other data in a combined transport stream, using COFDM modulation. A total of six 'multiplexes' are broadcast in the UK, guaranteed to reach over 90% of the country when analogue signals are fully switched off. Three of the six multiplexes, carrying the free public service channels operated by the BBC, ITV, Channel 4 and Five, are guaranteed wider coverage still, reaching 98.5% of the country including areas dependent on low-power local relays.[1]

Contents

Receiving and Recording

Digital Terrestrial Television is most commonly received by means of a compatible Set-top box or Integrated Digital Television (IDTV), connected to an appropriate receiving antenna. In most cases, reception is possible using existing aerials originally used for analogue television.

Transmissions may be recorded in many ways - such as via the connection of a set-top-box to an existing 'analogue' VCR or DVD recorder, or by the use of newer models of such recorders which have built-in digital tuners. Alternatively, an increasingly common option is by the use of set-top-boxes which incorporate a hard disc drive, and allow the recording of the digital signal directly to disc, for later replay. Recording on such boxes, known as Personal Video Recorders or PVRs, is often more convenient, as programmes may be easily selected for recording from an on-screen programme guide, with no need to specify explicit start and end times for recordings, and no need to program more than one piece of equipment.

Many television services which incorporate DTT channels in their service offering - e.g. Top Up TV, BT Vision, and TalkTalk TV, offer set top boxes with such a recording facility. Non-subscription DTT PVRs are also available and are often sold under the 'Freeview+' banner (formerly Freeview Playback.)

There also exist a variety of solutions to enable the viewing and recording of DTT programmes on personal computers, with various TV cards or USB tuners available for use with a variety of software packages, including MythTV and Windows Media Center. Most cards or tuners include their own software in the package also.

Features

Digital Terrestrial Television provides many more channels. For some viewers it offers much improved reception compared to analogue, including 16:9 anamorphic widescreen. A number of interactive services including a newer version of Teletext is also offered.

An eight-day Electronic Programme Guide (EPG) is available and allows viewers to see programme descriptions and broadcast times well in advance. PVRs will make use of this facility allowing recording timers to be set. This Eight-Day EPG was not an original feature of the Digital Terrestrial system, therefore some early receivers, such as receivers originally made to operate with the ONdigital service, will only display details of 'now and next' programme information.

A fourteen-day Top Up TV EPG is an alternative which is available to TUTV-branded PVRs.

History

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Development and launch

Digital terrestrial television launched in the UK on 15 November 1998, just after digital satellite television on 1 October 1998. The technology required that the UK government licence the broadcast of channels in six groups, or multiplexes (abbreviated to 'mux') labelled 1, 2, A, B, C, and D.[2]

The Independent Television Commission (ITC) allocated each existing analogue terrestrial channel half the capacity of a multiplex each. This meant the BBC got a multiplex to themselves (Multiplex 1), ITV and Channel 4 shared Multiplex 2 (though 3%[3] of the capacity was given to Teletext Ltd.) and Five and S4C shared Multiplex A. The remaining spectrum (Muliplexes B, C and D) was then auctioned off. A consortium made up of Granada and Carlton (members of the ITV network, which have now merged to form ITV plc) and BSkyB successfully bid for these licences, and set-up the subscription ONdigital service, though BSkyB left the consortium prior to launch.

The BBC made some use of its multiplex for three of its then four new television services; BBC Choice (which had started on 23 September 1998 with four national variations), BBC News 24 and BBC Parliament (albeit in sound only). ITV initially used their space to house ITV2 (from 7 December 1998) in England and Wales, You2 (later UTV2) in Northern Ireland and S2 in Scotland (now both ITV2), as well as GMTV2 during the early mornings. Channel 4 used their space for subscription channels FilmFour and E4 which, although not part of ONdigital, would be paid for and were only available through an ONdigital subscription. Channel 4's nationwide coverage on 'mux' 2 enabled it to be received terrestrially throughout much of Wales for the first time in its history, where previously only S4C had been available. Consequently, S4C's digital service, 'S4C Digidol' carries only Welsh-language programming, in contrast to S4C analogue which also carries English-language programmes commissioned and transmitted by Channel 4 in other parts of the UK.

Five sold its half of Multiplex A to the owners of the other half of the multiplex, S4C, who set up a subsidiary called S4C Digital Networks (SDN) to manage the multiplex and rented most of it out to ONdigital as well as some space to the BBC who launched BBC Knowledge on 1 June 1999, at a time when technical capabilities limited the number of stations it could carry on its own multiplex. S4C chose not to carry S4C Digidol and its newly launched digital Welsh Assembly station, S4C2 outside of Wales, preferring to sell the space instead. Consequently some ONdigital services were not available on Welsh transmitters.

While the BBC was seemingly concerned with delivering a service of good technical quality, other broadcasters chose to deliver a larger number of channels rather than optimise service reliability and picture quality.[4]

ITV Digital

ONdigital had problems from the start, and renaming the service ITV Digital on 11 July 2001 failed to help the matter. All subscription services except E4 and FilmFour went off-air on 1 May 2002 after the consortium collapsed, explained as being due to paying too much for the television rights for The Football League. However, the choice of 64QAM broadcast mode, the fact that at least 40% of homes would need new aerials to receive it, a high churn rate, an insecure hackable encryption system, the cost of having to provide free set-top boxes, and aggressive competition from BSkyB all contributed to ITV Digital's spiraling costs, before shareholders Granada and Carlton called a halt to the venture.

Freeview

As ITV Digital had collapsed, the rights reverted to the regulator and the ITC invited bids for the space on Multiplexes B, C and D. The Freeview consortium was formed by the BBC, transmitter company National Grid Wireless (known at the time as Crown Castle UK) and BSkyB. This consortium (legal name DTV Services Ltd and trading under the "Freeview" brand) won and launched a new service. Dropping the ITV Digital failed business model, Freeview launched on 30 October 2002 with free television channels only, and made digital radio stations available on television receivers for the first time. The BBC controlled one Multiplex (B) for its own services, and Crown Castle/National Grid the other two (C & D) for commercial services, though the Community Channel also operates on Multiplex B. The BBC's second multiplex has allowed it to televise BBC Parliament where it had previously only been available in sound, allowed BBC Knowledge and its successor, BBC4, to stop renting space from SDN for coverage, and allowed for special video screens in its interactive service BBCi, for use during sporting events such as Wimbledon and carrying loops of news headlines and weather, (services already provided on digital satellite)

On 11 October 2005, ITV plc and Channel 4 joined the Freeview consortium and in the same year ITV plc also bought SDN and as such they gained control of Multiplex A.

Top Up TV

The space ITV Digital had rented on other multiplexes initially became empty again, but some were rented out to allow new channels to launch. In May 2004 Top Up TV was launched to provide subscription content in hitherto unused space on multiplex A, rented from Five [5] and additional services transmitted by Channel 4 on their own capacity on Multiplex 2.

TCM purchased its own slot throughout England, Scotland and Northern Ireland from the multiplex owner, SDN, but rents from Sit-up Ltd in Wales, timesharing with bid tv. Multiplex A is ultimately owned by ITV Plc via its SDN acquisition, but ITV only has involvement with Top Up TV channels via Five.[5] In September of the same year, Top Up TV began operating solely on Multiplex A, as Channel 4 reclaimed the bandwidth on Multiplex 2 for its own services More 4, E4, and most recently Film4.

In October 2006, Five launched two new free-to-air digital channels, Five Life and Five US, using capacity leased out to Top Up TV.[6] This left Top Up TV with a reduced number of video streams. In November 2006, the company launched Top Up TV Anytime, a service which broadcasts overnight "downloads" which are recorded by a proprietary Top Up TV Anytime personal video recorder (PVR). At the same time, they started reducing the linear service.

On 19 April 2006, Ofcom ruled that, on request of each multiplex operator, the 'free-to-air channels only' requirement put in place at the launch of Freeview in 2002 may be lifted on Multiplex B, C and D. The effect of this ruling is that if a Mux operator requests the restriction to be lifted, their multiplex may carry pay TV services. Ofcom says that the digital television market has changed significantly since 2002. Consequently, it believes that this restriction is no longer required.

During the consultation, 9 of the 12 responses from broadcasters were in favour of removing the restriction. These included the BBC. The BBC agreed that the digital television market had changed substantially since 2002, and that Top Up TV probably couldn't afford the current cost of DTT slots anyway. The BBC suggested that the deregulation should be conditional on a number of further changes to regulation. These included that Ofcom changes the transmission mode of broadcast on all multiplexes from 16QAM to 64QAM so more services could be squeezed onto the digital terrestrial platform. However, Ofcom rejected these suggestions, saying they were outside the scope of the consultation.

Out of the three that opposed, one was Channel 4, which has been putting in place a portfolio of free-to-air channels, among them Film4 which was made free-to-air across all platforms on 23 July 2006. Channel 4 argued that the number of free channels available has been the major driving force behind the massive success of the platform – there are now more than 10 million Freeview boxes in use.

A number of broadcasters requested that their replies were kept confidential. These include ITV and BSkyB. However, it is believed that ITV opposed the plan and BSkyB supported it.[7] In addition to replies from broadcasters, there were 21 replies from individuals. Of these, 20 opposed the change.

The channels on Multiplexes B, C and D are those owned by the Freeview consortium and include the three Sky channels on the platform and the UKTV channels. However, Ofcom believes that in the short to medium term, it is unlikely existing free-to-air channels will convert to pay TV. This is because, firstly, Multiplex B is run by the BBC, which is not expected to request the removal of the free-to-air requirement. Secondly, due to the nature of the contracts the channel broadcasters hold with multiplex operators and content providers, it is unlikely a channel will be able to change to pay TV.

It was announced on 8 February 2007 that BSkyB intended to withdraw Sky Three, Sky News and Sky Sports News from the platform in the summer of 2007. BSkyB had said that it intended to replace them with 4 of its subscription channels. It also said that it would use an alternative (MPEG4) codec, which would enable a greater numbner of channels to be broadcast, but would require the purchase of new equipment for those who wished to receive the new service.[8] On 6 October 2007 Ofcom said that the plans for a new subscription service raised competition concerns and may have to be scrapped.[9]

2008 Update causing failures

During 2008, a rolling programme of transmitter updates caused approximately 250,000 set-top boxes to stop working altogether. Freeview had warned consumers in advance of the update, which was phased over a three-month period.[10] The problem affected a specific range of older units, and was caused by an increased Network Information Table (channel list) exceeding the memory available in some set-top boxes. This had been part of the specification that was available and implemented in the very early OnDigital boxes, but not in those using the SetPal chip set.[11] Affected consumers were advised to buy new set-top boxes.

Affected models are:

  • Digital recorders:
    • Bush IDVCR01
    • Daewoo DS608P
  • Digital boxes:
    • Daewoo SV900
    • Labgear DTT100
    • Portland DP100
    • Triax DVB2000T

Some other models and televisions also require an over-air download for correct operation.

Digital switchover

     Switchover not yet started     Switchover in progress     Switchover complete
For full list of dates, see Digital switchover dates in the United Kingdom.

Summary

The UK Government's intention is that digital terrestrial television will completely replace analogue terrestrial television in the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man by 2012, and the Channel Islands by 2010. This process is known as "Digital Switchover", or DSO. The Digital TV Group the industry association for digital television in the UK, is responsible for co-ordination between Freeview and other digital services. DTG licences suitable equipment to bear the Digital Tick and Freeview Playback Logos[12] to identify PVRs and digital TV services designed to work through switchover, and to raise awareness of DTT product quality and standards. Digital terrestrial television is broadcast using the DVB-T international standard.

The Digital Switchover process is already underway in parts of the UK, and it involves discontinuing analogue terrestrial TV broadcasts. In some areas this will allow greater signal strength and/or better coverage of digital multiplexes.

In areas where analogue signals have been terminated, older receiving equipment is likely to require replacement or upgrade. This process is being subsidised by the UK Government for those on low incomes. Current contracts for this operation have been awarded to BSkyB in the Borders region. Upgrading of analogue receiving equipment requires a Freeview set-top box (or other digital receiver). Where an analogue TV recording device is in use ideally this will be provided with a separate Freeview set-top box, to replicate existing functionality of recording and watching different programme sources.

History

The progress towards digital switchover in the UK has been long. The then-Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, Chris Smith, announced in 1999 that the Government's intention was to achieve switchover "between 2006 and 2010". Work started in earnest with the setting up of the Digital Action Plan, a body working across industry, government and consumer groups to advise on the best way to meet the switchover target date.

By 2003, however, it was becoming clear that switchover could not start by 2006. In particular, the decision taken by the International Telecommunication Union to call a Regional Radiocommunication Conference to establish a frequency plan for digital broadcasting meant that in practice, substantive steps towards switchover would need to wait until after the conference's second session, due to be held in May & June 2006.

On 15 September 2005, addressing the Royal Television Society in Cambridge, Smith's successor at the DCMS, Tessa Jowell, announced the go-ahead for switchover in the UK, coupled with support measures to ensure the disadvantaged are not left behind.[13]

In essence, the UK will switchover on a regional basis, starting in Whitehaven on the 17 October 2007, then the rest of the Border Television region in the second half of 2008, and then finishing in London in 2012. Local television broadcasters, including the BBC and ITV, are actively encouraging viewers to upgrade to digital television. UK broadcasters are also under additional pressure to complete migration since London will be hosting the Olympic Games in 2012.

On the day after Jowell's speech, an independent. not-for-profit company, Digital UK, was established to coordinate the switchover process. Set up by the broadcasters and the commercial multiplex operators, Digital UK is required to co-ordinate the project and ensure that the public are kept informed about progress.

Digital rollout

The British Government has given Ofcom and Digital UK jointly the task of discontinuing analogue television broadcasting. The switch-off will occur on an ITV sub-region basis.[14] A technical trial in Ferryside, Wales, resulted in viewers voting to lose three out of the four available analogue channels in favour of going digital, so the unwanted analogue signals were switched off at the end of March 2005. In October 2007, following a 15-month publicity and information campaign, and an early digital launch in August by Five[15], the Whitehaven, Eskdale Green and Gosforth transmitters switched off analogue signals on the BBC Two frequency, and began broadcasting a temporary digital service for the main channels. On 14 November, all analogue signals were switched off, and the permanent three-multiplex digital service began (albeit with Five only on the Whitehaven transmitter, until 2009). Unfortunately, as had been feared, a small number of homes among the hills, which had received "fuzzy" analogue signals, particularly in Eskdale, were unable to receive a decodable Freeview signal.[16] The only other serious problem resulted from the "rescan" command in some models of set-top box defaulting to frequencies used by the nearest main transmitter, instead of the strongest digital signals; this could be overcome by using the "add channel" option to select channels one-by-one, and in the long term by corrections to the boxes' software.[17]

In November 2008 the full rolling programme started with the Border Television Selkirk[18] region, then Caldbeck (which is being rebuilt, and will broadcast both England and Scotland multiplexes to improve service to viewers north of the border; the nearby Sandale transmitter will cease to broadcast TV), ITV Westcountry[19] Beacon Hill, Stockland Hill, Huntshaw Cross, Redruth, Caradon Hill, Wales[20] Preseli, Carmel, ITV Granada[21] whole region, Wales Llanddona, Moel-Y-Parc, Blaenplwyf, Long Mountain, Wenvoe then the rest of the UK: ITV West, STV North (Grampian Television) and Channel Television in 2010; STV Central (Scottish Television) from 2010–11; ITV Central, ITV Yorkshire and ITV Anglia in 2011; and finally ITV Meridian, ITV London, ITV Tyne Tees & UTV in 2012.[14]

Many decisions must be made, including what to do about people who may find the new technology confusing, or who have no desire to receive more than the four or five channels they presently have, and who may be reluctant to buy a digital box in order to view the free channels. The government has arranged for the BBC to administer a Digital Switchover Help Scheme to ensure that groups such as the over-75s and recipients of disability benefits will not lose their television services when analogue transmissions are switched off.

Another issue is that the "98.5 per cent of the population" availability target can only be achieved "via rooftop aerials",[22] while Section 134 of the Communications Act 2003 sets out the principle "that no person should unreasonably be denied access to an electronic communications network or to electronic communications services".[23] This is taken to mean that everyone has the right to mount a television aerial on their roof.[24] Ofcom will allocate frequencies for groups of households to provide "self-help" relay transmitters at their own expense (for analogue broadcasts there are some 200 of these, serving around 13,000 households), but suggests that in such cases, terrestrial TV may no longer be the most cost-effective solution.[25]

Landlords of communal housing are likely to have to upgrade old master aerial TV distribution systems. A new alternative, the integrated reception system is being promoted as a way to offer the full range of terrestrial and satellite broadcasts from a single aerial cluster; however, residents are likely to be asked to pay substantially higher annual charges when such a system is installed.

The switchover process

After several months of press publicity, leaflet drops, public meetings etc., captions will start appearing on analogue broadcasts from the affected transmitters, warning viewers that the analogue service will shortly be switched off and that they need to take action (for Whitehaven, the first large area to switch over, the captions started appearing some 5 months before the BBC Two analogue service was switched off[26]). At about the same time, details of the Switchover Help Scheme will be distributed. Although viewers who live outside existing Freeview reception areas will be unable to test any digital receiving equipment they buy at this early stage, test-screens on Ceefax (BBC One & Two) and Teletext (ITV & C4/S4C) page 284 make it possible to determine whether they are likely to need a new aerial or a signal amplifier to receive digital transmissions.

Next, detailed information booklets will be delivered to all households in the area (including many on the fringe who may be receiving their TV from other transmitters- hence the importance of the on-screen warning captions). Two or three months later, the analogue BBC Two signal will be replaced with Multiplex 1.[27] At the same time, captions will appear on the remaining analogue channels reminding viewers of the impending switchover. Finally, four weeks later, the remaining analogue transmissions will be switched off, with the analogue ITV signal being replaced with Multiplex 2, and the analogue BBC One signal with Multiplex B. At some locations, during the four-week switchover period, BBC One, ITV or Channel 4 will move to the analogue BBC Two frequency where that channel's frequency is required for the digital transmission of Multiplex 1.

Three multiplexes (current multiplexes 1, 2 and B) will be for public service broadcasting and contain around 25 TV channels, including all the television channels from the BBC, ITV (except ITV2+1), Channel 4 (except Film4 and E4+1), S4C and Five (except Five Life and Five US), half a dozen radio stations and half a dozen text/interactive services. The other three multiplexes (A, C and D) will continue to be operated by their respective commercial licence-holders. To reflect the slightly changed roles, the multiplex names will change:[28]

Old multiplex name New multiplex name Owning company
1 BBC A BBC
2 D3&4 Digital 3&4
A SDN 'S4C Digital Networks' (ITV plc)
B BBC B BBC
C Arqiva A Arqiva
D Arqiva B Arqiva

Post-switchover

The adoption of the technically superior DVB-T 8k format occurs in each region at the date of switchover. This results in no reception for viewers with older '2k' only equipment, such as former ONdigital/ITV Digital boxes, and other incompatible IDTVs and set top boxes.[29]

In the Meridian and Anglia regions, transmitters will form a Single Frequency Network when they are converted to all digital operation.[30]

Alternative post-switchover multiplex designations have been used on internal documentation by the BBC switchover contractor Arqiva,[31] however changing the designations of the multiplexes requires changes to legislation[2] and to the multiplex licences issued by Ofcom and is not in the current draft.[32]

When digital switchover is complete, two new sub-bands of the UHF spectrum will be clear (frequencies corresponding to channel ranges 31-40 and 62 to 69), leaving only channels 21-30 and 41-62 for digital television multiplexes. This "digital dividend"[33] will require millions of homes to upgrade their aerials to the wideband type to receive some or all of the Freeview multiplexes.[34] This spectrum is useful because of its trade-off between bandwidth and range. The reallocated frequencies might be used for:

Reuse of this spectrum for other services will require legislation changes and international agreement. This is unlikely to be a significant problem as demand for spectrum is high throughout most of Europe. Ofcom currently plan to publish final proposals for this spectrum in mid-2007.[33]

Digit Al

Digit Al is a robot character created for Digital UK in 2005 by Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO and voiced by the English comedy actor Matt Lucas, used in material publicising the digital switchover. It will appear in the public information programme run by Digital UK until 2012. The character was first transmitted simultaneously on about 100 television channels and on regional BBC television on 5 May 2006.[35]

Digital Self-Help Relays

Terrestrial analogue relay stations have been repeating TV signals to areas not covered by broadcaster-owned transmitters since OFCOM started licensing them in 1980. Recently self-help groups have had to look into upgrading their old analogue transmitters to digital ones. The first digital self-help relay was installed at Ladram Bay, Devon by Stuart Harse and Liam Kelly (broadcast engineers from Bristol). The system was designed by Mike Rea of Taylor Transmitters, Oldham UK. The Ladram Bay TV repeater broadcasts all six mux signals from the Stockland Hill transmitter.

Future of Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting

In March 2006, the development of a new second generation Digital Terrestrial broadcasting standard, DVB-T2, was agreed by the DVB Group. It is expected that it will be finalised during 2008, ready for deployment in 2009.

The BBC, ITV, Channel 4 and Five have agreed with the regulator Ofcom to convert one UK multiplex (B, or PSB3) to DVB-T2 to increase capacity for HDTV (High Definition Television) via DTT[36]. They expect the first TV region to use the new standard will be Granada in November 2009 (with existing switched over regions being changed at the same time). It is expected that over time there will be enough DVB-T2 receivers sold to switch all DTT transmissions to DVB-T2, and MPEG-4 Part 10.

From 27 October 2009, Multiplex B (PSB 3) was cleared of SD channels in post DSO areas. Multiplex B in pre DSO areas will carry BBC Four, BBC Parliament, CBeebies, BBC Radio Stations, 301 until DSO where they will move to Multiplex 1 (PSB1). Former streams of 302 and News Multiscreen on Multiplex B are to sublet to other broadcasters than the BBC for pre DSO areas only, and not available at all in post DSO because of the new DVB-T2 HD multiplex as replacement. At this time, Community Channel is the only broadcaster using these streams.

Ofcom recently published its final decision for HDTV using DVB-T2 and MPEG-4 [37]: BBC HD, ITV1 HD, Channel 4 HD/S4C HD will each have one slot from launch.[38] Five HD was due to launch during 2010 but was unable to reach 'key criteria' to keep its slot.[39][40] Spare allocation on multiplex B will now be handed over to the BBC but Ofcom intends next year to give the Commercial Public Service Broadcasters another opportunity to apply to provide an additional HD service from 2012. A fifth HD channel may be able to launch during 2013.[41]

List of digital terrestrial channels

Multiplexing

The multiplexes

  • Multiplex 1
Operated by the BBC; broadcasts nationwide in 16QAM mode at 18 megabits/second in pre-switchover areas, 64QAM mode at 24 megabits/second in post-switchover regions.
  • Multiplex 2
Operated by Digital 3&4 (an ITV/Channel 4 consortium); broadcasts nationwide in 64QAM mode at 24 megabits/second
  • Multiplex A
Operated by SDN (owned by ITV plc); broadcasts nationwide in 64QAM mode at 24 megabits/second
  • Multiplex B
Operated by the BBC; currently broadcasts nationwide in 16QAM mode at 18 megabits/second. Multiplex B is being cleared and is to be used for the forthcoming High Definition broadcasts, at which point it will switch to DVB-T2 format broadcasts with an effective multiplex capacity of 36 megabits/second. The dates for this changeover vary by region.
  • Multiplex C
Operated by Arqiva; broadcasts nationwide in 16QAM mode at 18 megabits/second
  • Multiplex D
Operated by Arqiva; broadcasts nationwide in 16QAM mode at 18 megabits/second

* Pay TV service

Use of multiplexing technology

Each multiplex is an error-protected bitstream of 18 or 24 megabits per second, which can be used for almost any combination of digitally-encoded video, audio and data. The DVB-T standard provides a multiplex service that can make trade-offs between the number of services and the picture and audio quality.

  • a number of services use the same bandwidth at different times. For example CBeebies and BBC Four currently use the same space in Multiplex B, with CBeebies broadcasting from 6am until 7pm and BBC Four from 7pm; similarly for CBBC and BBC Three.
  • some multiplexes allocate more bandwidth to services, providing a smaller number of higher-quality services. For example BBC One on Multiplex 1 is carried as a 4.4 Megabit stream, while QVC on Multiplex A typically uses 2 Megabits per second.
  • The modulation of the multiplexes can be varied to squeeze higher digital bitrates out of the same portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, but require a stronger signal for good reception. The modulation schemes used in the UK are, in order of bandwidth efficiency, each with a progressively higher bitrate, at the cost of progressively higher likelihood of signal degradation:
As of late 2009 multiplexes 2 and A still use 64 QAM and are consequently more prone to poor reception, while the other multiplexes use 16 QAM. At switchover the transmission mode will change from 16QAM to 64QAM on Multiplex 1 (PSB1)[28], increasing the effective bandwidth of the multiplex. The switch to 64QAM mode would provide extra bandwidth on Multiplexes C (COM5) and D (COM6).
  • Multiplexes can make use of statistical multiplexing at the MPEG video coder whereby the bitrate allocated to a channel within the multiplex can vary dynamically depending on how difficult it is to code the picture content at that precise time, and how much demand there is for bandwidth from other channels. In this way, complex pictures with much detail may demand a higher bitrate at one instant and this can result in the bitrate allocated to another channel in the same multiplex being reduced if the second channel is currently transmitting pictures which are easier to encode, with less fine detail. The only DTT channel which in most regions does not use statistical multiplexing at present, i.e. which uses a constant bit rate, is BBC One. This is so the English Regions and Nations can perform a simple transmultiplex, or T-Mux, operation and insert their local versions of BBC One over the London feed straight into the existing BBC Multiplex 1 without having to re-encode the entire multiplex at each regional centre, requiring specialist (and costly) equipment at several locations. However, a different approach is taken in each region once full 'digital switchover' occurs, at which point the BBC assembles and broadcasts a fully statistically multiplexed 64QAM multiplex for each region.

New compression technology

Developments in statistical multiplexing, improved compression technology, and, in some cases, an acceptance of lower quality or lower resolution broadcasts, has allowed gradual increases in the number of services carried on digital terrestrial television multiplexes.

As the number of homes receiving digital terrestrial grows, the interest in new channel capacity has similarly increased. In 2005, the auction for two new slots on National Grid Wireless multiplex D resulted in broadcasters bidding high prices to gain bandwidth. ITV won the bidding for the first slot (on which it launched Men & Motors on 2 May 2005, replaced by ITV Play and later ITV2+1), and Channel 4 the second. Channel 4 launched E4 +1 (not its new channel More4) on the multiplex when the slot became available on 1 June (E4 launched on Freeview on 27 May 2005). National Grid Wireless made an additional new slot available on Multiplex D using the new compression techniques. The 18 hour channel, running from 6am to midnight[citation needed], became available on 1 December 2005. Companies interested had until 1 November to submit their bids, with bids said to have reached £10 million, from an entry level of £5.5 million, with 12 separate bidders covering all sectors of broadcasting. This slot was won by Channel 4; it was occupied by More4+1 until live coverage of Big Brother replaced it on 18 May 2006. Film4 took over the slot 23 July 2006.

More recent compression technology, as now available in codecs like MPEG4, H.264 or Microsoft's WMV could enable a substantial increase in either quality or capacity due to their increased efficiency. BSkyB were the first to suggest such a move to increase the number of channels available within their own share of space using MPEG4 on a subscription service.[42] However, BSkyB's proposals were ultimately shelved following regulatory delays.[43]

The BBC, who are preparing to broadcast high-definition television on Freeview in the new DVB-T2 format, initially considered an alternative method utilising spare capacity at night to allow the download of high definition programmes for later replay. In addition the BBC’s Research and Development team invented a transmission method that doubles the effective bandwidth that could currently be delivered by each multiplex using “spatial multiplexing”. While conventional analogue and digital terrestrial television signals are transmitted either vertically or horizontally polarised (providing protection against interference from other distant signals which may be transmitted on the same frequency, but will usually be planned to use the opposite polarisation), the proposed technique would have involved using the same frequency to transmit two different signals at once - one vertically polarised, one horizontally polarised. A special receiving aerial, containing both vertically and horizontally polarised elements, could receive both signals simultaneously and feed these to a suitable set top box. However, this would have required new transmitters and aerials, as well as new receiving equipment, and the technique was ultimately not adopted.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/dsoind/factsheets/no3factsheet.pdf
  2. ^ a b "Broadcasting Act 1996". Office of Public Sector Information. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1996/1996055.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
  3. ^ "Digital 3 and 4 Ltd Response document (page 4)" (DOC). Ofcom. http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/itc/uploads/Digital_3_&_4.doc. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  4. ^ "A comprehensive guide to Digital Broadcasting". Published Papers. BBC Research. http://www.bbc.co.uk/rd/pubs/papers/index-digitalbroadcasting-comp.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
  5. ^ a b ITV plc (27 April 2005). "ITV plc acquires SDN Limited". Press release. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929131640/http://www.itvplc.com/itv/news/releases/pr2005/2005-04-27/. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
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  15. ^ Whitehaven News article on Five digital launch, 6 September 2007
  16. ^ North-West Evening Mail article on Eskdale reception problems, 14 November 2007
  17. ^ Whitehaven area experiences of switchover problems
  18. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20080226220641/http://www.digitaluk.co.uk/en/when/border/resources/0/file/border.pdf
  19. ^ http://www.digitaluk.co.uk/en/when/west-country/resources/0/file/west_country.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.digitaluk.co.uk/en/when/wales/resources/0/file/wales_english.pdf
  21. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20080226220609/http://www.digitaluk.co.uk/en/when/granada/resources/0/file/granada.pdf
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  23. ^ "Communications Act 2003". Office of Public Sector Information. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2003/30021--c.htm#134. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
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  25. ^ Self help TV relays and digital switchover Ofcom consultation document
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  29. ^ http://www.digitaluk.co.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/21057/for_website_2K_only_models_ex_volumes_revised-15_Sept_09.pdf
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  31. ^ http://www.arqiva.com/upload/pdf/PROVISION_OF_NETWORK_ACCESS.pdf
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  33. ^ a b "The Ofcom Digital Dividend Review (DDR)". Ofcom. http://www.ofcom.org.uk/radiocomms/ddr/documents/ddroverview/. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
  34. ^ "House of Lords - BBC Charter Review - Second Report". http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200506/ldselect/ldbbc/128/12806.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
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  37. ^ "Ofcom Statement on DTT future, announced on April 3, 2008". http://www.ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/dttfuture/statement/. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  38. ^ "Broadcasters awarded licences for HD programmes on Digital Terrestrial TV". Ofcom. 2008-10-17. http://www.ofcom.org.uk/media/news/2008/10/nr_20081017. 
  39. ^ "Channel 5 set for licence for high definition programmes on digital terrestrial television". Ofcom. 2009-06-11. http://www.ofcom.org.uk/media/news/2009/06/nr_20090611a. 
  40. ^ "Ofcom hands Five's Freeview HD slot back to BBC". Tech Radar. 2010-05-15. http://www.techradar.com/news/television/ofcom-hands-five-s-freeview-hd-slot-back-to-bbc-676901. 
  41. ^ "Now it's five channels for Freeview HD". What Satellite & Digital TV. 2009-07-14. http://blog.wotsat.com/page/whatsat?entry=five_channels_for_freeview_hd. 
  42. ^ "Freeview to lose Sky channels". Telegraph.co.uk. 9 February 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/money/main.jhtml?xml=/money/2007/02/09/cnfree09.xml. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  43. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/sep/12/bskyb.television

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